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2 3

Jp¿B≥
Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬
4 5
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sNdnbap≠w A_vZp¬ laoZv

Jp¿B≥
Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬

\n®v Hm^v {SqØv


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Cu- tem-IØn-s\m-cp- {kjv-Sm-hp-≠v ˛ Po-h≥- \¬-In-


hmbp-hpw- sh≈hpw- ku-Icy-s∏Sp-Øn- `q-an-sb Po-hn-XtbmKy-
am-°n-b ]caIm-cp-Wn-I\m-b {kjv-Sm-hv- ˛\mw- Chn-sS
Fßs\ Po-hn-°Wsa∂pw- Cu- Po-hn-XØn-s≥-d ]cae£yw-
Fs¥∂pw- Zq-X∑m¿- ap-tJ\ {kjvS- m-hv- \sΩ ]Tn-∏n-®p.- \Ωp-
sS Po-hn-XØn-s≥-d IW°v- acWtijw- \mw- {kjvS- m-hn-s≥d
quran oru sathianyeshyude mumbil ap-ºn¬- t_m-[n-∏n-t°≠n-hcpw.- A∂v- ]p-Wyw- sNbv-Xh\v-
(malayalam) \∑bpw- ]m-]w- sNbv-Xh\v- Xn-∑bpw- {]Xn-^ew- In-´pw.- AXn-
author: \m¬- {kjv-Sm-hv- Xs≥-d Zq-Xcn-eq-sS \¬-In-b \n¿-tZia\p
cheriyamundam abdulhameed kcn-®v- Po-hn-°p-Ibm-Wv- a\p-jy-s≥-d c£m-am¿-Kw.-
fourth edition:
november 2002 \Ωp-sS tem-I {kjvS- m-hv- \¬-In-b \n¿-tZi kw-ln-Xbm
publishers: Wv- Jp¿-B≥.- ap-lΩZv- \_n-bn-eq-sS Ah≥- B ktµiw-
niche of truth, a\p-jy¿-s°Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp.- CXdn-™hcpw- Adn-bm-Ø
kalabhavan road, hcpw- \ap-°n-Sbn¬- D≠v.- tem-Isc ap-gp-h≥- {kjv-Sm-hn-s≥d
kochi-18. ktµiadn-bn-°¬- AXdn-™hcp-sS _m-[y-Xbm-Wv.- AXn
cover page: \m-bn- cq-]o-Ir-Xam-b Hcp- {]kv-Ym-\am-Wv- \n-®v- Hm-^v- {SqØv.-
yoonus.k.k
\m-Ym-...- kXy-aX ktµi {]Nm-cWØn-\p- th≠n-bp-
type setting:
≈ hn-\o-Xam-sbm-cp- kw-cw-`am-Wn-Xv.- \o- G¬-]n-® DØchmZn-
creative media
ØØn-s≥-d \n¿-hlWØn-\p-th≠n-bp-≈ Ffn-b {iaw.-
printing:
CsXm- c p- {]Xn- ^ em¿- l am- b {]h¿- Ø \am- b n kzo- I cn
screen offset, cochin-18
t°Wta (Bao≥).-
Rs: 20
UbdIv-S¿-
8 9
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hmb\°papºv.......

"]caImcpWnI\pw IcpWm\n[nbpamb
A√mlphns≥d \maØn¬'

apkvenwIƒ ssZhnI{K\vYambn hnizkn°pIbpw BZcn°p


Ibpw sNøp∂ {K\vYßfn¬ A¥nahpw A\nXchpamW vJp¿
B≥. 14 \q‰m≠pIƒ°v apºv Atd_ybn¬ Pohn®ncp∂
aplΩZv (k) F∂ alma\pjy\neqsS temI{kjvSmhv k¿ha
\pjy¿°pw am¿K-Z¿iIambn Cd°nbXmWv Jp¿B≥.
\ap°v tae[nImcnbn¬\n∂v F∂hImis∏´psIm≠v
Hcdnbn∏v e`n®m¬ AXn¬ At±lØns≥d ap{Zbpt≠m F∂v
\mw ]cntim[n°pw. ap{Zbps≠¶n¬ B Adnbn∏v tae[nImcn
bn¬\n∂mWv, sIm≠ph∂ Bfnt≥dX√ F∂v \mw a\ nem
°p∂p. IqSmsX B Adnbn∏n\v AXnt≥dXmb Kuchw \¬Ip
Ibpw AXpt]mse ]cnKWn°pIbpw sNøp∂p.
Hcp a\pjy≥ Xm≥ ssZhZqX\mWv, Cu ktµiw temI{k
jvSmhnt≥dXmWv F∂v ]dbptºmƒ At±lw AXn\v sXfnhp
Iƒ lmPcmt°≠Xp≠v. temI{kjvSmhv Xs≥d ZqX∑m¿°v
\¬Inb ZrjvSm¥ßƒ°v apAvPnkØv (Aam\pjnIZrjvSm
¥w) F∂v ]dbp∂p. aplΩZv \_n (k)°v e`n® ktµihpw
{][m\ apAvPnkØpamWv Jp¿B≥. C°mcyw Ckvemanse
hnizmk Imcyßfn¬s]´XmWv.
C∂v a\pjy¿ ]e ]pXnb AdnhpIfpw t\Sn. imkv{Xw hf
-

scb[nIw ]ptcmKan°pIbpw {]IrXnbnse ]e clkyßfpw I¿ C∂v Is≠Øp∂ ]e Imcyßfpw Fßs\ Jp¿B≥ sX


a\pjy≥ A\mhcWw sNøpIbpw sNbvXp. apºv Ah\p≠m ‰msX hniZoIcn®p? ag D≠mIp∂ cq]w, `qanbpsS BIrXn,
bncp∂ ]e [mcWIfpw, ap≥KmanIƒ FgpXnsh® ]eImcyß \£{XtKmfßgpsS Ne\w, {]]t©m¬]Øn, {]]©Øns≥d
fpw hnUvVnØßfpw APvRXbpamsW∂v Ah\v t_m[ys∏´p hnImkw, PeN{Iw, ISense B¥cnI XcwK߃ t]mep≈
sIm≠ncn°p∂p. `mhnbn¬ \ΩpsS ]e [mcWIfpw sX‰mbncp Imcy߃ kv]¿in°ptºmƒ C{X IWniambn sX‰msX
∂p F∂v sXfnbn°s∏t´°mw. GXv ImeL´ßfnepw a\pjy AhXcWImesØ APv R XIƒ \ngen°msX Jp¿B≥
s\gpXp∂ {K\vYßfn¬ {K\vYI¿Ømhns≥dbpw ImeL´Øn Fßs\ hniZoIcn®p? Xo¿®bmbpw Jp¿B≥ a\pjyIrXnb√.
s≥dbpw [mcWIfpw [mcW∏niIpIfpw IS∂pIqSmXncn°p temI{kjvSmhns≥d ]°¬\n∂pw AhXo¿W-ambXs{X.
Ibn√. ]et∏mgpw ]n≥KmanIƒ Ah XncpØpIbpw sNøp∂p.
F∂m¬ Jp¿B\n¬ aplΩZv \_n (k)bpsS ImeØp≠m
bncp∂ bmsXmcp sX‰n≤mcWIfpw A\v[hnizmkßfpw IS UbdIvS¿
∂pIqSnbn´n√. F°mehpw AXnse {]kvXmh\Iƒ kXy \n®v Hm^v {SqØv
kºq¿W-amsW∂v ImeL´ßfnse kv]jvSamb AdnhpIfpsS
ASnkv Y m\Øn¬ hyIv X amIpw. {^©v imkv { XPv R \mb
tamdnkv _pJmbv B[p\nIimkv{XØns≥d ASnkvYm\Øn¬
Jp¿B\pw ss__nfpw hnebncpØnb tijw ]dbp∂p: ""apl
ΩZns≥d ImeL´Ønse Adnhv sh®pt\m°ptºmƒ
Jp¿B\nse imkv{Xhpambn _\v[s∏´ ]e {]kvXmh\Ifpw
Hcp a\pjys≥d hm°pIfmsW∂v a\ nem°m≥ \nhrØn
bn√''.(1)
Jp¿B≥ ]Tn®pt\m°ptºmƒ Hcp a\pjys≥d IrXnbm
sW∂v Fßs≥ ]dbpw? a\pjyIrXnIƒ°p≈ Zu¿_eyß
sfm∂pw AXn\n√t√m. AsXmcp a\pjyIrXn Bbncps∂¶n¬
ImeL´ßfneqsS a\pjy≥ A\mhcWw sNøp∂ {]m]©nI
kXyßtfmSv AXv \qdv iXam\hpw tbmPn°pambncpt∂m?
K¿`mibØnse Ip™ns≥d hf¿®bnse L´ßƒ sX‰m
sX Fßs\ AXv hnhcn°pw?(2) tX\o®Ifn¬ hoSp≠m°p∂
Xpw `£Ww tXSp∂Xpw tX\p¬]mZn∏n°p∂Xpw s]Æo®I
fmsW∂v Jp¿B≥ Fßs\ a\ nem°n? ]pcmhkvXp Kthj

1. Maurice Bucaille. The Bible the Quran and Science, Last paragraph.
2. Jp¿B\n¬ a\pjy {`qWhf¿®bpsS L´wL´ambp≈ hnImkØns≥d hfsc
IrXyamb hnhc߃ ASnbn´p≠v. (Dr. KeithMoore. University of Toronto,
Quranic Description of embryo growth (Indian Express, Dec. 10,1984)
10
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ip≤Jp¿B\ns\∏‰n hmbn°pItbm tIƒ°pItbm

hn sNømØh¿ hfsc Npcpßpw. hninjym, AXns\


A\pIqen®pw {]XnIqen®pw [mcmfw {]kwK߃
\S°p∂, teJ\ßfpw {K\vYßfpw {]kn≤oIcn°s∏Sp∂ Cu
ImeL´Øn¬. hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d khntijXIƒ
hniZambn {Kln°m≥, AXns≥d {]amWnIXsb]‰n
]q¿Wambn a\ nem°m≥ _rlZv{K\vYßfpsS klmbw
thWw.
A\yq\ambn, APøambn, bpK∏I¿®Iƒ°v hgßmsX
a\pjya\xkm£nsb sXm´pW¿Øns°m≠v \ne\n¬°p∂
GIssZhnI{K\vYsa∂ \nebn¬ apkvenw P\tImSnIƒ AXn
s\ hnizkn®mZcn°p∂p. PohnX{]amWambn AwKoIcn°p∂p.
apkvenwIf√mØ ]e {]K¬` ]WvUnX∑mcpw hnip≤Jp¿B≥
]T\hnt[bam°pIbpw hnh¿Ø\ßfpw hymJym\ßfpw
cNn°pIbpw sNbvXn´p≠v. Km\v[nPnbpw hnt\m_bpw a‰pw Zm¿
i\nIaqeyap≈ alm{K\vYsa∂ \nebn¬ hnip≤Jp¿B
\ns≥d ]Zhn AwKoIcn®hcn¬s]Sp∂p. At\Iw Hmdnb≥d
enkv‰pIƒ hnhn[ bqtdm]y≥ `mjIfnte°v hnip≤Jp¿B≥
`mjm¥cs∏SpØnbn´p≠v. Nne¿ Jp¿Bs\bpw Ckvemans\
bpw ]‰n I\s∏´ IrXnIƒ cNn®n´pap≠v.
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 14- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 15

]t£, AapkvenwIfn¬ _lp`qcn`mKhpw hnip≤Jp¿B\n blqZ¿ hnizkn°p∂p, tamsibmWv temIw I≠ amXrImtbm


s\ Hcp apkvenw]pcmW{K\vYw F∂ \nebn¬ am{Xw t\m°n Ky\mb BNmcys\∂v. ss{IkvXh¿ hnizkn°p∂p, Hmtcm
°mWp∂hcmWv. Hmtcm P\Xbv°pw kz¥ambn sFXnly a\pjy\pw BZn]m]Øn¬\n∂v tamN\w e`n°p∂Xv tbip{In
ßfpw ]pcmWßfpw D≈Xpt]mse apkvenwIƒ°pw H∂p≠v. kvXphns≥d IpcnipacWØneqsSbmsW∂v. F√m \∑bpsS
AXh¿ ]qPn®v Bcm[n®psIm≈s´, \ap°Xn¬ Imcysam∂p bpw iIvXnbpsSbpw t{kmX mbn sslµh¿ {ioIrjvWs\
an√ F∂ \n wKXm]q¿Wamb \ne]mSmWv ]ecpw sh®p]pe ImWp∂p. F∂m¬ tamsitbm, tbipthm IrjvWt\m Pohn
¿Øp∂Xv. P\߃ k¶pNnXamb kmapZmbnIXzØns≥d ®nt´ Cs√∂pw Chscms° BcpsStbm `mh\bn¬ cq]w ]q≠
sh≈w IS°mØ AdIfn¬ H‰s∏´pIgnbp∂ taJeIfn¬ CXnlmk IYm]m{X߃ am{XamsW∂pw Ncn{XØns≥d
Cu \n wKXbpw DZmko\`mhhpw hfcp∂p. Nnet∏mgXv AhK t]cn¬ hmZn°p∂ bpIvXnhmZnIsf t\cnSm≥ B[nImcnI
W\bpw AhPvRbpwhsc FØp∂p. Ncn{XtcJIfn√msX IpgßpIbmWv C∂-v blqZcpw ss{I
F∂m¬ ]IzaXnIfpw kXymt\zjnIfpamb Hcp \yq\]£w kv X hcpw sslµhcpsa√mw. apkv e nwIsf kw_\v [ n®nS
k¶pNnX ho£WßfpsS apJmhcWw \o°n {]hnimeamb tØmfw tamsi (aqkm\_n)sb∏‰nbpw tbip (Cukm\_n)
taJeIfnte°v kXyw tXSn ]pds∏Smdp≠v. ]t£, Ckveman sh-∏‰nbpw hnip≤Jp¿B≥ ]Tn∏n°p∂ Imcy߃ Ah¿
s\]‰n At\zjn°p∂ klrZbcpsS Iøn¬ Nnet∏mƒ am{Xta hnizkn°p∂p. hnip≤Jp¿B≥ Hcp Ncn{Xhkv X pXbpw
kXyk\v[amb {K\vY߃ FØns∏Smdp≈q. ]et∏mgpw aplΩZv \_n Hcp Ncn{X]pcpj\pamsW∂ ImcyØn¬ Hcp
B[nImcnIPvRm\an√mØ apkvenw FgpØpIm¿ IpØn°q bpIvXnhmZnbpw CXphsc X¿°n®n´n√. X¿°n°m≥
´nb A_≤kwlnXItfm Zpjv{]NmcIcmb FXncmfnIfpsS \ymbhpan√. ImcWw, Ncn{XØns≥d ip{`{]ImiØnemWv
Zpcp]Znjv S IrXnItfm Bbncn°pw Ah¿°v hmbn°m≥ aplΩZv \_n Pohn®Xv. At±lw Hcp CXnlmkIYm]m{Xa√,
In´p∂Xv. CXv Ahcn¬ Ckvemant\mSv hnapJX hf¿Øp∂p temIKXnsb Xs∂ kzm[o\n® Ncn{X ]pcpj\mWv.
sh¶n¬ Ahsc ]gn®n´pImcyan√. {IkvXm_vZw 571¬ Atd_ybnse a°bn¬ P\n® aplΩZv
Ckvemans\]‰n a\ nem°m≥ B{Kln°p∂ aebmfnI \_nbpsS kw`h_lpeamb PohnXw BZya[-ym¥w Ncn{X
ƒ°v hnip≤Jp¿B\ns\]‰n {lkzsa¶nepw ka{Kamb Hcp Øn¬ tcJs∏´pInS°p∂p≠v. \m¬]Xmw hb p- hsc kmln
hnhcWw \¬IpI F∂Xs{X Cu eLpIrXnbpsS e£yw. Xy]camb bmsXmcp anIhpw At±lw {]ISn∏n®ncp∂n√-.
aXhnZym]oTßfn¬ tN¿∂v At±lw ]T\w \SØnbn´n√.
hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ Ncn{XØn¬ {]mIrXaX°mcpw ss{IkvXhcpw blqZcpw skmtdmkv{Snb≥
KXImekw`hßfpsS km[pX Xocpam\n°p∂Xn¬ Ncn{X aX°mcpamb Ad_nIfpambn At±lw aXhnjb߃ N¿®
Øn\v henb ]¶mWv \n¿hln°m\p≈Xv. thZ{K\vYßsf sNøpItbm kwhmZØn¬ G¿s∏SpItbm sNbvXncp∂n√.
Ncn{XZrjvSym ]cntim[n°ptºmƒ Ahbn¬ JWvUnXamb cmjv { Saoamwkbntem kmaqlnIimkv {XØntem At±lw
Ncn{XtcJIfpsS ]n≥_eap≈Xv hnip≤Jp¿B\n∂v am{X KthjWw \SØnbncp∂n√. Imhy߃ cNn°pItbm
amsW∂v ImWmhp∂XmWv. Imew AhyIvXXbpsS Icn\ng¬ IhnXbn¬ Xm¬]cyw {]ISn∏n°pItbm sNbv X ncp∂n√
hogvØnb ImcWØm¬ ]e aXmNmcy∑mcpsS PohnXØnepw At±lw. sNdp∏Øn¬ BSvtabv°epw buh\Øn¬ hym]mc
Ncn{X tcJIfpsS ]n≥_eans√∂v h∂ncn°p∂p. DZmlcW hpambncp∂p At±lØns≥d sXmgn¬.
ambn tamsi, tbip, {ioIrjvW≥ XpSßnbhsc FSp°mw. \m¬]Xmw hb n¬ At±lØn\v GIm¥[ym\Øn¬
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 16- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 17

