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Welcome to Rukwa Region,

Hon. Eng. Stella Martin Manyanya (MP) Rukwa Region lies in the extreme south western part of Tanzania. The region has an area of 27,765 Km2 comprising three (3) Administrative Districts with four (4) Local Government Authorities (LGAs). The administrative districts include Sumbawanga, Nkasi and Kalambo. The Region has a population of 1,000,540 people according to the current NBS projection. Rukwa is about 1200 km by road from the commercial and administrative centres of Dar es Salaam and Dodoma respectively. Large part of the road infrastructure in the region is untarmac. This nature of the road infrastructure has significantly slowdown development of the region. However, recent initiative by the government has led to the ongoing construction of the tarmac roads from Tunduma to Sumbawanga, from Sumbawanga to Kasanga via Matai, and from Sumbawanga to Mpanda in Katavi Region via Namanyere. Upon completion, these roads will serve as reliable links to cities and towns in the country. Also Region will be linked with Central and Southern African countries such as Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi and South Africa. Water supply system is developed for domestic and industrial use in urban areas. Most residents of rural areas depend on water from wells. As for power supply, the region is not connected to the National electricity grid system; but it is connected to the Zambian Electricity Supply Company (ZESCO) following an agreement made between Ministry of Energy and the Zambia Power Company. To complement that source of power, the government has recently installed generators in Sumbawanga as an additional source of power. There are a good number of modern communication and media companies operating in the region, serving both local and international needs. Ecologically, Rukwa Region consists of three (3) agro-climatic zones which include the Ufipa plateau, the Rukwa valley and the Lake Tanganyika shores. These ecological zones are favourable for development of agriculture, forestry, industry, tourist services and mining. The Region is endowed with the high potential of mineral resources such as iron, silver, coal, lead, limestone, mica, gemstone and the similar most of which are not yet exploited. Prospecting of petroleum/gas is going on in Lake Tanganyika and Lake Rukwa.

In the year 2004, the economic growth rate of Rukwa Region, in terms of GDP, was 3.7% which is equivalent to TZS. 369,993.00 per capita income and in the year 2007 per capita income increased further to the rate equivalent to TZS. 486,832.00, projection for 2012 is TZS. 750,000.00. In order to maintain and improve that growth target, the Region has planned to concentrate on the following eight (8) priority areas namely Infrastructure, Agriculture, Education, Staff development, Environment, Water, Health and HIV/AIDS and SACCOS. To achieve targets in those areas, the Region will continue to perform various development programmes which are in consistent with: National Development Vision 2025; National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP); Ruling Party Election Manifesto 2010 and National Development Plan 2015.

Apart from our own efforts, we also wish to invite/attract domestic and foreign investors for the purpose of exploiting the regions opportunities on the basis of mutual benefits in various areas. With that background in mind, let me ask you to pay particular attention to the coming presentations, which will give you a clearer picture of the investment potentials in Rukwa region. We are looking forward to cooperate with you in making Rukwa Region a vibrant investment location in Tanzania. Welcome to Rukwa Region! Hon. Eng. Stella Martin Manyanya (MP) REGIONAL COMMISSIONER RUKWA.

1.0 Rukwa Region In brief 1.1 The Region Background Rukwa Region came into being in 1974 when part of Mbeya and Tabora Regions were demarcated to form a new Region. The region is located in the South-Western part of Tanzania between 05S - 09S and 30 330 E. The recent formation of Katavi region left Rukwa Region with an area of 27,765 km2; Whilst 21,160 km2 is land area, the remaining 6,605 km2 are covered with water bodies. The Region is divided into three (3) Districts namely Kalambo, Nkasi and Sumbawanga, four (4) Local Government Authorities (LGA), namely Sumbawanga Municipal Council, Sumbawanga District Council, Kalambo District Council and Nkasi District Council), 16 Divisions, 64 Wards and 282 Villages. Table 1.1: Rukwa Region Administrative Distribution and Population by District (LGAs) LAND POPULATION AREA WAR DISTRICT DIVs VILLA CENSUS LGAs (SQ KM) DS 2012 * GES 2002 Sumbawanga Sumbawan ga MC Sumbawan ga DC Kalambo DC Nkasi DC 1,329 7,373 4,715 9,375 22,792 2 4 5 5 16 15 15 17 17 64 24 101 101 87 313 152,939 214,979 156, 770 216,883 741,571 221,033 296,327 220,423 299,413 1,037,196

Kalambo Nkasi TOTAL *Projection

1.2 Boundaries and Location The Region borders with Zambia to the Southwest, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to the West across Lake Tanganyika, Katavi Region in the North and Mbeya to the Southeast. The highest point of the region is at Malonje in the Ufipa plateau at 2,461 meters above sea level and the lowest point is lake Tanganyika at 773 meters above sea level.


1.3 Climate The Region enjoys tropical climate with mean temperatures ranging between 13 oC in some places for the months of June and July to 27oC in the hottest months of October to December. Rainfall has been reliable for many years, it ranges between 800 1300 mm per annum. However, the region has in recent years, been receiving a bit low rainfalls due to environmental destruction in some parts of the Region. 1.4 People and Culture The major languages spoken in this region include Swahili, Fipa, Mambwe, Lungu, Nyamwanga and English is also spoken by limited number of people. With exception of

English and Swahili, the other spoken languages are vernacular (specific to a particular tribe). The main staple foods are maize, rice and beans with exception of some parts of Lake Tanganyika and Rukwa where cassava, fish and rice are the main source of food. Other food crops widely available include groundnuts, finger millet, potatoes, sorghum, wheat and sugarcane. Meat is easily available from the pastorals community who traditionally keep varieties of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, chicken, pigs, rabbits and pigeons. 1.5 Region Population The Region had a population of 752,061 in 2002 and the forecast for 2011 was 1,037,196 according to the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). Table 1.2: Rukwa Region Population projections and Growth rate by District / LGAs
District (LGAs) POPULATION (CENSUS 2002) POPULATION PROJECTION (2012) % INCREASE 2002-2012 4.1 3.3 4.1 3.5 3.5


MALE 73,256 104,944 76,817 105,286

FEMALE 79,683 110,035 79,953 111,597

TOTAL 152,939 214,979 156,770 216,883

MALE 108,306 145,200 108,007 146,712

FEMALE 112,727 151,127 112,416 152,701

TOTAL 221,033 296,327 220,423 299,413







Source: NBS Table 1.3: Rukwa Region Population & Population density by District / LGAs
District (LGAs) LAND AREA (SQ KM) POPULATION CENSUS 2002 2002 Population Density 152,939 214,979 156,770 216,883 741,571 115.1 29.2 33.2 23.1 32.5 2012 PROJECTION 2012 Population Density 166.3 40.2 46.7 32 45.5

Sumbawanga MC Sumbawanga DC Kalambo DC Nkasi DC TOTAL

1,329 7,373 4,715 9,375 22,792

221,033 296,327 220,423 299,413 1,037,196

Source: NBS.

1.5. Economy and Population In 2002 the Regional GDP was 337,155 Mil TZS and Per capita income of 295,299 TZS areas in 2010 the GDP rose to 1,095,346 Mil TZS and Per Capita income of TZS 728,684 which indicated Regional growth in Gross Domestic Product of 3.39%. This means the majority of peoples income is below the line of extreme poverty of one dollar per day taking into account that an average household size is 5.1.
Table 1.4: Rukwa Region Share Contribution Regional to the Gross Domestic

Product and Per Capita Income since 1999 to 2010 Year GDP Tanzania Mainland 7,222,560 8,152,790 9,100,274 10,444,507 12,107,062 13,971,592 15,965,294 17,941,268 20,948,403 24,781,679 28,212,646 32,293,479 37,532,962 PER CAPITA INCOME Tanzania Rukwa Region Mainland 233,397 255,080 255,575 270,511 276,741 264,731 310,991 295,299 353,496 367,565 396,154 398,486 441,063 437,274 478,100 469,246 547,081 537,042 627,787 623,288 693,470 672,237 770,464 728,684 869,436 830,052

Rukwa Region 269,877 295,030 297,632 337,155 429,981 483,240 547,334 611,089 724,781 871,896 974,823 1,095,346 1,293,386

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Chart 1: GDP TREND








0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

1.6 Age Dependency Ratio The age dependency ratio is defined as the ratio of the youths less than 15 years of age plus persons aged 65 years and above (dependants) to adults aged 15-64 years (workforce). According to population and housing census (2002) in Rukwa Region the overall dependency ratio was 1:1 This means that there were 100 people in 15-64 years group supporting 105 people in age groups 0-14 and 65 and above. Age dependency ratio was high in rural areas than urban areas 1.7. Ecological Zones Rukwa region has three (3) agro-ecological zones. The features of the zones are shown in the Table below:

Table 1.5: Agro-ecological zones of Rukwa Region Zones Area (sq km) 6,500 General Altitude Morphology range (m) Flat plains 8101200 Dominant soil Economic activity Rainfall (mm)

Rukwa Valley


Lake 4,500 Tanganyika Shores

Ufipa Plateau

Steep hills with gentle plateaux and plains 11,800 Gentle plain with moderately slopping hills and plateau


Shallow, scattered clayey lacustrines Ferralitic


Agric: Maize, paddy, Cassava, Cattle, goats, and Fishing. Agriculture: maize, cassava, Oil palm, paddy. Fishing, Agriculture: maize, cassava, groundnuts, Millets, beans. Cattle, Goats. Fishing. Mining: coal, gemstones.




