WorkCover. Watching out for you.

New South Wales Government
GUIDE 1997
This publication may contain occupational health and safety and workers compensation information. It may include some of your obligations under the
various legislations that WorkCover NSW administers. To ensure you comply with your legal obligations you must refer to the appropriate legislation.
Information on the latest laws can be checked by visiting the NSW legislation website ( or by contacting the free hotline
service on 02 9321 3333.
This publication does not represent a comprehensive statement of the law as it applies to particular problems or to individuals or as a substitute for
legal advice. You should seek independent legal advice if you need assistance on the application of the law to your situation.
© WorkCover NSW
6. BRAKES 12
17. CHAIN 50
APPENDIX (i) – Areas and volumes 59
APPENDIX (ii) – Tables of masses 63
APPENDIX (iii) – First aid 65
APPENDIX (iv) – Terms used in this guide 66
APPENDIX (v) – Sample assessment questions 67
To gain a certificate of competency for a cabin controlled bridge or gantry crane you must pass an
assessment for a Bridge and gantry crane certificate conducted by an assessor registered by the Workcover
Before taking the assessment you must obtain a log book and learn the competencies required to pass the
assessment. Applicants must be at least 18 years old to gain a certificate.
It is illegal to operate a cabin controlled bridge or gantry crane without a Bridge and gantry crane
certificate or a log book (under the supervision of a certificated driver).
A cabin controlled bridge or gantry crane driver must know:
º hcw tc safely cperate a bridge cr gantry crane
º hcw tc detect any mechanical faults
º abcut slinging lcads, sheaves and drums, rcpe terminaticns, anchcrs and attachments.
It is the responsibility of the applicant to make sure that a bridge or gantry crane of the correct class is
available for the assessment at their workplace or has permission to use a crane at another location.
If you operate this type of crane and sling loads in connection with the operation of this type of crane you
will require a Dogging certificate in addition to being competent in its operation. See A guide for dogging
available from the WorkCover Authority.
Bridge and gantry cranes can be:
º pendant ccntrclled
º cabin ccntrclled
º remcte ccntrclled.
Most bridge and gantry cranes are controlled by a pendant push button control suspended from the
crane structure.
Cabin controls are used for a wide range of applications particularly where it is not possible to have a
clear walkway cr where the driver must be prctected. Fcr example, in the steel industry drivers must be
kept away from the intense heat of the molten steel transported by the cranes.
Bridge cranes
Bridge cranes are commonly used inside factories for a wide range of jobs. They run on overhead rails
usually attached to opposing factory walls.
Gantry cranes
Gantry cranes have two upright supports (portals) which move along two ground based rails. The height
of the portals depends on the maximum hook height. Gantry cranes are used in factories and in outdoor
storage yards such as railway and shipping storage areas.
Semi-portal cranes
Semi-portal cranes have a single portal running on a ground based rail while the other end is attached
to an overhead rail. They are usually used where there is an outdoor storage yard running parallel to an
enclosed factory.
Container handling cranes
Container handling cranes can be either a bridge or a gantry crane. They are used to handle containers at
shipping and railway terminals. They have a special lifting frame called a spreader, which attaches tc the
container by ‘twist locks’.
The bridge
Each crane has a ‘bridge’ which extends across the crane structure from rail to rail. It sits on an end
carriage that has a set of track wheels which run on a rail on either side of the building.
Working load limit
The working load limit (WLL) can be found printed on the bridge. It is the responsibility of the driver to
know the WLL of the crane. In many cranes this will be printed as the safe working load (SWL).
Long travel
‘Long travel’ is the direction of travel of the bridge along the rails.
Cross travel
‘Cross travel’ is the movement of the ‘crab’ (see below) from one side of the bridge to the other.
The crab
The ‘crab’ is the ‘cross travel unit’ from which the hook is lowered and raised. The ‘crab’ houses the hoist
mctcr, the gear bcx, the rcpe drum, the brake, the limit switches, the crcss travel gear bcx and mctcr. ít
sits on rails attached to the bridge. The power for the ‘crab’ comes from a bus bar or cable on the
bridge structure.
The hook block
The ‘hook block’ is used for raising and lowering the hook. It can be single or multi-roped.
The sheaves
The rcpe frcm the drum runs thrcugh the sheaves cf the hcck blcck and crab, and cver an equalising
sheave (where fitted). The rule of thumb is that the diameter of a sheave must be about 20 times the
diameter of the rope.
The depth of an open sheave must be 1.5 times the diameter of the rope.
Where the rope is contained in the sheave the minimum depth of the sheave must equal the diameter
of the rope.
The driver must make sure that any sheave showing signs of wear could damage the rope which is
replaced and squeaking sheaves are inspected and greased repaired.
The control cabinet
The ccntrcl cabinet, which is mcunted cn the crane, has an all mcticn isclaticn switch and ccntains
the contactors.
The resistor banks
The resistor banks are usually located on the crane bridge or in a well ventilated area. They dissipate heat
from the unused electrical current.
Live wires – collector gear – bus bars
There are two types of power supply – AC and DC. Each is usually supplied by collector gear from live
wires or insulated bus bars running alongside the crane and runway.
The main isolating switch
The main isclating switch is usually a lcckable switch using either a key cr a padlcck, fcr isclating the
crane from the power source. It is used for maintenance or in an emergency.
It is usually located near the ladder to the service platform or the crane cabin.
Look for a switch with a bright yellow background with black writing.
Buffer stops
Buffer stops are fitted to absorb the impact from a collision at either end of the long travel.
Earth wire
The ‘earth wire’ connection takes any electrical leak to earth. It must be visible and near to the permanent
wiring connection to the bus bar.
The cabin
The cabin is attached tc the underside cf the crane, bridge cr crab and ccntains the ccntrcls.
The pendant control
The hand-held ‘pendant control’ is usually suspended from the bridge on a strainer wire which can be
moved from one side of the crane to the other. The controls are normally push button.
Pendant controls usually have:
º ncrth scuth
º east west
º up dcwn (hcist mcvement)
º emergency stcp.
They may also have a creep speed control.
The directional compass
Each crane must have a directional compass under the bridge of the crane. The compass helps pendant
control drivers with the pendant directional controls. Note: The compass is aligned with the crane travel
directicns, nct magnetic cr grid ncrth.
Cabin controls
Mcst mcdern cranes have |cysticks tc ccntrcl the mcvement cf the hcist, the lcng travel and the crcss
travel movement and the raising and lowering of the hook.
Pendant controls
Remote controls
Remote controls are usually worn on a belt around the waist. When using a remote control it is important
to be in a position to review the load and the travel path.
Remote controls can be either infra red or radio controlled. Both infra red and radio controlled remote
controls have a limited range.
lnfra red controls must be pointed towards the crane during operation or the crane will stop.
Limit switches prevent over-winding and over-lowering of the hook block. The upper limit prevents the
hook block coming into contact with the rope drum and sheaves.
The lower limit will keep two full turns of rope on the drum when the hook is in its lowest working
pcsiticn, and may prevent the hcck making ccntact with the grcund. Limit switches must be tested by the
driver before the beginning of each shift.
Upper limit switches
Most cranes have two upper limit switches to prevent overwinding:
º the shunt/wcrking limit switch
º the whcle current ncn-self-resetting limit switch.
Some older cranes are fitted only with a whole current self-resetting upper limit switch.
The shunt/wcrking upper limit switch is the first tc ccme intc cperaticn and will stcp the hcck blcck
before it reaches the whole current non-self-resetting limit switch.
The whcle current ncn-self-resetting upper limit switch is set abcve the shunt/wcrking limit switch and
cnly cperates if the shunt/wcrking limit switch fails. ít will stcp all hcisting mcticn until the fault is fixed.
A qualified electrician must be called to reset a non-self-resetting upper limit.
The whole current self-resetting upper limit switch is used where there is no other upper limit switch. It
will self-reset once the lower control is activated.
The lower limit switch
Mcst cranes have a shunt/wcrking limit as a lcwer limit. íf the crane cperates abcve a single level flccr
this limit prevents the hcck ccming intc ccntact with the flccr, causing a slack rcpe.
Riding the limits
Crane drivers must be careful about using the limit switches as a method of stopping the load at the
maximum height. The contacts can burn out if this is done to excess.
All bridge and gantry crane brakes work using the same principle:
º Pcwer cff Brakes cn
º Pcwer cn Brakes cff
When the power is turned on the solenoid pushes the brake off allowing the drum or shaft to turn. When
the power is turned off two springs or a counterweight apply the brakes to the drum or shaft.
The brakes ccntrcl hcist and lcng travel mcvement, and scmetimes crcss travel.
Cabin controlled cranes have a long travel footbrake for easing the load smoothly to a stop. Pendant
control cranes have automatic brakes.
Safe cperaticn is smccth cperaticn. Avcid |umpy and |erky cperaticn, flying starts, quick reversals and
sudden stops.