Xm¬]cyw tXm∂pIbpw AXn\mbn At±lw a°bnse Hcp bmsX Xs∂ tcJIƒ HØpt\m°nbpw a\x]mTam°nbhsc
Kpl sXcs™Sp°pIbpw sNbvXp. AhnsSsh®mWv At±l s°m≠v ]cntim[n∏n®pw hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ enJnXßfpsS
Øn\v Pn{_o¬ F∂ amemJ aptJ\ BZysØ ssZhnI B[nImcnIamb t{ImUoIcWw \_n (k)bpsS ]n≥Kmanbmb
ktµiw e`n®Xv. XnI®pw BIkvanIambmWv Cu A\p`hap H∂mw Jeo^ A_q_°dn(d)s≥d I¬]\{]Imcw sskZv
≠mbXv. \_n°v Xs∂ Aºc∏pw \Sp°hpw krjvSn® Cu _n≥ km_nØv (d) F∂ klm_n {]apJs≥d t\XrXzØn¬
kw`hw At±lØns≥d PohnXØnse am{Xa√, temI Ncn{X \S∂p. Aßs\ hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ C∂v ImWp∂ {IaØnepw
Ønse Xs∂ Hcp hgnØncnhmbncp∂p. at\mhn{`m¥nbpsStbm cq]Ønepap≈ H‰ hmeyambnØo¿∂p. aq∂mw Jeo^ Dkvam≥
ambnI{`aßf-psStbm Hcp temIØnte°√ Cu kw`hw (d) AXns≥d ]I¿∏pIƒ FSp∏n®v CkvemanIcmjv{SØns≥d
At±lsØ \bn®Xv . temIØn\msI Hcp am¿KZ¿i\w {]hniym Xekv Y m\ßfntes°√mw Ab®psImSpØp.
\¬IpI: {]kwKØn¬ am{Xa√ {]tbmKØnepw ssZhlnX CXns≥d {]XnIƒ C∂pw e`yamWv. C∂v temIØpS\ofw
Øn\v km£yw hln°pI F∂ ZuXyØns≥d hnPbIcamb ]mcmbWw sNøs∏Sp∂ tImSn°W°n\v hnip≤Jp¿B≥
\n¿hlWØnte°v AXv At±lØns≥d PohnXsØ tIm∏nIƒ B {]mNo\ ]I¿∏pIfpambn Hc£cØn\pt]mepw
sXmSpØphn´p. XpS¿∂v Ccp]Ønaq∂v h¿jØn\nSbn¬ hyXymkan√mØXs{X. apkvenwIƒ FgpXnb Ncn{Xw am{Xa√,
At\Iw XhW At±lØn\v ssZhnIktµiw e`n®psIm≠n hnhn[ aX°mcpw aXhncp≤cpw FgpXnb Ncn{X{K\vY߃
cp∂p. hnizmkI¿a- c wKßfnse ssZhnI\n¿tZ- i ߃ t]mepw \_n (k)} bpsSbpw hnip≤ Jp¿Bs≥dbpw Ncn{X
{Iam\pKXambn At±lØn\v tIƒ∏n°s∏´p. Hmtcm ]cX AwKoIcn°p∂p≠v.
XhWbpw tIƒ∏n°s∏Sp∂ ktµiw At±lw P\ßsf tIƒ
a‰v thZßfpsSbpw ]pcmWßfpsSbpw Ncn{X]camb
∏n®p. Nne¿ hnizkn®p. ]ecpw \ntj[n®p. Hmtcm kµ¿`
ASnØd ]cntim[n°ptºmƒ Cu hkvXpX IqSpX¬ kv]jv
Ønepw e`n°p∂ ssZhnI ktµißf{Xbpw At±lhpw A\p
SamIpw. ss__nƒ ]pXnb \nbaw tbip{InkvXphns≥d hN\
bmbnIfpw Bh¿Øn®mh¿Øn®v ]mcmbWw sNbvXv a\ n
ßfmsW∂Xn\v Ncn{XtcJIfpsS ]n≥_eans√∂v ss__nƒ
epd∏n®p. ]ecpw AXv tcJs∏SpØnsh°pIbpw sNbvXp. hmKv
Ncn{XImc∑m¿ Xs∂ kΩXn®n´p≈XmWv. Ncn{XtcJIfpsS
hnNmcI¿a-ßsf XZSnkvYm\Øn¬ Ah¿ hm¿sØSpØp.
ASnkvYm\Øn¬ B[nImcnIX kvYm]n°mhp∂ ]pcmtW
\_n(k) CltemIhmkw shSnbp∂Xn\v apºv Xs∂ Xnlmkßtfm thtZm]\njØpItfm Cs√∂ hkv X pX
A[ymbßfpw hN\ßfpw C∂v \nehnep≈ {IaØn¬ ]mcm C¥ymNcn{XsØ∏‰n kmam\y[mcWbp≈h¿s°√mw
bWw sNbvXpsIm≠v hnip≤ {K\vYØns≥d t{ImUoIrX Adnbmhp∂Xs{X.
cq]hpw IqSn ssZhnI \n¿tZ-i{]Imcw temIsØ Adnbn®ncp
∂p. ]t£, Jp¿B\ns≥d apgph≥ `mKßfpw H∂n®v H‰ hmey khntijXIƒ
ambn FgpXn tcJs∏SpØnbn´p≠mbncp∂n√. \_n (k) C\n \ap°v hnip≤Jp¿B\ns≥d khntijXIƒ Fs¥m
]mcmbWw sNbvXv tIƒ∏n°-p∂ ktµißsf√mw bYm s°sb∂v s]mXpsh ]cntim[n°mw. kq£vahniIe\w Hcp
kabw ]e A\pbmbnIfpw FgpXmhp∂ hkvXp°fnt∑¬ eLp{K\vYØns≥d ]cn[nbn¬ HXpßp∂Xs√¶nepw Hcp
(XpI¬, I√v, F√v apXembh) FgpXnsh°mdp≠mbncp∂p. {K\vYsØ∏‰n ]Tn°m\p≈ icnbmb Hcp am¿Kw AXns\ a‰v
IWniambn lrZnkvYam°nbhcpsS kwJy hfsc IqSpXep {K\vYßfpambn XmcXays∏SpØpIbs{X. BZyw Ad_n`mj
≠mbncp∂p. \_n (k)bpsS hntbmKØn\v tijw Xmakn bnep≈ {K\vY߃, AhbpsS D≈S°hpw ssienbpambn
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 18- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 19

hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d D≈S°hpw ssienbpambn XmcXayw ]cn Ad_n`mjbn¬ F°meØpw hf¿∂ph∂ F√m kmln
sNømw. Xy- s sienIfn¬\n∂pw `n∂amb hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d
aplΩZv \_n (k) °v apºp≈ Ad_nkmlnXyw apJyambpw `mjmssien Ad_nIƒ°v Xo¿Øpw A]cnNnXambncp∂p.
IhnXIfpw tPymXv k y∑mcpsS KZyIhnXIfpambncp∂p. AtXmsSm∏w AXns≥d LS\msshinjvSyhpw cq]kuIp
ss{IkvXhcpsSbpw blqZcpsSbpw aX{K\vYßfnepw GXm\pw amcyhpw BibKmw`ocyhpw A∂sØ Ad_n kmlnXykmcYn
cmPimk\Ifnepw HXpßn \n¬°pIbmbncp∂p A∂sØ Isf AXv`pXkvX_v[cm°pIbpw sNbvXp.
KZykmlnXyw. IhnXIfpsS D≈S°w aZyw, ImapIn, ]S°p Ad_nIƒ°nSbn¬ hf¿∂ \nc£c\pw A\`ykv X
Xnc, H´Iw XpSßnbhsb]‰nbp≈ h¿W-\tbm, Ihntbm Ihn hnZy\pw kmXznI\pamb aplΩZv F∂ hyIvXn \m¬]Xmw hb
bpsS tKm{Xtam \SØnb hoc]cm{IaßfpsS Im¬]\nIX  -n¬ XnI®pw Akm[mcWamb Hcp kmlnXyIrXn cNn®p
Ie¿Ønb hnhcWtam Bbncn°pw. ImapInbpsS th¿]mSns\ sh∂pw AXv kz¥sa∂v AhImis∏SmsX ssZhØn¶¬\n∂v
]‰nbp≈ hnem]tØmsSbmbncn°pw an° Imhyßf-pw Bcw`n e`n®XmsW∂v I≈w ]d™psh∂pw hmZn°p∂Xv bmsXmcp
°p∂Xv. A∂sØ {]kwKIcpsS hnjbßfpw hn`n∂ambncp \ymboIcWhpw A¿ln°p∂n√. ImcWw Xmsg°nSbnep≈
∂n√. ss__nƒ ]gb \nbaØns≥d hniZoIcWØn¬ Hcp kmlnXyIrXn cNn°p∂ Bƒt]mepw Xs≥d cN\bn¬
Ihn™ aXkmlnXy߃ A∂v D≠mbncp∂n√. A`nam\w sIm≈pIbmWv sNøpI. bmsXmcp almkmlnXy
B kmlNcyØnemWv aplΩZv \_n (k)°pw At±lØn Imc\pw \mfnXphsc kz¥w IrXn as‰mcmƒ FgpXnbXmsW∂v
eqsS apgph≥ temIØn\pw A√mlphns≥d hN\߃ tIƒ∏n ]d™v Hgn™n´n√. Poh≥ A]ISØnemIpsa∂v `bs∏Sp
°s∏Sp∂Xv. tºmg√msX. F∂m¬ aplΩZv \_n (k)°v AØcsamcp
]caImcpWnI\pw IcpWm\n[nbpamb A√mlphns≥d kmlNcyap≠mbncp∂n√. Jp¿B≥ kz¥w IrXnbmsW¶n¬
\maØn¬ AXv Xpd∂p]d™m¬ Ad_nIƒ At±lsØ _lpaXnIƒ
sIm≠v s]mXnbpambncp∂p. Hcp tKm{XØn¬ Hcp kmlnXy
""krjvSnI¿Ømhmb Xm¶fpsS \mYs‚ \maØn¬ HmXpI. Imc≥ hf¿∂ph∂m¬ tKm{XamsI A`nam\w sIm≈p∂
a\pjys\ Ah≥ Hcp {`qWØn¬\n∂v krjvSn®p. HmXpI, Imeambncp∂p AXv. F∂m¬ ssZhØns≥d hN\w B \ne
Xm¶fpsS \mY≥ G‰hpw DZmc\mIp∂p. t]\sIm≠v bn¬ Xs∂ temIØns≥d apºmsI sh°phm\mbncp∂p At±
]Tn∏n®h\mb \mY≥. a\pjy\v Adn™pIqSmØXv Ah≥ lw I¬]n°s∏´ncp∂Xv. AXns≥d t]cn¬ {Iqcamb ]cnlm
]Tn∏n®p''. kßfpw ]oU\ßfpw At±lØn\v t\cntS≠nh∂p.
]caImcpWnI\mb ssZhØns≥d t]cn¬ Bcw`n°p∂ Hcp AsX√mw AhKWn®psIm≠v At±lw ZnhyZuXyw \ndth‰n.
kmlnXycq]hpw Atd_yt°m Ad_nIƒt°m ]cnNnXambn Ad_v t\Xm°ƒ At±lsØ \n»- _ v Z \m°m≥ {ian®p.
cp∂n√. IcpØ\pw A[n]\pambn hfcp∂ a\pjys≥d ]cmPbs∏´t∏mƒ Atd_y≥ hnizmk-]mcºcy߃°\pcq
{`qWmhkvYbn¬\n∂p≈ Ffnb XpS°sØ∏‰n Nn¥n∏n°p∂ ]ambn Jp¿B\n¬ t`ZKXnIƒ hcpØm≥ At±ltØmSv Bh
KZy]Zyßf-pw Ad_nIƒ tI´n´p≠mbncp∂n√. t]\bpsS iys∏´p. AXn\v ssZhnIamb {]XnIcWw C{]Imcambncp∂p.
klmbtØmsS \S°p∂ teJ\hnZybmWv F√m sshPvRm ""\ΩpsS kv]jvSamb ZrjvSm¥ßƒ ]mcmbWw sNbvXv
\nI- hnImk߃°pw imkv{X]ptcmKXn°pw hgnsbmcp°p∂ tIƒ∏n°s∏´t∏mƒ \mapambp≈ kamKaw B{Kln°mØh¿
A\p{Klsa∂v Ad_nItfmSv a‰mcpw ]d™ncp∂n√. k¿th-m ]d™p: \o thsdmcp Jp¿B≥ sIm≠-phcq As√¶n¬ CXn¬
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 20- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 21

t`ZKXnIƒ hcpØq F∂v. Xm¶ƒ ]dbq: F\n°v kz¥w °Xv lrZyambn A\p`hs∏´t]mse tXm∂n. Cu hnhcw
hIbmbn CXn¬ am‰w hcpØms\m°pIbn√. F\n°v as‰mcp {]amWnbmb A_qPl¬ tI´p. Abmƒ°Xv ckn®n√.
\¬Is∏Sp∂ ktµisØ A\p[mh\w sNøpI am{XamWv A_qPl¬ heoZns≥d ASpØpsN∂n´v ]d™p: ""Fs≥d
Rm≥ sNøp∂Xv. Xo¿®bmbpw Rm≥ `bs∏Sp∂p; Fs≥d ]nXrhym, Xm¶ƒ aplΩZns≥d ASpØpsN∂v AbmfpsS
\mYs\. Rm≥ [n°cn°pIbmsW¶n¬ `b¶camb Hcp hm°pIƒ°v hiwhZ\mImsX Ign°msa¶n¬ Xm¶fpsS \m´p
ZnhksØ in£ Rm≥ A\p`hnt°≠nhcpsa∂v. Xm¶ƒ Im¿ Xm¶ƒ°v ]Ww tiJcn®pXcm≥t]mepw Xb-mdmWv''.
]dbq: A√mlphns≥d lnXw adn®mbncps∂¶n¬ Rm\nXv heoZv {]XnhNn®p: ""Jpssdiv tKm{XØn\dnbmat√m Rm\mWv
\nßsf hmbn®v tIƒ∏n°n√mbncp∂p. Ah≥ \nßsf CXv Ahcn¬ G‰hpw kº∂s\∂v''.- A_qPl¬ ]d™p: ""AXp
Adnbn°pIbpan√mbncp∂p. Rm≥ \n߃°nSbn¬ CXn\v apºv sIm≠mbn√. Xm¶ƒ Hcp {]kvXmh\ \SØWw. aplΩZns\
At\Ih¿jw {]hmNIXzw hmZn°msX, ssZhnI ktµiw Xm¶ƒ shdp°p∂psh∂v AXn¬\n∂v hyIvXamhWw''. heo
tIƒ∏n°msX Ign®pIq´nbn´p≠t√m. \nßsf¥m Nn¥n°m Zns≥d {]XnIcWw Cßs\bmbncp∂p ""Rms\¥mWv ]dbpI?
ØXv? ssZhØns≥d t]cn¬ I≈w sI´n®a°pItbm, ssZhn ssZhsØbmWv! IhnXbpsS Ahm¥c hn`mKßsf∏‰n Fs∂
IZrjvSm¥ßsf X≈n∏dbpItbm sNbvXhs\°mƒ henb °mƒ Adnbmhp∂ Bcpw \nßfpsS Iq´Ønen√. ssZhsØbm
A{IaImcn Bcp≠v? Ip‰hmfnIƒ hnPbw {]m]n°pIbn√, Wv! aplΩZv ]dbp∂Xv Cu Iq´Ønsem∂pw s]´X√. ssZh
Xo¿®''(hn.Jp. 10:15,17). sØbmWv! Ah\o ]dbp∂ hm°n\v a[pcnabp≠v. tamSnbp≠v.
Atd_y≥ PohnXsØbmsI Iogvta¬adn® Jp¿B\nI AXv ASn apX¬ apSnhsc kp-^eamWv. kar≤amWv. AXv
PohnXZ¿i\w Jp¿B\ns≥d Aam\pjnIX sIm≠pw AXn Dbcpw. AXns\ adnIS°m\mhn√. AXn\v Xmsgbp≈Xns\
s≥d ktµihmlI\mb aplΩZv \_n (k)bpsS hyIvXnXz sbms° AXv X´nØI¿°pw''. A_qPl¬ ]d™p: ""aplΩZn
Øns≥d AXpeyX sIm≠pw am{XamWv kmh[m\Ønse¶nepw s\ hna¿in®psIm≠v {]kvXmh\ \SØmsX \m´pIm¿°v
]IzaXnIfmb ]escbpw BI¿jn®Xv . A_q_°¿ (d) Xm¶sf∏‰n Xr]vXnhcpIbn√''. heoZv BtemNn°m≥ A¬]w
At±lambncp∂p aplΩZob {]hmNIXzhpw Jp¿B\ns≥d kabw tNmZn®p. A\¥cw Abmƒ {]Jym]\w \SØn:
ssZhnIXbpw AwKoIcn® BZysØ ]pcpj≥˛ ho´pap‰ ""CsXmcp PmehnZyam{XamIp∂p''. heoZns≥d Cu Ahkc
Øncp∂v Jp¿B≥ ]mcmbWw sNøptºmƒ AXv tIƒ°m≥ hmZw hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ 74˛mw A[ymbØn¬ sXmenbpcn®p
At\Iw t]¿ k∂nlnXcmIpambncp∂p. Ahcn¬ ]ecpw ImWn®n´p≠v.
Jp¿B\n¬ BIrjv S cmbn Ckv e mwaXamt«jn®p. CXv Jeo^ Da¿ (d) Ckvemw aXw Bt«jn® kw`hw Ncn{X
A_q_°dn(d)t\mSv Ad_n {]amWnam¿°v ISpØ Cu¿jy {]kn≤amWv. \_n (k)sb h[n°phm≥ th≠n hmfpta¥n
tXm∂m≥ ImcWambn. ]pds∏´ Dadn\v (d) hgnat[y hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d GXm\pw
F∂m¬ ]pØ≥aXØns≥d _≤sshcnIfmbncp∂ `mK߃ tIƒ°m\nSbmbtXmsS am\km¥cap≠mIpIbmWv
Atd_y≥ bmYmkvYnXnI∑m¿°v t]mepw hnip≤Jp¿B\n sNbvXXv.
s≥d amkvacnI{]`mhw I≠ns√∂v \Sn°m≥ Ign™n√. heoZp aplΩZv \_n (k)bpsSbpw A\pNc∑mcpsSbpw PohnX
_v\papKod F∂ Jpssdin{]amWnbpsS Imcyw CXn\v sXfnhm Øns≥d hnhn[ apJßtfmSpw kapNnXambn kwhZn°p∂
Wv. Abmƒ Hcn°¬ \_n (k)bpsS ASpØpsN∂p. \_n Xmbncp∂p Hmtcm kµ¿`Ønepw ssZhØn¶¬\n∂v AhXcn∏n
(k)Abmsf GXm\pw Jp¿B≥ hN\߃ tIƒ∏n®p. Abmƒ °s∏´ hN\߃. {]Xnk\v [ nbpsS Hmtcm L´Ønepw
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 22- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 23

ssZhnI ktµiw Ahsc ]cnlmcØnte°v \bn®p. kwib A_≤PSneamb A\v[hnizmkßfnepw BXvamhv \jvSs∏´
Øns≥d thfIfn¬ AXh¿°v kp\nivNnX [mcWIƒ \¬In. BNmcßfnepw HXpßn\n∂p. B AhkvY i{Xp°ƒ \∂mbn
AKv\n]co£Iƒ°v apºn¬ AXh¿°v BXvahocyw ]I¿∂p. NqjWw sNbvXp. FtXym]ybpw t]¿jybpw tdma°mcpsa√mw
AhcpsS PohnX ho£WØn\v AXv A¿Y-hpw {]kIvXnbpw hnhn[ Ad_vtaJeIfpsS ta¬ {]Xy£amtbm ]tcm£am
ssIhcpØn. \mKcnIXIfpsS Db¿®XmgvNIsf ]‰nbp≈ tbm B[n]Xyw Dd∏n®ncp∂p.
]mTßfneqsS AXh¿°v km¿hImenI km¿heuInI [mcW C\n Cu ImeL´Øn¬ a‰v tZißfpsSbpw cmjv{SßfpsS
\¬In. tkzNvOm[n]XnIfpsS ]X\Øns≥dbpw kmXznI bpw kvYnXn t\m°mw.
∑mcpsS sFXnlmknI hnPbßfpsSbpw ZrjvSm¥ßfneqsS imkv{Xw, Z¿i\w, Ncn{Xw XpSßnb hnjbßfn¬ temI
AXhcn¬ BXvat_m[hpw DXvI¿tjNvObpw hf¿Øn. Øn\v Xs∂ t\XrXzw \¬Im≥ am{Xw hf¿∂hcmbncp∂p
Jp¿B≥ krjvSn® AXv`pXw A∂sØ {Ko°pIm¿. A∂sØ AeIvkm≥{Unb (CuPn]vXv)
Gjy\m{^n°≥taJebnse G‰hpw henb kmwkv°mcnItI
Jp¿B\n∂v apºpw Jp¿B\n∂v ]nºpap≈ Atd_y≥ {µambncp∂p. \q‰m≠pIfpsS cmjv{Sob\mbIXzw am{Xa√
P\Xsb∏‰n hkvXp\njvTamb Hcp \nco£Ww \SØnbm¬ A∂sØ tdma≥ km{amPyØn\p≠mbncp∂Xv . imkv { X
Ncn{XØn¬ XpeyXbn√mØ ]cnh¿Ø\amWv Jp¿B≥ kmt¶XnI cwKßfnepw tdma°m¿ AXnImb∑m¿ Xs∂
Dfhm°nbXv F∂v \ap°v t_m[ys∏Spw. hnip≤Jp¿B≥ bmbncp∂p. Zm¿i\nI∑mcpsSbpw aXmNmcy∑mcpsSbpw \mSmbn
AhXcn®v XpSßptºmƒ AYhm Jp¿B\nse BZyhN\w cp∂ t]¿jy cmjv{SobcwKØv tdman∂v kaio¿jambncp∂p.
hmbn®v tIƒ∏n°s∏Sptºmƒ Ad_nIfpsS \ne AXy¥w A∂sØ C¥y°m¿ KWnXimkv{X, X¿°imkv{X cwKßfn
timN\obambncp∂p. kmºØnIambn H´pw `{Zambncp∂n√ epw, aXZm¿i\nI taJeIfnepw Hu∂Xyw {]m]n®hcmbncp∂p.
AhcpsS \ne. IsÆØmØ aW¬∏c∏n\nS°v A]q¿h-ambn
F∂n´v Jp¿B≥ F¥mWv sNbvXXv? h\v[yhpw Dujchp
Xg®p\n¬°p∂ acp∏®Iƒ sIm®ptKm{X߃°pt]mepw amb acp`qanbpsS a°sf kwkv°mcßsf sh√p∂ Hcp ]pXnb
kmºØnI kzbw]cym]vXX \¬Ipambncp∂n√. hym]mcku kwkv I mcØns≥d hmlI∑mcm°n. tKm{XIelßfn¬
Icy߃ AwKpeo]cnanXamb ]´Wßfnep≈h¿°v am{Xsa XΩn¬ X√nXI¿∂ncp∂ Hcp P\Xsb GIssZhØns≥d GI
kpkvYnXn \¬Inbncp∂p≈q. ImemhkvYbpsS {]mXnIqeyw a\ p≈ Zmk∑mcm°n am‰nsbSpØp. `qXt{]XmZnIsf am{X
\nanØw kv Y nchmktam \nbXamb Irjnk{ºZmbtam a√, {]amWnIsfbpw t]m°ncnIsfbpw t]mepw `b∂pNqfp
{]mIrXAd_nIƒ°v hn[n°s∏´Xmbncp∂n√. hnZym`ymkw, hm≥ hn[n°s∏´ Hcp ]oVnXh¿KsØ km{amPyßsf {]I
NnInXvk, kmt¶XnIhnZyIƒ XpSßnb cwKßfnsems° º\w sIm≈n°p∂ tPXm°fmbn Db¿Øn. Nn´bpw N´ßfpan
]qPyw Un{Knbn¬ Xs∂bmbncp∂p Ah¿. cmjv{Sobamtbm √mØ Ad_v PohnXØn\v bpKm¥c߃°n∏pdhpw i_fna
ssk\nIamtbm Ah¿ kwLSnXcmbncp∂n√. Hmtcm tKm{X \jvSs∏SmØ Hcp \nbahyhkvY \¬In. ]m]˛]pWyßsf
tØbpw kmaqlyambn DtØPn∏n®ncp∂ iIvXn XßfpsS ]‰ntbm [¿a-˛A[¿a-ßsf∏‰ntbm [mcWbn√mØ PohnXm
]nXm°fpw {]]nXm°fpw \SØnb hoc]cm{IaßfpsS tImcn kIvXnbm¬ am{Xw \bn°s∏´ncp∂ Hcp P\Xsb AXv Xmfw
Øcn∏n°p∂ IYIfmbncp∂p. B IYIƒ tI´v hf¿∂ ]pXnb sX‰msX [¿a-\njvTamb PohnX]mXbnte°v \bn®p. GI
Xeapdbv°v i{XptKm{Xßfpambn G‰pap´phm≥ ]dbØ° ssZh hnizmkØn¬ A[njvTnXamb Jp¿B\nIPohnXZ
ImcWsam∂pw thWsa∂n√mbncp∂p. AhcpsS aX߃ ¿i\Øn\v Hcp P\Xsb alXzØns≥d F{X am{Xw D∂Xamb
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 24- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 25

