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IB Math IA Type 1 Circles

IB Math IA Type 1 Circles

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IB Standard Level Math IA. Type 1 Circles.
Received a 17/20. This is a good example on how to do a math IA for a student in the IB Program.
IB Standard Level Math IA. Type 1 Circles.
Received a 17/20. This is a good example on how to do a math IA for a student in the IB Program.

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07/29/2013

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Steven Svoboda

SL Mathematics Internal Assessment: Type 1 Circles 10/29/2012

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2 .Steven Svoboda Aim: The aim of this task is to investigate positions of points in intersecting circles. and circle C3 with center A and radius r. Introduction: First. Point A is also one of the points of intersection of C1 and C2. It contains circle C1. Next. The point P’ is the intersection of circle C3 and line segment OP. circle C2 with center P and radius OP. and any point P. the following diagram is drawn. the following diagram shows a circle C1 with center O and radius r.

C2. the relationship when the OP values are held constant and the r values are modified. then this formula can be used to find the angles of the triangle. and C3 must be investigated and discussed. 3 .a2 2bc Similar Triangle Theorem o Triangles are similar if they have the same shape.Steven Svoboda In order to accomplish this task. o cos A = b2 + c2 .  Investigation: The investigation can be started by using an analytic approach to find the length of OP’ if we allow r = 1 when OP = 2. the different situations of C1. o If all 3 angles of two triangles are equal. The following analytic approach was taken: First. ∆AOP is an isosceles triangle. Required Background Knowledge:   Pythagorean Theorem o a 2 + b2 = c 2 Law of Cosine o If all three sides are known for a triangle. Since AP’ = AO. and link AM with a line perpendicular to OP. This investigation will explore in depth the relationship between the r value and OP values. take the following diagram and link AP’ with an auxiliary line. when r is held constant and the OP values modified. then the two triangles are said to be similar. Then add point M between points O and P’. It will also investigate the reverse. but not necessarily the same size.

take the following diagram and link AP’ with an auxiliary line. Since AP’ = AO. This will allow us to find the value of OP’ which is shown below: √ =√ x2 4x – x2 = 1 4x = 1 x= OM = x = Thus. it can be determined OM = MP’ = Next. because AM is perpendicular to OP and AOP = AP’O. Thus MP = 2 – x Since. 4 . Then add point M between points O and P’. ∆OAM and ∆AMP are both right triangles. First. OP’ = 2OM = The following analytic approach can be used to find the length of OP’ if we allow r = 1 when OP = 3. assume that OM = x. they can be set equal to each other by using their common side (AM) through Pythagorean theorem. ∆AOP is an isosceles triangle. and link AM with a line perpendicular to OP.Steven Svoboda Then.

it can be determined OM = MP’ = Next. Since AP’ = AO. take the following diagram and link AP’ with an auxiliary line. ∆OAM and ∆AMP are both right triangles. assume that OM = x. they can be set equal to each other by using their common side (AM) through Pythagorean theorem.Steven Svoboda Then. OP’ = 2OM = The following analytic approach can be used to find the length of OP’ if we allow r = 1 when OP = 4. because AM is perpendicular to OP and AOP = AP’O. First. This will allow us to find the value of OP’ which is shown below: √ =√ x2 9 – 9 + 6x – x2 = 1 6x = 1 x= OM = x = Thus. 5 . Thus MP = 3 – x Since. Then add point M between points O and P’. ∆AOP is an isosceles triangle. and link AM with a line perpendicular to OP.

given that r = 1. the table below is constructed to organize the results. it can be determined OM = MP’ = Next. A general statement that represents the results is: OP’ = 6 . This will allow us to find the value of OP’ which is shown below: √ =√ x2 16 – 16 + 8x – x2 = 1 8x = 1 x= OM = x = Thus. ∆OAM and ∆AMP are both right triangles. OP OP’ 2 3 4 R 1 1 1 By looking at this table. they can be set equal to each other by using their common side (AM) through Pythagorean theorem. Thus MP = 4 – x Since. because AM is perpendicular to OP and AOP = AP’O. it becomes obvious that as OP increases. OP’ decreases. assume that OM = x.Steven Svoboda Then. OP’ = 2OM = In order to more easily find a general statement.