Source: BLARUP (1997)


2.1.0 Investment Climate in Tanzania

2.1.1 Political Stability Tanzania has experienced a long record of stability since independence in 1961. The country has changed presidential post four times through democratic election. From 1995, the country has held elections under a multi-party platform. The fourth President in the history of the country, His Excellency, Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete was elected in office in December 2005 for a five year term and re-elected in October 2010 for another five year term. The election process was deemed free and fair by the international observers. Tanzania enjoys peaceful political environment which make it a centre of economic and political stability in Sub Saharan Africa.

2.1.2 Investment Guarantee

Section 22 of the Tanzania Investment Act, 1997, guarantees investors against nationalization and expropriation. Tanzania is a signatory of several multilateral and bilateral agreements on protection and promotion of foreign investment. Among other international agreements and membership, Tanzania is a member of Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

2.1.3 Transfer of Capital or Profits

The Investment Act, 1997, allows unconditional transferability through any authorized dealer bank in freely convertible currency of:Net profits or dividends attributable to the investment; Payments in respect of loan servicing where a foreign loan has been obtained; Royalties, fees, and charges in respect of any technology transfer agreement registered under this Act; The remittance of proceeds (net of all taxes and other obligations) in the event of sale or liquidation of the business enterprise or any interest attributable to the investment; and Payments of emoluments and other benefits to foreign personnel employed in Tanzania in connection with the business enterprise.

2.1.4 Settlement of disputes:

Where a dispute arises between a foreign investor and Tanzania Investment Center or the Government in respect of a business enterprise, all efforts shall be made to settle the dispute through negotiations for an amicable settlement. A dispute between a foreign investor and the Center or the Government in respect of a business enterprise which is not

settled through negotiations may be submitted to arbitration in accordance with any of the following methods as may be mutually agreed by the parties, that is to say:In accordance with arbitration laws of Tanzania for investors; In accordance with the rules of procedure for arbitration of the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes; Within the framework of any bilateral or multilateral agreement on investment protection agreed to by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Government of the country the investor originates.

2.1.5 Trade Agreements

Tanzania is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), a market of around 300 million people and the east African community (EAC) which is about 100 million people. Tanzania also enjoys access to various markets under different trade preferences such access to the United States under AGOA, and the European Union under Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA), providing duty free and quota free market access . Similarly, under the Special Preferential Tariff Agreement with China, over 400 goods originating from Tanzania can be exported to China free of tariff.

2.1.6 Access to credit from domestic sources

Foreign investor may, in relation to the business enterprises which he/she operates obtain credit from domestic bank and financial institutions up to the limit established by the Bank of Tanzania (BoT). In consultation with the TIC having regard the amount of foreign capital invested in the business enterprise may be increased. Other sources of finance are banks which provide credits for various activities, the banks which are active in the region are: i) CRDB Bank Limited - branch in Sumbawanga town. ii) National Microfinance Bank Limited (NMB)- Sumbawanga and Namanyere iii) National Bank of Commerce (NBC) - branch in Sumbawanga town iv) Tanzania Postal Bank Limited (TPBL) operating through the Tanzania Posts Corporation in all major centres in the region where there are postal services. Information on credits provided by the four banks show that these banks have not been sufficiently used by the locals for development projects. Loans provided are of small amounts mostly for employees to purchase home appliances and other individual needs.

2.1.7 Investment Incentives

Tanzania offers a well-balanced and competitive package of fiscal investments in comparison with other African countries through various investment legislations such as Tanzania Investment Act, of 1997, Export Processing Zones Act of 2002 Special Economic Zones Act of 2006, the Mining Act of 1998 and the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act 1981.

In addition, the Government has embarked on the implementation of a programme of Business Environment Strengthening for Tanzania (BEST). The purpose of the programme, whose implementation started in December 2003, is to reduce the burden of businesses by eliminating as many procedural and administrative barriers as possible and to improve the quality of services provided by the government to the private sector including commercial dispute resolutions.

2.1.8 Presence of One Stop Centre for Investors

Tanzania Investment Centre was established in 1997 as the primary agency of the government with objectives of coordinating, encouraging, promoting, facilitating investors and advising the government on investment policy and related matters. The agency has been instrumental in spearheading the reforms that aimed to improve investment environment in Tanzania In its efforts to assist investors to obtain relevant permits, approvals and Licenses required in their business under one roof and within a short time, the Government has stationed government officers at Tanzania Investment Centre office to facilitate investors to obtain the required approvals. Stationed officers come from different Ministries and Government institutions such as the Ministry of Labour and Youth Development, Ministry of Land and Urban Settlement, Tanzania Revenue Authority, Department of Immigration Services, Ministry of Industries, Trade and Marketing and Business Registration and Licensing Agency. 2.2.0 Why Invest In Rukwa Region 2.2.1 Agriculture Majority of Rukwa population depends on agriculture where the mostly cultivated food crops are maize, paddy, potatoes, beans and groundnuts. Major cash crops are maize, paddy, beans, millet, sunflower, groundnuts, wheat and simsim. These seven (7) crops contribute significantly to the income of the people as well as GDP. Farming activities are being conducted through use of modern and traditional implements such as tractors, oxplough and hand hoes. But most it is family labour based which results into low yields per area, hence the need for investors in agriculture sector.

2.2.2 Natural Resources

Rukwa enjoy a diversity of natural resources including; coal, iron, silver, limestone, mica, gemstone, and a lot of building materials, fisheries, wildlife and forests most of which are yet exploited. Natural resources in this region is seen as potential for income generation that will improve the regional economy, provide employment, reduce poverty and improve livelihood of people in Rukwa and contribute to the National economy as whole.




Economic infrastructure Infrastructure is one of the key investment drivers which Rukwa Region in collaboration with TANROAD and the Ministry of Infrastructure is struggling to improve. There is a sustained programme for building good quality road network to link the Region to other cities. Efforts are also made to improve domestic airport linking the region to other cities in Tanzania. Similarly, upon completion of Sumbawanga - Kasanga road which is the gateway to Kasanga port the region will be well connected with Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia through marine transport. 2.2.4 Availability of Skilled Labour Access to skilled labour is a key priority for companies competing in African economies. The Government has made a long-term commitment to develop a pool of well-trained and educated specialists. The Government has increased its education budget significantly compared to the previous budgets. Thus Tanzania has to further improve human capabilities and encourage technology transfer as a precondition for enhancing productivity of investment and attaining the desired level of competitiveness. 2.2.5 Stable investment policy The pro investment attitude by Government is clearly demonstrated by the innovative investment legislation, the increasing number of foreign direct investments in the country and economic and structural reforms that have led to substantial progress in establishing a functioning market economy. Institutional support for priority investment projects is readily available from the Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC) and other Government institutions. TIC is the focal point for investors. It is a first point of call for potential investors. It is an efficient and effective investment promotion agency, a one stop facilitative centre for all investors, engaging in the business of marketing Tanzania as an investment destination. In order to strengthen and expedite facilitation services, nine (9) senior officers from Government or its executive agencies have been permanently stationed at TIC to serve investors under the general direction of the TIC Executive Director. Presently these officers include those from; Lands Department, Tanzania Revenue Authority (TRA), Immigration Department, Labour Division, Directorate of Trade and Business Registration & Licensing Agency (BRELA). In response to Scholars and consultants recommendation, TIC is currently undertake targeted promotion of investments internally and abroad based on thorough research.

