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LESSON 7: UNIT II

GOVERNORS GOVERNORS

In this lecture we will start our next chapter governors. You Principle of Operation
THEORY OF MACHINES-II

might have listened the word flywheel, governor is also like this When the load on an engine increases or decreases, obviously its
but it has also some difference in function. So let us discuss speed will respectively decrease or increase to the extent of
governors and its types. variation of load. This variation of speed has to be controlled
Introduction by the governor, within small limits of the mean speed. This
The function of the governor, as applied to the engines, is to necessities that when the load increases and consequently the
adjust the supply of fuel according to the load requirements so speed decreases, the supply of fuel to one engine has to be
as to keep the speeds at various, loads, as close to the mean increased accordingly, to compensate for the loss of the speed,
speed as possible, over long range of working of the engines. so as to bring back the speed close to the mean speed. Con-
Its function is distinct from that of a flywheel, which acts as a versely when the load decreases, and the speed increase, the
reservoir and keeps the speed within certain limits of the mean supply of fuel has to be reduced. This implies that the governor
speed during the thermodynamic cycles. The function of a should have its mechanism working in such a way, that the
flywheel is continuous from cycle to cycle, nut that of governor supply of fuel is automatically regulated according to the load
it is more or less intermittent i.e. it reacts only whenever there is requirement for maintaining approximately a constant speed.
variation of load. There are some general terms used in governors that describe
In brief governor takes care of the change of speed due to load qualities of governor. These terms are as:
variation over periods of the engine’s running and tends to 1. Height of governor: It is the vertical distance between the
keep it as close to the mean speed as possible, where as the center of the governor halls and the point of intersection
flywheel is responsible only in keeping the speed fluctuations, between the upper arms on the axis of spindle is known as
during each cycle within certain permissible limits of the mean governor height. It is generally denoted by h.
speed. As such, one cannot be replaced by the other.
2. Equilibrium speeds-the speeds at which the governor balls,
Chapter Learning Objectives the arms etc. are in complete equilibrium and the sleeve doest
After studying this chapter you should understand not tend to move upward or downward are called the
• Function of governor equilibrium speeds. The speed at the mean position of the
balls or the sleeve is the mean equilibrium speed and at the
• Working of centrifugal governors
maximum and minimum radius of rotation of the balls
• Effect of friction on functioning of governor. without tending to move either way are termed as maximum
• Difference between a porter and a hartnell governor and minimum equilibrium speeds respectively. There can be
• Sensitiveness, stability, isochronism, hunting in connection many equilibrium speeds between the mean and maximum
with governors and the mean and the minimum equilibrium speeds.
• Effort and power in governors 3. Sleeve lift: the vertical distance the sleeve travels due to change
Comparison between a flywheel and governor: in the equilibrium speed is called the sleeve lift. The vertical
downward travel may be termed as negative lift.
S.no Flywheel Governor
1 It is provided on the engine and It is provided on prime movers 4. Effort and power of a governor-a governor running at a
fabricating machines viz., rolling such as engines and turbines constant speed is in equilibrium and the resultant force acting
mills; punching machines; shear on the sleeve is zero. if the speed of the governor increases
machines, presses etc.
2. Its function is to store available Its function is to regulate the supply there is a force on the sleeve which tends to lift it. This force
mechanical energy when it is in of driving fluid producing energy, will gradually go on decreasing till the governor starts
to part with the same when the so that at different loads almost a
rotating in equilibrium at the new position of rotation. The
available energy is less than that constant speed is maintained. mean force acting on the sleeve for a given change of speed
required by the load. or lift of the sleeve is known as the governor effort.
3. In engines it takes care of It take care of fluctuation of speed
fluctuations of speed during due to variation of load over range 5. Controlling force: the force acting radially upon the rotating
thermodynamic cycle. of working of engines and turbines. balls to counteract its centrifugal force, is called the
4. It works continuously from cycle to It works intermittently, i.e. only
cycle. when there is change in the load. controlling force. It is provided by wt of the sleeve, central
5. In fabrication machines it is very But for governor, there would have load on the sleeve, compressed spring and the last one i.e.
economical to use it as its use been unnecessarily more the wt of the balls.
reduces capital investment on prime consumption of driving fluid thus it
movers and their running expenses. economizes its consumption 6. Isochronism: this is an extreme case of sensitiveness. When
the equilibrium speed is constant for all radii of rotation of
the balls within the working range, the governor is said to be
in isochronism. This means that the difference between the