Do not move a load over a busy work area without giving warning. Watch out for any unexpected
movement or obstructions while a load is moving. Do not carry passengers or allow anyone to interfere
with a load.
Raising and lowering
The driver must use the same control setting to lower the load as needed to raise the load. If the load
needed No 3 setting to be smoothly raised then lower the load with No 3 setting.
Do not use a lower setting to lower a load than was needed to raise the load.
Some cranes have a creep lower speed for accurate positioning while lowering loads.
Some cranes have two hooks from the same crab. Do not change hooks while the first hook is still under
load. Some operations use both hooks such as tipping hot metals ladels and skips.
Starting and stopping
Start all mcticns slcwly and accelerate slcwly, step by step, until the fastest speed is reached. Stcp the
crane slowly by returning the control to the ‘OFF’ position step by step. Rapid acceleration can cause the
contacts to arc and burn.
Chasing the hook
Crane drivers must learn to ‘chase the hook’ (take the swing out of the load as it is brought to a halt).
To chase the hook:
1. Stop the movement of the crane before the final stopping place. The load will swing forward.
2. Move the crane quickly to be above the load at the furthest extent of the swing of the load
and stop again.
Do not ‘plug’
Do NOT bring the load to a halt by ‘plugging’ the controls. Plugging is continuously pushing and releasing
the control button. This will run the motor too slowly to activate the cooling fan and can burn out the
motor and overheat the contacts.
Electrical faults
Electrical faults are the greatest hazards associated with bridge and gantry cranes. If there is an electrical
fault call an electrician.
Dc nct try tc fix an electrical fault, even a blcwn fuse. ít has blcwn fcr a reascn and must be assessed by
an electrician.
If a worker receives an electric shock while holding the hook or load and is unable to let go:
º Raise the hcck immediately (this will stcp the current gcing tc earth thrcugh the wcrker).
º Blcw the hcrn.
º Stay inside the cabin until scmecne has turned cff the main switch.
Pre-checks prior to turning on the main switch
1. Make sure there are no maintenance signs.
2. Make sure there is no obvious damage to the crane.
3. Check mains switch box for ‘danger tags’.
4. Check the main isolating switch for ‘danger tags’.
5. Check for any maintenance crew working on the crane.
6. Check that collector wires have not been blown or knocked off the insulators.
They must not have ladders or any other gear resting on them.
7. Check spreaders (container loading gantry cranes) for:
º hydraulic fluid level
º cil leaks
º damage tc twistlccks.
8. Check wires and anchorages for defects.
Pre-checks inside the cabin and with the pendant control
1. Check the WLL (or SWL) stamped on the bridge of the crane.
2. Unlock emergency switch and switch power on.
3. Check control panel lights. (Cabin only)
4. Check for fire extinguisher. (Cabin only)
5. Make sure that you can identify each of the buttons on the pendant and that they operate freely
without sticking.
6. Check that the pendant strainer wire is properly attached and that the pendant moves freely across
the crane without undue force.
7. Drive and then stop the crane a few times in each direction to check the brakes for adjustment and
operation of the crane for the job.
8. Test the operation of the working limit switches.
9. Where possible have a full view of the load and the general work area.
10. Make sure that the runways and the general work area are clear of obstructions.
11. If the load hook is fitted with a safety catch make sure it is working properly.
12. Make sure that the hoist rope is free of kinks or obvious broken wires.
13. Make sure that the rope passes easily through all the running sheaves.
14. Check for any obvious mechanical problems.
15. Make sure that the runways and the general work area are clear.
Cross travel motion
The crab must always be brcught directly cver the lcad befcre lifting. íf this is nct dcne, the lcad will
begin to swing as soon as it is hoisted.
Do not stand directly beneath the load or allow anyone else to do so.
Long travel motion
The bridge must always be brought directly over the load. It is not possible to position the hook block
directly over the load unless this is done.
The bridge will always drift after the power has been removed. Cabin controlled cranes have a foot pedal
brake to stop the bridge. It is important to learn to anticipate the amount of ‘drift’ and use the brake as
smoothly as possible.
Hoist motion
When the lcad is ready tc hcist, start hcisting upwards until the slack is taken cut cf the slings.
Only continue to hoist if the load is in balance. The person who has slung the load must check the
balance of the load for the operator of a cabin controlled crane. Hoist slowly until the load is clear of the
floor and then increase speed smoothly until the load is at the required height.
When lowering the load gradually reduce the speed as the load nears its target.
Reduce to the lowest speed and then ‘inch’ the load down. Follow the dogger’s directions if you are
driving a cabin controlled crane.
Maintenance procedures vary according to the type of crane. Follow the specific maintenance safety
procedures as laid down for your workplace.
Before carrying out maintenance the main switch must be opened and tagged by every worker who will be
working on the crane. This process isolates the crane from the power source while maintenance workers
are on the crane.
When all the tags have been removed from the main switch visually inspect the crane and call out to
make doubly sure that there is no worker still on the crane before reactivating the power.
Where there is more than one crane operating and one crane must be isolated for maintenance:
º Remcve the pcwer tc the crane by turning cff the all mcticn
isolation switch.
º ínstall tempcrary end stcps cn the main crane runway.
º ínstall a flashing light at the end stcp cn the cther side cf the
driver’s cabin.
º Hang danger flags frcm the tempcrary end stcp cn cne rail
across to the other rail.
º Where applicable a wcrker must sit in the driver's cabin
to observe.
º 0crdcn cff the area beneath the crane and place 'Men Wcrking
Above’ signs on each side.
The working load limit (WLL) of a sling is the maximum load that can be lifted by that sling
making a straight lift.
The load factor for a straight lift = 1.
The lifting capacity decreases as the angle between the legs of the sling attachment increases.
Different methods of slinging will also alter the lifting capacity.
For example:
º A reeved sling arcund a square lcad will halve the lifting capacity cf a sling. The lcad factcr is 0.5.
º A basket hitch arcund a rcund lcad dcubles the lifting capacity. The lcad factcr is 2.0.
Below are the various methods of slinging with their load factors.
SWL tables are available for all types of slings and rope. Make sure that you consult the correct table
before lifting.
You must know the load factors for each method of slinging shown on page 21.
A working load chart for 6 x 24-1570 Grade – Galvanised steel wire rope
Rule of thumb methods for calculating the WLLs of flexible steel wire rope, chain
and fibre rope.
Please note that these methods only give approximate answers.
Flexible steel wire rope (FSWR)
To calculate the WLL in kilograms of FSWR square the rope diameter (D) in millimetres (mm) and
multiply by 8.
Formula: WLL (kgs) = D
(mm) x 8
For example: Rope diameter (D) = 12mm
WLL (kgs) = D
(mm) x 8
= D (mm) x D (mm) x 8
= 12 x 12 x 8 = 1152 kgs
WLL (t) = 1.15 tonnes
The above equation can be reversed to calculate the diameter (D) in millimetres of FSWR needed to lift a
given load. To do this divide the load (L) in kilograms by 8 and find the square root of the result.
Formula: D (mm) = Load
For example: Load = 1152 kg
D (mm) =
1152 ÷ 8
= 12
Therefore an FSWR sling of at least 12mm is required to lift a 1152 kg load.
The WLL of chain is determined by the grade (G).
Do not use a chain to lift if it does not have a manufacturer’s tag that gives details of the WLL.
Return it to the manufacturer for WLL assessment and re-tagging.
Tc calculate the WLL cf lifting chain in kilcgrams square the diameter (D) in millimetres (mm), and
multiply by the grade (0), by 0.3
Formula: WLL (kgs) = D
(mm) x G x 0.3
For example: 0hain diameter, 10mm. 0hain grade (T) (ie grade 80)
(mm) x G x 0.3
= D (mm) x D (mm) x G x 0.3
= 10 x 10 x 80 x 0.3
= 2400 kgs
WLL (t) = 2.4 tonnes.
Fibre rope
To calculate the WLL of fibre rope in kilograms square the rope diameter (D) in millimetres (mm).
Formula: WLL (kgs) = D
For example: Diameter = 25mm
WLL (kgs) = D
WLL (kgs) = D (mm) x D (mm)
= 25 x 25
= 625 kgs
WLL (t) = 0.625 tonnes.
Flat webbing and round synthetic slings
Flat webbing and round synthetic slings are labelled with the WLL. Do not lift if the label is missing.
Return to the manufacturer for testing and relabelling. Synthetic slings are colour coded (see table below).
Indicator stripes - each stripe represents 1 tonne WLL - safety factor 8: 1
Label for a flat webbing synthetic sling
Single sling
Basket hitch
Endless sling or grommet
Comparing methods of slinging and load factors
Load factors and slinging
In the examples below all the load and reeve factors are for FSWR. The arithmetic is set out so that
calculations can be easily worked out on a calculator.
1. To calculate the maximum weight of load that can be lifted multiply the WLL of the sling(s) by the
angle factor by the reeve factor.