inJcßfnte°v \bn°m≥ Ignbpsa∂v temIw A∂v I≠p. kpJ߃ hmcn°q´phm≥ {ian°p∂h¿. G‰hpw BkzmZyamb
{]mIrXmhkvYbn¬\n∂v hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ hf¿ØnsbSpØ Blmc ]m\obßfpw {ihy˛Zriy at\mlmcnXIfpw ssewKnI
Atd_y≥ aWemcWyØns≥d DujcXbn¬\n∂v aplΩZv tNjvSIfpambncn°pw AhcpsS PohnX ho£WØn¬ anI®p
\_n (k) hm¿sØSpØ ssZhØm¬ Iq´nbnW°s∏´ B \n¬°p∂Xv. kz¥w Xm¬]cyØn\pXIp∂Xmbn tXm∂p∂
P\hn`mKØns≥d B¿Phhpw BXvahocyhpw I≠v Aºc∂v sX√mw Ah¿°v bpIvXambncn°pw. c≠v, AXncpw FXncpan√m
\n¬°mt\ tdma≥ bh\ t]¿jy≥ `mcXob \mKcnIXIfpsS Ø PohnXXrjvW A]ISØntet° \bn°pIbp≈qsh∂pw
\mbI∑m¿°v A∂v Ign™p≈q. hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d PohnXw [m¿anIXbpsS N´°q´n¬ {IaoIcns®¶nte alXzw
ssZhnIX AwKoIcn°m≥ aSnbp≈ Ncn{XImc∑m¿t]mepw ssIhcn°m\mIq F∂pw a\ nem°nbh¿. H∂masØ
Ggmw \q‰m≠n¬ kmwkvI-mcnI kmaqly cmjv{Sob cwKßfn hn`mKsØ \bn°p∂Xv £WnI hnImcßfpw Xm¬°menI
emsI hnkv a bmhlhpw sFXnlmknIhpamb apt∂‰w em`Nn¥bpamsW¶n¬ c≠mw hn`mKsØ \bn°p∂Xv
\SØnb Ad_nIfpsS ap∂n¬ angn®p\n∂n´p≠v. aplΩZv \_n hnthIhpw Zo¿LZrjvSnbpambncn°pw.
(k)sb ]‰n ]pe`yw ]dbm≥ aSn°mØ F®v.Pn. sh¬kv F∂ hnthIimenIfmb Cu hn`mKw Ft∏mgpw [¿aØns≥d
Ncn{XImc≥t]mepw Jp¿B\ns≥d A\pbmbnIƒ A∂v shfn®w tXSp∂hcmbncn°pw. Ccp´n¬\n∂v shfn®Ønte°v
\SØnb Ncn{XØn¬ XpeyXbn√mØ ssP{Xbm{Xsb∏‰n F∂Xmbncn°pw AhcpsS ap{ZmhmIyw. CØc°m¿°v hgn
hnkvab]q¿h-w ]cma¿in°m≥ \n¿_\v[Xn-\mbn´p≠v. Im´m≥ km[n°p∂Xv F∂v \n tµlw AhImis∏Sp∂
{K\vYw GXp≠v? CXmWv {]iv\w. hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ AhImi
Jp¿B≥ F¥psIm≠v AXpeyw?
s∏Sp∂p: a\pjycpsS hmKvhnNmcI¿a-߃ A[¿a-Ønte°v
sshPvRm\nI hnkvt^mS\w F∂v hnfn°s∏Sp∂ {]Xn`m hyXnNen°ptºmƒ Ahsc hos≠SpØv [¿aØns≥d shfn®
kw temIØv AXv`pX߃ hncnbn®psIm≠ncn°p∂ Cu Ime Ønte°v B\bn°m≥ AXn\v km[n°psa∂vv.-
Øv Ggmw \q‰m≠nse Hcp Ad_n {K\vYØns≥d AXpeyXsb
thsd GXv {K\vYØn\v Cßs\ AhImis∏Sm\mIpw? aX
∏‰n ]dbp∂Xv Nne¿°v ]cnlmkyambn tXm∂ntb°mw. s\m
Zm¿i\nIhnjbßfnepw imkv{X kmlnXyhn`mKßfnepambn
t_¬ kΩm\w t\Snb kmlnXyIrXnIfpsSbpw imkv{Xkn
tImSm\ptImSn {K\vY߃ hnhn[ `mjIfnembn temIØp
≤m¥ßfpsSbpw apºn¬ Hcp aX{K\vYØns≥d {]kIvXn ]mtS
s≠∂Xv icnbmWv. Ahsbms° BfpIƒ°v Adnhpw A\p`q
\ntj[n°p∂hcp≠mtb°mw.
XnIfpw ]I¿∂psImSp°p∂pap≠v. F∂m¬ Adnhnt\°mfpw
F∂m¬ e£WbpIvXamb Hcp {K\vYsØ∏‰nbp≈ ssZhn A\p`qXntb°mfpw D∂Xamb k∑m¿K- Nn¥ \¬Ip∂Xn¬
Ihn`mh\bpsS ASnkvYm\Øn¬ hnip≤ Jp¿B\ns≥d Ab Ahbv°v F{Xam{Xw ka{KXbpw kºq¿WXbpw AhImis∏
eØv \n¬°m≥ tbmKyamb Hcp IrXnt]mepw B[p\nI Sm\mIpw? ss__nfpw KoXbpw sk¥v AshkvXbpw a‰pw aX
bpKØn¬ shfn®w I≠n´ns√∂v kq£va hniIe\Øn¬ {K\vYßsf∂ \nebn¬ Cu cwKØv NnesXms° sNøp∂p≠v.
hyIvXamIpw. Hcp {K\vYw e£WbpIvXamIm≥ F¥v thWw? F∂m¬ ssZhnI- Z o]v X nbpambn a\pjya\ ns\ kZm
""B {K\vYw, AXn¬ kwiban√. [¿a-\njvT¿°v AXv _\v[n∏n®psIm≠v PohnXsØ Baqem{Kw kwkvIcn°p
am¿KZ¿iIas{X'' (hn.Jp. 2:1) hm\p≈ ka{Kamb \nba\n¿tZ-i߃ Ah Dƒs°m≈p∂n
PohnXØns≥d t\¿°v c≠pXcw ho£mKXnIƒ sh®p s√∂v kcfamb XmcXayw sIm≠pXs∂ kv]jvSamIpw.
]pe¿Øp∂hcp≠v. H∂v, P¥pklPamb hy{KXtbmsS PohnX Jp¿B≥ tIhew Nne ]qPm{Iaßfpw {]m¿Y-\m k¶o¿Ø
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 26- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 27

\ßfpw ASßp∂ {K\vYa√. a\pjy PohnXsØ {Kkn°mhp jX. `uXnItemIØv a\pjy\v am{Xw e`n® Cu kzmX{¥y
∂ F√m Xn∑Isf∏‰nbpw hyIvXamb Xm°oXv AXn¬ ASßn sØ∏‰n Ah≥ icnbmwhÆw Nn¥n®m¬ Ahs≥d AkvXnXz]
bn´p≠v. Ip‰hmfnIsf ImØncn°p∂ ssZhnI in£bpw, Ip‰ camb _m[yXIƒ Ah\v Is≠Øm\mIpw. {]IrXym A[¿
IrXy߃°v `cWIqSw \¬tI≠ `uXnI in£bpw hnip≤ a-w {]h¿Øn°m≥ kzmX{¥yan√mØ krjvSnIƒ°v {]tXyI
Jp¿B≥ hnhcn°p∂p. CS]mSpIƒ hnizkvXXtbmsS \SØp am¿KZ¿i\Øns≥d Bhiyan√. AYhm AhbpsS
hm\p≈ [m¿anI am¿KZ¿i\hpw ]WanS]mSpIfn¬ I£nIƒ {]IrXntbmsSm∏w AhbpsS am¿Khpw \n¿Wbn°s∏´ncn
XΩn¬ X¿°ßƒ DXv`hn°mXncn°p∂Xn\pth≠ {]mtbm °p∂p. A[¿a-w {]h¿Øn°m≥ kzmX{¥yap≈ a\pjy\v
KnI \n¿tZ-ißfpw Hcpt]mse Jp¿B≥ Dƒs°m≈p∂p. am¿KZ¿i\w thWw. `uXnIPvRm\w t\¿hgn ImWn°m≥
hnhmlw kpZr--Vamb Icm¿ F∂ \nebn¬ ImØpkq£n ]cym]v X amhn√. hnhmlamtWm hy`nNmcamtWm a\pjy
°m\p≈ [m¿antIm¬t_m[\hpw IpSpw_hg°pIƒ cayambn [¿asa∂v `uXnIimkv{Xw ]Tn∏n°p∂n√. \oXntbm A\o
]d™pXo¿°p∂Xn\p≈ {]mtbmKnI \S]Sn{Iaßfpw Jp¿B Xntbm, kXytam AkXytam, ImcpWytam {IqcXtbm GXmWv
\n¬ ImWmw. Bcm[\m{Iaßsf bm{¥nIamb A\pjvTm\ß [¿asa∂v `uXnIambn sXfnbn°pI km[ya√. `uXnI
fmbn´√ hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°p∂Xv. PohnXsØ {]]©sØ∏‰n ]Tn°m≥ ssZhw a\pjy\v \¬Inb IgnhpIƒ
kzNvOhpw \n¿aehpw Ah{Ihpambn \ne\n¿Øm≥ klmbn Jp¿B≥ Nnt¥m±o]Iamwhn[w Nq≠n°m´p∂p≠v. a\\w, hN
°p∂ [m¿anI {]tNmZt\m]m[nIsf∂ \nebnemWv \akvIm \w, teJ\w F∂o am\hnI IgnhpIsf ssZhØns≥d Aaqey
cw ({]m¿Y- \ ) k°mXv (\n¿_\v [ Zm\w), {hXw, lPv P v amb A\p{Klßsf∂ \nebn¬ Jp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°pIbpw
(a°bnte°p≈ Xo¿YmS\w) F∂o Imcyßsf Jp¿B≥ Ah B IgnhpIƒ Zm\w sNbv X Xn\v {kjv S mhnt\mSv \µn
Xcn∏n°p∂Xv. hnImchnNmcßsf ip≤am°mØ, kzm¿Y-w {]ISn∏n°m≥ Blzm\w sNøpIbpw sNøp∂p.
\o°mØ, tkh\a\kvYnXn hf¿ØmØ bm{¥nIamb \akv
F∂m¬ kXyhpw AkXyhpw hnthNn®dntb≠ \n¿Wmb
I-mcw ({]m¿Y-\) \miØnt\ DXIq F∂v Jp¿B≥ Xm°oXv
IcwKßfn¬ A`uXnI tI{µßfn¬\n∂v, {]]©\mY\n¬
\¬Ip∂p. ssewKnI AcmPIXzØns\Xncn¬ am{Xa√,
\n∂v am¿KZ¿i\w e`ns®¶ne√msX a\pjy\v t\¿hgn
A]hmZ{]NmcWØns\Xncnepw kz`mhlXys°Xncnepw IqSn
Is≠Øm\mhn√. ImemImeßfn¬ hnhn[ tZißfn¬
kacw {]Jym]n®psIm≠v D≈pw ]pdhpw Hcpt]mse- ip≤amb
\nbpIvXcmb {]hmNI∑mcneqsS A√mlp a\pjy¿°v A`uXn
kaqlØns≥d krjvSn°v Bhiyamb D]m[nIƒ Jp¿B≥
Iamb am¿KZ¿i\w \¬In. B am¿KZ¿i\w kzoIcn®h¿°v
hc®pIm´p∂p.
AhcpsS PohnXsØ hnip≤ambn ImØpkq£n°m≥
`uXnIhpw A`uXnIhpw km[n®p. kz¥w Adnhn¬ Al¶cn®h¿°v A[¿aßfneqsS
`uXnI{]]©Øn¬ a\pjy≥ Is≠Øp∂ P¥p°ƒt°m A[x]Xn°m\mbncp∂p hn[n. [mcmfw Ncn{Xkw`hßfpsSbpw
kky߃t°m \n¿÷-oh ]Zm¿Y-߃t°m sX‰v sNøm≥ PohnXZrjv S m¥ßfpsSbpw shfn®Øn¬ Jp¿B≥ Cu
Ignbn√. h©n°m\mhn√. I≈w ]dbm≥ km[n°n√. A[¿aw hkvXpX ka¿Y-n°p∂p.
{]h¿Øn°m≥ Ahbvs°m∂pw kzmX{¥yan√. Hmtcm∂pw am¿KZ¿i\w {]tbmP\s∏SWsa¶n¬ Jp¿B≥ Nq≠n°m
AhbpsS [¿a-w bYmhn[n \n¿h-ln°p∂p. a\pjy≥ CXn¬ Wn°p∂ A\nhmcy D]m[n a\pjy≥ ssK_n¬- (A`uXnI
\ns∂√mw hyXykvX\s{X! kzX{¥amb Nn¥, kzX{¥amb kXyßfn¬) hnizkn°Wsa∂p≈XmWv. a\pjy\v kz¥w
hm°v, kzX{¥amb {]h¿Ø\w: AXs{X Ahs≥d khnti Pv R m\Øn¬ aXn∏p≠mIWsa∂v Xs∂bmWv Jp¿B≥
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 28- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 29

]Tn∏n°p∂Xv. AtXmsSm∏w k¿h-PvR\mb ssZhØns≥d KnIfpsS {]XnIcWßfpsSbpw Ncn{XØn¬\n∂v ]mTapƒ


BXy¥nIPvRm\Øns≥d k¿thm∂XkvYm\hpw a\pjy≥ s°m≈m≥ klmbn°pIsb∂XmWv Jp¿B\nse Ncn{XIY
AwKoIcn°Ww. {XnImePvRm\nbmb ssZhØn\v am{Xsa \Øns≥d e£yw.
sX‰v ]‰mØ am¿K-\n¿tZ-iw \¬Im≥ A¿lXbpw AhImi Jp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°s∏-S-p∂ ImesØ Ncn{Xsa∂m¬
hpw D≈qsh∂XmWv Jp¿B\ns≥d \ne]mSvv. kXysØ°mƒ AkXyØn\v ap≥Xq°ap≈ CXnlmkßfm
""BZan\v Ah≥ "t]cp'Isf√mw ]Tn∏n®p'' (hn.Jp. 2:31).- bncp∂p. Ad_n°YItfmfans√¶nepw AanXh¿W\Ifp
""a\pjys\ Ah≥ krjvSn®p. Ah∂v Bib{]Imi\w sSbpw AXnitbmIvXnIfpsSbpw Ie¿∏v [mcmfw tN¿∂Xv
]Tn∏n®p'' (hn.Jp. 55:3,4). Xs∂bmbncp∂p ss__nƒ IYIfpw. F∂m¬ hnip≤ Jp¿B
\ns≥d Ncn{XhnhcWw CXn¬\n∂pw XnI®pw hyXykvXamWv.
""t]\ sIm≠v ]Tn∏n®h≥, a\pjy\v Adn™pIqSmØXv
AXn¬ B[p\nI-Ncn{Xho£Ww sh®pt\m°nbm¬ sX‰m
Ah≥ ]Tn∏n®p'' (hn.Jp. 96:4,5).-
sW∂v sXfnbn°mhp∂ Imcyßsfm∂pw Xs∂bn√. {]]t©m
""\n߃ Hcp Imcyw shdptØ°mw. bYm¿Y-Øn¬ AXv ¬]Ønsb ]‰nbpw a\ptjym¬]Ønsb]‰nbpw ss__nƒ
\n߃°v KpWIcambncn°pw. \n߃ Hcp Imcyw CjvSs∏ ]gb \nbaØnep≈ Ahnizk\obamb ]cma¿ißsfm∂pw
t´°mw. bYm¿Y-Øn¬ AXv \n߃°v tZmjIcamtb°mw. hnip≤ Jp¿B\n¬ Cs√∂Imcyw {]kvXmhyamIp∂p.
A√mlp Adnbp∂p. \n߃ Adnbp∂n√'' (hn.Jp. 2:216).- ss__nfpw X¬aqZpw a‰pw ]mcmbWw sNbvXn´v AXns≥d
""Xm¶ƒ ]dbq, BXvamhv Fs≥d \mYs≥d ImcyØn¬s]´ shfn®Øn¬ aplΩZv \_n kz¥ambn hncNn®XmWv hnip≤
XmIp∂p. PvRm\Øn¬ \n∂v A¬]w am{Xsa \n߃°v \¬I Jp¿B≥ F∂ hna¿iIcpsS hmZØn\v iIvXamb adp]Sn IqSn
s∏´n´p≈q'' (hn.Jp. 17:85). bmWv Jp¿B\nsebpw ss__nfnsebpw Ncn{X]camb ]cma¿
""\n߃°v Fs≥d am¿KZ¿i\w hs∂Øptºmƒ B i߃ XΩnep≈ auenIamb A¥cw.
am¿KZ¿i\w ]n¥pScp∂Xmtcm Ah¿°v bmsXmcp `bhpan√. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn,- Rm-b¿- ap-X¬- sh-≈n-Iq-Sn-b- B-dv- Zn-h-k-
Ah¿ ZpxJnt°≠nhcnIbpan√'' (hn.Jp. 2:38).- ß-fn-em-bn- ssZ-hw- {]-]-©-kr-jv-Sn- \-S-Øn-b- ti-jw- G-gmw-
C∂v temIØn\v t\cn´ G‰hpw henb Zpc¥w `uXnI Znhkw- tPm-en-bn¬-\n-∂v- \n-hr-Ø\m-bn- hn{i-an-®p-sh-∂pw- A∂m-
PvRm\Øn\v am{Xw AwKoImcw \¬IpIbpw a\pjys\ t\¿h Wv- i-∫-Øv- F-∂p-am-Wv- D¬-]-Øn- ]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬- (ss_-_nƒ-
gnbnte°v \bn°p∂ ssZhnIktµisØ AKWytImSnbn¬ ]-g-b- \n-b-aw)-tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv.- F-∂m¬- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-
X≈pIbpw sNbv X XmsW∂v h¿Øam\Ime kw`h߃ \n¬- {]-]-©-sØ- B-dv- "bu-ap'-I-fn-em-°n- kr-jv-Sn-®p-sh-∂v- am{X-
kq£vaambn \nco£n°p∂h¿°v hyIvXamIpw. sa- ]-d-™n-´p-≈q- (hn.-Jp.- 7:-54,- 10:-3,- 11:-7,-25:-59,- 32:-4,- 50:-38,- 57:-4)-
"buw'- F-∂m¬- B-gv-N-bn-se- H-cp- Zn-h-k-a-√,- A-Xn-Zo¿-L-am-b-
Ncn{Xw Jp¿B\n¬ Hcp- Im-e-b-f-hm-sW-∂pw- Jp¿-B≥- hy-Iv-X-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- {]-]©-
hnip≤ Jp¿B≥ Hcp Ncn{X{K\vYa√. F∂m¬ a\pjy sØ- kr-jSv- n-®n-´v- ssZ-hw- £o-Wn-°p-∂- {]-i\ v- t- a-bn-s√-∂pw- (AXp-
cminsb Ccp´pIfn¬\n∂v shfn®Ønte°v sIm≠phcm≥ sIm-≠p-X-s∂- hn-{i-a-Øn-s≥-d- {]-iv-\-hp-an-√)- Jp¿-B≥- kv-]-jvS-
th≠n AhXcn∏n°s∏´ Hcp {K\vYØn\v `qXImeNcn{XsØ am-°n-bn-´p-≠v (hn.-Jp.- 46:-33).-
AhKWn®psIm≠v `mhnsb∏‰n ]dbm\mhn√. ]q¿h-Ime{]hm {]-hm-N-I-\m-b- eq-Øn- (tem-Øv)-s\-∏-‰n- ss_-_nƒ- ]-cm-a-¿in-
NI∑mcpsS {]t_m[\Øns≥dbpw {]hmNI∑mcpsS {]Xntbm °p-∂-Xv- H-cp-{]-hm-N-I-s≥-d- a-l-Xz-Øn-t\m- km-[m-c-W-°m-c-s≥d-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 30- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 31

