GEOGRAPHY NOTES – SKILLS Synoptic charts or weather maps          Air pressure measured in hectopascals (hPa) Isobars – lines joining

places of equal pressure. Closer – stronger winds High pressure system/ anticyclones – areas of sinking air. Generally fine weather. Wind rotates anti-clockwise. >1013 hPa Low pressure system/ cyclones – areas of rising air. Cloudy and rain. Winds rotate clockwise. < 1013 hPa Tropical cyclone – areas of rapidly rising air. Torrential rain, strong winds in clockwise Cold front – cold air behind the front. Fall in temperature → rain and storm. Moves in direction of arrowheads Warm front – warm air behind front. Increase in temperature → light showers. Uncommon in Aust. Air mass – section of atmosphere containing air with similar temperature and moisture content. Line drawn showing two different air masses called front Wind direction – read by the end of longer stem that has the stem coming out

Topographic maps     Other         Bearings – calculated from north in clockwise direction. E.g. S35E, true bearing 045T Calculating area – regular, W x B/ irregular, count complete squares + match up half squares Density of feature – counting the feature number within area Local relief – highest – lowest point Aspect of slope – direction slope faces Cross section – locate two points → straight edge and mark each contour → transfer to graph → join dots Transect – cross-section showing relationship between different built and physical features Gradient – rise/run → expressed as ratio Difference height between two points called RISE Horizontal distance between two points called RUN Large scale – smaller numbers Small scale – large numbers Area reference – 4 figure reference. Eastings then northings Grid reference – 6 figure reference. Three digit eastings then three digits northing Spot heights – given specific heights for a location Contour lines – lines joining areas with the same height above sea level

Population pyramid    Vertical axis – different age groups Horizontal axis – actual population in numerical form Less > 65 years No medical supplies Low life expectancy Poor hygiene A lot < 15 years Lack of education No birth control Customs Domestic labor Solutions Improve health facilities Provide birth control Improve education

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