Max load = WLL (of sling) x angle factor
x reeve factor
Fcr example. The WLL cf each leg cf a multi-legged sling is eight tcnnes, the angle between the twc sling
legs is 60° and they are reeved around a square load. This means a load factor of 1.73 for the angle and
another factor of 0.5 for the reeve.
Sling WLL 8 tonne
Angle factor 1.73
Reeve factor 0.5
Max load = 8 x 1.73 x 0.5
= 6.92 tonnes
6.9 tonnes is the maximum weight that can be lifted.
2. To calculate the WLL of multi-legged slings needed to lift this load divide the weight of the load by
the load factor.
Formula for a calculator:
WLL = weight ÷ load factor
Formula can be written:
WLL = weight
load factor
For example: The weight of the load to be lifted is 20 tonnes and the angle between the two legs of a
multi-legged sling is 60º. This means that the load factor is 1.73 for the angle.
Weight 20 tonnes
Load factor 1.73
WLL = 20 ÷ 1.73
= 11.56 tonnes
Therefore use a sling with a lifting capacity greater than 11.56 tonnes.
3. To calculate the WLL of a sling needed to lift this load divide the load by the angle factor and divide
by the reeve factor.
Formula for a calculator:
WLL = weight ÷ angle factor ÷ reeve factor
Formula can be written:
WLL = weight
angle factor x reeve factor
For example: Two slings have a 60° angle between them and are both reeved around a 4 tonne square
load. This means a load factor of 1.73 for the angle and 0.5 for the reeve.
Weight 4 tonnes
Angle factor 1.73
Reeve factor 0.5
WLL = 4 ÷ 1.73 ÷ .5
= 4.62 tonnes
Therefore use a sling with a lifting capacity greater than 4.62 tonnes.
4. To calculate the WLL of the sling needed to lift this load divide the load by the angle factor and
divide by the reeve factor.
Formula for a calculator:
WLL = weight ÷ angle factor ÷ reeve factor
Formula can be written:
WLL = weight
angle factor x reeve factor
For example: Two slings have a 60° between them are reeved around a 20 tonne round load. This means
a load factor of 1.73 for the angle and 0.75 for the reeve.
Weight 20 tonnes
Angle factor 1.73
Reeve factor 0.75
WLL = 20 ÷ 1.73 ÷ 0.75
= 15.41 tonnes
Therefore use a sling with a lifting capacity greater than 15.41 tonnes.
5. To calculate the diameter (D) in millimetres (mm) of FSWR needed to lift a load of 5 tonnes as a
straight lift, ccnvert tcnnes intc kilcgrams, divide by 8 and then find the square rcct cf the answer.
Formula: D (mm) =
Load ÷ 8
Formula can be written: D (mm) = Load
D (mm) =
5000 ÷ 8
= 25
Therefore a 25mm diameter FSWR is needed for the lift.
Do not lift if the weight of a load is not stamped on the load or the delivery docket and it is not
possible to calculate the weight.
It may be possible to calculate the weight of a load from the weighbridge certificate from the
delivery vehicle.
Be careful cf the lcad weight stamped cn the lcad cr delivery dccket. Timber fcr example, can be 50%
heavier when wet. In foundries when large castings are raised from a mould there can be suction created
by the sand adding substantially to the weight. Pipes are often weighed down by sludge. Fuel and water
tanks may not always be empty. Check for this.
When lifting a load for the first time watch the lifting equipment carefully for signs of strain in case the
stated weight is incorrect.
A simple rule of thumb for a good safe working to angle
Make sure that the horizontal distance between the points of attachment of the load does not exceed the
length of the slings.
This will ensure that the angle between the two legs of the sling does not exceed 60°.
Multi-legged slings
The recommended maximum angle between the two legs of a sling is 90°. The recommended maximum
angle between the vertical and a leg of a sling is 45°. At the absolute maximum angle of 120° the WLL of
the two slings must be halved.
Common sling arrangements
Single-part, single-leg slings
Double-part, single-leg slings
2-Leg slings
3-Leg and 4-Leg slings
When slinging a rigid object with a multiple legged sling it must be assumed that only two of the sling
legs are taking the load. Additional legs do not increase the WLL.
Where an object is flexible and the load is evenly distributed make sure that each leg takes an even share
of the load.
Be careful when lifting irregular shaped objects - it is possible that only one leg of the sling is taking the
whole load.
The larger the angle from the vertical made by slings on a hook the more likely the slings eyes are to slip
to the bill of the hook.
In this case put the eyes into a ‘bow’ shackle large enough so that they do not jam. Make sure that the
shackle pin is resting on the hook.
Direct lifting
It is the duty of a dogger to direct the crane operator to position the head of the jib or the bridge directly
over the load.
Then make sure that the load hook is positioned directly above a load before slinging and lifting.
Always lift vertically. íf the crab is nct directly cver the lcad, the lcad will begin tc swing dangercusly as
soon as it is raised. Dragging a load can put undue strain on the lifting gear and crane boom especially if
the load is dragged from the side.
General handling
Make sure that there is suitable packing cr lagging at all sharp edges cf steel beams, and cther
hard materials.
Use packing to prevent the sling from coming into contact with sharp edges. This will lengthen the life of
the sling and prevent breaks.
Make sure that packing or lagging is secure so that it will not fall out when the slings go slack. Before
lifting a load make sure that it is not caught or trapped in some way.
Machinery and plant with lifting lugs should be marked with the mass. Caution: Some lifting lugs are used
fcr the assembly and dismantling, nct fcr lifting the entire unit.
Machinery, plant and material bcxes with lifting lugs must have the WLL clearly marked.
All lcads delivered tc a site that cculd be hazardcus shculd be strapped cr wrapped. Fcr example, lcads cf
pipe, metal cr timber shculd be strapped befcre lifting.
Spreaders are reccmmended fcr lifting lengths cf timber, pipe cr steel. íf a spreader is nct available
double wrap before lifting.
Do not bash the eye of a sling down at the nip point. This practice will decrease the WLL and damage
the sling.
Structural steel
Lcads cf structural steel (universal beams, RSJ's) cn trucks must have restraining spikes fitted in the truck
to prevent them from falling out. Removing the chains or straps if there are no restraining spikes in place
is very dangerous.
Structural steel can be very dangerous. When a load arrives on site walk around the truck and check that
the steel has not shifted into a dangerous position for lifting after the load binder chains were secured.
Many serious accidents have occurred as load binding chains were removed from steel beams. Deep
beams can inflict especially severe injuries.
Always lift steel reinforcing level. Do not lift it vertically or at a slope. It is not possible to make the inside
steel in a bundle tight enough to prevent them falling out if the bundle is at an angle. Steel reinforcing can
kill if it falls.
As the load is lifted keep hands well away. Steel beams tend to snap together or roll up as the sling bites
into the nip.
Loose items
Loads of loose items such as scaffold clips must be raised in properly constructed boxes branded with the
Do not lift loads of this kind in 200 litre drums because:
º these drums have nc rated lifting capacity.
º it is nct pcssible tc kncw the ccnditicn cf the base cf the drum. (They have usually been discarded
because they are unfit to hold liquid).
º the hcles cut intc the sides fcr the sling cr hccks cften pull thrcugh under the weight.
º the sharp edges cf the hcles can cut thrcugh a sling.
Rubbish bins
Rubbish bins should have proper lifting lugs and be branded with the WLL or SWL. Rubbish bins that are
overloaded must not be lifted. Where rubbish can be blown out or spill from a bin secure the load before
lifting, especially in windy ccnditicns.
Sling rubbish bins with a fcur way sling. Tc tip the bin, release the twc frcnt slings and raise the bin with
the two back slings.
Dc nct use the special lifting pcints (trunicns), designed tc attach tc the suppliers truck fcr lifting, fcr
slinging a bin. These are often unsuitable for use with general purpose slings.
Do not stand behind a bin when tipping rubbish out. It will whip back suddenly as soon as it is clear of
the ground.
Handling steel plate
Steel plate can be lifted with:
º plate clamps that are designed tc increase the purchase cn the plate as the plate is lifted.
º hccks cr shackles where there are lifting hcles in the plate.
Do not use home made type plate clamps or plate dogs. Remember that steel plate can injure or kill.
The angle between the legs of a sling must not be more than 60° unless a spreader beam is used.
Steel plate can be lifted vertically or horizontally.
Lifting vertically:
º Use an apprcpriate plate clamp where a sling cannct be attached and there is nc lifting hcle. An
example is the dished and flanged end-plate for a pressure vessel.
º Please ncte, that it can be difficult tc remcve cr attach a sling where plate is stcred vertically in a
rack or is to be fed into bending rolls.
º As a plate tcuches the grcund and the tensicn is released frcm the slings a single hcck can ccme cut
of the hole causing the plate to fall. To prevent this lift with a hook put through a ring attached to a
short length of chain that is shackled to an appropriate plate clamp.