Market research-driven investment promotion tends to be more efficient in cutting costs of promotion and achieving more desirable investment outcomes. 2.2.6 Community Development Community Development, gender and children policy (1996) focuses on creation of conducive environment for women and men to perform their roles in community based on their particular gender needs. Basically it aims at empowering people to realize their capacity in identifying, analyzing and finding solution to their problems, using available resources to generate and increase their income and raising their standard of living and hence attaining sustainable development in their locality. Based on that Rukwa Region aims at creation of equal opportunities and raised awareness in community to identify and solve their problems through utilization of the available resources to increase their income, eradicate poverty and hence raise their standard of living. This gives and opportunity for investment in community development services such as education, poverty reduction for women and youth; and empowerment of women and youth through small loans. 2.2.7. Peace and stability Whereby Tanzania is not completely free of ideological confrontations, ethnic problems and labour disputes, it is a very peaceful country and is a centre of economic and political stability in Sub Saharan Africa. Even, multi party democracy adopted in 1992 has not disturbed the peaceful political climate of the country. The political scene is characterised by parliamentary democracy and public consensus on key social and economic priorities. For that reason Rukwa Region has got very important opportunity for creating conducive environment for investment.


The main productive sectors in the region are agriculture (including livestock, fisheries and forestry), tourism and mining. 3.1. Crops About 90% of the population in Rukwa Region earns their living from agricultural activities. The area of arable land is 1,424,893 ha while the area under cultivation is only 447,079 ha (appr. 32% of arable land). The crops produced includes the one below (see picture) and the production trend for the last five years is shown in the Table below; CROPS PICTURES




Agriculture in Rukwa region is dominated by small-scale subsistence farming, approximately 68 percent of the cultivated land is used by smallholder farmers who operate between 0.5 and 2.0 ha. The region has potential in animal power for agricultural operations, 75% of tillage operations is done using animal power and weeding is done by hand hoe. The region is estimated to have 66 tractors, 199 small tractors (power tiller) and 43,376 pairs of animal draught power

Table 3.1: Crop Production Trend

2008/2009 Food Crops Maize Rice Fingermillet Beans Cassava Sorghum Wheat S/Potatoes Ir/Potatoes Banana Total Ha 149,460.70 15,412.00 25,830.30 70,068.60 22,128.00 9,683.40 1,311.00 21,314.60 17,697.00 48.00 332,953.60 Tonnes 407,175.40 50,099.00 28,952.77 102,561.60 56,976.00 24,208.50 2,613.00 87,069.00 88,957.00 768.00 849,380.27

2009/2010 Ha 161,517.0 28,744.7 21,629.0 43,881.0 31,142.5 13,243.3 5,449.0 27,343.0 18,113.7 85.0 351,148.2 Tonnes 494,444.0 101,255.4 51,461.0 48,782.6 67,356.4 30,459.6 11,051.0 107,596.2 65,942.8 1,097.0 979,446.0

2010/2011 Ha 176,815.0 28,440.0 23,274.0 47,623.0 35,542.0 13,715.0 2,629.0 29,691.0 15,995.0 997.0 374,721.00 Tonnes 625,746.0 124,755.0 57,353.0 69,426.0 80,088.0 27,430.0 5,479.0 120,751.6 61,867.0 15,952.0 1,188,847.60

2011/2012 Ha 175,146.8 24,849.6 21,384 54,067.6 39,136 14,120 3,339 31,445 16,150 1,033 380,671 Tonnes 463,800 94,950.6 28,823 76,277.6 89,412 32,476 7,765 128,346 64,179 14,320 1,000,349.2

Cash Crops
Sunflower Groundnuts Sugar cane Simsim TOTAL 42,891.80 12,858.00 1,159.00 56,973.25 73,658.20 12,375.30 20,097.00 106,248.50 43,117.0 16,494.8 2,377.0 161.4 62,150.2 51,261.4 29,285.0 45,870.0 42.0 126,458.4 52,677.0 18,580.0 37,506.0 159.0 108,922.00 77,217.0 23,915.5 2,679.0 104.3 103,915.80 59,282 20,744 3,395 195 24,345 76,267.2 24,142 50,138 48.36 74,337.36

3.1.1. Markets for Crop In 2010/2011and 2011/2012 we had a surplus of maize 494,019 tonnes and 720,306 tonnes respectively) which part of it was purchased by the National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA) at an average price of TZS 350 per kg and other buyers bought at prices ranging from TZS 250 to 300. The prices offered by other buyers do not meet the production costs. Since November 2007, a grain milling factory under the name of Energy Milling Co. Ltd has been in operation in Sumbawanga. It has a capacity of milling 50 tons of grains in 8 hours which include a rice huller with capacity of 30 tons per 8 hours. This is another market for crops of Rukwa.

Still, there is a problem of market for maize, beans, rice and other food crops such as cassava, and sweet potatoes. Problems facing the farmers in selling their produce include; Few NFRA buying centres, Low prices offered by buyers and Poor condition of roads, thus, making it difficult to transport their produce to local and external markets. The main cash crops grown in Rukwa region are sunflower, groundnuts, simsim and sugarcane (Refer table No 3.1 : Rukwa Region production trend). 3.1.2. Cooperative Societies The Region has 90 cooperative societies; including 79 Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) and 11 other co-operative societies which have 10,938 members with shares valued at TZS. 286,600,000 and TZS. 1,586,082,000 deposits which make a total capital of TZS 1,872,682,000. In 2011/2012 these SACCOS provided loans of TZS. 5,662,891,000 out of this amount a total of TZS 4,085,820,000 have been repaid which is equivalent to 72.2 percent of total loan. 3.1.3. Farm Inputs Major inputs used by farmers are fertilizers like Di-Ammonium Phosphates (DAP), UREA, CAN, Minjingu Rock Phosphates. Seeds include certified seeds of Maize hybrids and open pollinated varieties, paddy, beans and sunflower. However, there are challenges of availability of seeds, fertilizers and Agriculture Machinery in time due to the poor condition of the Tunduma - Sumbawanga road and other roads within the region. There are ongoing agricultural support programs such as ASDP/DADP, MIVARF former AMSDP and the Rural Financial Support Program (RFSP) that assist villagers to establish savings and credit cooperative societies (SACCOs) which is the nearest financial institution to acquire loans for agriculture development such as buying farm inputs and small machines.

3.1.4. Irrigation Schemes The Region has a total of 73,245ha potential for irrigation, 2,908 ha are now irrigable using modern irrigation infrastructure which is equivalent to four (4) percent of available irrigable land. The region has a total of 27 irrigation schemes, among these 11 have been developed for modern irrigation infrastructures and 16 are under tradition irrigation. Table 4: Potential Areas for Irrigation by Districts COUNCIL SWANGA MC SWANGA DC Potential area for irrigation 1,100 (Ha) Ongoing irrigation scheme 40 coverage (Ha) 53,000 250

NKASI DC 19,145 2,618

TOTAL 73,245 2908

3.1.5. Challenges for Increasing Crop Production in Rukwa Region.

Poor road infrastructure Poor roads have been a major limitation for increased agricultural production and development in the region. Only recently construction of tarmac road linking Rukwa and Mbeya regions started, even though, the roads connecting districts in the region are yet developed at tarmac level. Most of the roads in the region are seasonal earth roads which limit transport and transportation within and to other regions. Limited capital and access to financial services Agricultural producers in the region lack capital assets necessary for production. They can hardly afford to hire additional labour and to purchase inputs and labour saving equipment such as tractors and animal drawn implements. Financial institutions find it risky to lend to small-holder farmers and small scale agribusiness. They charge high interest rates, currently ranging between 25 and 40 percent. Most households can neither save nor access loans from commercial banks and financial institutions. Agro-processing and marketing of agricultural commodities Agricultural performance is adversely affected by weak agro-industries, poor linkages within the marketing, processing and production chains, poor market-orientation and inadequate processing facilities leading to high levels of produce wastage. Given the high potentials in the region, investment in agro-processing such as milling and packing maize, rice and finger millet and on production of oil crops (sunflower, sesame, groundnuts and soybeans) could boost the sector in the region. Extension Services The governments extension services workforce to support agriculture is 172 against the requirement of 322. There is a shortage of 150 workers (47%). The shortage of transport facilities especially motorcycles for extension services have a negative impact on their performance. 3.2. Livestock Livestock contributes about 20% to GDP in Rukwa region. Farmers keep an average of 12 heads of cattle per family. However, during the past 10 years, there has been a huge influx of agro pastoralists from Tabora, Shinyanga, and Mwanza into the region in search for pasture for their livestock. The migrant pastoralists keep an average of 100 to 300 heads of cattle per family. The current total cattle population in Rukwa region is estimated to be 438,555. The areas suitable for grazing in each district are shown below;