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maximum and minimum equilibrium speeds is zero and the

THEORY OF MACHINES-II
sensitiveness shall be infinite.
7. Hunting: The phenomenon of continuous fluctuation of
the engine speed above and below the mean speed is termed
as hunting. This occurs in over-sensitive or isochronous
governors.
Suppose an isochronous governor is fitted to an engine
speed will fall and the sleeve will immediately fall to its
lowest position. This shall open the control valve wide and
excess supply of energy will be given, with the result that the
speed will rapidly increase and the sleeve will rise to its higher
position. As a result of this movement of the sleeve, the
control valve will be cut off; the supply to the engine and the
speed will again fall, the cycle being repeated indefinitely. Such When the loads on the engine increases, the engine and the
a governor would admit either more or less amount of fuel governor speed decreases. This results in the decrease of
and so effect would be, that the engine would hunt. centrifugal force on the balls. Hence the balls move inwards and
the sleeve move downwards. The downward movement of the
8. Sensitiveness: A governor is said to be sensitive, if its change sleeve operates a throttle valve at the other end of the bell crank
of speed s from no load to full load may be as small a lever to increase the supply of working fluid and thus the
fraction of the mean equilibrium speed as possible and the engine.
corresponding sleeve lift may be as large as possible.
Characteristics Of Centrifugal Governors
Suppose
For satisfactory performance and working a centrifugal governor
ω1 = max. equilibrium speed
should possess the following qualities.
ω2 = min. equilibrium speed
ω = mean equilibrium speed =(ω1+ω2)/2 a. On the sudden removal of load its sleeve should reach at the
Therefore sensitiveness = (ω1-ω2)/2 top most position at once.
b. Its response to the change of speed should be fast.
Classification of Governors
Governors are classified based upon two different principles. c. Its sleeve should float at some intermediate position under
These are: normal operating conditions.
1. Centrifugal governors d. At the lowest position of sleeve the engine should develop
maximum power.
2. Inertia governors
e. It should have sufficient power, so that it may be able to
Centrifugal Governors exert the required force at the sleeve to operate the control &
Principle of Working mechanism.
The centrifugal governors are based on the balancing of
Inertia Governors
centrifugal force on the rotating balls by an equal and opposite
radial force, known as the controlling force. It consists of two Introduction
balls of equal mass, which are attached to the arms as shown in The inertia type governors are fitted to the crankshaft or
fig. These balls are known as governor balls or fly balls. The flywheel of an engine and so radically in appearance from the
balls revolve with a spindle, which is driven by the engine centrifugal governors. The balls are so arranged that the inertia
through bevel gears. The upper ends of the arms are pivoted to forces caused by an angular acceleration or retardation of the
the spindle, so that the balls may rise up or fall down as they shaft tend to alter their positions. The amount of displacement
revolve about the vertical axis. The arms are connected by the of governor balls is controlled by the suitable springs and
links to a sleeve, which is keyed to the spindle. This sleeve through the governor mechanism, alters the fuel supply to the
revolves with the spindle but can slide up & down. The balls engine. This governor is more sensitive than the centrifugal, but
and the sleeve rises when the spindle speed increases and falls it becomes difficult to completely balance the revolving parts.
when the speed decreases. In order to limit the travel of the For this reason centrifugal governors are more frequently used.
sleeve in upward and downward directions, two stops S, S are Let us continue with centrifugal governors again as it can be
provided on the spindle. The sleeve is connected by a bell crank further classified as
lever to a throttle valve. The supply of the working fluid
decreases when the sleeve rises and increases when it falls.

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THEORY OF MACHINES-II

So we have seen that there are various types of centrifugal

governors depending upon the type of the main controlling
force provided on the balls.
1. Watt’s governor
2. The Porter governor
3. The Proell governor