k-`y-X-bv-t°m- \n-c-°m-Ø- hn-[-Øn-em-Wv.- Jp¿-B≥- A-t±-l-sØ- °p-∂- a-\p-jy-h¿-K-a-{X-bp-ap-≠m-b-Xv.-


hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- ssew-Kn-Ik-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s≥-d- {]-t_m-[-I-\m- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ßfn¬-s]-´-Xm-Wv- \n-߃-°p-th-≠n-
bn-´m-Wv.- b-Av-Iq-_v- \-_n- (bm-t°m-_v-)-sb- ss_-_nƒ- Nn-{Xo-I Ah≥- \n-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- X-s∂- C-W-I-sf- kr-jv-Sn-®p-sh-∂-Xv.-
cn-°p-∂-Xv- ssZ-h-hp-am-bn- Kp-kv-Xn- \-S-Øn-b- ho-c-]-cm-{I-an-bm-bn- \n߃- A-h-tcm-sSm-Øv- im-¥n-tbm-sS- h-kn-®n-Sp-hm≥-th-≠n,-
´m-Wv.- Jp¿-B≥- A-t±-l-sØ-∏-‰n- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-Xy-¥w- Xmgv- \n߃-°n-S-bn¬- A-h≥- kv-t\-l-hpw- Im-cp-Wy-hpw- D-f-hm-°p-I-
a-tbm-sS- I-c-™v- I-e-ßn-b- I-Æp-I-fp-am-bn- ssZ-h-tØm-Sv- {]m¿- bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°v-
Y-n-°p-∂- H-cp- hn-\o-XZm-k-\m-bn-´m-Wv.- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v.-
{]-]-t©m¬-]-Øn- kw-_-\v-[n-®pw- a-\p-tjym¬-]-Øn- kw-_- ""D-]-cn-tem-I-ßf-p-sS-bpw- `q-an-bp-sS-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-∏pw- \n-ß-fpsS-
\v-[n-®pw- ss_-_nfn¬-- ]-c-∂p-In-S-°p-∂- hn-Nn-{X-am-b- hn-h-c-W- `m-j-I-fp-sS-bpw- h¿-W-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ssh-hn-[y-hpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zrjv-
ß-fpw- I-W-°p-I-fpw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B\n-en-s√-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- B[p- Sm-¥ß - f- n¬- s]-´X- s- {X.- A-dn-hp-≈h
- ¿-°v- A-Xn¬- sX-fn-hp-If - p≠v,-
\n-I- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m-sc- t]m-epw- A-º-cn-∏n-°p-∂- A-\yq-\-X-tbm- Xo¿-®.-
Sp-Iq-Sn- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fn-te-°v- shfn- cm-hn-epw- ]-I-en-ep-ap-≈- \n-ß-fp-sS- \n-{Z-bpw- A-h-s≥-d- A-\p{K-
®w- h-o-ip-∂p-≠v F-∂-Xpw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- A-am-\p-jn-I- l-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- \n-߃- D-]-Po-h-\w- tX-Sp-∂-Xpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv
X-°v- D-Ø-a-Zr-jv-Sm-¥-a-s{X.- Sm-¥ß - fn¬-s]-´X - s- {X.- {i-≤n-®p-tIƒ-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°v- A-Xn¬-
Jp¿-B-\n-I- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v,- Xo¿-®.-
hn-ip-≤- Jp-¿-B≥- a-\p-jy-a-\- n-t\m-Sv- kw-km-cn-°p-∂-Xv- AXv- `-b-hpw- tam-l-hp-ap-W¿-Øn-s°m-≠v- A-h≥- \n-߃-°v- an-∂¬
`p-Xß - ƒ-sIm-≠v- A-`ym-kw- Im-Wn-°p-∂- C-Xn-lm-kI-Ym-]m-{Xß- ∏n-W¿- Im-Wn-®p-X-cp-∂-Xpw- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn¬ -s]-´-X-
sf- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-®p-sIm-≠-√.- `q-X-˛t{]-Xm-Zn-I-sf-]-‰n-tbm- cm£- s{X.- D-]-cn-`m-K-Øp-\n-∂v- sh-≈w -sNm-cn-™p-X-cn-I-bpw- \n¿-Pohm-
km-Im-cw- ]p-≠- Zp-jv-S-i-Iv-Xn-I-sf-∏-‰n-tbm- C-ºm-®n- ]-d-™p-sIm- h-kv-Y-bv-°p-ti-jw- `q-an-°v- Po-h≥- \¬-Ip-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- Xo¿®-
≠p-a-√.- G-sXm-cp- Nn-¥m-io-e-s\-bpw- hn-kv-a-bn-∏n-°p-∂,- I-Æpw- bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°-v sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v.-
Im-Xpw- a-\- pw Xp-d-∂p-sh-°m≥- k-∑-\- p-≈- G-sXm-cp- Pn-PvRm- A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ßfn¬-s]-´-X-s{X,- B-Im-i-hpw- `q-an-bpw-
kp-hn-∂pw- Iu-Xp-I-ap-f-hm-°p-∂- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-sf- A-h-s≥-d- im-k-\-b-\p-k-cn-®v- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p-sh-∂-Xv.- ]n-∂o-Sv-
Nq≠n-°m-Wn-®p-sIm-≠v- hnip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- tNm-Zn-°p-∂p-;- C-sXm- \n-ß-sf- `q-an-bn¬-\n-∂v- (a-c-Wm-\-¥-cw)- A-h≥- H-cp- hn-fn-b-ßv-
s°- bm-Zr-NvO - n-Ia
- m-bn- kw-`h - n-®X
- m-tWm,- A-e£- y-am-bpw- A-hyh- hn-fn-°p-tºmƒ- \n-ß-f-Xm- A-h-¶-te-°v- ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂p.-
kv-Yn-X-am-bpw- H-Øp-Iq-Sn-b-Xm-tWm- F-∂v.- {]m-No-\A-td-_y-bn- D-]-cntem-I-ß-fn-epw- `q-an-bn-epw- D-≈-h-sb--√mw- A-h-s≥-d-XmIp-
se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sf- am-{X-a-√ B-[p-\n-I- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sf-bpw- ∂p.- F-√m-h-cpw- A-h-∂v- Io-g-S-ßp-∂-h-c-s{X.-
D-Øc - w- ap-´n-°p-∂X - t- {X- Jp¿-B≥- D-b¿-Øn-°m-´p-∂- Zr-jvS- m-¥ß- A-h≥- X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p- kr-jv-Sn-I¿a-w- Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv.- ]n-∂oSv-
ƒ-.- ssZ-hØ - n-s≥-d- A-kX v- n-Xz-Øn-\pw- A-Xp-ey-am-b- I-gn-hp-Iƒ°pw- A-h-\-Xv- B-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p.- B- B-h¿-Ø-\w- A-h-\v- Iq-Sp-X¬-
Jp¿-B≥- sX-fn-hv- \n-c-Øp-∂- co-Xn- A-Xy-¥w- e-fn-X-hpw- lr-Zbm- F-fp-∏-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p.- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fn-seb-pw- `qan-bn-se-bpw-
h¿-P-I-hp-a-s{X.- G-Xm-\pw- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- Xm-sg- sIm-Sp-°p-∂p:- AXyp-∂-X-am-b- am-Xr-I- A-h-s≥-d-Xm-Ip-∂p.- A-h≥- {]-X-m-]n-bpw-
""A-h-s≥-d- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn¬-s]-´-Xm-Wv-:- A-h≥- \n-ß-sf- aÆn A-`n-Pv-R-\p-a-s{X'' (hn.-Jp.- 30:-20˛27).-
¬-\n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn-®p- F-∂-Xv.- F-∂n-´m-Wv- \n-߃- Cu- ]-c-∂p-In-S- ""D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fp-sS-bpw- `q-an-bp-sS-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-epw- Zn-\-cm-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 32- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 33

{X-ß-fp-sS- am-‰-Øn-epw- P-t\m-]-Im-c-{]-Z-am-b- h-kv-Xp-°-fp-am-bn- ∏n¬- kw-i-b-am-sW-¶n¬- ({i-≤n-°p-I).- \m-am-Wv- \n-ß-sf- a-Æn¬-
I-Se- n-eq-sS- k-©c - n-°p-∂- I-∏e - n-epw,- A-√m-lp- D-]c- n-`m-KØ- p-\n∂v- \n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xv.- ]ns∂- _o-P-I-W-Øn¬-\n-∂v.- ]n-s∂- {`q-W-
sh-≈w- sNm-cn-™p-X-∂n-´v- X-Zzm-cm- \n¿-÷-o-h-am-bn-°n-S-∂n-cp-∂- Øn¬-\n-∂v.- ]n-s∂- cq-]w- ]q-≠-Xpw- A-√m-Ø-Xp-am-b- amw-k-]nWv-
`q-an-°v- Po-h≥- \¬-In-bX - n-epw,- `qan-bn¬- P-¥p-Pm-eß - s - f- hn-\ykn- U-Øn¬-\n-∂v.- F-∂n-´v- \mw- Dt±-in-°p-∂- H-cp- \n¿-W-n-X- k-a-bw-
®-Xn-epw,- Im-‰p-I-fp-sS- K-Xn-hn-]-cy-b-Øn-epw- B-Im-i- `q-an-Iƒ-°n- h-sc- K¿-`m-i-b-Øn¬- Xm-ßm≥-hn-Sp-∂p.- \n-ß-sf- \mw- ssi-ihm-
S-bn-eq-sS- B-\b - n-°s - ∏-Sp-∂- Im¿-ta-LØ - n-epw- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- Bfp- h-kv-Y-bn¬- ]p-d-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂p.- ]n-s∂- \n-߃- ]-cn-]-Iz-{]m-
Iƒ-°v- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-≠v,- Xo¿-®''- (hn.-Jp.- 2:-164).- b-Øn-se-Øp-∂p.- \n-߃- Nn-e¿- (C-S-{]m-b-Øn¬)- N-c-aw- {]m-
""k-Xy-\n-tj-[n-Iƒ- I-≠n-t√?- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fpw- `q-an-bpw- H´n- ]n°-p-∂p.- Nn-e¿- A-h-ihm¿-≤-Iy-Øn-te-°v- \-bn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.-
t®¿-∂-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- F-∂n-´v- \mw- A-h-sb- th¿-s∏-Sp-Øn.- sh≈- AsX,- ]-e-Xpw- A-dn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂-Xn-\p-ti-jw- H-∂p-w- A-dn-bm-Ø-
Øn¬-\n-∂pw- F-√m- ssP-h-h-kv-Xp-°-sf-bpw- \mw- D-≠m-°p-I-bpw- A-h-kv-Y-bn-te-°v''- (hn.-Jp.- 22:-5).-
sN-bv-Xp.- F-∂n-´pw- A-h¿- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂n-t√?- `q-an-bn¬- D-d-®p\n¬- ""A-h≥- \n-ß-sf- H-scm-‰- k-Ø-bn¬-\n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- ]n-s∂-
°p-∂- ]¿-hX - ß- s- f- \mw- D-≠m-°n;- A-hs - c-bpw-sIm-≠v- A-Xv- "`qan'- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- X-s∂- A-Xn-s≥-d- C-W-sb-bpw- D-≠m-°n.- \n-߃-
C-f-In-t∏m-Im-Xn-cn-°p-hm≥- th-≠n.- B- ]¿-h-X-ßf-n¬- hn-im-eam- °p-th-≠n- Im-en-I-fn¬-\n-∂v- F-´v- C-W-I-tf-bpw- A-h≥- H-cp-°n-
b- ]m-XI - f
- pw- \mw- D-≠m-°n-;- A-h¿- h-gn- I-s≠-Øp-∂X - n-\p-th≠n.- Ø-∂p.- \n-ßf - p-sS- am-Xm-°f - p-sS- DZ-cß- f- n¬- H-∂n-\p-]p-ds
- I- H∂m-
D-]-cn-`m-K-sØ- \mw- kp-c-£n-X-am-b- H-cp- ta¬-∏p-c-bm-I-bpw- bn- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-s≥-d- ]-e- L-´-ß-fn-em-bn- \n-ß-sf-b-h≥- kr-jv-Sn-
sNbv-Xp.- F-∂n-´pw- C-h-bn-e-S-ßn-b-sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- {i-≤n-°m-sX- °p-∂p.- aq-∂v- C-cp-´p-Iƒ-°p-≈n¬.- A-h-\m-Ip-∂p- \n-ß-fp-sS- \m
Ah¿- Xn-cn-™p-I-f-bp-I-bmIp-∂p-!- Y≥.- A-h-∂m-Ip-∂p- B-[n-]-Xyw-.- A-h-\-√m-sX- H-cm-cm-[y-\p-an-√.-
A-h-\m-Ip-∂p- Z-n-\-cm-{X-ßsf-bpw- kq-cy-N-{µ-∑m-sc-bpw- krjv- F-∂n-´v- \n-ß-sf-ß-s\- hy-Xn-N-en-°-s∏-Sp-∂p?''- (hn.-Jp.- 39:-6)-.-
Sn-®-Xv.- Hm-tcm-∂pw- A-X-Xn-s≥-d- {`-a-W-]-Y-Øn¬- \o-¥n-s°m-≠ncn- ""A-√m-lp- \n-ß-sf- \n-ß-fp-sS- am-Xm-°-fp-sS- D-Z-c-ß-fn¬-\n∂v-
°p-∂p''- (hn.-Jp.- 21:-30˛33)-.- ]p-d-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-∂-Xv- \n-߃-°v- H-∂pw- A-dn-™p-Iq-Sm-Ø- Ah-
""A-h¿-°p-≈- Zr-jv-S-m-¥w- \n¿-Po-h-am-b- `q-an-bm-Ip-∂p.- \m-aXn- kv-Y-bn-em-Wv.- A-h-\m-Wv- \n-߃-°v- Im-Xpw- I-Æp-w- a-\- p-sa√mw-
\v- Po-h≥- \¬-Ip-I-bpw- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- [m-\yw- D¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw- \¬-In-b-Xv.- \n-߃- \-µn-bp-≈-h-cm-sb-¶n¬-!''- (hn.-Jp.- 16:-78)-.-
sN-bv-Xp.- F-∂n-´v- A-Xn¬- \n-∂-s{X- Ah-¿- `p-Pn-°p-∂-Xv.- ""ssZ-hw- \n-ß-sf- a-Æn¬-\n-∂pw- Xp-S¿-∂v- _o-P-I-W-Øn¬-
A-Xn¬- \mw- Cu-¥-∏-\-tØm-´-ß-fpw- ap-¥n-cn-tØm-´-ß-fpw- \n∂pw- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- F-∂n-´v- \n-ß-sf- A-h≥- C-W-I-fm-°n.- A-h
D≠m-°n.- A-Xn¬- \mw- \o-cp-d-h-Iƒ- s]m-´n-s®-Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN- s≥-d- A-dn-thm-sS-b-√m-sX- H-cp- kv-{Xo-bpw- K¿-`w- [-cn-°p-∂n-√.-
bvXp.- A-Xn-s≥-d- ^-eß - f- n¬-\n-∂v- A-h¿- `p-Pn-®n-Sp-hm≥.- (b-Ym¿Y- {]-kh - n-°p-∂p-an-√.- tc-Jb - n-ep-≈X - \
- p-kc
- n-®√
- m-sX- H-cmƒ-°pw- Zo¿
Øn¬-)- A-h-cp-sS- I-c-ß-f-√- A-Xv- D-≠m-°n-b-Xv.- F-∂n-´pw- Ah¿- Lm-bp- v- \¬-I-s∏-Sp-I-tbm- A¬-]m-bp- m-°-s∏-Sp-I-tbm- C-√.-
\-µn- Im-Wn-°p-∂n-t√?- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xv- ssZ-h-Øn-\v- F-fp-∏-am-Ip-∂p.-
`q-an- ap-f-∏n-°p-∂-h,- A-h-cp-sS- kz-¥w- i-co-c-߃,-- Ah¿-°dn- c-≠v- P-em-i-b-߃- Xp-ey-am-hp-I-bn-√.- H-∂v- ip-≤-hpw- kz-Nv-O
™p-Iq-Sm-Ø- a-‰v- h-kv-Xp-°ƒ- F-√mw- C-W-I-fm-bn- kr-jv-Sn-®- hpw- kp-J-Z-hpw.- a-s‰m-∂v- D-∏v- c-k-hpw- Zp- -zm-Zp-ap-≈-Xv.- F-∂m¬-
krjv-Sn-I¿-Øm-hv- F-{X- a-l-X-zap-≈-h≥-!''-- (hn.Jp.- 36:-33˛36).- c-≠n¬-\n-∂pw- am¿-Zh - a
- p-≈- ]p-Ø≥- amw-kw- \n-߃-°v- `-£n°m≥-
""P-\-ß-tf- \n-߃-°v- (a-c-Wm-\-¥-c-ap-≈)- D-b¿-sØ-gp-t∂¬ In-´p-∂p.- \n-߃-°v- B-`-c-W-am-bn- A-Wn-bm-\p-≈-Xv- ]p-d-sØ-Sp-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 34- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 35

°m-\pw- I-gn-bp-∂p.- I-∏¬- A-Xn-eq-sS- P-tem-]-cn-X-ew- Io-dn-ap-dn®v- R-\p-a-s{X''- (hn.-Jp.- 30:-54).-