Table 3.2: Area available for grazing in each district Area not occupied by water (ha) Total area Area for cultivated agriculture (ha) (ha) Ha Nkasi DC 937,500 506,250 838,600 89,042 1,433,892 60,180 % 12 Area occupied by tsetsefly (ha) Ha % 16,000 2,952 0 18,952 3 Area for grazing (ha)


Ha 430,070

% 85 77 67

Sumbawanga 1,708,800 DC Sumbawanga 132,900 MC Total 2,779,200

189,081 23 29,461 33

4.0 646,567 0 7 59,581

278,722 68

1,136,218 76

The suitable areas for grazing if well developed can hold up to 537,536 head of cattle equivalent to 376,275 Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs). The livestock population by type and by district is shown in the table below. Table 3.3: Livestock in Rukwa Region (2010/2011) Council Cattle Goats Sheep Donke y 6,803 15,646 418 22,867 1,487 3,217 1,467 6,171 Pigs Rabb it 0 1,192 1,340 2,532 Chicke n 11,6026 261,070 93,499 470,595 Ducks Kang a 1,937 3,747 288 5,972

Nkasi SBA DC SBA MC Total

136,345 266,030 36,180 438,555

47,336 87,668 17,895 152,899

5,920 38,228 5,841 49,989

18,253 12,534 6191 36,978

There are two ranches and one dairy farm in the Rukwa region. Dairy Farm at Malonje in Sumbawanga Municipality is owned by Heritage Farm, Nkundi and Kalambo ranches are owned by SAAFI and NARCO respectively. According to 2002/2003 sample census, Rukwa region has only 1,103 improved dairy animals which is 0.27% of 399,025 dairy animals in the country. The current data (2010/2011 reports) shows that Rukwa region has 5,416 dairy cattle and 452 dairy goats.

As demand for heifers both for dairy and beef is high, private investors are encouraged to give a hand in this area. The move to privatize small ranches to individuals or groups, capable of running them commercially, will be a challenge for others to establish more in their areas, and this will depend on the success of those who have been given the ranches. Meanwhile, 14 small ranches are operating. These ranches resulted from split of Kalambo Ranch. One important activity that can be undertaken to accelerate production of beef and dairy animals is the production of heifers that could be sold to small-scale farmers. Other livestock keeping systems such as feedlot are not practiced in Rukwa region. This should be encouraged as well. 3.2.1. Markets for Livestock Products Markets for livestock products are mainly the urban centres of the region and Kasesya on the Zambian border. In the past about 80 head of cattle was slaughtered on the market day at Kasesya and meat sold to Zambia. Business men buy hides and sell the same to factories in Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. A modern meat processing factory named Sumbawanga Agricultural and Animal Feeds Industry (SAAFI) started operating in May 2007. It has a capacity of slaughtering more than 150 animals per day producing prime cuts, carcasses and sausages . It provided employment to about 350 people (300 at the factory and 50 people at the ranch owned by the factory). Market for the factorys products include; Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar, the tourist hotels in Bagamoyo (in Coast Region), countries bordering the region (Zambia and DRC), Burundi, Rwanda, Comoro and the Gulf countries. Investment in small, medium, and large processing industries will increase the value of livestock products, thus, ensuring farmers with high prices for their animals. If milk and meat are processed, they can be preserved for long periods while waiting for good markets in or outside the region/country. Studies have shown that demands for livestock products will increase extensively in the coming 10 to 15 years due to the increase in urbanization.

3.2.2. Support Services Infrastructure networks like cattle dips, abattoirs, hide and skin plants, livestock markets, veterinary centres, dams/charcols and clinics are among the livestock infrastructures needed for sustainable livestock development in the region. Most of the existing infrastructure networks in the region are old, not well developed and are not sufficient. Veterinary clinics were closed down to give room for private sector which to date is very premature especially in these periphery areas and cannot render the services required. The region needs not less than 100 dips to serve around 5,000 head of cattle each. Currently, a total of 35 out of 62 dips are working in the region, there is no veterinary center in the region and there are 2 hides/skins bandas which are all operational. Other livestock service infrastructures in the region are 37 slaughter slabs, 2 abattoirs, 7 primary livestock markets, 6 permanent crush, 2 charcol dams (under construction) and 3 veterinary clinics (under construction). There is no single holding ground in place in the region, therefore, animals bought from primary markets are taken to slaughter houses without prior check ups and can result in spreading of livestock diseases. Investors are encouraged to invest in such market infrastructures eg. Primary and secondary holding grounds, stock routes and check points. Livestock diseases pose another threat to the development of this sector in the region. Joint efforts are needed between the private sector service providers and the governments by supplying the necessary expertise with minimum facilities for effective disease diagnosis, treatment and control. 3.2.3 Disease Free Zone Status The livestock potential available in Rukwa and Tanzania in general, has not been adequately harnessed both in terms of meeting increasing local demand for quality livestock products as well as for the external markets. High prevalence of trade-sensitive diseases and lack of a plan of action to facilitate compliance with internationally accepted standards on safety of products are by far the major challenges facing the livestock industry in the country. To address these constraints and thereby improve access to regional and international markets for livestock products, the Government has recently initiated measures aimed at legally designating Rukwa region as the first ever Disease Free Zone (DZF) or Livestock Export Zone (LEZ) in the country in accordance with the provisions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. The purpose of the initiative is to make Rukwa region free of specified diseases so that livestock products, especially beef from the area will be of acceptable quality and safe for the local and external lucrative markets. The practical implication of the establishment of the DFZ is that increased investment, both public and private, will be required to ensure access to quality support services for livestock production and welfare, processing and marketing of livestock products. The DFZ status therefore, provides a very significant investment opportunity in the region.

Deliberate efforts are needed to make livestock keepers acquire land and settle them for better production and be able to meet the need of the livestock market. 3.2.4 Way Forward Possible interventions includes demarcation and allocation of land for permanent grazing for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists, improvement of natural pastures, production of improved pasture seeds and management of noxious weeds in natural range and pasture.

More efforts are emphasized on the following: Demarcation and development of land for livestock production Rehabilitation and maintenance of livestock support infrastructures Livestock harvesting Improvement in livestock breeding Establish reliable inputs distribution network Strategic control of epidemics Promotion of commercial livestock enterprises Improvement of livestock extension services and Need for demand-oriented participatory research and environment conservation.

3.2.5 Identified Opportunities for Investments The identified Opportunities are such as: Ranches for modern livestock keeping Establishment of zero grazing and feedlot farms Poultry farms Modern abattoirs Tanneries Industries for processing of livestock by-products (horns, hoofs, leather, etc.) Industries for animal feed. 3.3. Fisheries The region is located between Lake Tanganyika and Lake Rukwa. There are other small lakes and rivers all with reliable fish population. The variety of fish available in the region includes Sardines, Tilapia, Nile perch, Mud fish, English fish, Luciolates, Strapessil Migebuka and various ornamental fish species.

Ornamental Fish from Lake Tanganyika Statistics show that fish produced between 1997 and 2002 in Rukwa region totalled 102,260 tons worth TZS 3.453 billion. Most of the fish is caught in Nkasi district (99%). The fish industry has not been fully exploited due to lack of modern fishing equipment, storage facilities, transportation problems and poor extension service. There are hippos and crocodiles in the region. Crocodile farming is conducted at Muze village near Lake Rukwa.

Lake Tanganyika

Lake Rukwa

The existence of Lakes and rivers in this region provides opportunity for investment in Aquaculture including ornamental fish and Crocodile farming. Current challenges in this area include use of obsolete fishing gears, lack of reliable fish market, technical know how and insufficient capital for procurement of modern fishing equipment. 3.4 Natural Resources 3.4.1 Forestry Natural forests reserves occupy about 1.4% of the region. The table shows the areas covered by forests in every district. Table 3.4: Area covered by Forests by District Council Sumbawanga MC Nkasi DC Sumbawanga DC Total Total land area (ha) 132,900 937,500 1,208,800 2,279,200 Area covered by forests reserves (ha) 334 3,367 22,334 26,035

Forest products are harvested from the Miombo Woodlands, which are predominant in Sumbawanga, and Nkasi districts and where commercially valuable timber such as Mninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) and Mputu are found. Forest products include timber, fuel wood, charcoal, honey and beeswax. Timber finds its market locally in the regions towns but the bulk of it is exported to other regions, including; Tabora, Mwanza, Dodoma, Morogoro and Dar es Salaam. Of the 1.5 million hectares of the plateau, over 700,000 hectares of land are completely deforested resulting in great shortage of wood for both construction and fuel. The situation forces women to travel long distances searching for fuelwood. Efforts are being made to set aside specific areas and hills for regeneration, protect water sources and encourage Local Authorities to buy black wattle seeds for distribution and planting in the villages. 3.4.1. Beekeeping Honey and beeswax have for a long time been produced by traditional beekeepers. Reliable production data is hard to obtain in virtually all districts in the region. However, the table below provides information on the total production and value for the period of five years from 2005 to 2011.