º Always make sure that the tensicn remains in the slings until the plate is in place.
Lifting horizontally:
º Use apprcved gripping plate clamps. Use a spreader beam fcr lcng thin plates tc prevent dangercus
flapping, sagging and vibraticn.
A wide variety of loads are delivered to worksites on pallets. Before a palleted load is lifted from a truck
check that:
º the pallet is free frcm defects
º the lcad is secured sc that ncthing can fall cff
º the lcad is prcperly slung.
The WLL of a standard hardwood pallet is 2000 kg. The WLL can be dramatically reduced if there are
any missing boards or any other defects.
Please note: Some pallets are designed for packaging not lifting.
Do not lift a pallet that has defects. To lift a load on a damaged pallet raise the load just enough to slide
an undamaged pallet underneath. Alternatively place an undamaged pallet beside the damaged one and
then lift and move it onto the new pallet. Then lower the load and sling properly before lifting and moving
the load to the desired place.
If no spare undamaged pallets are available send the load back to the supplier to be re-palleted. Always
raise palleted bricks inside a brick cage to prevent loose bricks falling.
Turning over loads
When turning over a load such as a steel beam the sling must be attached to the hook on the side of the
load that is to be lifted. This will ensure that it will be raised on a diagonal through the centre of gravity.
It is then a simple matter to lower the crane or lifting media turning the beam over in a safe and
controlled manner. It is important that the beam is slung so that when the beam is lowered the nip will
pull against the eye.
A steel beam (RSJ) has a high centre cf gravity and a narrcw base when it is standing cn its flange. íf a
dcgger nips the sling inccrrectly tc turn the beam it will flcp, tcpple cver and pcssibly break the slings.
The same principles apply when turning over all loads.
Bends and hitches
Doggers must know how to secure loads and tag lines with bends and hitches. Learn those described and
illustrated below.
Snubber turns for holding
and lowering heavy loads.
Two, three or more turns
should be used.
Rolling hitch – To secure
stopper, or two ropes
pulling in opposite
directions. Very useful –
preferable to clove hitch or
blackwall hitch, providing
rolling turns are put on in
proper direction of pull.
Sheet bend – to join two
dry ropes of different sizes.
Safer when double sheet
bend is used. The smaller
rope must be bent around
the larger rope.
Buntline or becket hitch –
to secure ends of tackles to
beckets. Foolproof; cannot
come undone like half
Double sheet bend.
Fisherman’s bend and half
hitch – useful for bending
rope onto rings, handles of
buckets, etc – requires the
extra half hitch.
Timber and half hitch –
useful for hoisting lengths
of timber. Only safe when
additional half hitch is put
on end of hauling part.
Clove hitch – used to
commence rope lashing.
Not safe for other purposes
unless ends secured, with
additional half-hitch.
Bowline single – used for
making temporary eye in
end of rope.
Bowline running – used for
making a temporary eye to
run along another part of
(i) Bowline on the
(ii) Bowline on the
(iii) Bowline on the bight
– the bowline on the
bight is formed by
making the first part
of a bowline with the
bight of the rope and
passing the whole
hitch through its bight.
Shortener for single-part rope or snotter – to join rope to hook of tackle, etc. and does not damage the
rope. At least two full turns of the standing part are to nip the two bights before the bights are placed
on the hook.
N.B. When shortening synthetic rope slings it is usually advisable to twist the bights twice about each
other because of the slippery nature of many synthetic ropes.
Single snotter shortener
partly made. Two bights
ready to be placed on hook.
Single snotter shortener
with both bights fitted
on hook.
Round turn and two half
hitches – widely used for
securing running ends of
tackles. The more turns
made before hitches are
made the more control is
Figure of eight knot – as
for an overhand knot, but
easier to untie.
Overhand knot – to make a
stop on a rope, to prevent
ends from fraying or to
prevent it slipping through
a block.
Double shortener for sling
on hook.
Double shortener for sling
partly made.
Double shortener – each of the two parts of the bale-sling or strop is turned back on itself, so that
two bights are formed at a suitable length. The bights are then turned about each other as in a simple
overhand knot and place on the hook.
Marlin spike hitch – should
not be used for sending
tools or materials aloft. A
better method for tools is to
open up the rope and push
tool through.
Direction of pull on spike
Make sure that on completion of moving a load all materials are securely and safely stacked. Stacks of
materials must be arranged:
º sc that there is adequate clearance frcm machinery that cculd tcpple a stack
º sc that there is access fcr pecple, fcrklifts, cranes, trains and sc cn.
º sc that the sling can be remcved as each unit is placed cn the stack. (Always pull a sling cut by hand
to prevent the possibility of the crane toppling a stack).
º sc that there is access tc fire extinguishers.
Befcre stacking make sure that the grcund is stable, level and nct likely tc flccd in the event cf rain. íf
there is heavy rain check the ground for signs of it giving way. If the ground is not level make sure that the
stacks are chocked level and secure.
When a stack is removed check the ground for signs of it giving way before placing another stack in the
same position.
There must be clearance of:
º nct less than 1.5 metres alcngside railway tracks
º nct less than 3.5 metres fcr truck access
º nct less than 1 metre fcr walkways
º nct less than 1.5 metres fcr access fcr a bridge and gantry crane cperatcr
º nct less than 2 metres fcr access fcr a bridge and gantry crane where the speed cf the crane is
greater than 0.8 metres per second
Use your common sense. There must be access to carry out the work normally carried out on site and for
stretcher access in the case of emergency.
Stacking steel plate
Make sure that the stack supports are spaced between 2 and 3 metres apart.
Where plate is stored horizontally with no packing and is wider than 0.75 metres stagger into groups of
plates that make up a suitable lift.
When steel plate is stacked upright in racks the plate can easily swing (and could crush someone) when
the crane takes the weight of the plate.
Use adequate packing and the proper plate clamps to avoid having to stand inside a rack. Do not lift a
plate from a rack if someone is inside the rack under any circumstances.
To avoid horizontal stacks becoming dangerously high tie stacks together with packing.
Stacking rolled steel, coils and other round loads
Round loads must be blocked or chocked at the bottom to prevent the whole stack rolling away. Every
round load must be blocked.
Each layer of the stack must be one unit less than the layer below. The stack will then resemble
a pyramid.
Stacking timber
When stacking shorter lengths of timber place the alternate layers at right angles. This is called pigstying.
Bundles of timber must be strapped and have dunnage under and between the bundles. When stacks are
high they must be straight and set on level beds. Check for movement in the ground after rain. Ladders
must be provided for access to the top of high stacks.
0rane drivers and dcggers cften have tc wear helmets, glcves, eye prctecticn, face masks and respiratcrs
and steel capped boots to protect themselves from injury.
It is the responsibility of your employer to provide the necessary protective equipment. It is the
responsibility of doggers or crane drivers to wear and use the equipment properly where and when
Safety helmets
Safety helmets with chin straps must be worn wherever there is a risk of objects falling from above and on
any work site where the hard hat sign is displayed.
Helmets should comply with AS 1801 Industrial safety helmets.
Wear close fitting pigskin gloves to protect hands from:
º Heat and abrasicn
º Mclten metal
º Sharp edges
Special purpcse glcves may be required fcr prctecticn against chemicals including acids, alkalis, sclvents,
fats and oils.
Eye protection
Wear eye protection that conforms to AS 1337 Eye protectors for industrial applications if you are likely
to be exposed to:
º Physical damage caused by flying particles, dust, mclten metal.
º 0hemical damage caused by tcxic liquids, gases and vapcurs dusts.
º Radiaticn damage caused by sunlight, visible light, infra red, laser.
Respiratory protection
Wear a face mask that conforms to AS 1716 Respiratory protective devices if you are likely to be
exposed to:
º Tcxic gases and vapcurs
º írritating dusts, such as silica
Inhalation of some chemical vapours and gases can cause death or a wide range of unpleasant symptoms
including narcosis and headaches.
Common dusts such as silica can cause lung disease later in life and is found wherever there is
excavaticn, ie building sites, rcad wcrks, tunnelling and mining.
Hearing protection
Hearing damage is likely if you are exposed to long periods of industrial noise above 85 decibels. This is
the noise level of a large truck or loader.
A chainsaw for example has a noise level of about 92 decibels.
If you think it is likely that you are being exposed to dangerous noise levels ask your employer to provide
you with hearing protectors complying with AS 1270 Acoustics – Hearing protectors.
0hccse bccts which are ccmfcrtable, give maximum grip and give prctecticn frcm pinching, |amming
and crushing.
A range of lightweight flexible boots with steel or plastic caps is available that comply with AS-2210
Safety footwear.
Sun protection
Tc prevent permanent damage caused by ultra viclet rays always wear a hat, lcng sleeves, lcng trcusers
and use UV cream when working outside.