\o-ßp-∂-Xv- Im-Wmw.- \n-߃- A-h-s≥-d- A-\p-{K-l-Øn¬-\n-∂pw- ""A-h¿- I-≠n-t√,- \-Ωp-sS- I-c-߃- cq-]w- \¬-In-b- Im-en-Isf-
tX-Sp-hm≥- th-≠n-bpw- \n-߃- \-µn-bp-≈-h-cm-bn-cn-°m≥- th≠n \mw- A-h¿-°v- th-≠n-bm-Wv- kr-jv-Sn-®-sX-∂v.- A-ß-s\- A-h¿-
bpw.- A-h-sb- A-[o-\-s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.-
A-h≥- cm-{Xn-sb- ]-Ie - n¬- hn-eb- n-∏n-°p-∂p.- ]-Ie - n-s\- cm-{Xnbn- A-h-sb- \mw- A-h¿-°v- Io-sgm-Xp-°n-sIm-Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.-
epw.- A-h≥- kq-cy-s\-bpw- N-{µ-s\-bpw- Io-gv-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-hb - n¬- Nn-eX - v- hm-l\ - a - m-Ip-∂p.- Nn-eX
- n-s\- A-h¿- `p-Pn-°pIbpw-
Hm-tcm-∂pw- \n-iv-Nn-X- ]-cn-[n-bn-te-°v- k-©-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h-\-s{X- sN-øp-∂p.-
\n-ß-fp-sS- \m-Y-\m-b- ssZ-hw.- A-h-∂m-Ip-∂p- B-[n-]-Xyw.- Ah\v- A-h¿-°v- A-hb - n¬- ]-e- {]-tbm-P\ - ß
- f- p-ap-≠v.- Ip-Sn-°p-hm-\p≈-
]p-d-sa- \n-߃- {]m¿-∞n-°p-∂-h-cm-cpw- H-cp- Cu-Ø-∏-\-°p-cp-hn- ]m-epw.- F-∂n-´pw- A-h-sc-¥m- \-µn-Im-Wn-°m-Ø-Xv''- (hn.-Jp.- 36:-
s≥-d- ]m-S-t]m-epw- A-[o-\-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂n-√''- (hn.-Jp.- 35:-11˛13)- 71˛73)-.-
""`q-an-sb- \mw- hn-im-e-am-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn¬- D-d-®p-\n¬-°p-∂- ""a-\p-jy≥- I-≠n-t√-;- A-h-s\- \mw- H-cp- _o-P-I-W-Øn¬-\n∂m-
]¿-∆-X-߃- kv-Ym-]n-°p-I-bpw,- F-√mw- k-¥p-en-X-am-bn-s°m-≠v- Wv- kr-jv-Sn-®-sX-∂v.- F-∂n-´v- A-h-\-Xm- hy-Iv-X-am-b- F-Xn¿-∏p-Im
A-Xn¬- ap-f∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- c-\m-bn- am-dn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- \-ap-°-h≥- D-]-a-bp-≠m-°p-I-bpw,- kz¥w-
\n-߃-°pw- \n-߃- B-lm-cw- \¬-In- h-f¿-Øp-∂-X-√m-Ø- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-s\]-‰n- hn-kv-a-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥-
Po-hn-Iƒ-°pw- th-≠n- \mw- A-Xn¬- D-]P - o-h\- a- m¿-Kß
- ƒ- H-cp-°nbn- tNmZn-®p-;- "{Z-hn-®p-t]m-b- Cu- A-kv-Yn-i-I-e-߃-°v- Po-h≥-
cn-°p-∂p.- \¬Im≥- B¿-°m-Wv- I-gn-bp-I-sb-∂v.-
G-sXm-cp- h-kv-Xp-hn-s≥-d-bpw- J-P-\m-hp-Iƒ- \-Ωp-sS- ]-°¬- ]-d-bq-:- B-Zy-X-h-W- A-h-sb- kr-jv-Sn-®-h≥- X-s∂- A-h-bv-°v-
am-{X-am-Ip-∂p.- \n-iv-Nn-X- A-f-h-\p-k-cn-®v- am-{X-sa- \m-a-Xv- \¬IpI Po-h≥- \¬-Ipw.- A-h≥ F-√m-X-cw- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-s\-]-‰n-bpw- \-∂mbn-
-bp-≈q.- A-dn-bp-∂-h-\-s{X.-
\mw- ta-L-߃-°v- _o-P-Zm-\w- sN-øp-∂- Im-‰p-I-sf- \n-tbmKn- \n-߃ - °p-th-≠n- ]-®a - c
- Ø
- n¬-\n-∂v- Xo- D-≠m-°n- X-∂h - \- s{X-
®p.- Xp-S¿-∂v- D-]-cn-`m-K-Øv- \n-∂v- \mw- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-bp-I-bpw- A-h≥.- F-∂n-´v- A-Xn¬-\n-∂v- \n-ß-f-Xm- I-Øn-°p-∂p.-
AXv- \n-߃-°v- Ip-Sn-°p-am-dm-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- \n-߃-°-Xv- D]-cn-tem-Iß - s - f-bpw- `q-an-sb-bpw- kr-jSv- n-®h
- ≥- A-hs - c- t]mep-
(h-‰n-t∏m-Im-Ø-h-Æw)- kq-£n-®p-sh-°m≥- I-gn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√''- ≈-h-sc- kr-j-vSn-°m≥- I-gn-hp-≈-h-\-s√-t∂m?- kw-i-b-ta-Xp-an-√.-
(hn.-Jp.- 15:-19˛22)-.- A-h≥- X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p- k¿-h-Pv-R-\m-b- kr-jv-Sn-I¿-Øm-hv.-
""A-h≥- t\m-°p-∂n-t√- H-´-Iw- F-ß-s\-bm-Wv- kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏- A-h-s≥-d- Im-cyw,- A-h≥- H-cp- Im-cyw- D-t±-in-®m¬- "D-≠m-Iq'-
´n-cn-°p-∂-sX-∂v?- B-Im-iw- F-ß-s\- D-b¿-Ø-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh- F-∂- B-Pv-R- am-{X-am-Ip-∂p.- A-t∏m-g-Xm- A-Xv- D-≠m-Ip-∂p.-
∂pw.- ]¿-hX - ß
- ƒ- F-ßs - \- kvY
- m-]n-°s - ∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw,- `qan-
F-ß-s\- \n-c-∏p-≈-Xm-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw''- (hn.-Jp.- 88:-17˛20).- F-√m- Im-cy-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-[o-im-[n-Im-cw- ssI-h-i-ap-≈-h≥-
F-{X- a-l-Xz-ap-≈-h≥-!- A-h-\n-te-°v- X-s∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw- \n-߃-
""\n-ß-sf- Zp¿-_-em-h-kv-Y-bn¬- \n-∂v- k-r-jv-Sn-®-h-\m-Ip-∂p- Xn-cn-®p-hn-fn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv''- (hn.-Jp.- 36:-77˛83).-
A√m-lp.- Xp-S¿-∂v- Zu¿-_ey-Øn-\v- ti-jw- A-h≥- I-cp-Øp-≠m-
°n-Ø-∂p.- I-cp-Øn-\p-ti-jw- ho-≠pw- _-e-lo-\-X-bpw- \-c-bpw- ""\m-am-Wv- \n-ß-sf- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xv.- \n-߃-s°-¥m- hn-izm-k-am-
h-cp-Øn.- A-h≥- D-t±-in-°p-∂-Xv- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥- k¿h-Pv- Ip-∂n-t√?-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 36- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 37

\n-߃- _o-Pw- {k-hn-°p-∂-Xn-s\-∏-‰n- \n-߃- Nn-¥n-®p-thm?- Sm-¥-ß-fp-sS- G-Xm-\pw- D-Zm-l-c-W-ß-fm-Wv- ap-I-fn¬- sIm-Sp-ØXv.-
\n-ß-fm-tWm- A-Xv- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂-Xv?- A-tXm- \m-am-tWm- krjv- 1400 sIm-√w-ap-ºp-≈- A-d-_n-I-sf- kw-_-\v-[n-®n-S-tØm-fw- C-Xv-
Sn-I¿-Øm-hv?- F-{X-am-{Xw- {]-k-Iv-X-am-tWm- A-{X-tØm-fw- {]-k-Iv-Xn- B-[p-\n
\mw- \n-߃-°n-Sb - n¬- a-cW- w- hn-[n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- \-sΩ- B¿°pw- Ik-aq-l-ß-fp-sS- Im-cy-Øn-e-pw- A-Xn-\p-≠v.- Ime-hpw- tIm-e-hpsa-
tXm¬-]n-°m-\m-hn-√.- √mw- am-dn-bm-epw- Cu- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn-sem-∂n-\p-t]m-epw- Im-e-l-c
Ww- kw-`h - n-®n-´n-√.- kz-bw- kw-km-cn-°p-∂- Cu- kq-IvX - ß- s- f- Pohn-
\n-ß-sf-t]m-ep-≈-h-sc- am-‰p-hm-\pw- \n-߃-°v- A-dn-™p-IqSm- X-Øn-s≥-d- G-Xv- Xp-d-bn-ep-≈- ]-Iz-a-Xn-Iƒ-°pw- X-≈n-∏-d-bm-\m-
Ø- hn-[-Øn¬- \n-ß-sf- ]p-\x-kr-jvSn-°m-\pw- th-≠n.- hn-√.- ]-g-b- A-td-_y≥- k-aq-l-Øn-se- {]m-Ir-X-cpw,- \m-K-cn-I-cpw,-
B-Zy-sØ- kr-jv-Sn-cq]-sØ-∏-‰n- \n-߃- a-\- n-em-°n-b-t√m.- km-ln-Xy-Im-c-∑m-cpw- \n-c-£-c-cpw- A-Sn-a-I-fpw,- D-S-a-I-fpw- H-cp-
F-∂n-´pw- \n-ß-sf-¥m- t_m-[-hm-∑m-cm-Im-Ø-Xv?- t]mse- Cu- kq-Iv-X-ß-fp-sS- A-am-\p-jn-I- {]-`m-hw- Aw-Ko-I-cn-
\n-߃- Ir-jn-bn-d-°p-∂-Xn-s\-∏-‰n- \n-߃- Nn-¥n-®-p-thm?- ®ncp-∂p.-
\n-ß-fm-tWm- A-Xv- ap-f-∏n-®v- h-f¿-Øp-∂-Xv?- A-X-√- \-Ω-tfm?- C-∂pw- Cu- \n-e-bn¬- am-‰-sam-∂pw- h-∂n-´n-√.- Nn-e¿- sX-‰n-≤cn-
\mw- hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-Xm-sI- [q-fn-I-fm-°n- am-‰p-am-bncp- ®-t]m-se- H-cp-]n-Sn- ]-g© - ∑ - m-sc- am-{X-a√
- - hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- BI¿-
∂p.- A-t∏mƒ- \n-߃- A-Xv-`p-X-kv-X-_v-[-cm-bn-t∏m-Ipw.- jn-°p-∂X - v.- tem-I{- ]-ik- v-Xc- m-b- K-th-jI - c- pw- Nn-¥I- ∑- m-cpw- C∂v-
R-ßf - n-Xm- I-S_
- m-[y-Xb- n¬- A-Is - ∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- (F-∂v- \n߃- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- `m-jm-]-c-am-bpw- B-i-b-]-c-am-b-pw- A-]-{K-
ap-d-hn-fn- Iq-´-≠n-h-cpw).- Yn-®p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-Ib - m-Wv.- Iw-]yq-´¿- D-]tbm-Kn-®p-≈- A-Xn-kq£v-
a-am-b- ]-T-\-Øn-\pt]m-epw- hn-ip-≤-Jp¿-B≥- hn-t[-b-am-bn-´p-≠v.-
A-√.- R-߃- F-√mw- \-jvS- s - ∏-´h
- c - m-bn-cn-°p-∂p- F-∂v.- \n߃- F-√m- hn-th-I-im-en-I-fm-b- A-t\z-j-I-sc-bpw- A-º-c-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v-
Ip-Sn-°p-∂- sh-≈-sØ-∏-‰n- Nn-¥n-®n-´p-t≠m?- \n-ß-fm-tWm- ta-L- A-Xn-s≥-d- km¿-hm-Xn-im-bn-X- C-∂pw- \n-e\ - n¬-°p-∂p.- {]-_p-≤sc-
Øn¬-\n-∂v- A-Xv- Xm-sg-s°m-≠p-h-cp-∂-Xv?- A-X√- \m-tam? ∂v- {]-tLm-jn-°-s∏-Sm-d-p-≈- tI-c-f-Øn¬-t]m-epw- P-\-e-£-߃-
\mw- hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- \-ap-°X - v- D-∏p-ck- a
- p-≈X
- m-°m≥ Ign- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s\- Ku-c-h-_p-≤ym- ]-T-\-hn-t[-b-am-°n-s°m-
bp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- F-∂n-´pw- \n-ß-sf-¥m- \-µn- I-m-Wn-°m-Ø-Xv?- ≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- tUm-Iv-S¿-am-cpw- F-©n-\o-b¿am-cpw- s{]m-^-k¿-am-
\n-߃- Xo- I-Øn-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-s\-∏-‰n- Nn-¥n-®n-´p-t≠m?- cp-a-S-ßp-∂- _p-≤n-Po-hn-Iƒ- C-hn-sS-bpw- Jp¿-B≥- hym-Jym-\n-°p-
""A-Xv- I-Øm-\p-≈- a-cw- \n-ß-fm-tWm- D-≠m-°n-b-Xv?- A-X-√- I-bpw- A-]-{K-Yn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- `u-Xn-I-hmZ-
\m-tam?''- (hn.-Jp.- 56:-57˛72)-.- Øn-s≥-d- A-Xn-{]-k-c-Øn¬-s]-´v- a-X-ß-tfm-Sv- ap≥-hn-[n- sh-®p-]-p-
""a-\p-jy≥- hn-Nm-cn-°p-∂p-t≠m- A-h-s≥-d- A-kv-Yn-i-I-e-ß-sf- e¿-Øp-∂h - c- pw- km-ap-Zm-bn-IX- z-Øn-s≥-d- kzm-[o-\Ø - n¬-s]-´v- Ckv-
]p-\x-kw-tbm-Pn-∏n-°m≥- \-ap-°v- I-gn-bn-s√-∂v?- emw- hn-tcm-[w- ]p-e¿-Øp-∂-h-cp-a-√m-Ø- \n-jv-]-£-a-Xn-Iƒ- F√m-
Im-e-Øpw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- kw-th-Z-\-£-a-X- Aw-Ko-I-cn-
kw-i-bw- th-≠,- A-h-s≥-d- hn-c¬-Xp-ºp-t]m-epw- i-cn-bm-bn-
®n-´p-≠v.- H-cp-Im-e-Øv- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- _-≤-ssh-cn-I-fm-
kwhn-[m-\n-°m≥- \-ap-°v- I-gn-hp-≠v''- (hn.-Jp.- 75:-3,-4)-.-
bn-cp-∂- tI-cf - Ø
- n-se- Nn-e- _p-≤n-Po-hn-Iƒ- ]n¬-°m-eØ - v- Jp¿B-
\n-Xy-\q-X-\w- \p-am-bn- hn-´p-]n-cn-bm-\m-Im-Ø- B-Xv-a-_-\v-[-ap-≈-h-cm-bn- amdn-b-
a-\pjy-s≥-d- Nn-¥s
- b-bpw- t_m-[s - Ø-bpw- X-´n-bp-W¿-ØØ - °- Im-cyw- Cu- k-µ¿-`-Øn¬- kv-a-c-Wo-b-am-Wv.-
h-Æw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B\ - n-ep-S\
- o-fw- ]-c∂
- p-In-S°
- p-∂- ssZ-hn-I- Zrjv- 1400 h¿-j-߃-°-Iw- im-kv-{X- km-ln-Xy- I-em-cw-K-ß-fn¬-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 38- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 39

hen-b- am-‰ß - f - p-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- `q-an-bm-Wv- {]-]© - Ø - n-s≥-d- tI-{µsa- Htc- D-d-hn-S-Øn¬-\n-∂v- hn-L-Sn-®v- cq-]w- sIm-≠-Xm-sW-∂-Xn¬-
∂v- hn-iz-kn-°-s∏-´- Im-e-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.- kq-cy-\m-Wv- {]-]-©-Øn C-∂v- X¿-°w- A-h-ti-jn-°p-∂n-√.-
s≥-d- tI-{µ-sa-∂pw- {K-l-߃- kq-cy-s≥-d- B-I¿-j-W-h-e-b-Øn¬- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- D-Xv-`-hw- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- C-∂v- \n-e-hn-ep-≈-
{`-aW
- w- sN-bvX - p-sIm-≠n-cn-°b - m-sW-∂pw- ]n-∂o-Sv- sX-fn-bn-°s - ∏´p.- kn≤m-¥-ß-fn¬- {]-ap-J- tKm-f-im-kv-{X-Pv-R-cp-sS- Aw-Ko-Im-cw-
a-g-sb-bpw- Im-em-h-kv-Y-sb-bpw- ]-‰n- a-\p-jy-cp-sS- [m-c-W-bn¬- \nc- t\Sn-bn-´p-≈-Xv- D-{Kam-b- H-cp- B-Zn-kv-t^m-S-\-Øn¬-\n-∂m-Wv- apgp-
¥-cw- am-‰-߃- h-∂n-´p-≠v.- Po-h-Pm-e-ß-sf-bpw- k-ky-ß-sf-bpw- h≥- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- Xp-S-°-sa-∂v- k-a¿-Y-n-°p-∂- _n-Kv-_mw-
]-‰n- ssh-hn-[y-am¿-∂- ho-£-W-ß-fp-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d-bpw- Kv- kn-≤m-¥-a-s{X.-
{]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- D¬-]-Øn-sb-∏-‰n- h-∂pw-t]m-b-pw- sIm-≠n-cn- \m-ev- {]-ap-J- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿- tN¿-∂v- 1976 am¿-®n-se- Scien-
°p-∂- kn-≤m-¥-߃-°v- I-W-°n-√.- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- K¿-`-[m-c-Ww- tific American¬- F-gp-Xn-b- H-cp- te-J-\-Øn¬- C-{]-Im-cw- Im-Wmw:-
ap-X¬- {]-k-hw- h-sc-bp-≈- L-´-ß-sf-∏-‰n-bpw- im-kv-{Xw- A-`n{]m-
``Thus it appears that the Universe began from a state of infinite
b-߃- am-dn-am-dn- ]-d-™n-´p-≠v.- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- `u-Xn-I-im-kv-
density about one hubble time ago. Space and time were created in
{Xw- ]-Tn-∏n-°m≥-th-≠n- h-∂- {K-\v-Y-a-s√-∂pw- a-\p-jy-cp-sS- [m¿an-
that event and so was all the matter in the universe''.
Iam¿-K-Z¿-i-\-am-Wv- A-Xn-s≥-d- e-£y-sa-∂pw- Jp¿-B≥- hm-Iyß-
fn¬- \n-∂p-X-s∂- hy-Iv-X-am-Ip-∂p≠v.- F-¶n-epw- {]m-]-©n-I- {]Xn- ""A\-¥-am-b- A-f-hn¬- km-{¥-am-bn-cp-∂- H-cp- A-h-kv-Y-bn¬-
`m-kß - f- n-eq-sS- ssZ-hm-kX v- n-Xzw- I-s≠-Øm≥- a-\p-jy-s\- k-lmbn- \n-∂m-Wv- {]-]-©w- D-Xv-`-hn-®-sX-∂m-Wv- hy-Iv-X-am-Ip-∂-Xv.- G-ItZ-
°p-∂- cw-K-Øv- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂- Im-cy-߃- iw- H-cp- "l-_vƒ- k-a-bw'-* ap-ºm-Wv- C-Xv- \-S-∂-Xv.- kv-s]-bv-kpw-
sX-‰m-sW-∂v- H-cp- im-kv-{X\n-a-b-hpw- H-cn-°-epw- sX-fn-bn-®n-´-n-√- k-ab - h
- pw- B- kw-`h
- t- Øm-sS-bm-Wv- kr-jvS- n-°s
- ∏-´X
- v.- A-{]-Imcw-
F-∂- h-kv-Xp-X- A-Xn-s≥-d- ssZ-hn--I-X-bv-°p-≈- sX-fn-hp-I-fn-sem- X-s∂- {]-]-©-Øn-se- ap-gp-h≥- ]-Zm¿-Y-hpw''-.-
∂m-bn- \n-e-\n¬-°p-∂p.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- F-°m-e-sØ-bpw- (`Will the Universe Expand forever' Scientific American,
im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿-°v- Jp¿-B≥- kzo-I-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\v- _p-≤n-]-c-amb- March'76)
X-S- -ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-se- 21:-30 kq-Iv-Xw- C-u- B-i-b-a-s{X- Du-∂n
C-Xn-\v- ]p-ds - a- \-Ωp-sS- k-hn-ti-j- {i-≤b - ¿-ln-°p-∂- H-cp- hnj- ∏-d-bp-∂-Xv.- J-tKm-f-im-kv-{Xw- H-´pw- hn-I-kn-®n-´n-√m-Ø-Im-e-Øv-
b-ap-≠v.- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B\ - n-s\- ]-‰n- bm-sXm-cp- [m-cW - b - pw- D-≠mbn- tem-Is - Øm-cm-fpw- C-Øc- s
- am-cp- {]-kvX
- m-h\
- - \-SØ
- m≥- H-cp- km[y-
´n-√m-Ø- ss{I-kvX - h- - b-lq-Z- \m-kvX - n-I- im-kv{- X-PvR- ∑ - m¿- \-SØn- X-bp-an-√.- k¿-h-Pv-R-\m-b- ssZ-h-Øn-s≥-d- t_m-[-\w- ap-tJ-\-b√m-
b- K-th-j-W-߃- Jp¿-B-\n¬- 1400 h¿-jw-ap-ºv- im-kv-{Xw- {`qWm- sX.-
h-kvb - n-em-bn-cp-∂- Im-eØ - v- ]-d™ - - Im-cy-ßs - f- i-cn-sh-®p-sIm≠n- D-{Kkv-t^m-S-\-a-S-°-ap-≈- {]-Xn-`m-k-߃-°v- ]n-∂n-se- bYm
cn-°p-∂p F-∂Xm-W-Xv.- C-Xn-\v- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- \n-c-h-[n-bp-≠v.- ¿Y- Im-c-W-sØ-∏-‰n- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn-Iƒ- k¿-h-Pv-\pw-
k¿-h-i-Iv-X-\p-am-b- kw-hn-[m-b-I-s\- X-≈n-∏-d-™p-sIm-≠v- C-cp-
B-Im-i-`q-an-I-fp-sS- D¬-]-Øn- ´n¬- X-∏p-I-bm-Wv.- F-∂m¬- Jp¿-B≥- {]-m-]-©n-I{]-Xn-`m-k-ß-
B-Im-i-tKm-f-ß-fpw- `q-an-bpw- H-∂n-®v- H-scm-‰- B-Zn-]-Zm¿-Y-Øn- fp-sS- ]n-∂n-se- b-Ym¿-Y-i-Iv-Xn- F-s¥-∂v- kv-]-jv-S-am-°p-∂p.-
s≥-d- `m-K-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂-Xv- C-∂v- im-kv-{X-cw-K-Øv- G-Xm-≠v- X¿
* (1920¬- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- D-Xv-`-h-sØ-bpw- hn-Im-k-sØ-bpw- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- {]-k-Iv
°-a-‰- hn-j-b-am-Wv.- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- D¬-]-Øn-sb-∏-‰n- hy-Xy-kvX- X-am-b- \n-co-£-W-߃- \-S-Øn-b- F-Un≥- ]n.- l-_vƒ- F-∂- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-s≥-d-
ho-£-W-ß-fp-s≠-¶n-epw- Xm-c-K-W-ß-fpw- {K-tlm-]-{K-l-ß-fpw- t]-cn¬- A-dn-bs- ∏-Sp-∂X
- pw- A-\¥
- k- m-{µ-am-b- A-hk- vY
- °
- p-ti-jw- {]-]©
- w- ]n∂n´-
Im-e-b-f-hn-s\- Ip-dn-°p-∂-Xp-am-b- H-cp- k-a-b- ]-cn-Wm-a-a-s{X- l-_vƒ- ssSw)-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 40- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 41