Table 3.5: Honey and Beeswax Production (2005 - 2011) Council Honey Production (Tons) 17 0.17 2.716 19.886 Beeswax Production (Tons) 1 0.14 0 1.14

Value (TZS.) 85,000,000 645,380 13,580,000 992,253,380

Value (TZS.) 1,238,400 98,900 0 1,337,300

Nkasi Sumbawanga Rural Sumbawanga Municipal Total

Tanzania honey has proved to be among the best in the world and can comfortably compete with honey from Australia, China, Mexico and Saudi Arabia if its potential can be fully taped. The current production of honey country-wide is only about 3.5% of the production potential. Given the good demand and market for these products, this subsector should be developed and improved through the introduction of modern honey/wax production. 3.4.2. Wildlife The region has only two game reserves of Lwafi (2200 km sq.) and Uwanda (2200 km sq) and one game controlled area of Kwela (500 km sq). Substantial revenues are earned from local and tourist hunting in Lwafi game reserved area in the region. 3.4.3. Identified Opportunities for Investments The Region has identified investment opportunities in this area which include; Plantations for carbon trading, Soft wood plantations (pine), Modern beekeeping (honey and beeswax), Wattle plantations, Wood industries (hard and soft wood) and Snake farms. 3.5. Tourism The Government of Tanzania views tourism as a significant industry in terms of job creation, poverty alleviation, and foreign exchange earnings. Most investors are competing for the overdeveloped Northern Circuit and only a few have discovered the potentiality of the South Western Tanzania. Rukwa Region has great potential for tourism. Despite its many tourist attractions as seen in the table below, the tourism sector is still underdeveloped in Rukwa region.

Table 3.6: Tourist Attractions and Locations S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tourist Attraction Old Bismark Fort at Kasanga The Kalambo falls Hot springs at Kizombwe - Sumbawanga Rural Lake Rukwa scenery from the Ufipa escarpment Lake Tanganyika shore Red Columbus in Mbizi forest and Mbezi Forest Game reserves (Uwanda na Lwafi) Game controlled areas ( Lake Kwela) Sumbawanga Rural. Maporomoko ya Tembwa Location (district) Sumbawanga Rural Sumbawanga Rural Sumbawanga Sumbawanga Rural / Nkasi Nkasi Sumbawanga Municipality Nkasi na Sumbawanga Sumbawanga Nkasi

A tourist hotel is being constructed in Kipili area on an island called Mandakelenge in Lake Tanganyika (Nkasi District). Information and statistics on other tourist attraction in Rukwa region are limited. 3.5.2. Identified Opportunities for Investments Accommodation facilities in all tourist places Include other attractions (including eco-tourism) in the tour packages Tour operating companies in Rukwa region Banking institutions to provide more credit cards facilities Improve existing facilities (hotels and lodges) to standards acceptable to tourists Establish center for marketing of cultural products Professional hunting is needed.

3.6. Mining Due to its geological framework, Rukwa region is endowed with abundant mineral deposits of different kinds including precious metals, base metals, gemstones, industrial minerals, and building materials. Table below shows types of minerals and the locations in Rukwa region: Table 3.7: Minerals of Rukwa and their locations S/N Mineral 1 Copper 2 3 4 Zinc Titanium and Zirconium Emerald Location Kasanga and Kapapa District Sumbawanga Rural Rural,

Kasanga and Kirando areas on Sumbawanga the Lake Tanganyika shores Nkasi. Ntemba and Mkwamba areas Nkasi Mponda Village Sumbawanga MC

S/N Mineral 5 Aquamarine 6 7 8 9 Burma Ruby Zircon Piezoelectric Quartz Moonstone

Location District Mlombo a few km East of Lake Sumbawanga Rural Kwela Katuka, Chala and Kantawa Sumbawanga DC, Nkasi Nzombo located a few km north Nkasi of Matala Village Matala Village Nkasi Mkombe area located north of Kabwe Village on the shores of Lake Tanganyika Chala, Swaila, Lyele, and Tambaruka in Mkwamba ward. Kantawa Northeast of Kasu and north of Lyazumbi Muze, Namwele and Nkomolo areas Nkasi

10 11 12 13

Green Tourmaline Garnets Amethyst Coal

Nkasi Nkasi Nkasi

14 15

Kaolin Limonite

Along the Sumbawanga Kasanga Road Mbuga/ Namwele located 19.3 Sumbawanga MC Km from Sumbawanga town

Sumbawanga DC Sumbawanga MC Nkasi - Sumbawanga Rural

Although sulphur is not being mentioned, there are indications of the mineral being available in Sumbawanga Municipal area. Hard rocks and sand are plentiful for building materials. Except for the quantity of coal which is estimated to be 18 million metric tons, there is no information on approximate quantities of other various minerals in the region. The mineral exploration and prospecting activities that have been done in the region is very minimal. Large numbers of the mineral occurrences are still unevaluated. 3.6.1. Mineral Prospecting and Mining There are about 33 Prospecting Licenses (PLs) held by different companies in the region but only eleven PLs are working actively. There are 35 valid Primary Prospecting Licenses (PPLs) for prospecting various types of minerals in Rukwa Region. Small scale mineral prospectors help a lot to discover new occurrences of minerals and sometimes result into a mineral rush. There are 215 valid Primary Mining Licenses (PML) for Small Scale Minerals in Rukwa Region. There are different types of minerals (gemstones, coal and building materials). Sumbawanga District has 96 PMLs and Nkasi District 21 PMLs. A large number of these licenses are not active due to lack of capital.

Large scale coal mining has started in Sumbawanga Rural District. A company named Upendo Group Ltd operating from Sumbawanga ventured in coal mining from 2004. The firm has identified possible markets for a total of 6,000 tons per month but has not been able to supply the same due to (i) inadequate operating equipment, and (ii) poor road conditions making transportation of the coal to the markets very expensive. 3.6.2 Environmental Conservation The Regional efforts for environmental protection include; Conservation of forest reserve areas using villagers (who receive education through seminars) and through provision of firebreaks in the forests; and tree planting campaign (Panda Miti Rukwa). This involves specific areas allocated by councils for planting trees; Encouraging villagers to plant woodlots and refrain from cutting trees in the forests reserves.

Tree planting campaign Table 3.8: Number of trees planted in year 2010 2011 S/N 1 2 3 Council Year Target 1,500,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 3,500,000 Total tree palnted 1,344,671 734,138 455,292 2,534,101 Survial % 79 81 82 81% in

Nkasi DC 2010/2011 Sumbawanga MC 2010/2011 Sumbawanga DC 2010/2011 TOTAL

CHAPTER: 4 4. 0 4.1. SOCIAL SECTORS Education

4.1.1. Pre Primary Education There are 321 pre-primary school classes with 639 streams in Rukwa region with a total of 19,315 children (9,894 boys and 9,421 girls between 5 - 6). 4.1.2. Primary Education The region has 356 Primary Schools out of which 352 are public primary schools and four (4) are private schools with a total of 188,895 children (93,217 boys and 95,678 girls-aged between 7-13 years). There are 3804 primary school teachers, this translates teacher to students ratio of 1:50. To meet the ideal ratio of 1:40, additional 918 teachers are required in the region. Tables 4.1a&b shows the number of primary school classrooms, children and teachers by districts. Table 4.1a: Number of Classrooms and Children Council Classrooms and Streams C/Rooms Streams 604 497 1320 2421 1161 1086 2476 4723 Number of Pupils Boys 22565 20954 49698 93217 Girls 23860 22492 49326 95678 Total 46425 43446 99024 188895

Nkasi Swanga MC Swanga DC Total

Table 4.1b: Number of Teachers Council Degree M 8 4 F 1 4 T 9 8 Diploma M 14 31 F 2 16 T 16 47 38 Grade A (IIIA) M 577 331 F 296 496 T 873 827 Grade B&C(IIIB/C M 12 8 F 4 16 18 T 16 24 Total M 611 374 F 303 532 T 914 906 1984

Nkasi Swanga (M) Swanga 16 0 16 34 4 (R) Total 28 5 33 79 22 Source: Cluster of Social Services