Know the location of the first aid room and the nearest first aid kit. There should be a first aid kit on every
floor of a multi-storey building site or within 100 metres of any part of the workplace.
The standard first-aid symbol in Australia is a white cross on a green background.
First-aid kits on construction sites should have a carrying handle. There should be a notice near to
the first-aid room with the name(s) of those in the workplace who hold an approved occupational
first-aid certificate.
It is recommended that riggers take the time to do an approved first-aid certificate course.
First aid
Crane drivers work in a high risk industry. Not only are there many minor injuries but there are also
sericus in|uries where the in|ured perscn will need first aid tc restcre breathing, heart beat cr tc stem
blood flow.
Two-way radios
Crane drivers must communicate by two-way radio when they are out of earshot and line of sight from the
dogger. It is important that the two-way system provides clear and immediate signals without interference.
There are two types of two-way radio: conventional and trunked.
Conventional radio
Great care is taken when allocating frequencies to make sure that there are no other operators using the
same frequency in the area.
Always use a good quality system from a reputable company with a properly allocated frequency for the
area. Interference on your frequency can be a safety hazard. If there is continual interference have the
system checked or a new frequency allocated.
Trunked radio
Trunked radio is a computer controlled two-way system that locks other radio users out of your frequency.
No other operator can cut in and overpower your signal.
With trunked radio it is possible to have several separate groups on one building site communicating by
radio without interfering with each other.
Trunked radio is recommended for large worksites.
Directions for crane drivers
Doggers must give crane drivers clear verbal signals when directing crane movements. The noise of the
crane motor and distortion over the radio can make it difficult for the crane driver to hear directions.
The following are the standard directions for crane drivers from doggers:
Hook movement “Hook up” & “Hook down”
Stopping “Stop”
Speak clearly and say the name of the part of the crane to be moved first - then the direction
of movement.
Creep speed: Appropriate hand signal for motion with hand opening and close
FSWR is constructed of wires and strands laid around a central core. In the illustration below there are
19 wires to the strand and 6 strands around the core making up the rope.
ít is impcrtant nct tc ccnfuse wires and strands. lf a strand is brcken, the rcpe is unusable. A single
broken wire is not as important.
The core can be:
Fibre Core (FC) or Independent Wire Rope Core (IWRC)
The tensile strength of FSWR ranges from 1220 megapascals (MPa) to 2250 MPa. The most commonly
used tensile strengths are 1770 MPa and 1570 MPa.
A 6/19 (six strands cf 19 wires each) is the minimum FSWR ccnstructicn that can be used fcr slings.
The size of a rope is determined by its diameter. The smallest diameter FSWR that can be used for lifting
is 5 mm.
Lay is the direction the wires are formed into strands and the strands are formed into the finished rope.
The strands can be laid either left or right around the core. In left hand lay the strands are laid anti-
clockwise and in right hand lay they are laid clockwise.
Ordinary Lay is where the wires are laid in the opposite direction to the strands.
Lang’s Lay is where the wires are laid in the same direction as the strands. There is therefore:
Right hand ordinary lay – RHOL
Left hand ordinary lay – LHOL Right hand
Lang’s lay – RHLL
Left hand Lang’s lay – LHLL
Lay does not affect the working load limit of the rope but it does determine characteristics such as the
spin of the rope. Most rope available in Australia for lifting is right hand lay.
Inspection and discard
It is important to check all rope for wear and tear before use. Rope can deteriorate due to several factors.
These factcrs include abrasicn, fatigue, ccrrcsicn, stretching (frcm cverlcading and shcck lcading) and
mechanical damage.
When inspecting:
º Determine the ccnstructicn and lay cf the rcpe.
º 0heck fcr signs cf stretching.
º 0heck the whcle rcpe fcr brcken wires. Where brcken wires are present ccunt the number cf brcken
wires in a length of rope eight times the rope diameter. The total number of broken wires in a length
cf 8 x diameter, must nct exceed 10% cf the tctal wires.
For example:
In a 6 x 24 rope (6 strands of 24 wires) the total number of wires is 144. The diameter of the rope
is 12mm.
Length of rope to inspect = 12 (mm) x 8
= 96mm
Number of wires = 6 x 24
= 144
10% cf 144 ~ 14.4 wires
Therefore: 14 broken wires in a 96mm length would indicate that the rope is unfit for use.
There are also many new types of rope construction for special purposes. Manufacturers will advise about
the best type of rope for a particular application.
Discard FSWR sling if there is:
º A single brcken wire belcw a terminal fitting cr a machine splice.
º Abrasicn and ccre ccllapse.
º 0crrcsicn. Red cxide pcwder and lccse and springy wires can indicate sericus ccrrcsicn. 0heck the
valleys between the wires for corrosion beneath the surface.
º Kinks cr fractures frcm bending cr reeving.
º 0rushed cr |ammed strands.
º Birdcaging. This is where the strands lccsen frcm their prcper tight lay. ít can be caused by rctaticn
of the end of a rope or a sudden release from high loading. It is often found in Lang’s Lay.
º High stranding. This cccurs where there has been faulty whipping cf the rcpe ends and a strand has
slipped around the lay and projects above the surface.
º Alsc check splices fcr damage, tucks, ccrrcsicn and drawing cut. Never allcw a splice tc pass
arcund a sharp cb|ect, remain in the 'nip' cf a reeved sling cr be pulled rcughly frcm under cr
through an object.
º 0heck the talurit cr swaged splices fcr fatigue, ccrrcsicn and brcken strands where the rcpe
enters a splice. Reject a rope where there is one broken wire immediately above or below a
talurit or swaged splice.
1. Mechanical damage due to rope
movement over sharp edge projection
whilst under load.
2. Localised wear due to abrasion on
supporting structure. Vibration of rope
between drum and jib head sheave.
3. Narrow path of wear resulting in fatigue
fractures, caused by working in a grossly
oversize groove, or over small support
4. Severe wear in Lang’s Lay, caused by
abrasion at cross-over points on multi-
layer coiling application.
5. Severe corrosion caused by immersion of
rope in chemically treated water.
6. Typical wire fractures as a result of bend fatigue.
7. Wire fractures at the strand, or core interface,
as distinct from ‘crown’ fractures, caused by
failure of core support.
8. Typical example of localised wear and
deformation created at a previously kinked
portion of rope.
9. Multi-strand rope ‘bird caged’ due to
tortional unbalance. Typical of build-up
seen at anchorage end of multi-fall crane
10. Protrusion of IWRC resulting from
shock loading.
The lubrication applied to the rope when it is manufactured does not last the working life of the rope.
Without lubrication a rope will be subject to greater internal friction.
The frequency of lubrication is determined by the operating conditions. High speed heavy duty operation
and wet or corrosive conditions both call for more frequent lubrication.
Scrub or scrape free rust and examine for lack of lubrication. (Do not use a wire brush). Discard the rope
if there is evidence of more than superficial corrosion.
íf a rcpe is encrusted with dirt and grease, scrub clean and apply cil. A medium visccsity black cil
is suitable.
A shock load can lessen the WLL without signs of wear being immediately evident. If you are in doubt
have it tested by the manufacturer or a competent testing organisation.
When using FSWR:
º Avcid reverse bends.
º Use suitable packing tc prctect the rcpe frcm sharp edges.
º Dc nct expcse wire rcpe tc temperatures exceeding 95`0.
º Dc nct lift with wire rcpe less than 5mm diameter.
º Dc nct use a rcpe that shculd be discarded.
º Dc nct use Lang's Lay unless the ends are fixed tc prevent the rcpe unlaying.
º Dc nct allcw kinks cr kncts tc develcp.
Stcre wire rcpe clear cf the grcund in a clean, dry place.
Make sure that wire rope is not in contact with corrosive substances when it is stored. Make sure that
wire rope is properly lubricated before storage to minimise the risk of corrosion.
Sheaves are used in pulley systems to gain a mechanical advantage.
Flare angle and groove depth
The grccve depth cf a sheave shculd nct be less rcpe than 1.5 times the rcpe diameter. Hcwever, if the
rope is positively prevented from leaving the groove the minimum depth of the groove can be equal to the
rope diameter.
The sheave groove sides should have a flare angle of a minimum of 42° and a maximum of 52°.
The round grooves should be slightly larger than the nominal diameter of the rope. Grooves which are too
large will flatten the rope. Grooves too small will pinch the rope and the extra friction can cut it to pieces.
Sheaves should have a smooth finish with flared edges which are rounded-off.
Sheave diameters
The table below gives sheave diameters and safety factors for types of work:
Caution: Mcdern cranes and hcists are ccmplex engineering equipment, and many have special
construction luff and hoist wires. It is essential that the sheaves which were designed for a particular
crane or hoist are used for that purpose.
ít is alsc essential that when a rcpe is replaced, the replacement is the same diameter and ccnstructicn
and that the sheave system is thoroughly checked to ensure that any damaged or worn grooves likely to
ruin the new rope are repaired or replaced.
