This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

SL Mathematics Internal Assessment Task Due: May 25th, 2012

Gold Medal Heights

Also. the one that is closest to the data points indicates that that function most similarly models the behavior of the graph. the correlation coefficient. The table below gives the height (in centimeters) achieved by the gold medalists at various Olympic Games. Aim: The purpose of this task is to consider the winning height for the men’s high jump in the Olympic Games. The correlation coefficient that is closer to one means it has the best linear fit.2 Introduction: The goal of this task is to find a function that most similarly models the behavior of the graphed data. Year (x) 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 Height 197 203 198 204 212 (cm)(y) Note: Olympic Games not held in 1940 and 1944 1960 216 1964 218 1968 224 1972 223 1976 225 1980 236 Data Table: Using technology such as Microsoft Excel and a TI-84 graphing calculator. This is simply because the human body has its physical limits. the line of best fit must be found for each function to provide a way to compare the functions. ultimately preventing height from continuously increasing over time. It can be expected that over time the graph will stabilize and plateau. The correlation coefficient that is closer to zero means it has the most error. the data points were plotted on the graph below. which is how close the data points are to a line. The graph demonstrates a general increase in height over the years. After the line of best fit is found for each function. In order to determine which function most resembles the behavior of the graph. must be found for each function. .

Other parameters and constraints are that only male Olympic athlete competed and that they all received gold medals for only one event being the high jump.3 Height of Gold Medalists at Various Oylmpic Games 240 235 230 Height (cm) 225 220 215 210 205 200 195 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 height (cm) year Variables: Year is the independent variable and is expressed as the x-coordinates.94 which is very close to one. This function was also chosen because by using the TI-84 calculator. The range is from 197 cm to 236 cm. Procedure: The first function tested that modeled the behavior of the graph was the linear regression function. the correlation coefficient (r) was found to be 0. Height is the dependent variable and is expressed as the y-coordinates. This function was chosen because the points on the graph are increasing and a linear function also increases in a straight line. Parameters and Constraints: The domain is from years 1932 to 1980. The controlled variable is the 4 year time span between each Olympic game excluding the time span from 1940 to 1944. . indicating a very good positive linear fit.

Also. Also.4 Analytically.̅ = ( or y=( ̅̅̅̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) ) (x. slope was needed to form the equation for the line of best fit and was found by using the following equation. y. the following steps were taking: First. m= ̅̅̅̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) = standard deviation of x coordinates ̅̅̅ = mean of the sum of the product of xy Next.̅ ) m = slope ̅ = average of x coordinates ̅ = average of y coordinates Second.̅ = m(x. the following point slope form equation was used to formulate the necessary equation for the line of best fit.̅ ) ̅̅̅̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) ) (x. the new variables are defined as follows. an equation was created to find the line of best fit and to model the data in the above table. the equation for slope was plugged back into the initial equation and was expressed as: y.̅ ) + ̅ . the variables are defined as follows. In order to derive this necessary equation.

5 Then.8957812 Afterwards. the equation was simplified as follows.̅ ) + ̅ y=( – ) (x .54545455) + y=( – ) (x .1818182 .58.1818182 ̅̅̅ = 12706.54545455) + y = (11.4777804) + 214. the TI-84 calculator was utilized to arithmetically find the values for the variables as follows: ̅ = 58. y=( – ) (x .54545455) + y=( ) (x .58.658.54545455 ̅ = 214. The simplified equation (in bold) is the equation of the line of best fit for the linear regression function.58.24729128x .58.54545455) + y=( )(x .58. the values for the variables that were found were substituted into the original equation as follows: y=( ̅̅̅̅ ( ̅ ̅ ) ) (x.90909 = 14.54545455) + Lastly.

The new variable is defined also as follows: r= ̅̅̅̅ ̅ ̅ = Standard deviation of y-coordinates = 11.94 .6 Furthermore.96827763 r= – r= – r= r= r = 0. the correlation coefficient of the linear function which was 0.94 was found by using the following equation and process.