1192 627

1819 93

111 1335 649

101 2100 1419 3519 113 38

151 2320 1480 3804

Academic performance in primary schools is satisfactory. The rate of passing examination in standard IV in 2011 was 77.78% which is lower compared to 91.68% in 2010. As for standard VII the rate increased from 44.98 % in 2010 to 51.07 % in 2011. 4.1.3. Post Primary Vocational Training schools There are four (4) Post Primary Vocational Training schools in the region, one (1) in Nkasi, two (2) in Sumbawanga Rural and one (1) in Sumbawanga Municipal. The schools are experiencing the following challenges:Shortage of teachers (requirement 68, available 19); Shortage of classrooms rooms and Outdated equipments/facilities. The region lacks Vocational Training Centres (VETA). 4.1.4. Secondary Education The region has a total of 80 secondary schools, among which 68 are public and 12 are privately owned. Public secondary schools have a total of 27,477 students (16,696 boys and 10,781 girls) from Form I -V1. Distribution of secondary schools in each council is as seen in table 4.2. Table 4.2: Total number of secondary schools in each council COUNCIL Nkasi Swanga (M) Swanga (R) Total PUBLIC SCHOOL 21 17 30 68 NON-GOVERN 1 7 4 12 TOTAL 22 24 34 80

Among these secondary schools, 70 of them provide O level Secondary Education and the remaining 10 provide secondary education up to A level. Table 4.3 shows the trend of pupils joining secondary schools from 2005 - 2010. Efforts are directed to increase the number of secondary schools so as to be able to enroll all pupils who pass their primary schools exams.

Classes at Chanji secondary school under construction 2012. Table 4.3: Number of pupils joining secondary schools (2005 - 2011) Year Passed Boys 4523 6940 7964 8984 7642 7219 8221 Girls 2596 4262 4337 5565 5038 4598 6391 Total 7119 11202 12301 14549 12680 11817 14612 Selected school Boys 1914 5251 7964 6773 6498 7219 8221 to join secondary % Girls 1758 3626 4337 4363 4248 4598 6391 Total 3672 8877 12301 11186 10746 11817 14612

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

51.58 79.24 100 76.89 84.75 100 100

4.1.5. Hostels Among the eighty (80) secondary schools 39 have hostels for accommodation of the distant students. However, many of them are of low standard. For those without hostels students walk long distance of up to 9 km daily to schools. Therefore, there is a high demand of boarding/hostel facilities. 4.1.6. Literacy Level Literacy is the ability to read and write with an understanding of a short simple statement on everyday life. According to population and housing census of 2002, there are 576,963 total number of population in five year and above age group in the Region, out of whom 313,712 or 54% were literate. Among literates, 61 percent were males and 47 per cent females. Table 4.4 shows the level of literacy in each council. Table 4.4: Level of literacy in each Council Population Male Female Total 81,565 84,130 165,697 56,620 61,611 118,230 Literate Male Female Total 46,505 36,671 83,175 39,641 38,960 78,602 66,549 Literacy % Male Female Total 57 44 50 70 63 66 44 50.3 52 56

Council Nkasi Swanga (M) Swanga (R) Rukwa Region

142,341 150,695 293,036 85,382

151,935 60

280,526 296,436 576,963 171,528 142,180 313,712 62.3

The level of literacy in the region was higher among males than among females. This high level of illiteracy has also contributed to low development of the region. There are some initiatives being taken to eradicate illiteracy. The initiatives taken include:-

Sensitization of Communities and parents towards education and understand the basic rights to unschooled children. Sensitization of parents having children not completing primary schools due to various reasons e.g. pregnancy, to join a program known as Complimentary Basic Education in Tanzania (COBET). Mobilizing adults to join adult classes under a special programme known as Integrated Community Based Adult Education (ICBAE). 4.1.7. Colleges/Universities The region has four (4) Teachers Training Colleges (TTC) - Sumbawanga, St.Aggrey, Rukwa and St.Maurus Chemchem that produces Grade IIIA Teachers and Diploma Teachers. Sumbawanga TTC also provides certificates in Domestic Science. The region has One Open University Centre which came into operation since 21st September 2000. To date, the centre has already awarded diploma and degrees to candidates in different fields. 4.2. Health The Health Sector in the region is still underdeveloped and it is characterized by high rates of morbidity and mortality due to inadequate resources. Table 4.5 shows the number and ownership of health facilities in the region Table 4.5: Number and ownership of health facilities (2011-November)
DISTRICT Hospital Health Center Dispensary Health Facilities Requirement











HC 3


Swanga Municipa l Swanga District Nkasi Total Region







0 1

1 2

1 3

3 12

4 8

7 20

36 154

3 13

0 8

39 159

10 32

7 18

1 5

KEY: Govt = Government, V.A = Voluntary Agency, Pr = Privacy, Disp = Dispensary, HC = Health Centre and Hosp = Hospital

Table 4.7: NUMBER OF THE BEDS AND OCCUPANCY RATE: HOSPITAL HOSPITAL No. Beds O/ Rate 60 70% 100 350 510 80% 85% 78% HEALTH CENTRE No. Beds O/ Rate 14 80% 130 185 329 80% 80% 80%

1 2 3 4

Sumbawanga MC Nkasi DC Sumbawanga DC Rukwa Regional Hospital TOTAL

In consideration of the population in the region, the number of health facilities serves the population in ratios is as follows;
i. ii. iii. Dispensary population ratio 1:6000 Health centre population ratio 1:54,000 Hospital bed Per population ratio 1:2572

4.2.1. Common Diseases The common diseases which cause higher morbidity and mortality rates includes: Malaria, ARI, Pneumonia, Diarrhoea, Skin diseases, Intestinal worms, Minor surgical conditions, ill defined symptoms (no diagnosis), Eye infection, HIV/AIDS/STI, Tuberculosis, Meningitis and others. The maternal mortality rate is 128/100,000, infant mortality rate is 78/1000, the under five mortality rate is 81/1000 and Severe malnutrition is 1.3%. 4.2.2. Health Staff The region has acute shortage of trained medical staff, attributed to misconception which existed for many years in the Region. The Doctor/Population ratio is 1:81,168 while the Nurse/Population ratio is 1:3,022 (National Average - Doctor 1:25,000 and Nurse 1:5,000). The table below shows the status of the health staff in the region.

Table 4.10: Trained health staff cadre situation in Rukwa Region HEALTH STAFF Medical Doctor Specialist Doctors Dental Surgeons Specialist Dental Surgeon Pharmacists Chemists Assistant Medical Officers Assistant Dental Officers Dental Therapists Clinical Officer Assistant Clinical Officers Assist. Nursing Officers Nurse Tutor Trained Nurse Nurse Midwives Public Health Nurse B MCH Aides Medical Laboratory Technician Radiographers Dental Technicians Optometry technicians Orthopedic Technicians Physiotherapists Chemical Lab. Technician Health Officers Pharmacy. Technician TOTAL SBA MC 6 3 2 0 2 0 24 1 2 30 3 2 0 49 153 15 4 7 4 1 2 0 2 0 8 4 324 SBA DC 0 0 0 0 1 0 7 0 0 57 16 13 0 6 45 0 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 1 169 NKASI DC 3 0 0 0 1 0 10 1 1 20 6 14 3 3 64 9 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 1 151 TOTAL 9 3 2 0 4 0 41 2 3 107 25 29 3 58 262 24 15 10 4 2 2 0 2 0 31 6 644

The Life expectancy according to 2002 census was 55 years. However, in recent years this has been reduced to about 45 years due to HIV/AIDS pandemic. The health sector is seriously under funded despite the fact that it is a priority sector in the Poverty Reduction Strategy and that a health population is a basic ingredient of economic growth. The main sources of fund for health sector is from the government and basket funds which are not adequate to support and sustain health services. The Catholic Mission is assisting in establishment of a nursing college in Nkasi District, however there are insufficient funds to finalize this program. The Region has established a

special fund to attract health personnel by paying them extra allowances to meet their basic needs.

4.2.3. HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS infection in the Region has been rising steadily since 1994 up to September 2012 rate stood at 7%. However this went down to the current rate of 4.9% 2012 following the measures taken to control new infection. Current status of HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Cumulative HIV/AIDS cases reported in Rukwa up to September 2012 is 19,561. The prevalence according to Tanzania HIV Indicator Survey. This dropped from 6% in 2003/2004 to 4.9% in 2011/2012. The Region scaled up Care and Treatment services rode from 10,880 clients in 2007 to 27,196 in 2012 and those on ARV from 5,401 in 2007 to 10,306 Patients by September 2012. The Overall prevalence on HIV infection in the Region is 4.9% The Overall prevalence on PMTCT Services in the Region is 5.6% In 2011 a total of 12,983 episodes of STI Syndromes were reported. The common reported STI Syndrome is GDS, GUD, PID and UTI. Major determinant of HIV/AIDS in the Region includes wife inheritance, alcoholism, polygamy, early marriage, illiteracy, unsafe traditional practices, mobile population groups and poverty especially among girls and women. To reduce the burden on HIV/AIDS in the Region initiatives like Male Circumcision have being made where 8,195 clients have been circumcised by September 2012.