""k-Xy-\n-tj-[n-Iƒ- I-≠n-t√- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fpw- `q-an-bpw- H-´n Rm-]n-®p-:- \n-߃- c-≠pw- hn-t[-bX - z-tØm-sS-tbm- A-\n-NvO - m-]q¿h-
t®¿-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v.- F-∂n-´v- \mw- A-h-sb- th¿-s∏-Sp-Øn''- -I-am-tbm- h-cq.- A-h- c-≠pw- ]-d-™p-:- R-ß-fn-Xm- hn-t[-b-Xz-tØm
(hn.-Jp.- 21:-30)-.- sS- h-∂n-cn-°p-∂p''- (hn.-Jp.- 41:-11).-
Cu- {]-Jym-]-\-Øn-\v- ap-ºn¬- im-kv-{Xw- ]-I-®p-\n¬-°p-∂p-
s\-_p-e-Iƒ- Jp¿-B-\n¬-
F-∂-X-t√- hm-kv-X-hw?-
h-m-X-I-ß-fpw- kq-£v-a-]-Zm¿-∞-ß-fp-a-S-ßp-∂- H-cp- ]p-I-]-S-e-
im-kv-{Xm-`ym-kw- t]m-I-s´,- A-£-cm-`ym-kw- t]m-epw- t\-Sn-bn´n-
(Nebula)Øn¬-\n-∂m-Wv- \-£-{X-߃- ]n-d-hn-sb-Sp-Ø-sX-∂m-Wv-
√m-Ø- ap-lΩ - Z- v- \-_n- (k)-bp-sS- \m-hn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- \mw- Cu- hm°p-
B-[p-\n-I- im-kv-{Xw- I-cp-Xp-∂-Xv.- Secrets of Space F-∂- {K-\v-Y-
Iƒ- tIƒ-°p-∂-Xv-!- C-sX-ß-s\- kw-`-hn-®p?- D-Ø-cw- e-fn-X-am-Wv.-
Øn¬- Anthony feldman ]-d-bp-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:-
ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n- (k)- X-\n-°v- e-`n-®- Zn-hy-t_m-[-\w- D-cp-hn-Sp-I-
``The process by which the stars from is probably a kind of con-
bmbn-cp-∂p.-
densation. The principal force behind the phenomenon is gravity,
operating between the countless molecules of gas and dust motes in `q-an-bp-sS- B-Ir-Xn-
the nebula. As an accumulation of matter builds up in particular re-
`q-an-bp-sS- B-Ir-Xn-sb-∏-‰n- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p
gion of the nebula the begining of a localised gravitational field emerge
and the process a accelerates more material being drawn into the
sh-∂- tNm-Zyw- ]-e-cpw- D-∂-bn-°m-dp-≠v.- Jp¿-B-\n-se- `q-an- ]-c
region by the gravitational pull of the increasing build up of dust and ∂-Xm-sW-∂pw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- \-_n-bp-sS- Im-e-Øv- B-fp-Iƒ- [-cn-®n-cp
gas''. ∂- A-_-≤w- Jp¿-B-\n-epw- I-S-∂p-Iq-Sn-bn-´p-s≠-∂pw- Jp¿-B≥-
ssZ-hn-I-a-s√-∂-Xn-\v- A-Xp-X-s∂- a-Xn-bm-b- sX-fn-hm-sW-∂pw-
an-°-hm-dpw- H-cp-X-cw- km-{µo-I-c-W- {]-{In-b-bn-eq-sS-bm-Wv- \£-
Nne¿- tL-m-jn-°m-dp-≠v.-
{X-ß-ƒ- cq-]w-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv.- Cu- {]-Xn-`m-k-Øn-s≥-d- ]n-∂n-ep-≈-
ap-Jy-i-Iv-Xn- s\-_p-e-I-fn-se- F-Æ-a-‰- hm-X-I- X-∑m-{X-Iƒ-°n-S- ""`q-an-sb- \n-߃-°p-th-≠n- sa-Ø-bm-°n-b-h≥''- (hn.-Jp.- 2:-22)-
bn-epw- [q-fo-I-c-W-߃-°n-S-bn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿- ""`q-an-sb- \mw- \o-´n-bn-cn-°p-∂p''- (hn.-Jp.- 15:-19).-
j-W-am-Ip-∂p.- s\-_p-e-bn¬- H-cp- {]-tXy-I- {]-tZ-i-Øv- ]-Zm¿-Y- ""A-√m-lp- \n-߃-°v- th-≠n- `q-an-sb- H-cp- hn-cn-∏m-°n-bn-cn-
tI-{µo-I-c-Ww- \-S-°p-tºmƒ- {]m-tZ-in-I-am-b- H-cp- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j °p∂p''- (hn.-Jp.- 71:-19)-.-
W- ta-J-e- D-cp-Øn-cn-bm≥- Xp-S-ßp-∂p.- Cu- {]-{In-b- Xz-cn-X-s∏-Sp- F-∂o- h-N-\-߃-°v- Np-‰p-am-Wv- hn-a¿-i-\-߃- tI-{µo-I-cn-®n´p-
∂-tXm-sS- B- {]-tZ-itØ-°v- Iq-Sp-X¬- ]-Zm¿Y-w- k-am-l-cn-°- ≈-X.v-
s∏-Sp-∂p.- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j-W-_-e-Øm¬- [q-fn-I-fp-sS-bpw- hm-X-Iß- F-∂m¬- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n¬- `q-an-sb-∏-‰n- A-t\-Iw- k-µ¿-`
fp-sS-bpw- ti-J-cw- Iq-Sn-Iq-Sn- h-cp-∂p''-.- (Secrets of Space P.p. 52 ß-fn¬- ssh-hn-[y-am-¿∂ - - hn-iZ- o-Ic- W
- ß
- ƒ- \¬-In-bn-´p-≈X - n-s≥d-
Aldus Books. London)
sN-dn-sbm-cp- `m-K-w- am-{X-am-Wv- Cu- h-N-\-ß-sf-∂- Im-cyw- hn-a¿i-
hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- 1400 h¿-j-߃-°v- ap-ºp-X-s∂- B-Im-i I-∑m¿- ku-Ic - y-]q¿-hw- - a-d®
- p-sh-°p-∂p.- Nn-e- h-N\
- ß - ƒ- t\-m°q:-
tKm-f-߃- ]p-I-]-S-e-Øn¬-\n-∂v- cq-]w- sIm-≠-Xm-sW-∂- h-kvXp- ""A-h-\m-Ip-∂p- `-q-an-sb- \n-߃-°v- Io-sgm-Xp-ßp-∂Xm-°n-bXv.-
X- hy-Iv-X-am-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.- A-Xn-\m¬- A-Xn-s≥-d- Np-a-ep-I-fn-eq-sS- \n-߃- \-S-∂p-sIm-≈pI''-
""A-Xn-\v- ]p-d-sa- A-h≥- D-]-cn-tem-I-Øn-s≥-d- kw-hn-[m-\w- \S- (hn.-Jp.- 67:-15).-
Øn.- A-Xv- ]p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-Xn-t\m-Spw- `q-an-tbm-Spw- A-h≥-- BPv- ""`q-an-sb- \mw- sXm-´n-em-°n-Ø-∂n-t√?''- (hn.-Jp.- 78:-6).-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 42- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 43

""A-√-m-lp-hm-Ip-∂p- \n-߃-°v- `q-an-sb- H-cp- B-hm-k-tI-{µ-hpw- ∂- Zr-iy-am-Wv- Cu- h-N-\-Øn¬- kq-Nn-∏n-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- `q-an-
D-]-cn-`m-K-sØ- H-cp- ta¬-]p-c-bp-am-°n-Ø-∂-h≥'' (hn.-Jp.- 40:-64).- ]-c-∂-Xm-sW-∂- k-¶¬-]-a-\p-k-cn-®v- cm-hpw- ]-I-epw- Np-‰n-°-d-ßn-
Cu- h-N-\-ß-sf-√mw- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb-bm-tWm- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂Xv?- h-cp-I- F-∂-Xv- A-Nn-¥y-am-W-t√m.- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-b-ß-sf- kw-_-\v
sXm-´n¬- ]-c-∂-Xm-tWm?- Io-sgm-Xp-°-s∏-´-Xn-s≥-d- Np-a¬- F-∂- [n-®- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-se- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fpw- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-sb- kq-
]-Z-{]-tbm-Kw- \n-iv-tN-jv-S-am-bn- N-Øp-In-S-°p-∂- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb- Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p.-
kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-tWm?- B-sW-∂v- km-am-\y-_p-≤n-bp-≈-h-cm-cpw- ""D-Z-bkv-Ym-\Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-kv-X-a-\-kv-Ym-\-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- \m
]-d-bp-I-bn-√.- Y≥.- A-h-\-√m-sX- bm-sXm-cp- ssZ-h-hp-an-√.- A-Xn-\m¬- `m-c-ta¬-
hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n¬- `q-an-sb-bpw- B-Im-i-tKm-f-ß-sf-bpw- ∏n-°-s∏-tS-≠-h-\m-bn- A-h-s\- \o- kzo-I-cn-°p-I''- (hn.-Jp.- 73:-9).-
kw_\v-[n-®v- ]-cm-a¿-in-®n-´p-≈-Xv- A-√m-lp-hn-s≥-d- A-]m-c-am-b- ""c-≠v- D-Zb- kvYm-\ß - f - p-sS-bpw- c-≠v- A-kvX - a
- b
- kvY
- m-\ß - f- psS-
A-\p-{K-l-Øn-s≥-d-bpw- A-Xp-ey-am-b- I-g-n-hn-s≥-d-bpw- sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- bpw- \m-Y≥''- (hn.-Jp.- 55:-17).-
Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xn-s≥-d- `m-K-am-bn-´m-Wv.- F-°m-e-sØ-bpw- a\p- ""F-∂m¬- (A-t\-Iw-)- D-Zb - kvY - m-\ß - f - p-sS-bpw- A-kX v- a - b- kvYm-
jy¿-°v- A-\p-`-h-th-Zy-am-Ip-∂-hn-[-Øn¬- C-Xv- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xn-\m- \-ß-fp-sS-bpw- c-£n-Xm-hn-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- Rm≥- k-Xyw- sN-bv-Xv-
W-t√m- {]-k-Iv-Xn-bp-≈-Xv.- `q-an- H-cp- tKm-f-am-sW-¶n-epw- A-Xn-s≥d- ]d-bp-∂p.- A-h-sc-°mƒ- \-√-h-sc- ]-I-cw- sIm-≠p-h-cm≥- Xo¿-®
B-t]-£n-Ia - m- b
- n- ]-c∂- - {]-Xe - Ø- n-s≥-d- ku-Ic - y-ßf - pw- ku-`mKy- bm-bpw- \mw- I-gn-hp-≈-h-\m-sW-∂v''- (hn.Jp.- 70:-40).-
ß-fp-am-W-t√m- a-\pjy-¿- Iq-Sp-X-em-bn- A-\p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- Ir-jn- H-cp- kvY - n-ca
- m-b- kvY
- m-\Ø - p-\n-∂v- D-Zb - h- pw- A-kvX - a - \
- h - pw- \nco-
sN-øp-∂X - pw- sI-´n-Sß - ƒ- D-≠m-°p-∂X - pw- C-cn-°p-∂X - pw- \-S° - p∂- £n-°p-∂- hy-Iv-Xn-°v- X-s≥-d- kv-Ym-\-Øp-\n-∂v- \n-iv-Nn-XZq-c-ap-
Xpw- I-fn-°p-∂-Xp-sa-√mw- `q-an-bp-sS- {]-X-e-Øn-s≥-d- ]-c-∏n-em-W ≈- N-{I-hm-f-ß-fm-Wv- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-b-kv-Ym-\-ß-fm-bn- A-\p-`-h-s∏-
t√m.- a-s‰m-cp-hn-[-Øn¬- ]-d-™m¬- A-√m-lp- a-\p-jy-\v- \¬-Inb- Sp-∂-Xv.- F-∂m¬- c-≠v- A¿-≤tKm-f-ß-fn-se- c-≠v- \n-iv-Nn-Xkv-Ym-
A-\p-{K-lß - f - n-e[- n-Ih - pw- B-t]-£n-Ia - m-bn- ]-c∏- p-≈- `q-an-bn¬sh \-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- \n-co-£n-°p-∂- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ-°v- c-≠p-ho-Xw- D-Z-bm-
®m-Wv- A-h≥- A-\p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- A-Xn-\m¬- C-°m-cyw- a-\p-jys\- kv-X-a-\-kv-Ym-\-߃- D-≈-Xm-bn- A-\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂p.- `q-an-bp-sS-
Hm¿-an-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-\v- th-≠-{X- {]-k-Iv-Xn-bp-≠v.- hnhn[- `m-K-ß-fn-se- hy-Xy-kv-X- kv-Ym-\-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- A-t\-Iw-
`q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-bp-am-bn- _-\v-[-s∏-´v- F-√m-h¿-°pw- A\p- hy-IvXn-Iƒ- \-n-co-£n-°p-∂-]-£w- A-h¿-°v- At\-Iw- D-Z-bm-kv-
`-h-th-Zy-am-Ip-∂- Im-cyw- cm-hpw- ]-I-epw- am-dn-am-dn- h-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.- X-a\- k- Y
v- m-\ß - ƒ- D-≈X - m-bn- A-\p-`h - s- ∏-Spw.- `q-an- ]-c∂- X - m-sW∂-
C-Xp-kw-_-\v-[n-®- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-se- ]-cm-a¿-iw- tKm-fm-IrXn- k-¶¬-]{- ]-Im-cw- D-Zb - m-kvX - a- \
- kvY - m-\ß - f - p-sS- Cu- hn-[Ø - n-ep≈-
sb- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂- hn-[-Øn¬-X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p.- ssh-hn-[y-Øn-\-v {]-k-Iv-Xn-bn-√-t√m.-
""B-Im-iß - s - f-bpw- `q-an-sb-bpw- A-h≥- bm-Ym¿-Yy- ] - q¿-hw- - krjv- C-\n-bpw- ]-e-cp-sS-bpw- kw-i-b-߃- A-h-ti-jn-t®-°pw.- c-≠mw-
Sn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- cm-{Xn-sb- A-h≥- ]-I-en-t∑¬- Np-‰n-°p-∂p.- ]-I-en X-cØ - n-se- ]m-T] - p-kvX
- I - Ø- n¬- ]-db - p-∂- A-tX- ssi-enbn¬- Ip´n-
s\- cm-{Xn-bn-t∑-epw- Np-‰n-°p-∂p.- kq-cy-s\-bpw- N-{µ-s\-bpw- Ah≥- I-tf- `q-an- D-cp-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p- F-∂v- ]-S-®-h-\v- ]-d-™p-Iq-Sm-bn-cpt∂m-
\n-b{- ¥-Wh - n-t[-ba - m-°p-Ib - pw- sN-bvX
- n-cn-°p-∂p.- F-√mw- \n-ivN - nX- F-∂m-bn-cn-°pw- Nn-e-cp-sS- kw-i-bw.- C-∂pw- H-cp- I-Sw-I-Y-bm-bn-
am-b- ]-cn-[n-h-sc- k-©-cn-°p-∂p.- A-dn-bp-I.- A-h-\-s{X- {]-Xm-]n Xp-S-cp-∂- `q-K¿-`-sØ-∏-‰n- Ir-Xy-am-b- hn-h-c-߃- Jp¿-B-\n-eq-sS-
bpw- G-sd- s]m-dp-°p-∂-h-\pw'' (hn.-Jp.- 39:-5).- \¬-In-°q-tS- F-∂pw- tNm-Zy-ap-bc - mw.- a-\p-jy-\v- kz-bw- I-s≠-Øm≥-
{]-Im-i-hpw- C-cp-´pw- H-cp- tKm-f-Ønt∑¬- I-d-ßn-s°m-≠n-cn°p- I-gn-bp-∂- `u-Xn-Ihn-Pv-Rm-\-߃- P-\-a[y-Øn¬- F-Øn-°p-I-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 44- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 45