Height of Gold Medalists at Various Oylmpic Games using Linear Regression 240 235 230 Height (cm) 225 220 215 210 205 200 195 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 year height (cm) Linear (height (cm)) . This is a limitation because the original graph does not have data points that form a straight line and it can be expected that the original graph will eventually stabilize and plateau. both continue in the same general increasing direction. The limitation of the model is that it is a straight line that runs through only several of the points and will only continue in the same upward direction. rather than continue increasing over time. The linear function seems to have a good fit with the original graph because it runs through several of the data points and also.7 The model linear regression function and the original graph were drawn on a new set of axes down below.

The model exponential function. The limitation with the exponential function is the same as the linear function. however.8 Using technology such as Microsoft Excel and a TI-84 calculator. it is the same as the linear function. It was chosen because it has a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94 which is very good since it is close to one. (height (cm)) Linear (height (cm)) . Both will continue increasing upward. however. Height of Gold Medalists at Various Oylmpic Games using Exponential and other Functions 240 235 230 225 Height (cm) 220 215 210 205 200 195 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 year height (cm) Expon. the exponential function has a very slight upward curve. along with the model linear function and the original graph are displayed on a new set of axes down below. however. Both model functions are extremely similar and appear to exhibit the same behavior. another function tested that modeled the behavior of the graph was the exponential function. they will never plane out and stabilize like what can be expected with the original graph.

the model exponential function. it becomes apparent that all these tested model functions are almost exactly the same. along with the model linear function. From looking at the graph below. (height (cm)) Linear (height (cm)) Power (height (cm)) . and the original graph are displayed on a new set of axes down below. another function tested that modeled the behavior of the graph was the power function. The model power function. Height of Gold Medalists at Various Oylmpic Games using Power and other Functions 240 235 230 225 Height (cm) 220 215 210 205 200 195 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 year height (cm) Expon.94 which indicates a close fit.9 Using technology such as Microsoft Excel and a TI-84 calculator. it is the same as the linear and exponential functions. however. It was chosen because it had a correlation coefficient of 0.

The 6th degree polynomial function runs through almost every data point and has much less error than all the other functions. the model power function. This function was chosen because it has a correlation coefficient of 0. (height (cm)) 195 1896 1906 1916 1926 1936 1946 1956 1966 1976 1986 1996 2006 year . (height (cm)) Linear (height (cm)) Power (height (cm)) Poly. The model 6th degree polynomial function along with the model linear function. the 6th degree polynomial function best models the behavior of the graphed data.10 Using technology such as Microsoft Excel. and the original graph are displayed on a new set of axes down below. another function tested that modeled the behavior of the graph was the 6th degree polynomial function.995 which is extremely accurate. the model exponential function. For these reasons. 240 235 230 225 Height (cm) 220 215 210 205 200 Height of Gold Medalists at Various Oylmpic Games using the 6th Degree Polynomial and other Functions height (cm) Expon. Also. this function has the highest correlation coefficient of all the functions tested.

96 which is very close to one. the winning heights would have most likely been 200 cm and 197 cm. it can be justified quantitatively because this function has a correlation coefficient of 0. This can be justified by looking at the 6th degree polynomial function on the graph because it models the behavior of the data the best out of all the tested functions. respectively. Furthermore.995 of the 6th degree polynomial function and the very close fit the function has with the graphed data. . respectively. This prediction has much validity due to the high correlation coefficient of 0.995 which indicates that the function is extremely accurate and has very minimal error since the value is close to one. Using the 6th degree polynomial function model. The following table gives the winning heights for all the other Olympic Games since 1896. the model 6th degree polynomial function fits this additional data very well as it can be seen in the following graph below. Quantitatively. this model function fits this additional data very well because it has a correlation coefficient of 0. Year Height 190 (cm) 180 191 193 193 194 235 238 234 239 235 236 236 1896 1904 1908 1912 1920 1928 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 Qualitatively.11 Had the Olympic Games been held in 1940 and 1944. the winning height in 1984 and in 2016 can be predicted to be 234 cm and 257 cm.