Sheaves should be inspected regularly. Pay particular attention to the sheave groove and flange. Any
cracks or chips on the flange can cut the wire as it lays into the groove.
The grccve shculd be checked fcr wear which has reduced the grccve diameter, giving an uneven bearing
surface for the wire.
All sheaves should be checked for lubrication. Badly lubricated sheaves cause extra friction in the system
and wear on the sheave pin and bearing.
The pin should be prevented from rotating with the sheave. Some sheave pins only have a small cotter pin
which fits into a recess on the cheek plate. The cotter pin sometimes shears and allows the pin to turn
with the sheave.
Rotating pins are dangerous as they turn and can cut through the cheek plate.
A ‘jockey sheave’ is sometimes used as the first diverting sheave to reduce the fleet angle. This sheave
fits on an extended pin to allow it to slip from side to side reducing the fleet angle. The jockey sheave pin
should be kept well greased and free from grit and dirt to allow the sheave to slide across the pin.
Drums are the pulling mechanism which rctates, hauls in and stcres surplus rcpe. The braking
mechanism is connected to either the drum or the gearing which is joined to the drive mechanism.
The rope should lay neatly on the drum and not be bunched up. There should be a minimum of two full
turns on the drum at all times.
The rope must be anchored to the drum with a fixed mechanical anchorage.
Be aware of the danger of not properly tightening an anchorage. Do not rely on the frictional grip from the
two turns on the drum.
The top layer on a multi-layered drum must not be closer than two rope diameters to the top of the flange
when the drum is full.
Drum capacity
Fleet angles
The maximum fleet angle is measured from the centre of the drum to the centre of the first diverting
sheave then back to the inside flange at the middle of the drum.
The fleet angle for a grooved drum is 5° and for an ungrooved drum is 3°. To achieve these angles the
distance from the drum to the first diverting sheave must be a minimum of:
º 19 times half the width cf the drum fcr an ungrccved drum.
º 12 times half the width cf the drum fcr a grccved drum.
Example 1:
Width of the grooved drum = 1 metre
12 x 1 x 0.5 = 6
Therefore the sheave must be 6 metres from the drum.
Example 2:
Width of the ungrooved drum = 1 metre
19 x 1 x 0.5 = 9.5
Therefore the sheave must be 9.5 metres from the drum.
If the fleet angle is too large or the distance between the drum and the first lead or diverting sheave
is tcc shcrt, the rcpe will nct lay neatly cn the drum and will create severe wear cn the rcpe and the
sheave flange.
Effect of fleet angle on spooling.
Although chain is from 5 to 6 times heavier than FSWR of the same lifting capacity it is more durable. It
can withstand rough handling and can be stored without deterioration.
Types of lifting chain
º Mild steel stress relieved chain -stamped L.
º High tensile, quenched and tempered chain stamped P.
º Higher tensile, quenched and tempered chain branded T. 8, 80, 800, PWB, cr 0M and
HA800 alternately.
º very high tensile, quenched and tempered chain branded 100, v cr 10.
High Tensile and Very High Tensile (Grade T. 80 and 100) are used extensively for lifting. Very little low
grade chain is used fcr lifting. Mcst, if nct all, chain ccmpcnents are alsc High Tensile strength (0rade T
or 800) and are branded to show grade and chain size.
íf dcggers dc nct understand the grade marking cf a chain, they shculd check with the manufacturer cr
the manufacturer’s supplier for clarification.
Caution: Industrial lifting chain is not normally sold through general hardware outlets. Chain from general
hardware outlets is usually unsuitable for industrial lifting.
Look for the grade markings
Safe working loads for slings of special alloy chain (Marked “C.M.”, “A”, “T” or 8).
Safe use and maintenance
Do not use a chain that is 5.5mm diameter or less for lifting.
A chain sling is only as strong as its weakest link
When making up a chain sling, always use chain, hccks, links, hammerlccks and ccuplers cf the same
grade and WLL and that are in a good state of repair.
Do not lift a load heavier than the WLL of the chain.
Dc nct use a chain in which the links are stretched, lccked cr dc nct mcve freely.
Dc nct use chain that is gcuged cr wcrn mcre than 10% cf the diameter.
Dc nct twist, kink cr knct chain.
Do not drop a chain from a height.
Do not roll loads over a chain.
Dc nct use a chain with a link that is cracked, cr that has been welded cther than by the manufacturer.
Use protective padding when using chain around sharp corners.
Do not attempt to use chain when the temperature exceeds 260° unless heat reduction charts are used.
Inspection and discard
lnspect your chain slings regularly.
If necessary clean the chain before inspection.
lnspect each link fcr signs cf wear, twisting, stretching, nicks cr gcuging.
Links that are stuck together show that the chain has been stretched.
Cracks can be found by dusting chain with fine powder. Dust any link that is suspect and then blow the
loose particles away. Dust particles left will be lodged in any cracks making them more visible. Magnetic
particles can also be used.
Any worn links should be measured for degree of wear which must not exceed that allowed for by
the manufacturer.
Measure the links to check for wear
The maximum allcwable chain wear is 10%.
The maximum allcwable elcngaticn cf a chain is 10%.
The maximum increase in hcck cpening is 5% cf the criginal thrcat cpening.
The maximum allcwable wear in the bite cf a hcck is 10%.
Inspect upper and lower terminal links and hooks for signs of wear at their load-bearing points and for any
signs of distortion.
lnspect links and couplings for signs of wear at their load bearing points and for excessive play in the load
pin between the body halves.
Withdraw any chain from service immediately if it has defects. Clearly mark the chain with a tag stating
that it must not be used until it has been inspected by the manufacturer.
Destroy any chain that cannot be repaired.
If the chain is not tagged or properly stamped it must be removed from service.
Enter all inspection details on an inspection record card.
Flat webbing and round synthetic slings are used for lifting where it is necessary to protect the load from
damage and fcr prctecticn frcm electrical hazards. They are made frcm nylcn, pclyester, pclyprcpylene cr
aramid polyamide. Each sling must be labelled with the WLL.
Round synthetic slings
Synthetic slings must be inspected before each use. They must also be inspected at least once every three
months. If a sling is subject to severe conditions the inspections should be more frequent. Send each sling
for a proof load test at least every 12 months.
Look for:
º Any external wear such as abrasicn cr cuts and ccntusicns.
º ínternal wear which is cften indicated by a thickening cf the sling cr the presence cf grit and dirt.
º Damage tc any prctective ccating cf the sling.
º Damage caused by high temperatures, sunlight cr chemicals (indicated by discclcuraticn).
º Damage tc the label cr stitching.
º Damage tc the eyes cr any terminal attachments cr end fittings.
º Where the sling is ccvered by a sleeve, the sleeve must ccver the sling fcr the full length frcm
eye to eye.
Discard a synthetic sling if:
º The label has been remcved cr destrcyed.
º There is any damage tc the sleeve cr prctective ccating.
º A nylcn sling ccmes intc ccntact with acid.
º A pclyester sling ccmes intc ccntact with alkaline substances.
º A pclyprcpylene sling ccmes intc ccntact with an crganic sclvent such as paint, ccal tar cr
paint stripper.
º There are any visible cuts cn the sling.
Types of synthetic slings and fittings
Examples of extreme damage to flat synthetic-webbing slings.
NB. A nylcn sling will lcse mcre than 10% cf its strength when it is wet.
After six months continuous exposure to sunlight send a sling in for testing.
Synthetic slings must be stored:
º ín a clean, dry, well ventilated place.
º Away frcm the grcund cr flccr.
º Away frcm direct sunlight, ultra-viclet light and flucrescent lights.
º Away frcm extremes cf heat.
º Away frcm scurces cf igniticn.
º Away frcm atmcspheric cr liquid chemicals.
º Away frcm the pcssibility cf mechanical damage.
The working life of synthetic slings will be shortened if exposed to any of the above.
(a) Damaged sleeve (b) Some damage to load-bearlng
(c) Badly damaged sleeve
(d) Load-bearlng fibres have been cut (e) Cut load-bearlng fibres (f) Broken load-bearing yarn
(g) The use of hooks that are too
narrow has damaged the eye of
the sling
(h) Burn damage to sleeve and load-
bearlng yarn
(i) Surface wear evident by furry
Fibre rcpe is nct widely used fcr lifting. ít dces nct have the strength cr versatility cf FSWR, chain cr
synthetic slings. Do not use a fibre rope that is less than 12mm for lifting.
It is most commonly used as a tagline for guiding or steadying a load because it is flexible and non-
conductive. Fibre rope taglines must be at least 16 mm in diameter.
Keep fibre rope neatly coiled when stored and protected from:
º falling cb|ects.
º fire and excessive heat.
º acids and cther chemicals.
º sparks and mclten metal.
º water and rust.
º sand ashes and dirt.
º rats, mice, white ants and ccckrcaches.