F∂-X√ - - {]-Xyp-X- `u-Xn-I]m-WU v- n-Xy-hpw- hn-`h - t- i-jn-bpw- F√mw- against some of the worst hazards of space.
D-≠m-bn-´pw- [m¿-an-Ia - m-bn- A-[x-]X - n-®v- t]m-Ip-∂- a-\p-jy¿-°v- t\¿- Although everyone can immediatly appreciate the importance of
h-gn- Im-Wn-°p-I-bm-Wv- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- Zu-Xyw- F-∂- air to breath it is more difficult to imagine the canopy of atmosphere
Imcyw- hn-ka v- c
- n-°m-sX-bm-IW - w- Jp¿-B\ - n-I- Zr-jSv- m-¥ß
- s
- f- hni- as an important roof of over people's heads. But at every moment the
I-e-\w- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- atmosphere is sheilding us from lethal radiation from the Sun.
ap-gp-h≥- \-£-{X-߃-°pw- {K-l-߃-°pw- D-]-{K-l-߃-°pw- ""A-¥-co-£-Øn-\v- \n¿-Wm-b-I-am-b- c-≠v- [¿-a-߃- \n¿-h-ln-
tKm-fmIr-Xn- \¬-In-b- {]-]-©-\m-Y-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-s®-Sp-tØm-fw- °m-\p-≠v.- Po-hn-I-fp-sS- izm-tkm-Nv-Om-k-Øn-\m-bn- A-Xv- hm-bphn-
`q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn- {]-tXy-Iw- F-Sp-Øp-]-d-tb-≠- H-cp- hnjb- s≥-d- H-cp- k-ap-{Zw- X-s∂- H-cp-°p-∂p.- A-Xn-\v- ]p-d-sa- _m-lym-Im-
a-√-t√m.- H-cp- J--tK-m-fim-kv-{X-Pv-R-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®n-S-tØm-f-hpw- i-Øn-se- N-n-e- sIm-Spw-Zp-c-¥-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- Im-Øp-c-£n-°p-∂- Hcp-
`q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn- hn-kv-a-bm-h-l-am-b- H-cp- {]-Xn-`m-k-sam-∂p- I-h-N-am-bpw- A-Xv- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p.-
a-√.- F-∂m¬- `q-an-bn¬- am-{Xw- {]-]-©-\m-Y≥- kw-hn-[m-\n-®- khn-
""iz-kn-°m-\p-≈- hm-bp-hn-s≥-d- {]m-[m-\yw- G-sXm-cmƒ°pw- s]
ti-j- ku-I-cy-߃- F-√m-h-cp-sS-bpw- N-n-¥-°v- hn-j-bo-`hn-t°-
s´-∂v- a-\-kn-em-Ip-sa-¶n-epw- P-\-ß-fp-sS- X-e-°v- ao-sX- \n-e-sIm-
≠-Xm-Wv.- a-\p-jy-Po-hn-Xw- B- ku-I-cy-ß-fp-sS- A-`m-h-Øn¬-
≈p-∂- A-Xy-¥w- {]m-[m-\y-ap-≈- H-cp- ta¬-∏p-c- F-∂- \n-e-bn¬-
A-km-[y-am-bn-cn-°pw.- A-X-p-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- A-h- H-cp-°n-Ø-∂-
A-¥-co-£ta-em-∏n-s\- hn-`m-h-\w- sN-øm≥- {]-bm-kw- tXm-∂n-tb-
{kjvS- m-hn-\v- a-\p-jy≥- F-{X- \-µn- tc-Js - ∏-Sp-Øn-bm-epw- a-Xn-bmIn-
°mw.- F-∂m¬- Hm-tcm- \n-an-j-Øn-epw- kq-cy-\n¬-\n-∂p-≈- am-c-I-
√.- Cu- cw-K-Øm-Wv- Jp¿-B≥- Du-∂¬- \¬-Ip-∂-Xv.-
am-b- hn-In-cW
- ß
- ƒ-s°-Xn-sc- A-¥c - o-£w- \-ap-s°m-cp- I-hN- a
- mbn-
`q-an-bp-sS- k-hn-ti-j-X-Iƒ- h¿-Øn-°p-∂p''.- (Secrets of Space-Aldus Books London P.O.86)
`q-an-sb- a-‰v- {K-lß
- f
- n¬-\n-∂v- hy-Xy- k
- X
v- a
- m-°n- \n¿-Øp-∂- khn- `qan-sb-∂- sa-Ø-
ti-j-X-Iƒ- F-s¥m-s°-bm-Wv?-
""`q-an-sb- \n-߃-°v- sa-Ø-bm-°n-Ø-∂n-cn-°p-∂p''- (2:-22)- F∂-
""kw-c-£n-X-am-b- ta¬-∏p-c-''- (hn.-Jp.- 21:-33)- F-∂v- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿ h-N-\-sØ-bpw- B-[p-\n-I-\n-K-a-\-ß-fp-sS- sh-fn-®-Øn-em-Wv- hne-
B≥- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂- A-¥-co-£- ta-em-∏v- ap-tJ-\- `q-an-bn¬- bn-cp-tØ-≠-Xv.- am-c-I-am-b- c-iv-an-I-tf¬-°m-sX, D¬-°m-\n-]m-X-
Po-hn-Xw- kw-c-£n-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂-Xm-Wv- `q-an-bp-sS- au-en- sØ- `-b-s∏-Sm-sX,- H-cp- Hm-Iv-kn-P≥- kn-en-≠¿- Iq-sS-sIm-≠p-t]m-
I-am-b- k-hn-ti-j-X-I-fn-sem-∂v.- a-‰v- {K-l-ß-fn-tem- N-{µ-\n-tem- Im-sX,- `m-ck- ¥- p-e\
- w- \n-e\
- n¿-Øn-s°m-≠v,- \n-b{- ¥n-Xa
- m-b- Dujv-
A-Øc-sam-cp- km-l-N-cy-an-√.- {]m-W-hm-bp-hn-s≥-d- A-`m-hw,- am-c- am-hn¬- a-e¿-∂p-In-S-∂v- H-∂v- hn-{i-an-°m-\p-≈- {]-Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-am-b-
I-am-b- hn-In-c-W-߃,- D¬-°-Iƒ- F-√mw- tN¿-∂v- a-‰v- {K-l-ß- sa-Ø- ku-c-bq-Y-Øn¬- `q-ap-J-Øv- am-{X-am-Wp-≈-Xv.- `q-an- Po-hPm-
fn¬- Po-hn-Xw- A-km-[y-am-°p-tºmƒ- A-\n-X-c-am-b- A-¥-co-£-a- e-߃-°v- h-k-Xn-bm-bpw- hn-{i-a-kv-Y-e-am-bpw- kw-hn-[m-\n-°-s∏-
Wv-U-ew- _m-ly-{]-]-©-Øn¬-\n-∂v- h-cp-∂- hn-]-Øp-I-sf- XS ´-t∏mƒ- F-{X-am-{Xw- I-Wn-i-am-b- ]-cn-kv-Yn-Xn- \n-b-{¥-W-߃-
™p-\n¿-Øn- `q-an-sb- kw-c£ - n-°p-∂p-;- {]m-Wh - m-bp- ap-tJ-\- Poh≥- ]m-en-°-s∏-´n-´p-s≠-∂v- im-kv-{Xw- C-t∏m-gpw- hn-e-bn-cp-Øn-s°m-
\n-e-\n¿-Øp-∂p.- ≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.-
Secrets of Space F-∂- {K-\v-Y-Øn¬- Anthony feldman ]-d-bp∂p:-
The atmosphere performs two vital roles, It provides an ocean of sh-≈w,- sh-≈w- k¿-∆-{X,- ]-t£........-
air that enables living creatures to breath and it also acts as a shield hm-bp-t]m-se- X-s∂- \-ap-°v- ]-cn-Nn-Xa
- m-Wv- sh-≈h
- pw.- F-∂m¬-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 46- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 47

{]-]-©-Øn-se- A-Xp-ey-am-b- bu-Kn-I-fn-sem-∂m-Wv- sh-≈w.- \Ωp- ]m-Z-\-ß-f-m-Wv- Jp-¿-B-\-n-ep-≈-Xv- F-∂- Im-cyw- Jp¿-B-s≥-d- ssZ-
sS- X-e-°v- ap-I-fn¬- a-g-bm-bn- sNm-cn-bp-∂,- P-em-i-b-ß-fn¬- kw`- hn-I-X-°v- km-£yw- h-ln-°p-∂p.- Im-‰v,- Im¿-ta-Lw,- C-Sn-bpw- an∂-
cn-°m-hp-∂- sh-≈w- C-√m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-¬- Cu- `q-an-bn¬- Po-h≥- \ne- epw-,- a-g,- `qK¿-`P-ew- C-h-sb- H-cp- Nm-{In-I{]-{In-b-bp-sS- `m-K-ßfm-
\n¬-°n-√m-bn-cp-∂p.- {Z-ha - m-bpw- J-ca
- m-bpw- hm-XI - a- m-bpw- amdn- Poh- bn- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂p.-
Pm-e-ß-fp-sS- hnhn-[- B-h-iy-߃- \n-d-th-‰p-∂- Im-em-h-kv-Y-sb- `q-an-bn-se- {]-tXy-I- Xm-]-\n-e-bm-Wv- a-s‰m-cp- \n¿-Wm-b-I- LS-
B-sI- \n-b{- ¥n-°p-∂- kz-m`- m-hn-I- hm-Xm-\p-Iq-eØ - n-\v- k-lm-bn°p- Iw.- A-\y-{K-lß - f - n¬-\n-∂p-am-{X-a√ - ,- `q-an-bp-sS- D-]{- K-la - m-b- N{µ-
∂- Water Cycle A-Y-hm- P-e-N-{Iw- F-ß-s\- \n-b-{¥n-°-s∏-Sp∂p?- \n¬-\n-∂p-t]m-epw- hy-Xy-kv-X-am-bn- `q-an-bp-sS- D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-\v-
C-∂pw- D-Ø-cw-In-´m-Ø- k-a-ky-bm-Wv- Im-em-h-kv-Y-bp-sS- K-Xn-hnK- k¥p-e-n-X-am-b- Du-jv-am-hv- \¬-I-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-¥-co-£-Øn-
Xn-Iƒ.- "`q-an-sb- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- I-fn-sØm-´n-em-°p-∂-Xn¬'- (hn.-Jp.- se-bpw- `q-K¿`-Øn-se-bpw- k-hn-ti-j- km-l-N-cy-ß-fm-Wv- C-Xn\v-
78:-6)- ap-Jy- ]-¶p-h-ln-°p-∂- H-cp- L-S-I-a-s{X- sh-≈w.- A-Xn-s\-∏ k-lm-bn-°p-∂-Xv.- X-Wp-Øp-d-bp-I-tbm- Np-s´-cn-bp-I-tbm- sN-øm-
‰n- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-:-""A-√m-lp-hm-Wv- A-h-s≥-d- Im-cp Ø- Du-jv-a-f-am-b- H-cp- sa-Ø-bs{X- Cu- A¿-Y-Øn¬- `q-X-ew.- cm-
Wy-Øn-s≥-d- ap-t∂m-Sn-bm-bn- Im-‰p-I-sf- A-b-°p-∂-h≥.- H-Sp-hn¬- {Xn-Im-e-ß-fn¬- N-t{µm-]-cn-X-e-Øn-se- Xm-]w- K-Wy-am-bn- Ip-d
P-e-`m-cw- Xn-ßp-∂- ta-L-sØ- A-h- h-ln-°p-tºmƒ- ar-X-{]m-bam- bp-tºmƒ- `qan-bn¬- A-ß-s\- kw-`-hn-°p-∂n-√.- `q-K¿-`-Xm-]w- D-]-
b- H-cp- {]-tZ-i-tØ-°v- A-Xn-s\- \mw- \-bn-°p-I-bpw- A-ß-s\- A cn-X-e-Øn-te-°v- t\-cn-b- tXm-Xn¬- kw-{I-an-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- C-Xn-\v-
Xp-aq-ew- \mw- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-bp-I-bpw- F-√m-Ø-cw- Im-bv-I-\n-Ifpw- Im-c-Ww.- ]-I¬- k-a-b-Øv- A-¥-co-£-]m-fn-Iƒ- k-q-cy-c-iv-an-I-sf-
\mw- A-Xp-aq-ew- D¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- A-{]-Im-c-am-Wv- A-cn-s®-Sp-Øv- ip-≤o-Ic - n-°p-Ib - pw- sa-cp-°n-sb-Sp-Øv- ]m-Is - ∏-SpØp-
a-cn-®h - s- c-bpw- \mw- ]p-dØ- p-sIm-≠p-hc - p-∂X- v.- \n-߃- kva - c
- n-°p∂-
I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.-
h-cm-sb-¶n¬''- (7:-57).-
kq-cy-\p-am-bp-≈- A-Ie - Ø
- n¬- `q-an-bp-tS-Xn¬-\n-∂pw- h-fs - csbm-
Im-e-h¿-j-°m-‰v,- a-g,- \-Zn-Iƒ,- k-ap-{Z-߃- C-h-sb-√mw-sIm≠v-
∂pw- `n-∂-a-√m-Ø- kv-Ym-\-am-Wv- N-{µ-t≥-d-Xv.- ]-t£,- N-t{µm-]-cn-
A-\p-{K-lo-X-am-b- H-tc-sbm-cp- {K-lw- `q-an-bm-Wv.- _p-[-{K-l-Øn¬-
X-ew- H-cn-°-epw- Po-h-Pm-e-߃-°v- sa-Ø-sbm-cp-°p-I-bn-s√-∂m-
A-¥-co-£-ta- C-√.- ip-{I-\n¬- A-¥-co-£-ap-s≠-¶n-epw- A-Xv- Im¿
Wv- F-√m- im-kv-{X\n-K-a-\-ß-fpw- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xv.- sh-≈an-
_¨,- kƒ-^¿- Hm-Iv-ssk-Up-I-fp-sS- H-cp- an-{in-Xw- am-{X-a-s{X.-
√m-Ø,- Im-¥h - e- b
- w- Zp¿-_e - a
- m-b- N-t{µm-]{- K-lw- Xm-]\ - n-eb - nepw-
sNm-∆-bp-sS- A-¥-co-£-Øn¬- P-emw-i-ap-s≠-¶n-epw- A-hn-sS-bpw-
`q-an-bn¬-\n-∂v- h-f-sc- `n-∂-am-Wv.-
P-e-N-{Iw- cq-]w-sIm-≠n-´n-√.- hym-g-Øn¬- ssl-t{Um-kƒ-ss^-Un-
s≥-d-bpw- A-tam-Wn-bw- {I-n-kv-‰-ep-I-fp-sS-bpw- ssl-{U-P-s≥-d-bpw- N-{µ-s≥-d- a-[y-tc-Jm-{]-tZ-i-Øv- \´p-®-k-a-b-sØ- Xm-]w- G-I
Iq-sS- ln-a-I-W-ß-fp-s≠-¶n-epw- a-g-bpw- P-em-i-b-ß-fp-an-√.- ln-a tZ-iw- 1340cbpw- A¿-≤c - m-{Xn-bn¬- 1530cbpw B-Ip-∂p.- A-sX- s]mcn-
I-h-N-Øn¬- s]m-Xn-™p-In-S-°p-∂- bq-dm-\-kn-s≥-d-bpw- s\-]v-‰yq- bp-∂- D-®-bpw- X-Wp-Øp-d-bp-∂- cm-{Xn-bpw.- ssSw- A-‰v-e-kv- tc-J
Wn-s≥-d-bpw- A-¥-co-£-Øn¬- ao-sX-bv-\m-Wp-≈-Xv.- s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:-
Im-‰n-s\-bpw- a-g-sb-bpw- `q-K¿-`-P-e-sØ-bpw- ]-‰n- hy-Iv-X-am-b- That the Earth and Moon are very different world is beyond doubt.
Im-gvN- ∏ - m-Sv- k-ao-]\q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-hs - c- im-kv{- X-Øn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√.- But how they evolved so differently is still a matter for conjecture
Jp¿-Bs - ≥-d- A-hX - c
- W
- I- m-es- Ø- A-d_ - n-Iƒ-°v- im-k{v- X-Øn-s≥d- (Time Atlas 6th Edn. 1980)
_m-e-]m-T-߃- t]m-epw- A-dn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- B- \n-e-°v- Cu- ""`q-an-bpw- N-{µ-\pw- h-f-sc- hn-`n-∂-am-b- tem-I-ß-fm-Ip-∂p- F∂-
Im-cy-ß-sf-∏-‰n- B-[p-\n-I- \n-K-a-\-ß-fp-am-bn- tbm-Pn-°p-∂- {]Xn- h-kv-Xp-X- kw-i-bm-Xo-X-a-s{X.- ]-s£,- C-{X-bpw- hy-Xym-k-ap-≈-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 48- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 49