CHAPTER: 5 5.0 5.1. INFRASTRUCTURE Transport

Transport is an important sector in the whole process of development and poverty alleviation. Its effectiveness, appropriateness and adequacy contribute a lot to the successful implementation of socioeconomic activities. The impact of having a transport system is lowering of domestic production cost through timely delivery, enhancing economies of scale in the production process and creating economic opportunities. The economic opportunities include ease of market access; strengthening of competition; promotion of trade, tourism and foreign investment; contribution to government revenue and generation of a large number of employment opportunities There are three transport modes serving Rukwa region: (i) roads, (ii) marine, and (iii) air. The transport system has failed to meet the demand of the region and has contributed a lot to slow development in the region. 5.1.1. Road Transport Road transport is the most used mode and accounts for more than 90% of goods and passenger transport in the region. The region has a network of 3,093.4 km of roads of different classes as shown in the table below. Table 5.1: Road classes and lengths per district (km) Council Sumbawanga Rural Nkasi Sumbawanga Municipal TANROADS Total Tarmac 0 0 12.6 0 12.6 Gravel 318.7 110.6 40 1210.6 1679.9 Earth 685.3 498.2 217.4 0 1400.9 Total 1004 608.8 270 1210.6 3093.4

Trunk and regional roads are managed by TANROADS and the remaining network is under the LGAs. Currently total of 361.12 km of road are under construction at tarmac level. The table below shows the road density in each district/Council. Sumbawanga Municipality has the highest road density while Nkasi district has the lowest.

Table 5.2: Road density in the various districts: Road density (km per 100 sq km) 14.1 Nkasi Sumbawanga Municipal Total 9,375 1,329 22,792 933 10.0 317 23.9 2,951.7 6.9

District/Council Sumbawanga Rural

Land area (sq. Total road length km) 12,088 1,701.7

Out of the total road network of 2,951.7 km, only 22.5 km are paved and 320 km gravelled. The rest are earth roads which are regularly maintained. Passenger buses operating along the major routes of the region namely: Sumbawanga - Tunduma - Mbeya Sumbawanga - Kirando Sumbawanga Namanyere Sumbawanga -Matai - Kasanga Sumbawanga - Kaengesa - Mwimbi Sumabwanga Laela Sumbawanga-Mpanda All the trunk roads are passable throughout, same to the regional roads. Most of the district and feeder roads are seasonal. The percentage of roads under the LGAs which are seasonal are: Sumbawanga (R) 36%, Sumbawanga (U) 52% and Nkasi 66%. The other notable road transport problem is lack of direct connectivity between villages/important centres located along the Lake Tanganyika shores namely Kabwe, Kirando and Kipili. At the moment, one has to travel via the Sumbawanga Mpanda trunk road to reach other villages. Alternatively, people use small boats to travel along the coast line of the lake which is not safe and low cargo carrying capacity. There is also shortage of road construction and maintenance equipment in the region which has contributed to untimely maintenance resulting to deterioration of the roads. The plant hire equipment unit in Mbeya City has not been able to meet the demand for Rukwa region and it is strongly recommended to arrange for availability of the equipment in the region through equipping the TANROADS Regional Office or establishment of an independent equipment hire unit.

5.1.2. Marine Transport Marine transport plays a significant role in serving the people living along the shores of Lake Tanganyika and Lake Rukwa. Two commercial ships (Mwongozo and Liemba) operate on Lake Tanganyika and serve the villages/centres of Kabwe, Korongwe, Ninde, Wampembe, Kala, Kirando, Kipili and Kasanga, however they are not reliable. With exception of Kasanga where there is a landing platform, ships are forced to anchor some distance from the shore (about 1 to 1.5 nautical miles) and passengers are transported by small boats to the ships. Marine services link the region with neighbouring Regions of Katavi and Kigoma as well as neighbouring countries of Zambia, Congo DR and Burundi. Transportation within Lake Rukwa is only by boats. The Tanzania Ports Authority (TPA), responsible for the marine and lake ports, intends to conduct a Strategic Port Master Plan study which will determine the short and long term developmental requirements of all ports.

MV Liemba in Lake Tanganyika

It is expected that implementation of projects identified in the Master Plan (including the ports in lake Tanganyika) will commence and completed during the coming five years. Meanwhile, TPA intends to carry out emergency maintenance of the Kasanga port to improve its performance. Funds are being sought to improve the port facilities of the other villages/centres, priority being Kipili and Kabwe. 5.1.4. Air Transport There is only one public airport and four (4) private airstrips in the region. The public airport is located in Sumbawanga Municipal Council. There are two commercial flights that serve the region.

According to Tanzania Airports Authority (TAA), Sumbawanga airport can be used for commercial purposes (passengers and cargo) using the small aircrafts. However some improvements need to be done on a few areas e.g. fire fighting facilities. TAA is about to launch a study for the feasibility of the improvement of Sumbawanga airport, including the preparation of bidding documents (if feasible). Such airport improvement might be financed under a future IDA credit. 5.2. Telephone Communication There are adequate telephone services in all urban centres in the region and most parts of the rural areas. The table below shows the companies that provide telephone services, the type of services provided the plans for expansion of their services in the region and constraints Table 5.3: Telephone Services in Rukwa region Service provider TTCL Type of service provided Landline telephone and internet Areas covered at Future present program Telephone and internet services in most parts of the Region expansion

Long term plans are to rollout the TTCL Mobile services in the region and in particular opening up the rural areas with the CDMA Wireless network. the the the whole whole whole


Mobile phone

VODACOM Mobile phone AIRTEL Mobile phone

Most parts of the Region To cover Region. Most parts of the To cover Region. Region. Most parts of the To cover Region. Region.

5.3. Radio and Television stations There are nine (9) Radio Stations which can be accessed in Rukwa Region. They are;TBC FM; Radio Free Africa - RFA Radio CHEMCHEM, TBC Taifa, Radio One KISS FM, Radio Maria And other two (2) Radio Stations from DRC and Zambia

Television stations can be accessed by using Satellite dishes. Some of the local stations which can be accessed include TBC1, ITV, Capital, Star TV, Channel 10, Channel 5 and EATV, depending on the type of the antenna used. Other international world wide stations such as CNN, BBC, CFI and other more can be accessed in Rukwa. 5.4. Energy Electricity supplied by TANESCO is available in Sumbawanga Municipal Council and later in Namanyere town in the near future. Household Budget Survey carried out in 2002 showed that only 7% of the regions households use electricity supplied by TANESCO. The other sources of electricity are hydropower supplied from Zambia and thermal electricity generating stations. The Zambia source supply power to Sumbawanga Municipality while Namanyere town is served by generators. With the current developments in terms of industrial activities in the towns, demand for electricity will increase. The Zambia electricity source does not provide stable power supply in the region. TANESCO is sometimes forced to ration power supply to meet demands. Studies have shown that several rivers within the region can provide water for hydro electric schemes. These are; a) Rungwa river - 20 to 50 MW b) Msaidia river - 20 to 35 MW c) Lukima river - 3 to 4 MW d) Nzovwe river - 2 to 3 MW TANESCO is now planning to electrify the western and north-western parts of Tanzania through a program known as NorthWest Grid Extension Program which will cover parts of Mwanza, Kagera, Shinyanga, Kigoma, Katavi, Rukwa and Mbeya regions. However, the program is phased and scheduled to start from the North reaching Rukwa in years to come. This is subject to availability of funding. Should several donors come forward to finance separate phases of the project, Sumbawanga could be connected sooner. The other study that could shed light on what needs to be done to provide reliable electricity to Rukwa is the World Bank funded Power System Master Plan. Other electricity supply sources which need to be looked at are thermal electricity using coal which is abundant in the region and the use of wind power at Chala area. Fossil fuels are imported and distributed throughout the region by fuel suppliers for various uses including transportation and industrial activities. Fossil fuel such as kerosene is used for provision of lighting mostly in the rural areas but also in the urban areas where same is used for cooking as well. Introduction of alternative sources of energy for the rural communities is being studied by the Ministry of Energy under its program Development of Sustainable Solar Market Packages and could be implemented under the World Banks new Tanzania Energy Development and Access Project (TEDAP). A consultant has been commissioned and has already visited some villages in Sumbawanga district to assess the viability of introducing solar power in the region. Major source of energy used domestically in the Region is firewood and charcoal.