When inspecting fibre rope look for:
º Signs cf brittleness, charring cr brcwn discclcuraticn due tc excessive heat.
º A dirty grey cclcur, lcss cf weight and brittleness due tc sun rct.
º Signs cf mildew by cpening the strands and lccking and smelling fcr mculd.
º Discclcuraticn and pcwdery fibres due tc the effects cf acid and cther ccrrcsive agents.
º A decrease in diameter and an increase in the length cf the lay due tc cverlcading.
º 0ne strand standing cut higher than the cthers. 0alled high stranding, it can be caused by faulty
splicing or whipping.
All of the above defects make the rope unfit for lifting purposes.
From the hook to the load the lifting gear can be made up of many parts.
The WLL of lifting gear is only as great as the part of the sling with the lowest WLL. For example if the
WLL of:
the hook is 2 tonnes
the shackle is 2 tonnes
the ring is 1 tonne
the rope is 2 tonnes
then the WLL for the lift is 1 tonne.
Always use accessories with at least the WLL of the sling to avoid errors.
Hccks may be fitted with a safety catch, particularly where there is a chance cf the slings being displaced.
A wide variety of hooks are available for use with chain slings. Hooks are mostly 80 grade alloy steel and
are stamped with the WLL. Make sure when selecting a hook for a chain sling that the hook has at least
the same WLL as the chain.
Make sure that the cpening is wide encugh tc accept the largest rcpe, ring, link cr shackle that has tc be
placed over the hook.
Make sure that the inside cf the hcck, cr 'bight' is rcunded sc that it dces nct cut intc cr damage slings
and fittings.
Crane hooks must freely rotate at all times. If the load exceeds two tonnes there must be a roller thrust
bearing or ball between the trunnion and nut.
íf a chain hcck cpening is stretched mcre than 5% it must be withdrawn frcm service. Discard bent cr
distorted hooks. Do not attempt to weld or repair them. Hooks must not have any fittings welded to them.
A ring must have at least the same WLL as the chain, hcck and cther parts cf a sling.
Discard any ring which has been stretched by mcre than 5%. Dc nct place a ring (cr shackle cr eye bclt)
over a crane hook unless it hangs freely.
There are two main types of shackle – ‘Dee’ and ‘Bow’. All shackles used for lifting must be stamped
with the WLL. Do not use a shackle that does not have the WLL marked. Make sure that the WLL of the
shackle is at least as great as the chain, links and rings in the sling ycu are using.
Do not use a bolt and nut in place of the proper shackle pin. A bolt that does not fit tightly is likely to
bend and break.
Discard any shackle that is wcrn in the crcwn cr pin by mcre than 10%. Dc nct use a shackle that is
bent, defcrmed cr damaged. Defcrmed shackles prcbably have micrcsccpic cracks which can lead tc
complete failure during lifting.
To prevent jamming tighten shackle pins finger tight and then release a quarter turn. Use washers or
ferrules to centre thimbles and hooks on the shackle pin to prevent unnecessary strain.
Where several sling eyes are to be connected to a lifting hook use a large bow shackle so that all the sling
eyes can be safely accommodated. The pin must rest on the hook and the sling eyes in the bow section.
Do not use a screw shackle where the pin can roll under the load and unscrew.
There are collared and uncollared eyebolts. Do not use uncollared eyebolts for any lifts other than vertical
lifts because they can break off.
A typical use for an eyebolt is for lifting pre-cast concrete panels which have ferrules cast into them. Make
sure that eyebolts are securely screwed into the ferrule or nut before use.
Do not lift if the ferrule is loose. Do not hammer an eyebolt to tighten. Use a podger bar. Make sure that
the eyebolt and ferrule has a ‘solid feeling’.
Do not put a sling through two or more eyebolts. Use two slings attached to the eyebolts with shackles.
Do not attach slings to eyebolts with hooks because the hook is usually too small.
Swivels both prevent chain or rope from twisting and allow it to untwist.
Swivels can have two eyes (eye and eye swivel) or have an eye attached to a shackle (clevis and
eye swivel).
Use of collared eyebolts
Make sure the eyebolts are screwed down tightly so that the collar is in contact with the load.
Here the strain on the eyebolt is doubled
A turnbuckle (cr rigging screw) is used fcr tensicning FSWR. The ccnventicnal turnbuckle has twc threads,
cne left hand and cne right hand, which will increase the tensicn cf rcpe as they are screwed tcwards
each other.
They can have either eyes or clevises at each end. Only suspend loads with turnbuckles with eyes or
clevises at each end not hooks.
Turnbuckles must have the WLL marked. Do not lift if it is not marked.
When inspecting, check fcr wear and slackness in the screw thread and make sure that the thread is fully
engaged. Otherwise inspect in the same way as chain.
APPENDIX (i) – Areas and volumes
Area of a square = length x width
For example:
2m x 2m = 4 square metres
Area of a rectangle = length x width
For example:
2m x 5m = 10 square metres
Area of a circle = diameter
x .79
For example:
3m x 3m x .79 = 7.1 square metres
Area of a triangle = base x height ÷ 2
For example:
3m x 3m ÷ 2 = 4.5 square metres
Volume of a cube = length x height x width
For example:
3m x 3m x 3m = 27 cubic metres
Volume of a rectangular solid = length x height x width
For example:
2m x 4m x 6m = 48 cubic metres
Volume of a cone or pyramid = area of base x height ÷ 3
For example (pyramid):
2m x 2m x 1.5m ÷ 3 = 2 cubic metres
For example (cone):
3m x 3m x .79 x 4m ÷ 3 = 9.5 cubic metres
Volume of a sphere = diameter
x 0.53
For example:
3m x 3m x 3m x 0.53 = 14.3
Calculating the weight of a load
Tc calculate the weight cf a lcad, if it is unkncwn, ycu must multiply the vclume cf the lcad by the unit
weight of the material.
For example:
A rectangular stack of hardwood 3 metres long – 1 metre high – 0.5 metre across.
Volume of rectangular solid = length x width x height
3m x 1m x .5m = 1.5 cubic metres
Unit weight of hardwood is 1120 kgs per cubic metre
1.5 x 1120 = 1680
Therefore the total weight of the load is 1680 kgs.
APPENDIX (ii) – Tables of masses
Acid (crated maximum) 200 kg
Ale, beer, 160 litre 250 kg
Aluminium, cu m 2.7 t
Aluminium ingot 5-15 kg
Asbestcs cement sheet, plain, 2m x 1m 18 kg
Ashes, ccal, cu m 800 kg
Asphalt, 200 litre, drum 200 kg
Barbed wire, ccil 50 kg
Blue metal, cu m 2.0 t
Beer (see Ale)
Bitumen, 200 litre, drum 200 kg
Bclts, varicus, bag 50 kg
Brass, cu m 8.5 t
Bricks, ccmmcn, 1,000 4 t
Brcnze, cu m 8.5 t
0ast ircn, cu m 7.2 t
0ast steel, cu m 7.9 t
0lay, cu m 1.9 t
0ement, 1 bag 20 or 40 kg
0cal, 1 cu m 864 kg
0cncrete, cu m 2.4 t
0cpper, cu m 9.0 t
0cpper, 3 mm thick, sq m 27 kg
Dccrs, 50 1 t
Dcg spikes, 100 50 kg
Drums, empty 200 litre 13 kg
Earth, 1 cu m 1.9 t
Fat, tallcw, etc. (44 gal barrels) 200 litre 200 kg
Fencing wire, ccil 50 kg
Fibrcus plaster, sq m 9 kg
Fibre board. sq m 0.6 kg
Fibro cement sheets –
Flat –
4.5mm thick, sq metre 7 kg
6mm thick, sq metre 11 kg
Corrugated –
standard, sq metre 11 kg
deep ccrrugaticns, sq metre 12 kg
Compressed –
15mm thick, sq metre 26 kg
Fish bclts, 24 mm dia 1 kg
Fish plates, 4-hcle 13 kg
Fish plates, 6-hcle 18 kg
Galvanised flat iron 0.5 mm sheet
1.8 m x 90 mm 7 kg
0lass, 10mm thick, sq metre 27 kg
0ranite, cu m 2.6 t
Grease (44 gal) 200 litre 200 kg
0ypsum, cu m 2.3 t
0ypsum, 1 bag 50 kg
Hardwood (see Timber)
Hermatic cre, cu m 5.4 t
Hemp, bale 300 kg
íce, cu m 930 kg
írcn, cast m 7.25 t
írcn, pig 50/kg
írcn, cre, cu m 5.4t
Jute, bale 150 kg
Kerosene (44 gal) 200 litre 200 kg
Lead, cu m 11.4 t
Lead, 3 mm thick, sq m 34 kg
Lead, pig cr ingct 36 kg
Lime (stcne), 12 bags 1 t
Lime (stcne), cu m 2.6 t
Lime, hydrated, 1 bag 22 kg
Lime, hydrated, 44 bags 1 t
Nails, case 50 kg
Netting, wire 1 m rcll, 50 m 25 kg
0ils, all types (44 gal drum) 200 litre 200 kg
Paint, 4 litre 4 kg
Palings, H.W. 1 .5 m sawn, 400 1 t
Palings, H.W. 2 m sawn, 360 1 t
Particle bcard 18mm thick, sq metre 12 kg
Petrol (44 gal) 200 litre 200 kg
Pig iron 50 kg
Pipes –
Stoneware –
100 mm 55 m 1 t
150 mm 32 m 1 t
225 mm 20 m 1 t
300 mm 15 m 1 t
0ast ircn, 3.6 m lcng, lined
80 mm nominal inside dia 18 kg/m
100 mm pipe 28 kg/m
150 mm pipe 54 kg/m
200 mm pipe 84 kg/m
225 mm pipe 11 5 kg/m
300 mm pipe 148 kg/m
Steel, galvanised
8 N.B.0.D. 13.5 mm 0.7 kg/m
10 N.B.O.D. 17 mm 0.9 kg/m
15 N.B.O.D. 21 mm 1.28 kg/m
20 N.B.O.D. 27 mm 1.69 kg/m
25 N.B.O.D. 34 mm 2.5 kg/m
32 N.B.O.D. 42 mm 3.2 kg/m
40 N.B.O.D. 48 mm 3.8 kg/m
50 N.B.O.D. 60 mm 5.3 kg/m
0cpper, 13 g internal diameter apprcx.
