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Krismadinata C. Student Member, J. Selvaraj Student Member and N.A. Rahim Senior Member Centre of Power Electronics, Drives and Automation Control University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Abstract— This paper describes a novel topology and pulse width modulation (PWM) multilevel single-phase rectifier. A singlephase rectifier based on the conventional two-level full-bridge rectifier and one bidirectional switch is proposed. The novel rectifier gives three levels voltage to the input rectifier. A novel PWM switching algorithm with two references waveforms of the same phase and amplitude but difference offset and a carrier triangular waveform is simulated in PSIM and laboratory prototype is designed to demonstrate the rectifier. The switching algorithm is implemented in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) TMS320F2812. Simulation and experimental results show that both are in close agreement. Keywords: Pulse width modulation, Single-Phase three-level rectifier, TMS320F2812 I. INTRODUCTION
loss, lower electromagnetic interference and lower acoustic noise. However, this scheme can easily be applied to medium and low power applications.
The AC-DC conversion is used increasingly in a wide diversity of applications: power supply for microelectronics, household-electric appliances, electronic ballast, battery charging, DC-motor drives, power conversion, etc... . Some of the most well known problems in AC/DC converters are reducing the line harmonic currents designing the effective filter system and fast transient response. In time AC/DC converters have been dominated by uncontrolled rectifiers or line-commutated phase-controlled rectifiers. Such converters have the inherent drawback that their power factor decreases when the firing angle increases, and the lower order harmonics of line current are quite high ,. The single phase voltage sourced two-level PWM rectifier system shown in Fig. 1 with four switches is becoming a popular choice as a front end for high power railway traction drives. A unipolar or bipolar PWM voltage waveform can be generated on AC terminal of the rectifier. It can provide a regulated output voltage with the potential of drawing unity power factor low distortion current from the ac supply. Low distortion and high power factor are important attributes to a power supply system that is becoming increasingly polluted with harmonics. In recent years, research and development of multilevel converters for high power applications have attracted more attention due to the increased energy awareness in the global. A multilevel scheme provides a number of advantages over the conventional technology, especially for high power or medium voltage applications [4–7]. The advantages of multilevel converters over the two-level converters are improved voltage waveform on the AC side, smaller filter size, lower switching
Fig. 1 The single phase two-level PWM rectifier II. REVIEW TOPOLOGY THREE LEVEL SINGLE-PHASE RECTIFIER According to previous literatures -, there are ten topologies three-level single-phase rectifier.
Fig. 2 Two bidirectional switch mid point rectifier A single-phase multilevel rectifier depicted in Fig.2 consists of a single-phase diode bridge circuit as a main power circuit, and two bi-directional switches (Sa; Sb) connected between the each input terminal (A, B) and the neutral point (N) of the dcside capacitors (C1;C2). A filter inductor (Ls) is connected in series with an ac voltage-source (vs) and the rectifier .
4 Single-phase three-level rectifier with a bidirectional switch In Fig. This configuration consists of full-bridge conventional rectifier and a bidirectional switch with the two common-emitter (CE) unidirectional switches. 6 The single-phase three-level rectifier with the diode embedded switches Fig. 8 There-level diode-clamped rectifier Fig. used to achieve power-factor correction and DC bus voltage regulation. 4 shows the configuration of single-phase three-level rectifier with function of power factor corrector and active filter . Fig. The circuit configuration consists of one boost inductor. Fig. two neutral-point clamped diodes and power switches with antiparallel diodes.directional switches with the diode embedded unidirectional switch namely four diodes and one switch  Fig. This configuration is controlled to achieve high power factor. Eight switches and four clamped diodes with a . For the singlephase three-level rectifier that composed of full-bridge conventional rectifier and two directional switches can be shown in Fig. two dc-bus capacitor. The system is composed of a boost inductor Ls. regulate dc link voltage and keep balanced neutral point voltage. with a neutral-point diode-clamped topology . 3 shows the configuration of single-phase threelevel boost type rectifier. 5 . two capacitor Cd1 and Cd2. Fig. 3 The single-phase three-level Boost type rectifier Fig. two power diodes. 5 The single-phase three-level rectifier with two bidirectional switches While in Fig. eight diodes and three power switches. 7 The three-level neutral point diode clamped rectifier Fig. 6 shows the single-phase three-level rectifier that composed of full-bridge conventional rectifier and two Figure 8 shows a single-phase three-level PWM rectifier. 7 shows neutral point diode clamped rectifier .