5.5. Water According to population and housing census (2002), 33 percent of the total private households used protected wells as the main source of drinking water. While 29 percent of the rural households used unprotected wells, 62 percent of the urban households used protected wells as their main source of drinking water. However, 26 percent of the rural households also used protected wells. Between 1980s and 1995/96 NORAD assisted Rukwa Region in the water sector. By mid 90s the provision of water services reached 72% coverage. In the year 2004 the coverage of water services dropped to 56% of the total population served with water and 28.8 per cent of those who are served with safe and clean water respectively due to drought. At present the water supply service level in the villages is less than 50 percent. The table below illustrates further: Table 5.4: Water Coverage Location Sumbawanga Municipal (Rural) Sumbawanga Municipal (Urban) Sumbawanga (Rural) Namanyere (Nkasi Urban) Nkasi (Rural) Coverage (%) 41.8 54 45 16 42

The Region has a total number of 313 villages and a population of over one million. Various water schemes exist in these villages but many of them do not function due to various reasons including; drying up of water sources, deterioration due to old age, lack of sufficient funds for operation and maintenance etc. So far the region has 38 gravity projects, 391 boreholes, 194 shallow wells, 1 pumped scheme and 21 protected springs which are functioning as shown in the table below. Table 5.5: Water schemes DISTRICT NKASI (Rural) TYPE OF WATER SCHEME Gravity Boreholes (Hand pump) Boreholes (Diesel) Shallow Wells Protected Springs Gravity Boreholes (Hand pump) Shallow Wells Protected Springs Gravity Boreholes (Hand pump) Shallow Wells Protected Springs Gravity TOTAL SCHEMES 7 193 1 139 2 28 219 187 11 7 38 3 9 6 FUNCTIONING WATER SCHEMES 6 145 0 82 2 21 181 111 8 5 33 1 9 6





TYPE OF WATER SCHEME Boreholes (Hand pump) Boreholes (electric pump) Protected Springs (Nkasi Boreholes (Hand pump) Boreholes (electric pump) Pumped scheme


TOTAL SCHEMES 14 3 2 11 4 1


Short term Water Supply Project for solving the current water Supply problems in Sumbawanga Town is under construction. The expected completion date is 31st December 2012. The project will have a capacity to supply 10,000 m 3 /day which is equivalent to current water demand. The water demand estimates based on domestic, commercial, institutional and industrial water requirements. The picture below shows the ongoing activities:

Construction of 500m3 Tank at Lwiche well field Medium term Water Supply Project intends to meet water supply demand for Sumbawanga Town up to the year 2020. The project is expected to be implemented in 2013 2014 under the support of European Union and Kfw at a cost of 35 Billion TZS. The scope of works include drilling of 12 boreholes, construction of 6 storage tanks, construction of rising pipeline, construction of distribution pipelines, upgrading of present water treatment plant, construction of sludge digester and procurement of three cesspit emptier. Under Rural water Supply and sanitation Programme (RWSSP) the Region intends to implement 37 water projects up to 2015. Currently there are six projects which are under construction where each Council implement two projects. The exploratory boreholes drilled showed great success were others were artesian which proves the availability of potential ground water sources.

5.6 Land 5.6.1 National Land Policy National Land Policy (1995) stipulates that, all land in Tanzania shall be public land vested to the President as a trustee on behalf of all citizens. This was meant to regulate amount of land that any person or corporate body may occupy or use. According to the policy land should be used productively and that any such use complies with the principles of sustainable development. In all aspects it has to be taken into account that an interest in, and has value and that value is taken into consideration in a transaction affecting that interest. Whoever eg. Investor interested to occupy land, has to pay full, fair and prompt compensation to any person whose rights of occupancy or recognized long standing occupation or customary use of land is revoked or otherwise interfered with or acquired under the land acquisition Act. 5.6.2. Classification and Tenure of land Public land in Tanzania shall be in the following categories: (i) General land (ii) Village land (iii) Reserved land The right to occupy land according to land Act (1999) shall be declared to be: (i) A granted right of occupy (ii) A derivative right Non-citizens, including corporate body the majority of whose shareholders or owners are non- citizen may only obtain a derivative right of occupancy for the purpose of investment prescribed under the Tanzania Investment Act. 1997. Strictly or for avoidance of doubt, a non-citizen shall not be allowed or granted land unless it is for investment purposes under Tanzania Investment Act. 1997 Land to be designated for Investment purposes shall be identified, gazette and allocated to the Tanzania Investment Centre which shall create derivative rights to investors. At the expiry, termination or extinction of the derivative right, reversion of interests or tights in and over the land shall vest in Tanzania investment centre. 5.6.3. Ceiling on land occupancy Regulations made under National land Act. 1999 Provide for an area of land that a person can hold under a single right of occupancy or derivative right. A granted right of occupancy shall be: (i) Granted by the president (ii) In a general or reserved land (iii) Of a land which has been surveyed

(iv) For a period of 99 years (v) At a premium and (vi) For annual rent which may be revised from time to time 5.6.4. Lands utilization The Region has great contribution to the development of the agricultural sector, and promotion of urban economy. Ecologically Rukwa Region consists of 5 (five) agro climatic zones which includes the Ufipa Plateau, Rukwa Valley. The Tanganyika shores and escarpment, the Miombo woodlands of plateau. These ecological zones are favorable for development of Agriculture, forest, Industry tourist services and mining. Despite of their significant contribution to development of Agriculture sector, high cattle population against available land has been a threat to the regions environment and social conflicts between farmers and livestock keepers. These has lead to formation of local mediation Tamko la Mtowisa 1998 (Mtowisa Accord 1998) for resolving between the two groups aiming at resolving conflicts between pastoralists and farmers and also help the environment in the region. Efforts are leveled to make Agriculturalists and livestock keepers acquire land and settle them for better production and be able to meet the need of their markets. Deliberate efforts are also focused to make our municipalities, towns and trade centres to have conducive urban environment. These includes:(i) Make serviced land available for shelter and human settlements development. (ii) Improve levels of the provision of infrastructure and social services for sustainable human settlement development. (iii) Facilitate the creation of employment opportunities and eradication of poverty (iv) Promote a balanced development of a clearly defined hierarchy of settlements in promoting human settlements development. (v) Promote and include the participation of a private and popular sectors, community based organization (CBOs cooperatives and communities in land use planning. (vi) Protect the environment of human settlement and ecosystems from pollution, degradation and destruction in order to attain sustainable development. (vii) Promote capacity building of all actors involved in land use planning and (viii) Ensure planning legislations, building regulations, standards and other controls are consistent with the capabilities, need and aspiration of various sections of the population. 5.6.5 Regional Role The role of region administration in land matters includes of the following: (i) Capacity building and advise local authorities in exaction of comprehensive policy with respect to the use and development of all land in the region.

(ii) Direct measures to ensure that National land Policy and National Human Settlement policy take adequate account of their effects on land use and (iii) Direct their incorporation into schemes in accordance with the provision of urban planning act 2007. Table: 5.6 Urban Development to October 2012 LGAs Planned Surveyed Title Plots Plots Deeds Surveyed Villages Villages Plots for Farmers with Land Investment surveyed use boundaries 4 19 19 155 32 3 54 32 3 54 82 20 13 10 23

Sumbawanga DC Sumbawanga MC Nkasi DC Total

397 5500 2327 8224

436 1500 587 2523

1237 30 1271

Challenges: 1. Most of Local authorities have not designated enough land for investment 2. Still their unresolved conflicts between farmers & pastoralist 3. Inadequate fund allocated in LGAs budget Lack of sensitization

References Rukwa Region Socio-Economic Profile - By NBS and Rukwa RegionalCommissioners Office (Second Edition -July 2002) Sumbawanga Municipal Council Profile (June 2011 edition) Suimbawanga District Councils Socio-Economic Development Profile (June 2011 edition) Nkasi District Council Profile (June 2011 edition) Opportunities for Mineral Resource development in Rukwa Region Western Tanzania - By Manase Mbasha ( August 2006) The Contribution of Livestock to Regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Alleviation of Poverty - By R. Maengo Rukwa Regional Commissioners Office. Identifying Solutions for Sustainable Shared Growth in Tanzanias Tourism Industry - Concept Note Regional and District Population Projections for period 2003 to 2025 - By NBS (June 2011 edition). Rukwa Region Strategic Plan 2010/2011 - 2012/2013.

Annex Annex 1: Map Rukwa Region Map