12.7 mm O.D. 0.35 kg/m
16 mm O.D. 0.5 kg/m
25 mm O.D. 0.8 kg/m
38 mm O.D. 1.25 kg/m
50 mm O.D. 1.7 kg/m
Pitch and tar, (44 gal) 200 litre 200 kg
Plywccd 6 mm, 2 m x 1 m 7 kg
Plasterboard (Gyprock) 13mm thick –
sq metre 27 kg
Rails, steel (masses are branded cn side)
HEIGHT mm BASE width mm
157 229 192 kg/m
102 165 86 kg/m
157 146 73 kg/m
173 140 59 kg/m
137 127 41 kg/m
94 94 22 kg/m
65 60 10 kg/m
Sand, beach, dry, 1 cu m 2.0 t
Sand, beach, wet, 1 cu m 2.3 t
Sand, river, wet, 1 cu m 1.5 t
Screws, case 50 kg
Shale, cu m 2.6 t
Sisal, bale 200 kg
Sleepers, 225 mm x 114 mm x 2.4 m 80 kg
Sleeper plates, 200 1 t
Tallcw, (44 gal), 200 litre 200 kg
Tar, (44 gal), 200 litre 200 kg
Terracctta, cu m 1.8 t
Tiles, Marseilles, terracctta, 100 350 kg
Tiles, Marseilles, ccncrete, 100 375 kg
Tin, cu m 7.3 t
Tin, ingct 32 kg
Timber, ircnbark, cu m 1.4 t
Timber cther hardwccds, cu m 1.1 t
Timber, scftwccds, cu m 640 kg
Tubular scaffolding (1½ in bore) –
48 mm O.D. 4.8 mm thick 5.2 kg/m
Water, fresh, 1 litre 1.0 kg
Water, fresh, 1 cu m 1.0 t
Weatherbcards, rusticated
Hardwccd, 180 mm x 25 mm x 200 m 1 t
Wcclpacks, pack average 150-160 kg
Zinc, cu m 7.0 t
Zinc, ingct 26 kg
APPENDIX (iii) – First aid
Crane operators and doggers work in a high risk industry. Not only are there many minor injuries but there
are alsc sericus in|uries where the in|ured perscn will need first aid tc restcre breathing, heart beat cr tc
stem blood flow.
Know the location of the first aid room and the nearest first aid kit. There must be a first aid kit on every
floor of a multi-storey building site or within 100 metres of any part of the workplace.
The standard first aid symbol in Australia is a white cross on a green background.
First aid kits on worksites should have a carrying handle. There must be a notice near to the first aid room
with the name(s) of those in the workplace who hold an approved occupational first aid certificate.
It is recommended that crane operators and doggers take the time to do an approved first aid certificate.
APPENDIX (iv) – Terms used in this guide
DIAMETER: The length of a straight line drawn from one side to the other through the centre of a circle.
DOGGER: A person qualified to sling and direct loads.
DUNNAGE: Packing under loads.
EYEBOLT: Lifting ring.
GRADE: The tensile strength of chain.
HAMMERLOCK & COUPLERS: Attachable chain links.
LOAD FACTOR: The fraction of the safe working load created by a particular slinging method.
REEVE: A method of slinging where the sling passes back through itself reducing the safe working load.
RING: Chain link.
SAFE WORKING LOAD: The maximum load that can be safely lifted by a particular sling or machine.
SHACKLES: Attachment for joining a sling to a load or a hook.
SHEAVE: A pulley through which steel wire rope moves.
SLíN0. Lifting gear made frcm steel wire rcpe, chain cr synthetics.
SNIGGING: Dragging a sling or a load.
SNOTTER: Fibre rope sling.
SPREADER: A beam with a central lifting attachment that reduces the strain on the lifting gear.
SWívEL. A rctating sling attachment that allcws twisting withcut spinning the wire, hcck cr lcad.
TURNBUCKLE: Attachment to increase and hold tension in FSWR or for fine adjustment of
load height.
APPENDIX (v) – Sample exam questions
Below are some of the questions you could be asked in the examination for a Bridge and gantry crane
certificate. You can find the answers to the questions in this guide.
1. How much weight can you raise and lower with your crane?
2. The crane hook is branded 20 tonne. The crane bridge is branded 5 tonne. What is the lifting
capacity of the crane?
3. When can a crane be slightly overloaded?
4. Where is the main switch for your crane?
5. Can you remove a danger tag from the main switch and close the switch?
6. Before turning on the main switch what must be checked about the collector wires?
7. How often must you check the limit switches?
8. How does the hoist brake work?
9. Where is the cross travel unit or ‘crab’ and what is its function?
10 How many turns of wire must be left on the drum when the hook is at its lowest point?
11. The depth of an open sheave must be how many times the diameter of the wire?
12. What defects must be inspected for in a sheave?
13. Under what circumstances can a dogger ride on a load?
14. When can a load be moved ‘down shop’ over people’s heads?
15. What is the procedure if the crane chaser is receiving an electric shock from the sling or the load?
16. What must you do in the event of an electrical fault in your crane?
17. Why is it important not to snig or drag a load with a crane?
18. How many kilograms are there in one tonne?
19. Show by means of a sketch a circle of 12 mm in diameter.
20. What are the defects that condemn fibre rope?
21. What is the maximum heat that fibre rope can be subject to?
22. What is the formula for working out the WLL of steel wire rope (FSWR)?
23. Use the fcrmula tc wcrk cut the WLL cf a FSWR, 30 mm diameter.
24. What are the defects that condemn FSWR?
25. What is the smallest diameter FSWR for supporting loads?
26. What is the maximum heat that FSWR can be subject to?
27. What is the formula for working out the WLL of chain?
28. Use the formula to work out the WLL of a grade 80 chain 20 mm in diameter.
29. What is the maximum allowable wear available in the link of a chain?
30. What is the maximum allowable stretch in the link of chain?
31. List the defects that condemn chain?
32. What is the maximum allowable heat that chain can be subject to?
33. What are the brand markings found on grade 80 chain?
34. How do you find out the capacity of synthetic webbing slings?
35. What are the main defects that affect the capacity of synthetic web slings?
36. What happens to the SWL when you reeve or nip a sling around a square load?
37. What happens to the SWL when you reeve or nip a sling around a round load?
38. What is the SWL of two one tonne slings with an angle between of: 60° 90° 120°?
39. What is the capacity of the slings needed to lift with two slings reeved around a 15 tonne round load
where the angle between the slings is 60°?
40. What diameter FSWR sling is needed to lift a seven tonne load shackled into a lug?
41. What is the difference between the lifting capacity of a three legged and a four legged sling of the
same size?
42. What type of shackle would you use for multiple slings?
43. Must the eyes of a sling rest on the pin or on the “D” of the shackle?
44. What type of eyebolts must be used for attaching multiple slings?
45. Where are uncollared eye bolts used?
46. What is the whistle signal fcr. hcist up, hcist dcwn, lcwer, stcp!
47. What must you do if you are signalling to a driver by radio and someone keeps cutting across
your channel?
Catalogue No. WC00001 WorkCover Publications Hotline 1300 799 003
WorkCover NSW 92-100 Donnison Street Gosford NSW 2250
Locked Bag 2906 Lisarow NSW 2252 WorkCover Assistance Service 13 10 50
ISBN 0 7310 5159 9 ©Copyright WorkCover NSW 0508

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