the two common-emitter (CE) unidirectional switch. 9 gives a single-phase rectifier. This will lead to a switching pattern as shown in Fig. 12. At this point onwards. or the two common-collector unidirectional switch (CC). one bidirectional switch and two capacitors. 13. 11 Three-level rectifier with series connection of two full-bridge cells . Vref2 will be compared with the carrier signal until it reaches 0. the more voltage levels are obtained . It consists of inductor boost. Fig. with a capacitor-clamped topology . PRINCIPLE OF PROPOSED TOPOLOGY The proposed single-phase three-level rectifier topology is shown in Fig. 12 The proposed three-level PWM rectifier Two reference signals Vref1 and Vref2 will take turns to be compared with the carrier signal at a time. An asymmetrical single-phase rectifier can be shown in Fig. four diodes and one switch). Modulation index Ma for five-level PWM inverter is given as  A (3) Ma = m 2Ac Fig. 12 illustrates single-phase multilevel rectifier is based on series connection of two full-bridge cell. 9 There-level capacitor-clamped rectifier Fig. S3 and . There are three ways to obtain a bidirectional switch: the diode embedded unidirectional switch (namely. III. Switches S1. S5 will be switching at the rate of the carrier signal frequency while S2 and S4 will operate at a frequency equivalent to the fundamental frequency. used to achieve three-level PWM operation. Table 1 illustrates the level of Vinv during S1-S5 switch on and off. Fig. The voltage across the flying capacitors is equal to half the DC-bus voltage. Eight switches with a voltage stress of half the DC-link voltage and two flying capacitors are adopted in this circuit topology. Fig. Vref1 takes over the comparison process until it exceeds Vcarrier. Six active switches are used in the adopted rectifier to generate threelevel voltage . 10 to achieve power factor corrector an ac side and to obtain a constant dc-link voltage on dc side. the conventional two-level full-bridge rectifier. 10 The single-phase asymmetric three-level PWM rectifier Fig. The stress of each power switch is equal to dc bus voltage.voltage stress of half the DC-link voltage are used to generate five voltage levels on the AC terminal of the rectifier. which is more convenient for implementation than the other two configurations are . The diode-embedded switch requires only one gate driver and one active switch. Increasing the connection number of full-bridge cell. If Vref1 exceeds the peak amplitude of the carrier signal Vcarrier. Two dc bus voltages are provided in this rectifier.
M>1. From the PWM modulation. the equation (5) can be rewritten as Vref1 Vo (θ ) = An = − n =1. the analysis of harmonic components in the proposed inverter can be preformed. (c) M=0. higher harmonics in the phase waveform is obtained.e. 13. Large values of M in sinusoidal PWM techniques lead to full over modulation .. i. equation (3) can be expressed in terms of amplitude of carrier signal Vc by replacing Ac with Vc.5. If the amplitude of the reference signal is increased higher than the amplitude of the carrier signal. If M>1. the coefficients Bn and Ao would be a zero where n is an even number. 14 shows the carrier and reference signals for different values of M.. (d) M=1. (b) M=0. Vcarrier Vref1 −Vcarrier Vref2 M = V ref 2V c (4) (b) Vref1 Vcarrier Vref1 Vref2 S5 −Vcarrier Vref2 S1 (c) S3 S2 S4 Vref1 Vcarrier Fig.where Ac is the peak-to-peak value of carrier and Am is the peak value of voltage reference Vref. Therefore. Carrier and reference signals for different values of modulation index. The Fourier series coefficients of the conventional single-phase full-bridge rectifier by sinusoidal PWM is given as An = 4V dc nπ ∑ [(− 1) P m =1 m sin(nα m ) ] (8) .2. Switching pattern for single-phase five-level inverter TABLE 1 INVERTER OUTPUT VOLTAGE DURING S1-S5 SWITCH ON AND OFF S1 OFF ON OFF or (ON) OFF OFF S2 OFF OFF ON or (OFF) ON ON S3 OFF OFF OFF or (ON) OFF ON S4 ON ON ON or (OFF) OFF OFF S5 ON OFF OFF ON OFF Vinv +Vpv/2 +Vpv 0 -Vpv/2 -Vpv −Vcarrier Vref2 (d) Fig. ∑ A cos nθ n m =0 i =1 ∞ (6) int (i/2 ) −Vcarrier Vref2 (a) 2V dc nπ ∑∑ [(− 1) P 4 sin(nα m +i ) ] (7) where m is a pulse number.3. Fig. The output voltage produced by comparison of the two reference signals and the carrier signal can be expressed as  Vo (θ ) = A0 + ∑ (A n =1 ∞ n cos nθ + B n sin nθ ) (5) Vcarrier If there are P pulses per quarter period. Therefore. and it is an odd number. Since in this work two reference signals identical to each other are used.3. this will lead to over modulation. 14. M is maintained between 0 and 1. and Am = V ref1 = V ref2 = V ref .. M (a) M=0.7.
The power switches were implemented by IGBT IRG4PH50UD. 16. Measured waveform of line current 5A/div.IV. 2 > Fig. 18. The dc-link voltage is equal to 450 V in the adopted rectifier. SIMULATION & EXPERIMENT RESULT In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme. This current near sinusoidal although this rectifier still open loop condition and this is verified in experiment result as shown in Fig. 20. 15 can be shown five-level voltage generated in ac side rectifier. Measured waveform of ac side voltage Vab of the adopted rectifier 250V/div. 16.17. Output voltage of rectifier can be shown as in Fig. Its peripheral units allow a straightforward implementation of the algorithm strategy. The output rated power is 1000 W in the laboratory prototype. 19 Simulation waveform of dc side output voltage of the adopted rectifier 1 > 1> Fig. The capacitance of two capacitors is 2200 μF. The switching algorithm of this rectifier is implemented in fix-point 32-bit eZdsp board TMS320F2812. 5ms/div Fig. 19 and 20. This result is similar with experiment result in Fig. 5ms/div Fig. 18. This output still have ripple because of open loop condition. 15 Simulation of ac side voltage Vab of the adopted rectifier Fig. a prototype rectifier was implemented in the laboratory. 5ms/div Fig. Measured waveform of dc side output voltage 250V/div. The input inductance is about 3. 17 Simulation waveform of line current of the adopted rectifier In Fig. PSIM software is used to simulate the design prototype. . The mains voltage is 240 V with 50 Hz.15mH. Line current that flowed in inductor can be shown in Fig.
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