Steven Svoboda This task can be further investigated by determining the relationship between the r and OP values. P and P’ coincide and ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ form equilateral triangles (all sides are equal) that coincide. This is because: OP = AP = 2 (radii of C2) OA = r = 2 OA = AP’ = 2 (radii of C3) OA = OP = AP = AP’ = 2 Thus. The following analytic approach can be used to find the length of OP’ if we allow OP = 2 when r = 2. it can be determined that point P and point P’ will coincide given the situation. by analyzing the conditions of the following graph. Therefore. when the OP values are held constant and the r values are modified. OP’ = 2 7 . First.

= cos -1 = 41. OP’ = OP + PP’ = 2 + 2. OP = OA.41 Then because OP and AP both lie within the same circle. √ Thus.Steven Svoboda The following analytic approach can be used to find the length of OP’ if we allow OP = 2 when r = 3. Thus. Thus. it can be determined that point P’ will be longer than point P given the situation. by analyzing the conditions of the following graph. This is because: OP = AP = 2 (radii of C2) OA = r = 3 OA = AP’ = 3 (radii of C3) Thus. First.51 8 .51 OP’ = 4. Therefore.51 = 4.

Steven Svoboda The following analytic approach can be used to find the length of OP’ if we allow OP = 2 when r = 4. First. This is because: OP = AP = 2 (radii of C2) OA = r = 4 OA = AP’ = 4 (radii of C3) OP = 2 = PP’ OP + PP’ = OP’ = OA = 4 OP’ = 4 9 . by analyzing the conditions of the following graph. it can be determined that circle C2 and C3 will coincide and that OP’ and OA will form lines that perfectly match up.

Steven Svoboda In order to more easily find a general statement. The revised general statement is: OP’ = Next.5 4 By looking at these results and comparing it with the past results it can be concluded that the general statement found previously does not hold up to be true. However. 10 . OP 2 2 2 r OP’ 2 3 4 2 4. the table below is constructed to organize the results. we can investigate and use other different values of r and OP in order to test the validity of the general statement for OP’ Thus. a new general statement can be written which would satisfy all the results. let’s find OP’ when r = 2 and OP = 3.

OP’ = = = since r = 2 and OP = 3. which proves the general statement OP’ = Now. Then. let’s find OP’ when r = 3 and OP = 4. link AP’.Steven Svoboda First. there are two equal angles in ∆OAP and ∆OAP’. Then. therefore the last angle is equal too. As a result. OAP = AOP’ Thus. AOP’ = AP’O = OAP Thus. ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ are both isosceles r = OA = AP’ = 2 AP = OP = 3 Thus. First. ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ are both isosceles r = OA = AP’ = 3 11 . AOP’ = AP’O. ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ are similar This similarity can be expressed as a ratio: Thus. link AP’.

for that’s the only way to allow these two circles to have at least one intersection. AOP’ = AP’O = OAP Thus.Steven Svoboda AP = OP = 4 Thus. Also. The general statement was found by the following approach: ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ are similar triangles Thus. OP’ = = = since r = 3 and OP = 4. AOP’ = AP’O. ∆OAP and ∆OAP’ are similar This similarity can be expressed as a ratio: Thus. the general statement becomes OP’ = 12 . therefore the last angle is equal too. OAP = AOP’ Thus. OP’ x AP = OA2 Therefore. AP = OP Thus. which proves the general statement OP’ = The general statement OP’ = remains consistent according to the results. As a result. The scope of the general statement is r. One obvious limitation is that OP cannot equal 0. there are two equal angles in ∆OAP and ∆OAP’. OP’ = OA = r. = Then cross multiply the proportion. another limitation is that OP must be greater than or equal to r.

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