Xm-bn- A-h- F-ßs- \- ]-cn-Wa


- n-®p- F-∂- hn-jb
- s
- Ø- ]-‰n- C-t∏mgpw- °mƒ- F-{X-tbm- h-ep-Xm-bn-cn-°pw- ap-ß-n-°n-S-°p-∂- `m-K-sa-∂-
Du-ln-°m-t\- I-gn-bq''.- t]m-se ]¿-h-X-߃-°v- Io-gn-ep-≈- I-cn-ºm-d- ta-J-e- k-a-X-e-߃
°v- Io-sg-bp-≈-Xn-s≥-d- \m-en-c-´n-tbm-fw- I-\-ap-≈-X-m-bn-cn-°pw''.-
]¿-h-X-߃- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Wn-Iƒ-
`q-an-bp-sS- k-¥p-en-X-Xz-Øn¬- ]¿-h-X-߃-°p-≈- ]-¶m-Wv-
""\mw- `q-an-sb- sXm-´n-epw- ]¿-∆X
- ß
- s
- f- B-Wn-If - p-am-°n-bn-t√?''- hnip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- ssZ-hn-IZr-jv-Sm-¥-sa-∂- \n-e-bn¬- Nq-≠n-°m-
(hn.-Jp.- 78:-7)- Wn-°p-∂- a-s‰m-cp- Im-cyw.- C-∂pw- A-]-Iz-a-Xn-I-fm-b- hn-a¿-i-I-
]p-cm-X-\- A-d-_n-Iƒ-t°m- a-‰v- P-\-hn-`m-K-߃-t°m- ]¿-h-X ∑m¿- X-≈n-∏-d-bm-dp-≈- Cu- ssZ-hn-IZr-jv-Sm-¥-sØ- km-£y-s∏-
߃- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Wn-I-fm-sW-∂- [m-c-W- D-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- A-h Sp-Xp-∂- hn-[-Øn-em-Wv- B-[p-\n-I- K-th-j-W-߃- \o-ßp-∂-Xv.-
cp-sS- Ir-Xn-I-fn-sem-∂pw- ]¿-h-X-sØ-]-‰n- A-ß-s\-sbm-cp- ho-£ ""`q-an-bn¬- \mw- D-d-®p-\n¬-°p-∂- ]¿-h-X-ß-fp-≠m-°n-bn-cn-°p
Ww- Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂n-√.- A-Xp-sIm-≠v- X-s∂- D-]-cyp-Iv-X- Jp¿-B≥- ∂p-.- `q-an- A-h-sc-bpw sIm-≠v- \o-ßn-t∏m-Im-Xn-cn-°m≥''- (hn.-Jp.-
kq-Iv-X-sØ- im-kv-{Xo-bm-S-n-kv-Ym-\-an-√m-Ø- H-cp- {]-kv-Xm-ham-bn- 21:-31).-
]-e-cpw- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v.-
a-‰v- A-t\-Iw- h-m-Iy-ß-fn-epw- ]¿-h-X-߃- \¬-Ip-∂- kp-kv-Yn
F-∂m¬- `q-K¿-`-im-kv-{X- cw-K-sØ- B-[p-\n-I- K-th-j-W-߃- c-X- Jp¿-B≥- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p-≠v.-
sX-fn-bn-°p-∂-Xv- ]¿-h-X-߃- `q-an-sb- kw-_-\v-[n-®n-S-tØm-fw-
`q-I-º-X-cw-K-ß-sf-bpw- `q-`m-K-{`w-i-ß-sf-bpw- `q-K¿-`-N-e-\-ß-
GX¿-Y-Øn-epw- B-Wn-I-fm-sW-∂m-Wv.- sf-bpw- ]-‰n-bp-≈- B-[p-\n-I]-T-\-߃- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d-
`q-K¿-`-im-kv-{X-Øn-se- H-cp- B-[n-Im-cn-I- {K-\v-Y-Øn¬- tc-Js∏- A-h-X-c-W-Im-e-Øv- tem-I-Øn-\v- A-Pv-Rm-X-am-bn-cp-∂- [m-cm-fw-
Sp-Øn-b-Xv- t\m-°p-I-:- h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ- sh-fn-®-Øv- sIm-≠p-h-∂n-´p-≠v.- A-h-bn¬- ]-e-Xpw-
The failure of certain earth quake waves to pass beneath huge ]¿-h-X-ß-sf-∏-‰n-bp-≈- Jp¿-B-\n-I- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fp-sS- k-Xy-X-
granitic ranges and reduced attraction of gravity near such mountain bnte-°v- hn-c¬- Nq-≠p-∂-X-s{X.-
masses suggest that those mountains reach down to considerable `q-I-º-X-cw-K-ß-fp-sS- th-K-X-sb- \n-b-{¥n-®p-sIm-≠pw,- `q-tKm-
depths-having roots as it were, in the underlying basalt like an iceberg's
f-Øn-s≥-d- B-¥-cn-I-hpw- _m-ly-hp-am-b- L-S-\- ]-cn-c-£n-°p-∂-
their submerged part is greater than their exposed parts. The granitic
Xn¬- ]¿-h-X-߃- h-ln-°p-∂- ]-¶v- `q-K¿-`-im-kv-{Xw- B-[p-\n-I-
zone under mountains may be as much as four times as thick as it is
under plains. km-t¶-Xn-I- hn-Zy-bp-sS- k-lm-b-tØm-sS- C-∂v- kq-£v-a-am-bn- hne-
bn-cp-Øns°m-≠n-cn-°p-Ib - m-Wv.- Zn-hy-Z¿-i\
- Ø
- n-s≥-d- A-`m-hØ
- n¬-
(Geolog Richard M. pearl 3rd Edn 1966 published by Barnes &
1400 h¿-jw-ap-ºv- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-°v- Cu- hn-j-bw- ]-cm-a¿-in-°m≥-
noble. Newyork)
Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.-
""I-\-Ø- I-cn-ºm-d-I-fp-≈- ta-J-e-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-eq-sS- `q-I-º- Xcw-
K-߃-°v- I-S-∂p-t]m-Im≥- I-gn-bp-∂n-√- F-∂-Xpw- A-Ø-cw- ]¿h- `q-tKm-fw- Jp¿-B-\n¬-
X
- `
- m-Kß- ƒ-°S- p-Øv- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-jW
- w- Ip-db
- p-∂p-sh-∂X - pw- kqNn- K-eo-en-tbm- K-eo-en-bm-Wv- `q-an- D-cp-≠-Xm-sW-∂v- {]-kv-Xm-hn-®-
∏n-°p-∂-Xv- B- ]¿-h-X-߃- K-Wy-am-b- Af-hn¬- D-≈n-te-°v- B-Zyhy-Iv-Xn-sb-∂pw- A-t±-l-Øn-\v- ap-ºv- F-√m-h-cpw- [-cn-®n-cp∂-
B≠p-In-S-°p-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv- A-Y-hm- A-Sn-bn¬- kv-Yn-Xn-sN-øp-∂- Xv- `q-an- ]-c-∂-Xm-sW-∂p-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂pw- ]-e-cpw- H-gp-°≥-a-´n¬-
_-kmƒ-´n¬- sN-‰p-ap-´p-∂- th-cp-Iƒ- A-h-bv-°p-s≠-∂m-Wv.- H-cp- ]-d-bm-dp-≠v.- Jp¿-B-\n¬- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb-∏-‰n-bm-Wv- ]-d-™n-´p-≈-
sF-kv- _¿-Kn-s≥-d- (ln-am-\n-bp-sS) s]m-ßn-°m-Wp-∂- `m-K-tØ- sX-∂pw- ap-kv-enw-I-sfm-s°- `q-an- ]-c∂-Xm-sW-∂m-bn-cp-∂p- [-cn-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 50- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 51

®n-cp-∂-sX-∂pw- C-kv-emw- hn-cp-≤¿- ]-d-™p-\-S-°m-dp-≠v.- C-°q´¿- (A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler by Ile Dreyar.
hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-s\-∏-‰n-bpw- ap-kv-enw- N-cn-{X-sØ-∏-‰n-bpw- A-Pv-R- 2nd Edn.Dover Publication, New york)
cm-sW-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- s]m-Xp-hn-Pv-Rm-\-Øn¬-t]m-epw- ]-cn-Xm-]-Ic- ""{]-]-©-hp-am-bn- Xp-e-\w- sN-øp-tºmƒ- h-f-sc- sN-dn-b- ]-cn-am
amw-hn-[w- ]n-t∂m-°-am-sW-∂m-Wv- sX-fn-bn-°p-∂-Xv.- Ww-- am-{X-ap-≈- H-cp- tKm-f-am-Wv- `q-an-sb-∂- h-kv-Xp-X- G-tXm- hn[-
k-l-{km-_v-Z-߃-°v- ap-ºp-X-s∂- Cu-Pn-]v-‰p-Im-cpw- tdm-am-°m Øn¬- A-td-_y≥- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°n-S-bn¬- A-\n-tj-[y-am-b-
cpw- a-‰pw- 3651/4 Zn-h-k-ap-≈- ku-c-h¿-jw- K-Wn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- Ncn- kzoIm-cy-X- t\-Sn-°-gn-™n-cp-∂p.- A-h¿-°n-S-bn¬- tPym-Xn-im-kv-
{X-Øn-s≥-d- _m-e-]m-T-sa-¶n-epw- ]-Tn-®-h¿-s°m-s°- A-dn-bmw.- {X-Øn-s≥-d- D-Z-vK-Xn-sb-Xp-S¿-∂v- BZy-am-bn- \-S-Ø-s∏-´- im-kv-{Xo-
Ipsd- {]m-h-iyw- ss\¬- \-Zn-bn¬- ]-c-am-h-[n- sh-≈w- I-bd-- p-∂- Zn b- kw-cw-`w- `-q-an-bp-sS- h-en-∏w- \n¿-W-bn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- ]m¬an-
h-k-߃- \n-co-£n-®n-´v- A-Ø-cw- c-≠v- Zn-h-k-߃- X-Ωn-ep-≈- dm- k-a-X-e-Øn¬- J-eo-^m- am-aq-p-s≥-d- D-Ø-c-hv- {]-Im-c-am-Wv- AXv-
A-I-ew- I-W-°m-°n- A-Xn-s≥-d- i-cm-i-cn- K-Wn-®n-´m-Wv- 3651/4 \-S∂ - X - v.- C-_v\
- p-bq-\p-kv- \¬-In-bn-´p-≈- hn-hc- ß
- f
- \- p-kc
- n-®v- A∂v-
F-∂- D-Ø-cw- In-´n-b-sX-∂v- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn-bm-b- H-cp- \-c-hw-i- imkv- \m-ev- \n-co-£-I-∑m¿- tN¿-∂v- H-cp- Un-{Kn-bp-sS- ssZ¿-Lyw- A-f°p-
{X-PvR
- ≥- tc-Js - ∏-Sp-Øn-°≠- p.- Pq-en-b≥- I-e≠
- ¿- cq-]w-sIm-≠Xv- I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-X-Xv.- c-≠p-t]¿- hm-an-bv-°pw- X-Zv-aq-dn-\pw- C-S-°pw,-
F-hn-sS- sh-≈w- I-b-dn-b-Xn-s≥-d- I-W-°p-t\m-°n-bn-´m-sW-∂v- B- a-‰v- c-≠p-t]¿- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´n-´n-√m-Ø- a-s‰m-cp- ta-J-e-bn-ep-
cpw- F-hn-sS-bpw- F-gp-Xn-°-≠n-√.- `q-an- kq-cy-\v- Np-‰pw- H-cp- {]Z£n- am-Wv- A-f-hp-I-sf-Sp-Ø-Xv.- B-Zyw- In-´n-b- A-f-h-\p-k-cn-®v- H-cp-
Ww- ]q¿-Øn-bm-°m-s\-Sp-°p-∂- k-a-b-Øn-\v- Xp-ey-am-b- H-cp-h¿- Un-{Kn- 57 A-td-_y≥- \m-gn-I-°v- Xp-ey-am-bn-cp-∂p.- c-≠m-a-Xv- In-´n
jw- I-Wn-i-am-bn- K-Wn-®-h¿- ]m-b- t]m-se-tbm- ]-∏-Sw- t]m-se- b- A-f-h-\p-k-cn-®v- 56.-25\m-gn-I-bpw.- 4000ap-g-a-s{X- H-cp- A-td-_y≥-
tbm- D-≈- `q-an-sb- a-\-kn¬- I≠p-sIm-≠m-Wv- A-ß-s\- sN-bv-X- \m-gn-I.- A-¥n-a- hn-i-I-e-\-Øn¬- c-≠v- A-f-hp-I-fp-sS-bpw- Iq-Sn-
sX-∂v- hm-Zn-°m≥- \n-jv-]-£-a-Xn-Iƒ-°v- km-[y-a-√.- K-eo-en-tbm- G-ItZ-i- i-cm-i-cn- 3651/3 \m-gn-I- H-cp- Un-{Kn-bp-sS- ssZ¿-Ly-am-
]n-d-°p-∂-Xn-\v- \q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºp-X-s∂- ap-kv-enwim-kv-{X- bn- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- A-ß-s\- `q-an-bp-sS- Np-‰-f-hv- 20400 \mgn-
PvR-∑m-cpw- a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m-cpw- `q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-sb-∏-‰n- I-bm-bpw- hym-kw- 6500 \m-gn-I-bm-bpw- K-Wn-°-s∏-´p''- (tPym-Xn-
tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p-≠v.- im-kv-{X- N-cn-{Xw- sX-bv¬-kv- ap-X¬- sI-π¿- h-sc).-
Any how, the fact of the earth being a sphere of very small dimen- `q-an-sb- H-cp- tKm-f-am-bn- I-≠-p-sIm-≠v- C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- {]-`m-h
sions in comparison to the size of the universe was accepted without Im-e-Øv- (tIm-∏¿- \n-°-kpw- K-eo-en-tbm-bpw- P-\n-°p-∂-Xn-\v- \q‰m-
a position by every Arabian Scholar, and the very first scientific work ≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºv) \-S-Ø-s∏-´- \n-co-£-W- K-th-j-W-ß-fp-sS- sNdn-
undertaken after the vise of Astronomy among them was a determi- sbm-cw-iw- am-{X-am-Wv- Cu- D-≤-c-Wn-bn¬- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°-s∏-´Xv.-
nation of the size of the earth. It was carried out by order of Khalif hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- ssZ-hn-I-X-bn¬- ]q¿-W-am-bn- hn-izm-k-
Al-Mamoon in the plane Palmyra according to the account given by
a¿-∏n-®n-cp-∂-h¿- X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p- Cu- K-th-j-W-ß-fn-te¿-s∏-
Ibn Junus that the length of a degree was measured by two observers
´n-cp-∂-Xv.- `q-an- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-b-m-bn-cn-°p-I- F-∂-Xv- Jp¿-B-\v- hn-cp-
between Wamia and Tadmoor and by two others in another locality
we are not tole where. The first measure given a degree equal to 57, ≤-am-sW-∂v- A-h-tcm- A-h-cp-sS- k-a-Im-en-I-cm-b- ap-kv-enw- ]-WvUn-
and second one equal to 56.25 Arabian milesof 4000 black cubits, X-∑m-tcm- \n-cq-]n-°p-I-t]m-epw- sN-bv-Xn-´n-√.-
and the approximate mean 3652/3 -miles was adopted as the final re- X-s∂-bp-a-√- kq-cy-N-{µ-∑m-sc-bpw- cm-∏-I-ep-I-sf-bpw- ]-‰n- {]Xn-
search. The cricumference of the earth being 20400 miles and the ]m-Zn-°p-∂- k-µ¿-`-ß-fn¬- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥-- kzo-I-cn-®n-´p-≈-
diameter 6500 miles. ssien- hy-IvX - a- m-bpw- tKmfm-Ir-Xn-sb- Ip-dn-°p-∂X - m-sW-∂- Imcy-
Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 52- Jp¿B≥ Hcp kXymt\zjnbpsS apºn¬ 51

Øn¬- ap-kv-enw- k-ap-Zm-b-Øn-se- {]-ap-J- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°v- X¿-


°- a n- s √- ∂ v - am- k - ∏ n- d - h n- s b- ∏ - ‰ n- b p- ≈ - H- c p- e- L p- I r- X n- b n¬-
ssiJp¬- C-kv-emw- C-_v-\p-ssX-an-ø- kv-]-jv-S-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- {]ap-
J- Jp¿-B≥- hym-Jym-Xm-hm-b- C-amw- dm-kn-bpw- C-°m-cyw- A-k∂n-
Kv-≤-am-bn- Xp-d-∂v- ]-d-™n-´p-≠v.- C-_v-\p-ssX-an-b-bpw- C-amw- dmkn-
.....-ti-jw
bpw- \-thm-∞m-\-Im-e-Øn-\v- F-{X-tbm- ap-ºv- C-kv-em-an-I- hn-PvRm-
\o-bß - f - p-sS- sh-fn-®Ø - n¬- Im-cy-߃- t\m-°n-°≠ - - ]-WU v- n-X∑m-
c-s{X.-
hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B-\n-s≥-d- A-am-\p-jn-I-X-°p-≈- Hm-tcm- sX-fnhpw-
A-]-{K-Yn-®v- Cu- e-Lp-Ir-Xn- h-en-®p-\o-´m-\p-t±-in-°p-∂n-√.- h-m-b-\-°m-tcm-Sv,-
a-\p-jy-sc-∏-‰n-bpw- {]-]-©-sØ-∏-‰n-bpw- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- ]-X-\- a-\p-jy≥- k-Xyw- kzo-I-cn-°-W-sa-∂v- \n¿-_-\v-[-an-√.- ]t£,-
Øn\pw- D¬-I¿-j-Øn-\pw- \n-Zm-\-am-b- au-en-I- h-kv-Xp-X-I-sf-∏- k-Xyw- F-¥m-sW-∂v- I-≠p-]n-Sn-°m-\p-≈- Xm¬-]-cy-an-√m-bv-a- a\p-
‰n-bpw- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿-B≥- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p-∂- B-i-b-߃- tI-hew- jym-kv-Xn-Xz-Øn-\p--X-s∂- A-]-am-\-am-Wv.- A-Xn-s\- \n-tj-[n-°m≥-
H-cp- a-\p-jy-s≥-d- Nn-¥I - f - m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- A-h- H-cn-°e - pw- \nXy- im-iz-X- \-c-I-Øn-se-Øp-∂- ]m-X-I-am-Wv.-
k-Xy-ß-fm-Ip-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- Im-e-tZ-i-ß-fp-sS- A-Xn¿-h-c-ºp-Iƒ- ssZhw- a-\p-jy-\v- hn-th-Nn-°m-\p-≈- I-gn-hv- \¬-In-b-Xn-\m¬-
°-∏p-d-tØ-°v- A-h- \o-≠p-\n¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- Cu- h-kv-Xp-X- a-\p-jy≥- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-T-am-bn- hn-th-Nn-°p-sa-∂v- {]-Xo-£n-°p-∂p-
kp-X-cmw- hy-Iv-X-am-°p-∂-X-s{X- ap-I-fn¬- ]-cm-a¿-in-°-s∏-´- sXfn- sh-∂m-Wv- C-kve - mw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂X - v.- Nn-¥n-°p-I,- tNm-Zyw- sN-øpI,-
hp-Iƒ.- ho-≠pw- Nn-¥n-°p-I.-
C-kv-em-an-s≥-d- G-sX-¶n-epw- H-cp- A-[ym-]-\w- h-f-sc- [r-Xn-bn¬-
kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥- B-cpw- Xm-¶-sf- \n¿-_-\v-[n-°p-I-bn-√.- Ckv-emw-
a-\p-jy-\v- kz-ta-[b
- m- Nn-¥n-®v- sX-cs- ™-Sp-°p-hm-\p-≈k - z- m-X{- ¥yw-
A-\p-h-Zn-°p-∂p.- C-kv-em-an-s\- ]-‰n- Xm-¶-fp-sS- A-dn-hv- k-a-{K-am
tWm- F-∂v- kz-bw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-I.- D-≈- A-dn-hv- A-ap-kv-enw-
aqe-ß-fn¬-\n-∂pw- e-`n-®-Xm-tWm- F-∂pw.- A-Ø-cw- aqe-߃- Hcp-
]-s£,- C-kv-em-an-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®- `m-Kn-IZr-iy-ß-fn¬-\n-∂v- cq]-
s∏-´-Xpw- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-T-hpw- {I-a-hp-am-b- ]-cn-tim-[-\-°v- hn-t[-bam-
°m-Ø-h-bpw- BIm-\n-S-bp-≈-h-bm-tWm- F-∂pw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°pI.-
H-cp- ]-Yym-lm-cw- A-Xv- cp-Nn-®p-t\m-°m-Øh - c
- n¬-\n-∂p-≈- tI´p-
tIƒ-hn-bp-sS- A-Sn-kv-Ym-\-Øn¬- kzm-Zn-jv-S-am-tWm- F-∂v- Xo-cpam-
\n-°p-∂-Xv- \ym-b-bp-Iv-X-am-tWm?- A-√-t√-m.- A-Xp-t]m-se- C-kvem-
an-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- Xm-¶ƒ- H-cp- A-`n-{]m-bw- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv-
hn-iz-kv-X-am-b- aq-e-ß-fn¬- \n-∂m-bn-cn-°-Ww.- A-Xv- cp-Nn-®p-t\m-
-

°p-I- am-{X-a-√- A-Xv- Z-ln-°p-I-bpw- th-Ww,- Xm-¶ƒ- H-cp- A-`n{]m-


bw- cq-]s
- ∏-Sp-Øp-∂X - n-\v- ap-ºv.- A-Xm-bn-cn-°pw- C-kve
- m-an-t\
- m-Sp≈-
_p-≤n-am-s≥-d- k-ao-]-\w.-
Xm-¶ƒ-X-s∂- A-Sp-Ø-]-Sn- sX-c-s™-Sp-°p-I.- sX-c-s™-Sp-°p-
hm-\p-≈- Xm-¶-fp-sS- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw,- ssZ-hw- \¬-In-b- Xm-¶-fp-sS-
Nn-¥m-iI - X
v- n-bpw- tN-X\- b
- pw- D-]t- bm-Kn-°p-hm-\p-≈ kzm-X{- ¥yhpw-
B-Z-cn-°-s∏-Sp-sa-∂v- C-kv-emw- \n-c-¥-cw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- D-d-∏v- X-cp-∂p-
sh-∂-Xv- Xm-¶-sf- k-lm-bn-°pw.- F-√m-a-\p-jy¿-°pw- Cu- kzm-X-
{¥y-hm-Rv-O-bp-≠v.- a-s‰m-cmƒ-°pw- A-Xv- Xm-¶-fn¬-\n-∂v- F-Sp-Øp-
I-f-bm≥- A-[n-Im-c-an-√.- k-Xy-Øn-te-°p-≈- Xm-¶-fp-sS- _p-≤n-]-
c-am-b- bm-{X- kp-J-{]-Z-am-°-s´- F-∂pw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- tem-I-{k-jvSm-
hv- k-Xyw- kzo-I-cn-°m-\p-≈- sI¬-∏v- \¬-I-s´- F-∂pw- R-߃-
B-iw-kn-°p-∂p.-
Xm-¶ƒ-°v- C-kv-em-an-s\- kw-_-\v-[n-®v- h-kv-Xp-\n-jv-S-am-bn- ]Tn-
°-W-sa-∂v- B-{K-l-ap-s≠-¶n¬- \n-®v- Hm-^v- {Sq-Øn-s\- k-ao-
]n°pI.-

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