(height (cm)) 1900 1920 1940 year 1960 1980 2000 2020 By looking at the graph. the heights differ by only 4 centimeters at most. excluding the height in 1904 (the second data point). it can be inferred that once the maximum height for the high jump is attained. The reason for this minimal variation of heights for certain periods of time may be due to the fact that the human body has physical limitations and it will only go so far on its own. as shoes designed especially for the high jump improve and are . Within this 28 year time period. However. This can be seen by looking at the heights from years 1896 until 1928.12 Height of Gold Medalists at Various Olympic Games using 6th Degree Polynomial Function and Including Additional Data 245 235 225 Height (cm) 215 height (cm) 205 195 185 175 1880 Poly. the overall trend of the data from 1896 to 2008 shows that the height of gold medalists increased over time. For example. it remains relatively constant for a period of time until technology advances. Within this 32 year time frame. which again signifies that there is little variation among these heights. which indicate that there is very minimal variation in the heights. the heights differ by only 5 centimeters at most. there were significant fluctuations to this overall increasing trend where the heights would remain fairly consistent for a period of years. This significant fluctuation can also be seen by observing the heights from years 1980 to 2008. Thus.

the height will remain relatively stable until the technology for high jumping improves again. the function that best models the behavior of the graphed data was found. exponential. . even if it is a very gradual increase. the gold medal heights for the high jump will continue to increase. as long as technology advances. power. the heights will increase. Therefore. All in all. Four functions were tested and they include: the linear.13 made lighter. However. This turned out to be the 6th degree polynomial function which exhibited an excellent fit on the graphed data and had an extremely accurate correlation coefficient of 0. By comparing the lines of best fit and correlation coefficients of all the functions. once the high jumpers reach a certain maximum height. the general trend of the data from 1896 to 2008 is positively increasing.995. No major or minor modifications need to be made to the model 6th degree polynomial function to fit the new data due to it having a good fit already. The technology used to perform all calculations. Conclusion: The goal of this task was to find a function that most similarly models the behavior of the graphed data. The overall trend of the graphed data was an increase in height over the years. and 6th degree polynomial regression functions. and create the graphs was Microsoft Excel and a TI-84 graphing calculator. determine all values.

- article_953895
- PURCHASE ONLYWhat is Meningococcal Disease?
- PURCHASE ONLYThe Big Bang and The Particle Accelerator
- PURCHASE ONLYIB HL Biology Notes on Chapters 17 and 18 -The Big Bang, Evolution, and Classification
- PURCHASE ONLYIB HL Biology Chapter 1 Notes
- PURCHASE ONLYIB HL Biology Taxonomy Assignment
- PURCHASE ONLYDefense Against Infectious Disease - 6.3.2 Aim 8 and 6.3.8 Aim 8 and TOK Links
- PURCHASE ONLYGel Electrophoresis HL Biology Lab
- PURCHASE ONLYLeaf Disk Assay Biology Lab
- Nervous System Flow Chart
- PURCHASE ONLYFetal Pig Sus HL Biology Lab
- PURCHASE ONLYHL Biology Probability Lab - Penny Heads or Tails?
- PURCHASE ONLYProton Radiation Therapy Presentation
- PURCHASE ONLYIB Math IA Type 1 Circles
- PURCHASE ONLYIB HL History IA - Castro's Agrarian Reform in Cuba
- ITGS Paper 2 Outline
- PURCHASE ONLYWe Didnt Start the Fire Explanation of Every Reference
- PURCHASE ONLYIB English Written Assignment/World Lit Paper
- PURCHASE ONLYDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy Powerpoint Presentation
- PURCHASE ONLYITGS Vocab Cards
- PURCHASE ONLYDuchenne Muscular Dystrophy Research Paper
- PURCHASE ONLY“The possession of knowledge carries an ethical responsibility”. Evaluate this claim.
- PURCHASE ONLYIB English Exam Review Chart
- PURCHASE ONLYHistory HL IB Exam Review

IB Math IA - Gold Medal Heights

IB Math IA - Gold Medal Heights

- On Writing
- The Shell Collector
- I Am Having So Much Fun Here Without You
- The Rosie Project
- The Blazing World
- Hyperbole and a Half
- Quiet Dell
- After Visiting Friends
- Missing
- Birds in Fall
- The Great Bridge
- Who Owns the Future?
- The Wife
- On Looking
- Catch-22
- A Farewell to Arms
- Goat Song
- Birth of the Cool
- Girl Reading
- Galveston
- Telex from Cuba
- Rin Tin Tin
- The White Tiger
- The Serialist
- No One Belongs Here More Than You
- Love Today
- Sail of Stone
- All My Puny Sorrows
- Fourth of July Creek
- The Walls Around Us

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd