EISAGWGH STHN K-JEWRIA

Iwˆnnhc P. Z¸hc

E-mail: i.zois@exeter.oxon.org
19 Maòou 2010

Perieqìmena
1 (An¸terh) Algebrik  K-JewrÐa 9

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

Diˆlexh 1 Diˆlexh 2 Diˆlexh 3 Diˆlexh 4 Diˆlexh 5 Diˆlexh 6

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10 16 21 25 30 36

2

Analutik  K-JewrÐa (K-OmologÐa)

40

2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Diˆlexh 1 Diˆlexh 2 Diˆlexh 3 Diˆlexh 4 Diˆlexh 5 Diˆlexh 6

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40 46 51 55 59 65

3

Topologik  K-JewrÐa

69

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Diˆlexh 1 Diˆlexh 2 Diˆlexh 3 Diˆlexh 4 Diˆlexh 5 Diˆlexh 6

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69 75 80 86 92 98

4

Parˆrthma

103

1

SÔntomo Biografikì ShmeÐwma tou Suggrafèa:

O Iwˆnnhc Panagi¸tou Z¸hc genn jhke to 1968 sth Bèroia.

Metˆ to

pèrac twn proptuqiak¸n tou spoud¸n sto Tm ma Fusik c tou PanepisthmÐou Ajhn¸n, ap' ìpou apofoÐthse me ' Arista, sunèqise tic metaptuqiakèc tou spoudèc sthn AgglÐa: Mˆster (

Part III of the Mathematical Tripos)
H trimel c epitrop  thc

sto Panepist mio tou Kèimpritz (Kollègio Emmanou l) kai Didaktorikì sto Panepist mio thc Oxfìrdhc (Kollègio 'Exeter).

Simon K. Donaldson FRS (Fields Medal 1986, Crafoord Prize 1996), Roger Penrose OM, FRS kai Sheung-Tsoun Tsou. 'Htan upìtrofoc, metaxÔ ˆllwn, thc Eurwdidaktorik c tou diatrib c apartizìtan apì touc kajhghtèc paðk c 'Enwshc, thc Brettanik c Kubèrnhshc, tou IKU ('Idruma Kratik¸n Upotrofi¸n), tou KoinwfeloÔc IdrÔmatoc IdrÔmatoc
A.G. Lebènthc A.S. Wnˆshc

kai tou KoinwfeloÔc

. 'Eqei ergasjeÐ sto pareljìn wc ereunht c kai pa-

nepisthmiakìc dˆskaloc sta Panepist mia thc Oxfìrdhc kai tou Kèimpritz thc AgglÐac, sto

´ Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques (IHES) (wc mèloc thc ereunhtik c omˆdac tou kajhght  Alain Connes–Fields Medal 1982, ´ Crafoord Prize 2002–) kai sthn Ecole Polytechnique sto ParÐsi thc GallÐac
kai alloÔ. Ta ereunhtikˆ tou endiafèronta empÐptoun sta gnwstikˆ antikeÐmena thc Mh-metajetik c GewmetrÐac, thc TopologÐac kai GewmetrÐac twn Pollaplot twn (eidikìtera twn Pollaplot twn Qamhl¸n Diastˆsewn) kai efarmogèc aut¸n sth Jewrhtik  Fusik  (KosmologÐa, JewrÐec EnopoÐhshc, JewrÐa Qord¸n/Membran¸n). 'Eqei dhmosieÔsei mèqri stigm c perÐpou eÐkosi prwtìtupa ereunhtikˆ ˆrjra se diejn  episthmonikˆ periodikˆ (se hlektronik  kai èntuph morf ).

2

Prìlogoc kai BibliografÐa:

To kalokaÐri tou 1995 diorgan¸jhke apì thn Majhmatik  EtaireÐa tou LondÐnou ( taireÐa (

London Mathematical Society, LMS), thn Gallik  Majhmatik  ESociete Mathematique de France, SMF) kai to Kollègio thc GallÐac (College de France) sto panepist mio tou Lˆnkaster sthn B. AgglÐa èna jerinì sqoleÐo gia metaptuqiakoÔc foithtèc me jèma thn K-JewrÐa. Thn oikonomik  enÐsqush anèlabe to Ereunhtikì SumboÔlio MhqanologÐac kai Fusik¸n Episthm¸n (

thc M. BretanÐac se sunergasÐa me thn Eurwpaðk  'Enwsh (DieÔjunsh

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, EPSRC) X European Mathematical Society, EME).

'Ereunac kai TeqnologÐac thc Eurwpaðk c Epitrop c) kai thn Eurwpaðk  Majhmatik  EtaireÐa (

To jerinì autì sqoleÐo kˆlupte kai touc treic basikoÔc klˆdouc thc K-JewrÐac, dhlad  thn
JewrÐa (K-OmologÐa) (An¸terh) Al gebrik  K-JewrÐa

, thn

Analutik 

K-

kai thn kai

Topologik 

K-JewrÐa

, me didˆskontec touc

D.G. Quillen, A. Connes

M.F. Atiyah,

antÐstoiqa, en¸ thn tˆxh twn pro-

blhmˆtwn thn eÐqe analˆbei o kajhght c

J. Roe.

Oi didˆskontec autoÐ den

qreiˆzontai fusikˆ sustˆseic, prìkeitai gia treic apì touc megalÔterouc en zw  majhmatikoÔc pagkosmÐou f mhc, katìqouc (metaxÔ ˆllwn diakrÐsewn) tou MetallÐou FÐlntc (

Fields Medal),

oi opoÐoi èqoun suneisfèrei ta mègista O grˆfwn, wc metaptuqiakìc

kai sthn anakˆluyh thc Ðdiac thc K-JewrÐac.

didaktorikìc foitht c sto Panepist mio thc Oxfìrdhc tìte, sto proswpikì tou opoÐou ˆnhkan oi 3 apì touc 4 didˆskontec (ìloi plhn tou gˆllou

Alain

Connes),

eÐqe thn tÔqh na epilegeÐ gia na parakolouj sei ta maj mata tou

jerinoÔ autoÔ sqoleÐou (wc ènac apì touc 30 sunolikˆ metaptuqiakoÔc foithtèc kurÐwc apì thn Eur¸ph allˆ kai apì thn B. Amerik , thn AsÐa kai thn AustralÐa).

Oi proswpikèc shmei¸seic tou grˆfontoc apì to parapˆnw jerinì sqoleÐo epektˆjhkan kai sumplhr¸jhkan gia pr¸th forˆ katˆ to akadhmaðkì ètoc 2003-2004 ìtan didˆqjhkan se metaptuqiakoÔc foithtèc tou panepisthmÐou tou Kˆrntif thc M. BretanÐac. EpÐshc katˆ to jerinì exˆmhno tou 2010 dìjhke mia seirˆ metaptuqiak¸n dialèxewn ston tomèa purhnik c fusik c kai stoiqeiwd¸n swmatidÐwn sto tm ma fusik c tou panepisthmÐou Ajhn¸n. Epeid 

h ellhnik  bibliografÐa sto jèma eÐnai akìmh kai s mera, dustuq¸c anÔparkth, apofasÐsthke na parousiasjeÐ kai mia ellhnik  metˆfrash h opoÐa perilambˆnei epiplèon epexhg seic (gia parˆdeigma prosjèsame sto Parˆrthma

3

mia seirˆ basik¸n orism¸n kai protˆsewn kurÐwc thc algebrik c topologÐac diìti autìc o basikìc klˆdoc twn majhmatik¸n eÐnai paramelhmènoc sthn tritobˆjmia ekpaÐdeush sthn q¸ra). Diathr jhke ìmwc h arqik  morf  twn

dialèxewn tou jerinoÔ sqoleÐou kai oi shmei¸seic qwrÐzontai se 3 kefˆlaia (èna gia kˆje klˆdo thc K-JewrÐac) kai se kˆje kefˆlaio perilambˆnontai 6 paragrˆfoi-dialèxeic diˆrkeiac 2 wr¸n h kajemÐa, sunolikˆ dhlad  upˆrqoun 18 parˆgrafoi (pou isodunamoÔn me 18 dÐwrec dialèxeic).

Ja jèlame ìmwc na shmei¸soume ìti se eisagwgikì epÐpedo, kai h diejn c bibliografÐa thc K-JewrÐac se kamiˆ perÐptwsh den ja mporoÔse na qarakthrisjeÐ ektetamènh: oi klasikèc dialèxeic tou Gia thn Topologik  K-JewrÐa upˆrqoun fusikˆ

M.F.Atiyah sto Panepist mio tou Qˆrbarnt sta M.F. Atiyah: ”K-Theory”, Benjamin, 1967) allˆ kai kˆpoiec shmei¸seic tou kajhght  A.Hatcher apì to Panepist mio Kornèl sto diadÐktuo me tÐtlo ”Vector Bundles and K-Theory” (blèpe http://www.math.cornell.edu/ hatcher/sthn proswpik  tou istoselÐda, oi opoÐec basikˆ kai autèc sthrÐzontai stic shmei¸seic tou Atiyah). Upˆrqoun epÐshc sto diadÐktuo kai oi shmei¸seic tou Max Karoubi, blèpe http://people.math.jussieu.fr/ karoubi/KBook.html, oi opoÐec epÐshc sthrÐzontai stic shmei¸seic tou Atiyah. Tèloc prìsfata kuklofìrhse kai to biblÐo tou Efton Park: ”Complex Topological K-Theory”, Cambridge University Press 2008 pou kai autì genikˆ sthrÐzetia stic shmei¸seic tou M.F.Atiyah.
tèlh thc dekaetÐac tou 1960 (

C ∗ -algebr¸n upˆrqei to polÔ kalì biblÐo tou N.E. Wegge-Olsen: ”K-Theory and C ∗ Algebras”, Oxford University Press, 1993 eisagwgikoÔ epipèdou, to biblÐo tou B.Blackadar me tÐtlo ”K-Theory for Operator Algebras”, Cambridge University Press, 1998 uyhlìterou epipèdou allˆ kai kˆpoiec sunoptikèc shmei¸seic tou Timothy Gowers: ”K-Theory of Banach Algebras” (epÐshc katìqou MetallÐou FÐlntc) apì to Panepist mio
Gia thn K-JewrÐa twn tou Kèimpritz (endiˆmesou epipèdou kai oi opoÐec epÐshc brÐskontai sto diadÐktuo sthn proswpik  istoselÐda tou suggrafèa, blèpe

http://www.dpmms.cam.ac.uk/ wtg10/). Tèloc upˆrqoun kai ta biblÐa twn Nigel Higson and John Roe: “Analytic K-Homology”, Oxford University Press 2000 kai F. Larsen, M. Rrdam and M. Rordam: ”An Introduction to K-Theory for C ∗ -algebras”, Cambridge University Press 2000.
Gia thn An¸terh Algebrik  K-JewrÐa, apì ìso mporoÔme na gnwrÐzoume, upˆrqei mìno to biblÐo tou

Jonathan Rosenberg: ”Algebraic K-Theory and
4

its Applications”, Springer Graduate Texts in Mathematics 1995 sikˆ me ta aujentikˆ ereunhtikˆ ˆrjra tou Quillen thc dekaetÐac

(mazÐ futou 1970

kai tou 1980). Sunep¸c, akomh kai sthn diejn  bibliografÐa den upˆrqei kˆti antÐstoiqo aut¸n twn shmei¸sewn pou na perièqei mia eisagwg  ìlwn twn basik¸n kladwn thc K-JewrÐac.

Ja apoteloÔse shmantik  parˆleiyh an mazÐ me ta parapˆnw onìmata den mnhmoneÔame kai ton megˆlo

A. Grothendieck,

(pou mazÐ me ton bretanì

M.F.

Atiyah

Ðswc apoteloÔn touc megalÔterouc majhmatikoÔc tou deÔterou misoÔ

tou 20ou ai¸na), pou  tan o pr¸toc pou asqol jhke me thn K-JewrÐa, ìrise thn mhdenik  K-Omˆda kai mˆlista  tan autìc pou thc èdwse kai to sugkekrimèno ìnoma, to

K

proèrqetai apì to arqikì thc germanik c lèxhc

Klasse

pou shmaÐnei klˆsh, sunep¸c o ìroc K-JewrÐa sta ellhnikˆ ja mporoÔse na apodojeÐ wc
JewrÐa Klˆsewn

.

H K-JewrÐa an kei sthn klˆsh twn legìmenwn
jewri¸n omologÐac

genikeumènwn (  exwtik¸n)

(ikanopoieÐ ta 4 apì ta 5 axi¸mata

Eilenberg-Steenroad,

dhlad  ikanopoieÐ ta axi¸mata omotopÐac, ektom c, prosjetikìthtac, akrÐbeiac allˆ den ikanopoieÐ to axÐwma diˆstashc) kai h qrhsimìthtˆ thc sta perÐpou 50 qrìnia zw c thc èqei apodeiqjeÐ  dh polÔ megˆlh se polloÔc tomeÐc twn majhmatik¸n ìpwc sthn topologÐa, thn olik  anˆlush, thn jewrÐa arijm¸n, thn ˆlgebra, thn gewmetrÐa klp. Endeiktikˆ ac anafèroume pwc apoteleÐ

to èna apì ta dÔo basikˆ sustatikˆ twn perÐfhmwn Jewrhmˆtwn DeÐktou pou apoteloÔn anamfÐbola to pio kombikì apotèlesma sta majhmatikˆ tou deÔterou misoÔ tou 20ou ai¸na afoÔ en¸nei treic diaforetikoÔc tomeÐc twn majhmatik¸n: thn Anˆlush, thn GewmetrÐa (TopologÐa) kai thn ' Algebra. Upˆrqoun diˆfora jewr mata deÐktou, ta pio gnwstˆ eÐnai: To je¸rhma deÐktou

Atiyah-Singer twn pollaplot twn, to je¸rhma deÐktou Riemann-RochGrothendieck thc Algebrik c GewmetrÐac, to je¸rhma deÐktou tou Connes thc
twn mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac klp. Ac shmei¸soume ed¸ ìti ousiastikˆ èna nèo je¸rhma deÐktou sta plaÐsia thc mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac (fullopoihmènec pollaplìthtec) apèdeixe kai o grˆfwn sta plaÐsia thc didaktorik c tou diatrib c. Ta jewr mata deÐktou apotèlesan thn bˆsh pou sthrÐqjhkan metèpeita polloÐ megˆloi majhmatikoÐ gia na orÐsoun diˆforec topologikˆ analloÐwtec posìthtec me tic opoÐec epèlusan spoudaÐa kai shmantikˆ probl mata kathgoriopoÐhshc, gia parˆdeigma anafèroume touc

Donaldson, Kontsevich, Witten,

Gromov,

klp.

5

Pio sugkekrimèna. Lang: ”Algebra”. sthn kbantik  barÔthta. 'Oson aforˆ ta proapaitoÔmena gia thn melèth aut¸n twn shmei¸sewn. ja jèlame na epishmˆnoume ìti oi shmei¸seic eÐnai xekˆjara metaptuqiakoÔ epipèdou. Voevodsky (Metˆllio FÐlntc 2002) sthn algebrik  gewmetrÐa allˆ kai thn prìsfath apìdeix  tou twn eikasi¸n Block-Kato (IHES . Hilton. ˆlgebrac (jewrÐac omˆdwn. sthn arq  olografÐac. Ja  tan legìmenh motivic cohomology thn an¸terh algebrik  K-JewrÐa kai pou od ghse sthn lampr  ergasÐa tou V. U. stic topologikèc kbantikèc jewrÐec pedÐwn. h legìmenh E-JewrÐa tou bivariant K-Theory   KConnes. 2009). Gia thn 6 . MacLane. sthn M-JewrÐa. Gia lìgouc plhrìthtac anafèroume kai thn legìmenh equivariant K-JewrÐa (parallag  thc Topologik c K-JewrÐac) ìpou upˆrqei kai h drˆsh kˆpoia ìmadac Lie. G. omologik c ˆlgebrac kai jewrÐac protÔpwn) kai topologÐac (algebrik c kai diaforik c). Birckoff: ”Algebra”. Springer 1997. gia thn ˆlgebra ja mporoÔse na sumbouleujeÐ kˆpoioc to klasikì biblÐo ' Algebrac twn to biblÐo tou S.'Omwc kai sthn jewrhtik  fusik  tìso h K-JewrÐa allˆ kai ta jewr mata deÐktou paÐzoun prwtarqikì rìlo sthn melèth topologik¸n (olik¸n) fainomènwn sthn Kbantik  JwrÐa PedÐwn kai stic diˆforec enopoihmènec jewrÐec ìpwc sthn jewrÐa uperqord¸n. Stammbach: ”A Course in Homological Algebra”. Majhmatikèc metexelÐxeic thc K-JewrÐac apoteloÔn oi simopoieÐtai sthn qeirourgik  twn pollaplot twn L-JewrÐa pou qrh- (kai genikìtera q¸rwn stouc ( opoÐouc isqÔei o duðsmìc JewrÐa tou Poincare). Witten parousÐase èna epiqeÐrhma (pou ègine dektì apì thn diejn  episthmonik  koinìthta) sÔmfwna me to opoÐo mia mikr  parallag  thc topologik c K-JewrÐac (pou onomˆsthke sunestrammènh K-JewrÐa ( twisted K-Theory ) ) apoteleÐ thn dexamen  twn topologik¸n fortÐwn twn membran¸n sta plaÐsia thc legìmenhc M-JewrÐac (pou apoteleÐ thn sÔgqronh exèlixh th jewrÐac uperqord¸n). J. sthn exˆleiyh twn anwmali¸n klp. 1988   S. Gia to pr¸to ja mporoÔse kˆpoioc na sumbouleujeÐ tic shmei¸seic me tÐtlo Eisa gw g  sthn JewrÐa Pollaplot twn tou grˆfontoc pou mporeÐ kaneÐc na tic katebˆsei dwreˆn apì to diadÐktuo kai thn proswpik  tou istoselÐda. stic arqèc tou 2000 o E. sunep¸c oi anagn¸stec ja prèpei na èqoun mia kal  gn¸sh gewmetrÐac (jewrÐac pollaplot twn). Addison Wesley 1993 kai gia omologik  ˆlgebra mia kal  anaforˆ eÐnai to klasikì biblÐo twn P. Chelsea. h KK-JewrÐa Kasparov). h K-JewrÐa tou epÐshc parˆleiyh na mhn pou sqetÐzetai ˆmesa me Waldhausen (pou ousiastikˆ apoteleÐ mia topologik  èkdosh thc an¸terhc algebrik c K-JewrÐac tou anafèroume kai thn Quillen) klp.

orismoÐ. Hatcher tou panepisthmÐou Cornell pou epÐ- shc mporeÐ kˆpoioc na katebˆsei dwreˆn apì to diadÐktuo kai thn antÐstoiqh proswpik  istoselÐda   akìmh kai tic exairetikèc. ElpÐzoume oi shmei¸seic autèc na apotelèsoun to ènausma gia mia bajÔterh melèth twn ell nwn metaptuqiak¸n foitht¸n (tìso sta majhmatikˆ ìso kai sthn jewrhtik  fusik ) ston ìmorfo. J. anafèrontai arqikˆ me ton arijmì thc paragrˆfou sthn opoÐa brÐskontai akoloujoÔmeno apì ton sugkekrimèno arijmì thc prìtashc mèsa sthn en lìgw parˆgrafo. Dover 1996. Quillen. ja apoteloÔse mia kal  ˆskhsh gia ton anagn¸sth pou proteÐnetai anepifÔlakta.TopologÐa ja mporoÔse kaneÐc na sumbouleujeÐ gia parˆdeigma tic polÔ kalèc shmei¸seic tou kajhght  A. Springer 1991. jewr mata. http://www. Connes. sunarpastikì kai ereunhtikˆ polÔ energì autì klˆdo me tic pˆmpollec efarmogèc.1. Springer 1991. P. D. allˆ kˆpwc uyhlìterou epipèdou shmei¸seic tou J. A. Springer 1991. C. Sto tèloc parajètoume èna Parˆrthma me kˆpoiec basikèc protˆseic kai orismoÔc apì diˆforouc klˆdouc twn majhmatik¸n pou qrhsimopouoÔme stic shmei¸seic qwrÐc epexhg seic.2 anafèretai sthn prìtash 2 thc paragrˆfou 4.math. J. Atiyah. Massey: ”A Basic Course in Algebraic Topology”. Roe gia tic upodeigmatikèc dialèxeic pou parèdwsan oi opoÐec opwsd pote sthrÐzontai sthn bajeiˆ katanìhsh twn jemˆtwn aut¸n allˆ kai ton Euˆggelo Xunogalˆ pou eÐqe thn eugen  kalosÔnh na diabˆsei to keÐmeno kai na kˆnei orismènec 7 .H. Oi diˆforec protˆseic.F.R.F.G. Munkres: ”Elements of Algebraic Topology”. A.edu/ may/CONCISE/ConciseRevised. Maunder: ”Algebraic Topology”.Dold: ”Lectures on Algebraic Topology”. Spanier: ”Algebraic Topology”.pdf ). Ja jèlame na euqarist soume jermˆ touc kajhghtèc M.1 en¸ to tèloc miac apìdeixhc sumbolÐzetai me èna leukì tetrˆgwno. Shmei¸noume pˆntwc pwc oi topologÐac apì autˆ pou kukloforoÔn (pq paroÔsec shmei¸seic se kamÐa perÐptwsh den filodoxoÔn na apotelèsoun èna pl rec paidagwgikì biblÐo ( textbook) eisagwg c sthn K-JewrÐa sunolikˆ allˆ parèqoun ènan skeletì basik¸n ennoi¸n kai protˆsewn (gia parˆdeigma oi apodeÐxeic eÐnai mˆllon sÔntomec kai perièqoun tic basikèc idèec. na sumplhr¸sei o Ðdioc ta kenˆ).uchicago. Ðswc autì gÐnei kˆpote sto mèllon. Enallaktikˆ ja mporoÔse kˆpoioc na sumbouleujeÐ èna kalì biblÐo algebrik c E. W. May: ”A concise Course in Algebraic To- pology” apì to panepist mio tou Sikˆgo pou upˆrqoun sto diadÐktuo (bl. Westview 1995 klp).S. gia parˆdeigma h prìtash 4. Gia na ftˆsoun sto epÐpedo oi shmei¸seic autèc na apotelèsoun èna pl rec biblÐo ja qreiasjeÐ na sumplhrwjoÔn kai na epektajoÔn.

Mˆioc 2010. http://sites. IPZ.com/site/ipzoisscience/home 8 . Aj na.orjografikèc kai tupografikèc diorj¸seic.google. EnnoeÐtai pwc kˆje peraitèrw diìrjwsh   prìtash gia beltÐwsh twn shmei¸sewn aut¸n ja gÐnei dekt  me eugnwmosÔnh.

Steinberg Q − construction ript¸seic . Alexander Grothendieck sta plaÐ- H mhdenik  K-Omˆda orÐsthke apì ton sia thc algebrik c gewmetrÐac katˆ thn dekaetÐa tou 1950.Kefˆlaio 1 (An¸terh) Algebrik  K-JewrÐa H algebrik  K-JewrÐa aforˆ daktulÐouc (me monˆda allˆ h èlleiyh monadiaÐou stoiqeÐou mporeÐ na parakamfjeÐ auxˆnontac bèbaia thn poluplokìthta. Whitehead. 1. sthn mh-metajetik  gewmetrÐa sun jwc qreiazìmaste kai kˆpoia epiplèon dom  gia na lˆboume upìyh mac kai metrikèc idiìthtec opìte qrhsimopoioÔme C ∗ -ˆlgebrec allˆ oi orismoÐ kai oi basikèc protˆseic den metabˆllontai ou- siastikˆ). h pr¸th K-Omˆda orÐsthke argìtera apì ton megˆlo topolìgo rh K-Omˆda orÐsthke ousiastikˆ apì ton John Whitehaed en¸ h deÔteRobert Steinberg.G. H katˆstash plus construction èmoiaze adièxodh ìson aforˆ thn sunèqeia allˆ sth dekaetÐa tou 1970 emfanÐsthke o amerikanìc D. LÐgo argìtera emfanÐsthke apì ton n = 0. Quillen pou me thn perÐfhmh èdwse ton genikì orismì thc omˆdac Kn gia pou fusikˆ perieÐqe tic omˆdec twn Grothendieck. 2 antÐstoiqa wc eidikèc peQuillen kai pˆli h legìmenh enjousÐase ton pou aforˆ genikìterec peript¸seic me kalÔterec sunarth- tikèc idiìthtec.G. H kataskeu  tou D. Quillen Grothendieck pou tou apèsteile èna jrulikì grˆmma 600 selÐdwn sqetikˆ me to mèllon thc algebrik c gewmetrÐac kai thc K-JewrÐac! Anafèroume epÐshc ìti katˆ thn dekaetÐa tou 1980 emfanÐsthke kai mia èkdosh thc Algebrik c K-JewrÐac tou 9 . Ja mporoÔse kˆpoioc diaisjhtikˆ kai uperaplousteÔontac arketˆ na pei ìti h K-JewrÐa eÐnai h melèth omotopik¸n klˆsewn pinˆkwn stoiqeÐa apì ton daktÔlio ∞×∞ me A.

.. ( 'Ena prìtupo H ènnoia tou peperasmèna paragìmenou protÔpou genikeÔei thn ènnoia tou dianusmatikoÔ q¸rou peperasmènhc diˆstashc (sthn perÐptwsh pou o daktÔlioc na lifting property): A apoteleÐ s¸ma): 'Ena (aristerì èstw) A − mod P lègetai peperasmè- para gìmeno eˆn kai mìno eˆn upˆrqoun peperasmèna se pl joc stoiqeÐa tètoia ¸ste x1 .. . 1. Ta parakˆtw eÐnai isodÔnama: To P eÐnai peperasmèna paragìmeno probolikì (gia suntomÐa ja grˆfoume 10 . oi upologismoÐ eÐnai exairetikˆ dÔskoloi kai polÔ lÐga paradeÐgmata eÐnai gnwstˆ akìmh kai s mera. xn ∈ P ètsi ¸ste ∀x ∈ P na upˆrqoun stoiqeÐa a1 . + an xn .. upˆrqei epÐshc ènac omomorfismìc h : P → N (ìqi aparaithtˆ monadikìc) tètoioc ¸stef h = g . 1.. x2 . x2 . ìpou ta F kai Q eÐnai eleÔjera miac probol c tou F ). a2 . an ∈ A x = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + . Qrhsimopoi¸ntac ton formalismì thc jewrÐac kathgori¸n. ìpwc sumbaÐnei sun jwc me ta sÔgqrona majhmatikˆ... .. To sÔnolo {x1 .Quillen gia topologikoÔc q¸rouc me to ìnoma K-JewrÐa tou Waldhausen.. Je¸rhma 1. Orismìc 'Estw ìtan: A daktÔlioc me monˆda. 'Ena A − mod (A-prìtupo) P eÐnai probolikì F =P ⊕Q Q = ker(p).. ja mporoÔsame na orÐsoume ta probolikˆ prìtupa anafèrontac thn idiìthta anebˆsmatoc P eÐnai probolikì eˆn kai mìnon eˆn gia kˆje omomorfismì protÔpwn f : N → M pou eÐnai epÐ kai gia kˆje omomorfismì protÔpwn g : P → M . xn } lègetai sÔnolo gennhtìrwn tou P... Me A − mod s (opìte to P apoteleÐ thn eikìna ˆlla lìgia to P eÐnai probolikì eˆn grˆfetai wc ˆjroisma miac eleÔjerhc isodunamÐac.1 Diˆlexh 1 1. Dustuq¸c.

eˆn omˆda I I eÐnai kˆpoio abelianì monoeidèc. tìte upˆrqei mia abelian  I ∗ mazÐ me ènan omomorfismì φ : I → I∗ pou apoteleÐ pagkìsmio omo- morfismì apì to se kˆpoia abelian  omˆda. φ) eÐnai monadikì mèqri kanonikoÔ isomorfismoÔ. 3. H abelian  omˆda me genn torec 11 . dhlad  sumpl rwsh omˆdac tou sunìlou (abelia- K0 A :=abelian group completion of Iso(PA ). Orismìc 2. A − mod. seic I ∗ eÐnai h eleÔjerh [a + b] = [a] + [b]. To deÔtero sÔnolo apoteleÐ abelianì monoeidèc (abelian monoid) me prˆxh thn Ja sumbolÐzoume me [P ] + [Q] = [P + Q]. n ∈ N∗ kai kˆpoio deÔtero Upˆrqei kˆpoio A − mod Q tètoia ¸ste P ⊕ Q = An . Genikˆ. Upˆrqoun treic trìpoi kataskeu c thc omˆdac I ∗: [a]. H mhdenik  K-Omˆda lègetai kai gˆlou gˆllou majhmatikoÔ Grothendieck proc tim n tou meAlexander Grothendieck (germanik c katagwg c) omˆda pou thn ìrise gia pr¸th forˆ to 1957. Upˆrqei kˆpoio n ∈ N∗ kai kˆpoio stoiqeÐo e ∈ Mn A tètoia ¸ste e = e2 kai P = An e (ìpou Mn A to sÔnolo twn n×n pinˆkwn me stoiqeÐa apì ton A). PA thn kathgorÐa twn peperasmèna paragìmenwn probolik¸n A − mod s en¸ me Iso(PA ) ja sumbolÐzoume to sÔnolo twn isìmorfwn klˆsewn twn ppp A = mod s. a ∈ I kai sqè- 1. To zeÔgoc (I ∗ . OrÐzoume wc mhdenik  K-Omˆda tou daktulÐou A kai thn sumbolÐzoume noÔ monoeidoÔc) K0 A. thn abelian  Iso(PA ).ppp) 2.

tìte h kathgorÐa eleÔjerh abelian  omˆda Z n . Tìte I ∗ = I × N/ ∼ ìpou (a. h mhdenik  K-Omˆda me monˆda sqèseic K0 A enìc daktulÐou A eÐnai h eleÔjerh abelian  [p ⊕ q ] = [p] + [q ]. 2. Fanerˆ h parapˆnw apoteleÐ sqèsh isodunamÐac. a). sunep¸c K0 Z = Z. 'Estw F èna antisummetrikì s¸ma ( skew-field. b) + (a . dhlad  daktÔlioc me 0=1 ìpou h diaÐresh eÐnai dunat . 0) kai −(a. Opìte (a. 3. PedÐa orismoÔ tikì s¸ma Dedekind (Dedekind domains). anakefalai¸nontac.I ∗ = I × I/ ∼ ìpou h sqèsh isodunamÐac orÐzetai wc ex c: (a. Q] < ∞ kai A to akèraio phlÐko tou Z sto F. ∀n ∈ N n PZ eÐnai h peperasmèna paragìmenh en¸ Iso(PZ ) = N. b ) ⇔ ∃γ : a + b + γ = a + b + γ . 'Estw F kˆpoio arijmh[F. dhlad  kˆje stoiqeÐo èqei pollaplasia- stikì antÐstrofo. OrÐzoume sth sunèqeia (a. b ) = (a + a . Tìte to abelianì monoeidèc Iso(PF ) N ⇒ K0 F = Z. ParadeÐgmata 1. b) ∼ (a . Sunep¸c. Upojètoume ìti upˆrqei kˆpoio a0 ∈ I tètoio ¸ste ∀a ∈ I ∃n ∈ N. isodÔnama èna s¸ma pou o pollaplasiasmìc den eÐnai kat' F − mod s apoteleÐtai apì touc dianusmatikoÔc q¸rouc peperasmènhc diˆstashc me s¸ma to F. SumbolÐzoume 12 . pou eÐnai Ðsh omˆda me genn torec [p]∀p ∈ PA kai me thn omˆda twn epÐshmwn diafor¸n [p] − [q ] kai pou eÐnai epÐshc Ðsh me thn omˆda twn epÐshmwn diafor¸n [p] − [An ]. b) = [a] − [b]. 'Olec oi parapˆnw abelianèc omˆdec èqoun thn apaitoÔmenh pagkìsmia idiìthta. b) = (b. Tìte h kathgorÐa PF twn ppp 2. anˆgkh antimetajetikìc). b + b ) en¸ 0 = (0. n ) ⇔ ∃n ∈ N tètoio ¸ste a + n a0 = a + na0 . b ∈ I tètoia ¸ste a + b = nd0 . 3. Eˆn A = Z. n) ∼ (a .

π.me P ic(A) thn omˆda twn idewd¸n klˆsewn ( ideal class group) tou A. Eˆn P ∈ PA . [To Je¸rhma autì apotèlese èna apì ta kÐnhtra gia thn anakˆluyh thc mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac apì ton megˆlo gˆllo majhmatikì Alain Connes pou katˆ kˆpoion trìpo sunen¸nei thn algebrik  kai thn diaforik  gewmetrÐa].. DojeÐshc miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc E pˆnw apì ton X.. na èqei thn dom  migadikoÔ dianusmatikoÔ q¸rou kai o q¸roc E na eÐnai topikˆ tetrimmènoc. dhlad  na upˆrqoun mia kˆluyh autoÔ {Ua }a∈I kai mia oikogèneia isomorfism¸n tètoiwn ¸ste E |Ua na shmaÐnei ìti h probol  a Cn Ua Ua × Cna → Ua sèbetai thn parapˆnw dom . (E. 'Estw X sumpag c q¸roc Qˆousntorf kai èstw A = C (X ) to sÔnolo twn mi ga- migadik¸n suneq¸n sunart sewn tou me monˆda). gia kˆje x∈X pou lègetai n ma . X ) pˆnw apì ton Orismìc 3. Gia thn apìdeixh tou jewr matoc ja qreiastoÔme dÔo L mmata: L mma 1. To Je¸rhma Serre-Swan. Epiprìsjeta èqoume ìti K0 A = Z ⊕ P ic(A). Mia migadik  dianusmatik  dèsmh q¸ro X apoteleÐtai apì kˆpoion q¸ro E pou lègetai olikìc q¸roc kai ènan suneq  epimorfismì π:E→X ètsi ¸ste to sÔnolo Ex = π −1 (x). u- pˆrqei mia ˆllh dianusmatik  dèsmh E epÐshc pˆnw apì ton E⊕E eÐnai isìmorfh me to Cn X gia kˆpoio arketˆ megˆlo X tètoia n ∈ N. tìte P a1 ⊕ a2 ⊕ . 4. Tìte h kathgorÐa dik¸n dianusmatik¸n desm¸n X (pou wc gnwstìn apoteleÐ daktÔlio PA eÐnai isodÔnamh me thn kathgorÐa twn pˆnw apì ton X. ⊕ an . dhlad  to phlÐko twn klasmatik¸n idewd¸n dia ta prwteÔonta ide¸dh. ¸ste h 13 . ìpou ta ai eÐnai klasmatikˆ. to parakˆtw Je¸rhma: Tìte isqÔei Je¸rhma 2.

tìte oi eE kai e E = (1 − e)E apoteloÔn epÐshc dianusmatikèc dèsmec pˆnw apì ton X . gia x ∈ Ux0 x0 opìte h oikogèneia T = {Tx } dÐdei ènan automorfismì tou Cn tètoion ¸ste h T −1 eT apoteleÐ oikogèneia me timèc exo . Apìdeixh L mmatoc 1.idempotent) endomorfismìc ⊥ miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc E pˆnw apì ton X . Apì thn deÔterh èpetai ìti upˆrqei o antÐstrofoc pÐnakac mia geitoniˆ tou −1 Tx . Upˆrqei mia peperasmènh anoikt  kˆluyh a Cn Ua . e eÐnai mia suneq c oikogèneia ex monado- dÔnamwn pinˆkwn tou Fixˆroume kˆpoio x0 . Ua me isomorfismoÔc ga : E |Ua Epilègoume mia diamèrish thc monˆdac 1= ρa ρ2 a ρa tètoia ¸ste χa = kai χ2 a = 1. Eˆn e kˆpoioc monadodÔnamoc ( Apìdeixh L mmatoc 2. Tìte h n n Tx = ex ex0 + e⊥ x e x0 : C → C apoteleÐ mia suneq  oikogèneia pinˆkwn tètoia ¸ste ex Tx = Tx ex0 kai Tx = 1atx = x0 . L mma 2. QwrÐc blˆbh thc genikìthtac mproÔme na upojèsoume ìti E= Cn X . Sthn sunèqeia jewroÔme tic apeikonÐseic na E → ⊕N a=1 CX → E i (perièqesjai) dÐdetai apì thn st lh me stoiqeÐa −1 (xa ga ) en¸ h deÔterh p (probol ) dÐdetai apì thn gramm  me stoiqeÐa (xa ga ). opìte to Mn C. ìpou h pr¸th apeikìnish Tìte ρi = −1 χa ga χa ga = χ2 a = 1 14 .

dhlad  HomV ect (E. E . X )). upˆrqei ènac sunartht c apì thn kathgorÐa V ect(X ) sthn kathgorÐa PA twn A − mod s pou orÐzetai wc ex c: se kˆje dianusmatik  dèsmh E pou apoteleÐ èna antikeÐmeno thc kathgorÐac V ect(X ) antistoiqoÔme to sÔnolo twn diatom¸n Γ(X. 'Estw V ect(X ) h kathgorÐa twn migadik¸n dianusmatik¸n desm¸n pˆnw apì ton X . Γ(E . E ) HomA (Γ(E. Apìdeixh Jewr matoc Serre-Swan. ja isqÔei kai gia thn AfoÔ isqÔei gia kˆpoiec dianusmatikèc dèsmec E ⊕ E kai afoÔ isqÔei gia thn E ja isqÔei kai gia kˆje ˆjroisma thc E (diìti to retract isomorfismoÔ apoteleÐ epÐshc isomorfismì). . X ) = A .pou shmaÐnei ìti h E apoteleÐ retract thc Cn X afoÔ n n pi = 1 ⇒ (ip)2 = ip ⇒ Cn X = (ip)CX ⊕ (ip)CX . Parìmoia isqÔoun gia tic peript¸seic E = CX kai E = CX . AfoÔ h E apoteleÐ n ˆjroisma kˆpoiwn CX . 15 . Jewr¸ntac ìti A = C (X ). X ). O sunartht c autìc eÐnai pl rwc pistìc (fully faithfull). E. E ) apoteleÐ ˆjroisma kˆpoiwn n Γ(Cn X . . èpetai ìti kai to Γ(X. E ) pou fanerˆ apoteleÐ èna A − mod.

−ba ekj . j ) kai mhdenikˆ eij ton pÐnaka (i = j ). i = l j = k. eab il .2 Diˆlexh 2 SumbolÐzoume me stoiqeÐa apì ton daktÔlio GLn A to sÔnolo A. Fanerˆ twn n×n antistrèyimwn pinˆkwn me GLn A ⊂ GLn+1 A ⊂ . x]. eˆn eˆn eˆn j = k.. y ]−1 = [y. (i. 'Estw a ∈ A. Me bˆsh ta parapˆnw upologÐzoume ton metajèth b [e a ij . Fanerˆ me stoiqeÐo 1 sthn jèsh eij ekl = δjk eil . y ] = xyx−1 y −1 en¸ o antÐstrofoc tou metajèth orÐzetai wc [x.. 16 .1. i = l j = k. ìpou h apeikìnish perièqesjai eÐnai h a→ SumbolÐzoume me pantoÔ alloÔ a 0 0 1 . UpenjumÐzoume ìti se mia pollaplasiastik  omˆda o metajèthc dÔo stoiqeÐwn orÐzetai wc [x. ⊂ GLA = ∪n GLn A. i = l UpologÐzoume kai tic ex c posìthtec: b ea ij ejk = (1 + aeij )(1 + bejk ) = 1 + aeij + bejk + abeik . ekl ] =    1. Tìte jètoume ea ij = 1 + aeij en¸ a+b b ea ij eij = eij .

G] h upoomˆda [g. SumbolÐzoume me a getai apì ta stoiqeÐa eij gia sumbolÐzoume me EA thn En A thn upoomˆda thc GLn A pou parˆ1 ≤ i. eij ] = ekj ⇒ [eij . G] ìpou [G. j ≤ n. L mma 1 (L mma Whitehead). EA]. g ∈ G. thc G pou parˆgetai apì ta stoiqeÐa thc morf c OrÐzoume thn mègisth abelian  omˆda phlÐko G(ab) thc G wc ex c G(ab) = G/[G. (ta ab proèrqontai apì thn lèxh abelian kai den apoteloÔn deÐktec).b −a ea ij ejk eij = (1 + aeij + bejk + abeik )(1 − aeij ) = 1 + aeij + bejk + abeik − aeij . EpÐshc ènwsh ìlwn twn En A: EA = ∪n En A. eki ] ki . G]. EA = [GLA. eki ] = ekj . ejk ] = (1 + aeij + bejk + abeik )(1 − bejk ) = 1 + bejk + abeik − bejk = eik kai −ba a ba a b b −1 = [eb [ea ij . GLA] = [EA. Orismìc 1. Apìdeixh: AfoÔ a 1 ea ik = [eij . ejk ] ∈ [En A. 17 . epilègoume j=i . dojèntwn twn i. i = j kai kˆpoio a ∈ A. g ]∀g. opìte b ab [ea ij . En A]. Orismìc 3. Orismìc 2. kai j=k kai blèpoume pwc ìloi oi gen- n torec apoteloÔn metajètec. k . Mia omˆda G lègetai tèleia eˆn eÐnai Ðsh me thn upoomˆda twn metajet¸n aut c G = [G. Prìtash 1. H omˆda En A eÐnai tèleia gia n ≥ 3.

GLA] ⊂ EA. . H pr¸th K-Omˆda lègetai kai ˆgglou topolìgou omˆda Whitehead proc tim n tou megˆlou John Whitehead pou thn ìrise. EÐnai gnwstì ìti En (F) = ker{GLn (F → Fx } 18 . Opìte EA = [EA. 1)diag (b. a−1 . a−1 . b]. Parˆdeigma: 1. 'Estw A=F kˆpoio s¸ma. EA] ⊂ [GLA. Orismìc 4. dhlad  daktulÐou A orÐzetai wc h K1 A = GLA(ab) = GLA/EA. Sunep¸c h thn ènwsh gia ìla ta [GLn A. 1)]−1 [diag (b. H pr¸th K-Omˆda mègisth abelian  omˆda phlÐko thc K1 A tou GLA. EpÐshc a 0 0 a− 1 Sth sunèqeia. GLn A] sthn GL3n A perièqetai sthn E3n A.Apìdeixh: 'Estw a ∈ GLn A opìte 1 a 0 1 ìpou = Πeijij ∈ GL2n A Tìte a 1≤i≤n 1 a 0 1 kai n + 1 ≤ j ≤ 2n. b ∈ GLn A. èstw = ∈ E2n A. 1. PaÐrnontac n brÐskoume ìti [GLn A. b−1 )[diag (a−1 . 1 0 −a−1 1 1 a 0 1 0 a −1 −a 0 = 0 a −a−1 0 0 −1 1 0 ∈ GL2n A. GLn A] ⊂ EA. 1) = diag (a. Tìte gia touc parakˆtw diag¸niouc se mplok morf  pÐnakec ja èqoume: diag ([a. 1. 1. b−1 )]−1 an koun ìloi sthn omˆda E3n A. a. Aristerìc pollaplasiasmìc me touc pÐnakec ea ij prosjètei thn j -gramm  sthn i-gramm .

xkl ] =    1. i = l Upˆrqei ènac kanonikìc epimorfismìc φ : StA → EA tètoioc ¸ste a φ(xa ij ) = eij . 'Estw φ(Cn ) h upoomˆda tou EA pou a parˆgetai apì touc ein gia i = n kai a ∈ A. H deÔterh K-Omˆda K2 A orÐzetai wc o pur nac tou para- pˆnw kanonikoÔ epimorfismoÔ φ: K2 A = Ker{φ : StA → EA}. apì touc xa in gia 19 . Apìdeixh Prìtashc 2. Orismìc 5. xab ik . GLn (F)/En (F). Isqurismìc: H φ : Cn → φ(Cn ) apoteleÐ isomorfismì.ìpou me Fx sumbolÐzoume ta mh-mhdenikˆ stoiqeÐa upì thn drˆsh tou orÐzousa x kai Sth h parapˆnw apeikìnish dÐdetai apì thn gnwst  sunèqeia paÐrnoume to phlÐko twn pinˆkwn. sunep¸c katal goume sto ìti K1 (F) = Fx . Orismìc 6. Prìtash 2. O pur nac thc parapˆnw φ apoteleÐ to kèntro thc omˆdac StA. dhlad  o periorismìc thc φ sthn Cn eÐnai 1-1. eÐnai Oi metajètec dÐdontai apì tic akìloujec sqèseic: b [xa ij . 'Estw Cn h upoomˆda tou StA pou parˆgetai i = n kai a ∈ A. ba x− kj . eˆn eˆn eˆn j = k. i = l j = k. i = l j = k. H Omˆda a h omˆda me genn torec xij . Steinberg Stn A (StA h perÐptwsh n → ∞) i = j kai a ∈ A pou upìkeintai stic sqèseic a+b b xa ij xij = xij .

Epilègoume kˆpoio n diaforetikì apì ta i. ab −b xin xjn . Gia na oloklhr¸soume thn apìdeixh thc prìtashc 2.Apìdeixh tou IsqurismoÔ: Epeid  ta xa in metatÐjentai. j pou emfanÐzontai sthn sugkekrimènh anaparˆstash tou α. k=j −a −b b ab xa ij xjn xij xjn = xin . Allˆ o periorismìc thc φ sthn Cn eÐnai 1-1 opìte αγα−1 = γ . to ginìmeno den exartˆtai apì thn diˆtaxh kai epiprosjètwc apoteleÐ omomorfismì diìti: i (ai + ai ) → Πi=n xin a +ai i i = Πi=n xa in Πi=n xin . ìti dhlad  o pur nac thc kai to grˆfoume wc peperasmèno ginìmeno twn paragìntwn φ apoteleÐ to kèntro thc StA. 20 . sthn apeikìnish ⊕i=n A → Cn pou orÐzetai wc i (ai )i=n → Πi=n xa in . Sth sunèqeia èstw γ ∈ Cn . Anˆloga apodeiknÔetai ìti to α kentropoieÐ kai thn Rn . . 'Ena thc φ sto Rn eÐnai 1-1. sunep¸c to α kentropoieÐ thn Cn . eˆn eˆn k = i. tìte αγα−1 ∈ Cn kai epÐshc φ(αγα−1 ) = φ(γ ) diìti α ∈ Kerφ. jewroÔme kˆpoio tuqaÐo stoiqeÐo α ∈ Kerφ xa ij . Tìte to α kanonikopoieÐ thn Cn . dhlad  αCn α−1 ⊂ Cn en¸ −a b xa ij xkn xij = kai xb kn . a Sthn sunèqeia orÐzoume thn omˆda Rn pou apoteleÐ upoomˆda thc omˆdac StA wc thn omˆda pou parˆgetai apì touc xa ni gia parìmoio epiqeÐrhma apodeiknÔei ìti o periorismìc i = n kai a ∈ A. j. 'Omwc h ènwsh Cn ∪ Rn parˆgei thn StA kai to kèntro thc EA eÐnai to 1.

Tìte gnwrÐzoume ìti K −2 X = K −1 SX = [SX. GLC]. kai Hom(spaces) (X. ìpou to C (X ) sumbolÐzei to sÔnolo (daktÔlioc me monˆda) twn suneq¸n a- peikonÐsewn apì ton X sto C. GLC] = [S 1 . Gia topologikoÔc q¸rouc isqÔei K −1 X = [X. H omˆda StA èqei genn torec xa ij me 1 ≤ i. ìpou to dexÐ mèloc ìpwc gnwrÐzoume apì thn JewrÐa OmotopÐac sumbolÐzei to sÔnolo twn omotopik¸n klˆsewn suneq¸n apeikonÐsewn apì ton q¸ro X sto GLC. 1 ta 1 'Estw mia omotopÐa apì to 1 0 0 1 sto 1 a 1 'Estw . GLn C) = GLn (C (X )).1. [X. GLC] = Hom(X.3 Diˆlexh 3 EÐdame ìti K1 A = GLA/EA. j < ∞ kai a∈A kai sqèseic a+b b xa ij xij = xij 21 . SX h anˆrthsh ( X kˆpoioc topologikìc q¸roc kai suspension) autoÔ. GLC]] ìpou fusikˆ [X. GLC) = GLn (C (X )).

dhlad  upˆrqei omomorfismìc s : StA → Y Eˆn Y = [Y. tètoioc ¸ste φ ◦ s = identity me Pìrisma 1. dhlad  gia Y kai x ∈ StA. Tìte −1 −1 −1 [y1 . dhlad  y1 = cy2 me c ∈ C. tìte to [φ−1 (x). eˆn eˆn eˆn j = k. tìte h Y eÐnai isìmorfh me thn StA. me a xa ij → eij . y2 ∈ Y Apìdeixh Jewr matoc 1. φ xnj ]. xkl ] =   1. i = l j = k.kai metajètec b [xa ij . opìte ja prospaj soume na orÐsoume thn s apì thn sqèsh −1 a −1 1 s(xa ij ) = [φ xin . xnj ] gia n = i. aut  qwrÐzetai. H basik  idèa eÐnai h ex c: èstw eÐnai tètoia ¸ste φ(y1 ) = φ(y2 ). Y ]. . y1 . φ−1 (x )] eÐnai èna epÐshc kalˆ orismèno stoiqeÐo Tìte thc Y. j . y ]. φ xkl ] = 1 22 . dhlad  h K2 A perièqetai sto kèntro thc StA. xab  −ik ba xkj . Je¸rhma 1. DojeÐshc miac kentrik c epèktashc 1 → C → Y → StA → 1. −1 b [φ−1 xa ij . i = l j = k. To dÔskolo shmeÐo eÐnai h apìdeixh anexarthsÐac apì to parakˆtw qrhsimopoi¸ntac 2 L mmata: n pou ja kˆnoume L mma 1. y ] = cy2 y (cy2 ) y −1 = cy2 y y2 c y = [y2 . y ] = [cy2 . a 1 xa ij = [xin . i = l Upˆrqei h parakˆtw kentrik  epèktash 1 → K2 A → StA → EA → 1. φ : Y → StA. y ] eÐnai èna kalˆ orismèno stoiqeÐo thc −1 parìmoia to [φ (x).

Epilègoume kˆpoio Apìdeixh: n diaforetikì apì ta k. v ]. k diakritˆ kai a. Allˆ ta φ(u). j. JewroÔme kˆpoia u∈ φ−1 xa ij kai arkeÐ na v ∈ φ−1 xb kn w ∈ φ−1 x1 nl . EpÐshc èqoume: [x. z ][x. x][z. w] metatÐjetai me ta u. w]u−1 = [uvu−1 . UpenjumÐzoume tic parakˆtw tautìthtec pou isqÔoun gia kˆje omˆda: [x. φ xnl ] ⊂ φ [xkn . φ xjk ]. y ] kai [xy. b.eˆn j=k kai i = l. [y. Tìte −1 1 −1 b 1 −1 b [φ−1 xb kn . j . Parìmoia to [[u. v. xij ] = φ xhj pou metatÐjetai me ta u. φ(v ) metatÐjentai. xnl ] = φ xkl . i. Tìte −1 b −1 c −1 a −1 b −1 c [φ−1 xa hi . φ xjk ]] = [[φ xhi . w] = 1 en¸ b −1 ab [u. i. z ][z. l. z ]. v en¸ to [v. w ]] = 1: kai Sth sunèqeia epilègoume u[v. w. uwu−1 ] = [v. z ]] = [xy. [v. z ]] = [xy. φ xik ] ⊂ φ xik pou metatÐjetai me ta u. z ][z. L mma 2. [y. z ]][y. w] eˆn ta uvu−1 kai . Apìdeixh: Epilègoume kˆpoia −1 b u ∈ φ−1 xa hi . Apì to L mma 1 parapˆnw èqoume ìti [u. Epiplèon −1 bc −1 abc [u. 'Estw ta h. y ] 23 . w. [v. v ] ⊂ φ−1 [xa hi . x][z. φ xij ]. v kai ta uwu−1 kai w eÐnai congruent. [y. z ] = [x. [φ xij . c ∈ A. w. w]] ⊂ [φ−1 xa hi . apodeÐxoume [u. w] metatÐjetai me ta v. v. v ∈ φ xij kai w ∈ φ−1 xc jk .

K2 A = H2 (EA. v ] en¸ [xy. v ] = [vu[u.kai [u. v ]vu. z ] = [x. w][w. v ]. [y. u][w. Z). w]] = [uv. dhlad  anexˆrthto tou n. v ]. w][w. [v. u][w. Je¸rhma 2. To parapˆnw Je¸rhma upodhl¸nei ìti h omˆda smia kentrik  epèktash thc StA apoteleÐ thn pagkì- EA. z ][x. . v ] = [vu[u. GLA] = H1 (GLA. v ]vu. ìpou pagkìsmia shmaÐnei ìti upˆrqei monadik  apeikìnish H2 (G) → C . v ] = [[u. w][w. φ xjk ]. w][w. z ]. v ] = [vu[u. w]][[u. 24 . v ] = = [vu. v ]. w][w. z ]][y. φ xik ] = [φ xhj . u][w. Kˆje tèleia omˆda G èqei mia pagkìsmia kentrik  epèktash: ˜→G→1 1 → H2 (G) → G 1 → C → Y → G → 1. [v. w]] = [uv. v ]. Z) kai K3 A = H3 (StA. v ] = [[u. w][w. v ] = [[u. [v. v ]. w][w. v ] eÐnai Ðsh me [u. φ xnj ]. φ xik ] = [φ xhj . Pio sugkekrimèna H2 (EA) = Ker(StA → EA) := K2 A en¸ K1 A = GLA/[GLA. H [u. w][w. w] en¸ tautìqrona a −1 a −1 1 sa ij := s(xij ) = [φ xin . v ]vu. w][vu. w][w. φ xjk ] kai −1 b −1 a −1 1 [φ−1 xa hi . w]] = [uv. v ] = [[u. Z). Xanagrˆfoume to L mma 2 wc ex c: −1 bc −1 ab −1 c [φ−1 xa hi . v ]. [[u. w][w.

G]) kai H (G. H G èqei classifying space) BG pou eÐnai ènac kalìc q¸- π1 (BG) = G. H i (G. C ) = Hom(G. Apì to Pagkìsmio Je¸rhma twn Suntelest¸n ( universal coefficients’ the- orem) èpetai ìti i 0 → Ext1 Z (Hi−1 (BG. C ) G(ab) = G/[G. Z). Z). (G. C ) → Hom(Hi (BG. ìpou Hi−1 (BG. C ) = Hom(G(ab) . Eˆn C Abelian  omˆda me tetrimmènh G-drˆsh èqoume H 0 (G.1. Z) = Hi−1 (G. C ) → 0. O pagkìsmioc kalÔptwn q¸roc ( universal covering space) tou BG eÐnai surriknoÔmenoc ( contractible). H 1 (G. Z) = Hi−1 G. 'Estw GnwrÐzoume ìti gia thn sunomologÐa isqÔei G omˆda kai M èna G − mod. M )) kai antÐstoiqa isqÔoun gia thn omologÐa. G = Z. To Ðdio isqÔei kai gia thn omologÐa. dhlad  (ìpou 2 1 → C → E →> G → 1 1 → C → E →> G → 1. C ). 25 . H topologik  ermhneÐa thc (sun)omologÐac omˆdwn eÐnai h ex c: ènan q¸ro kathgoriopoÐhshc ( roc shmeÐwn tètoioc ¸ste: 1. C ) = H i (BG. Gegonìc: H i (G. C ) = C. C ) = {sÔnolo twn isìmorfwn klˆsewn twn kentrik¸n epektˆsewn thc G apì thn C }. tìte Gia parˆdeigma eˆn BG = S 1 . O BG eÐnai monadikìc mèqri omotopik c isodunamÐac. C ) → H (BG.4 Diˆlexh 4 Ja asqolhjoÔme me omologÐa omˆdwn. M ) = H i (C . 2.

èqoume èna Dojèntoc enìc omomorfismoÔ parapˆnw metajetikˆ diagrˆmmata pou dÐdei mia kentrik  epèktash thc thn push out sta G apì C. u ìpwc parapˆnw. C ) = Hom(H2 G. Sthn perÐptwsh pou h G eÐnai mia tèleia omˆda. i : H2 G → G Sunep¸c kˆje kentrik  epèktash thc G apì thn C epˆgetai apì kˆpoion monadikì omomorfismì u : H2 G → C . C ) apì to opoÐo prokÔptei ìti Hom(H1 G. {(−u(x). Prìtash 1. C ) H1 G = G(ab) . C ). ìpou ˜= u∗ G kai ˜ C ×G . ˜ G eÐnai tèleia. 26 . H1 G) eÐnai h ˜→G→1 1 → H2 G → G ˜→G→1 1 → C → u∗ G ìpou u : H2 G → C . C ) → 0. dhlad  G(ab) = 0. 'Eqoume akìmh to ex c: 2 0 → Ext1 Z (H1 G.EpÐshc H 1 (G. C ) → Hom(H2 G. H kentrik  epèktash pou antistoiqeÐ ston tautotikì omomorfismì id ∈ Hom(H2 G. i(x))|x ∈ H2 G} ˜. H omˆda Apìdeixh:'Eqoume ta parakˆtw diagrˆmmata: ˜→G→G 1 → H2 G → G ˜ G ˜] → G → 1 1 → B → [G. C ) → H (G. tìte H 2 (G.

Prìtash 2. G Sune- ˜ ˜=G ˜ × H2 G ˜ ⇒ H2 G ˜ = 0. Apìdeixh: DojeÐshc thc akoloujÐac ˜ →> G E →> G ìpou E eÐnai mia tèleia kentrik  epèktash thc ˜ G kai o pr¸toc epimorfismìc sumbolÐzetai èstw me kentrik  epèktash q en¸ thc G. soume me i : B → H2 G. H2 G dhlad  h ˜ G den diajètei kamÐa mh-tetrimmènh kentrik  epèktash. o deÔteroc me p. 'Etsi eˆn qoume ˜ ˜. me ˆlla lìgia kˆje kentrik  epèktash qwrÐzetai. 27 . H E dra se aut  thn akrib  akoloujÐa abelian¸n omˆdwn. . G 'E- ˜ ˜→G ˜→1 ˜→G 1 → H2 G kai h pagkìsmia idiìthta thc p¸c ˜ G sunepˆgetai ìti h . Poièc eÐnai oi G 1. ˜ G anebaÐnei sthn ˜ ˜. isqurizìmaste ìti h E apoteleÐ Tìte 1 → Kerq → Ker(pq ) → Kerp → 1. h apl  mh-abelian  omˆda tˆxhc 60 (pou dÐdei tic summetrÐec ˜ kai H2 A5 ? peristrof c tou 20-edrou). Upˆrqei mia apeikìnish u : H2 G → B kai eˆn sumbolÐB = H2 G∩[G. Sunep¸c B = H2 G ⇒ [G. sunep¸c paÐrnoume ènan omomorfismì E → Hom(Kerp. ˜ = 0.˜ → G → 1. èqei tetrimmè- nh drˆsh stic Kerq kai Kerp. ˜ G ˜] = G ˜. ja èqoume i ◦ u = 1H2 G diìti i∗ ◦ u∗ (G) = i∗ [G. E =G tìte apoteleÐ mia tèleia kentrik  epèktash thc ˜. 1 → H2 G → G ìpou ˜ G ˜ ]. G ParadeÐgmata: G = A5 . Epomènwc h drˆsh thc E sthn Ker(pq ) eÐnai epÐshc tetrimmènh. Kerq ). 'Estw Arqikˆ jewroÔme thn akrib  akoloujÐa 1 → {±1} → SU2 → SO3 → 1. ˜ G ˜] = G ˜.

èqoume ìti gia h M moiˆzei me ton q¸ro kathgoriopoÐhshc BE . Sunep¸c H2 E = 0. 2. UpenjumÐzoume ìti topologikˆ 2 'Eqoume sunep¸c ta parakˆtw diagrˆmmata: 1 → Z2 → S 3 → SO3 → 1 1 → Z2 → E → G → 1 kai profan¸c E ⊂ S3 kai G ⊂ SO3 . OrÐzoume M := S 3 /E = SO3 /G M apoteleÐ mia prosanatolÐsimh ncare Homology 3-sphere. 2. H M apoteleÐ prosanatolÐsimh 3-pollaplìthta sunep¸c apì duðsmì Pouan- karè èqoume ìti telikˆ H2 M = 0 diìti H1 M = H1 E = 0. 1. EpÐshc h A5 apoteleÐ upoomˆda thc SO3 . 28 . 2. tìte i = 1. Gia πi (M ) = πi S 3 = 0 apì to opoÐo èpetai ìti Hi M = Hi E. kai h Epeid  3-pollaplìthta pou apoteleÐ mia Poi- πi S 3 = 0 i = 0. Ja anafèroume kˆpoiec analogÐec thc K-JewrÐac me tic omotopikèc omˆdec twn omˆdwn GnwrÐzoume ìti Lie. ' Ara H1 E = H2 E = 0 ⇒ E = A5 kai H1 E = H2 E = 0 ⇒ H2 A5 = Z2 . S 3 →> SO3 ⊂ O3 ìpou π0 (O3 ) = SO3 h sunektik  sunist¸sa thc monˆdac thc O3 en¸ S3 eÐnai h pagkìsmia kˆluyh thc SO3 .SU2 = S 3 kai h omˆda aut  eÐnai upoomˆda twn automorfism¸n tou C en¸ h omˆda SO3 eÐnai upoomˆda twn automorfism¸n 1 1 2 tou CP kai topologikˆ CP = S .

H ˆpeirh orjog¸nia omˆda O∞ = O eÐnai akìmh pio kontˆ sthn K-JewrÐa: Spin →> SO ⊂ O kai π0 (O) = K −1 O(pt) eÐnai o pur nac thc apeikìnishc perièqesjai SO → O −2 en¸ π1 (O ) = K O(pt) eÐnai o pur nac tou epimorfismoÔ Spin →> SO. 29 .EpÐshc an antikatast soume thn lèxh sunektik  me tèleia èqoume thn parakˆtw analogÐa: StA → EA ⊂ GLA ìpou EA h mègisth tèleia upoomˆda thc GLA en¸ ˜ StA = EA h pagkìsmia kˆluyh.

Hn (X ) Sunep¸c Hn (Y ).1.5 Diˆlexh 5 q¸roc Me ton ìro me ja ennooÔme èna CW -sÔmploko me shmeÐo bˆshc en¸ [X. Apì to Je¸rhma Van Kampen èqoume ìti π1 (Y ) = π − 1(X ) ∗ π1 (D2 ) = π1 (X )/Γ = 0 ìpou me Γ sumbolÐzoume thn kanonik  upoomˆda pou parˆgetai apì to γ . tètoia olìklhrh h omˆda π1 (X ). i ∈ I . π1 (X ) = 0 kai mia apeikìnish i : X → X tètoia ¸ste h epagìmenh + nish i∗ : H∗ (X ) → H∗ (X ) stic antÐstoiqec omologÐec na eÐnai B ma 1. Z). dhlad  π1 (X )(ab) = 0 = H1 (X. Upˆrqei mia apeikìnish v : S2 → Y 30 . Y ] ja sumbolÐzoume tic omotopikèc klˆseic twn apeikonÐsewn X →Y pou diathroÔn ta shmeÐa bˆshc. 'Estw X q¸roc tètoioc ¸ste h jemeli¸dhc omotopik  omˆda π1 (X ) eÐnai tèleia. γ ¸ste h kanonik  Upojètoume thn ex c eidik  perÐptwsh: kˆpoio ènan brìgqo pou pragmatopoieÐtai apì u:S →X 1 kai èstw Y = X ∪ D2 ìpou D2 ènac 2-dÐskoc ( 2 − cell) tou opoÐou to sÔnoro eÐnai o brìgqoc γ. n ≥ 3. Tìte: Allˆ H2 (X. + + isomorfismìc Epilègoume stoiqeÐa upoomˆda pou parˆgoun na eÐnai γi ∈ π1 (X ). H2 (X ) → H2 (Y ) → H2 (X. 'Eqoume loipìn thn akoloujÐa 0 → H2 (X ) → H2 (Y ) → Z → 0 sthn opoÐa efarmìzoume to Je¸rhma Hurewicz kai paÐrnoume: π1 (Y ) = 0 ⇒ π2 (Y ) = H2 (Y ). Y ) → H1 (X ) → H1 (Y ) → 0. Y ) = Z en¸ H1 (X ) = 0. Jèloume na kataskeuˆsoume ènan q¸ro Prìblhma: X+ tètoion ¸ste apeikì.

i : Y → Z . f apoteleÐ to push out thc f kai Y /X = Z/X + . Z = Y ∪f X + . Y ) → H2 (Y ) → H2 (X + ) → H2 (X + . Pìrisma 1. i) kajorÐzontai mèqri omotopik c isodunamÐac. Y ) → H2 (Y ) kai h eikìna thc δ eÐnai h klˆsh thc v. n ≥ 3. Epiplèon to Je¸rhma Whitehead (1-sunektik  èkdosh) 31 . Y ] apoteleÐ isomorfismì. Oi (X + . Prìtash 1. Apìdeixh Prìtashc 1: 'Eqoume to parakˆtw diˆgramma: X → Y → Y /X X + → Z → Z/X + ìpou: f : X → Y . i : X → X + . Apì to Je¸rhma h Van Kampen èqoume ìti π1 (Z ) = 0 en¸ h efarmog  tou 5L mmatoc dÐdei ìti h epagìmenh apeikìnish sthn omologÐa i∗ : H∗ (Y ) → H∗ (Z ) apoteleÐ isomorfismì. Tìte gia kˆje omotopÐa Y . π1 ( Y ) = 0 kai h epagìmenh apeikìnish sthn i∗ : [X + . Sunep¸c H2 (X ) → H2 (X + ) kai Hn (X ) = Hn (Y ) = Hn (X + ).tètoia ¸ste H2 (S 2 ) → H2 (Y ) → Z. Upojètoume ìti h π1 (X ) eÐnai tèleia kai èstw X+ tètoia ¸ste π1 (X + ) = 0 kai h epagìmenh i : X → i∗ : H∗ (X ) → H∗ (X + ) eÐnai isomorfismìc. Jètoume X + := Y ∪v C 3 ìpou C3 èna 3 − cell. Tìte ja pˆroume thn parakˆtw akoloujÐa: H3 (X + ) → H3 (X + . Y ) ìpou δ : H3 (X + . f : X + → Z . Y ] → [X.

AfoÔ τ0 f = k0 G kai τ1 f = k1 . k1 ètsi ¸ste k0 i = k1 i = f . Y ] → [X. (Jètoume C = H2 G). èpetai ìti k0 ∼ k1 . f : X → Y . i∗ : [X + . Sth sunèqeia orÐzoume tic τ0 : Z → Y wc (idY .dÐdei ìti h i :Y →Z apoteleÐ omotopik  isodunamÐa. Y ∼ Z omotopikˆ isodÔnama. fibrations): ˜ → BG BC → B G 32 . k1 : X + → Y tètoiec ¸ste oi k0 i kai k1 i na eÐnai omotopikèc me thn f. UpenjumÐzoume ìti èqoume to ex c: ˜ = 0. Tìte èqoume: (τ f )i = τ (i f ) = (τ i )f ∼ (id)f = f. Apì ìla ta parapˆnw sunˆgetai ìti h apeikìnish epÐ. f : X + → Z . Y ] eÐnai Gia na apodeÐxoume ìti h i∗ eÐnai 1-1 ergazìmaste wc ex c: JewroÔme kai pˆli to metajetikì tetrˆgwno X → X+ Y →Z me to i : X → X + . 'Estw τ :Z →Y mia omotopik  antÐstrofh apeikìnish thc i. 'Eqoume mia apeikìnish nhmat¸sewn (  inopoi sewn. f push out thc f . k0 ) : Y ∪X X + → Y kai τ1 : Z → Y wc (idY . Upojètoume ìti h eÐnai tèleia kai ˜→G→1 1 → H2 G → G h pagkìsmia kentrik  epèktash. Apì to Je¸rhma thc deform) tic k0 . . H1 G = H2 G Tìte L mma 1. Allˆ h i apoteleÐ omotopik  isodunamÐa sunep¸c to Ðdio isqÔei kai gia tic τ0 ∼ τ1 . 'Estw dÔo apeikonÐseic k0 . k1 ) : Y ∪X X + → Y me Omotopik c Epèktashc prokÔptei ìti mporoÔme na apomorf¸soume ( tètoion trìpo ¸ste τ0 i = τ1 i = idY .

upˆrqei apì thn Prìtash 1. C ) = [BG. π1 (BG+ ) = 0. BC → B G Apìdeixh: (UpenjumÐzoume ìti π1 (BG) = G). 2). BC → BC → K EM (C. brÐskoume ìti ˜ + ) = H3 (B G ˜ +) π3 (BG+ ) = π3 (B G epeid  ˜ = H2 G ˜ = 0. K EM (C. 1) ˜ → P → E (C. 2)] (ìpou K EM o q¸roc Eilenberg-McLane). 'Eqoume JewroÔme sth sunèqeia ˜ = StA G kai H2 G = K2 A. 2) kai β : B G π2 (BG+ ) = H2 (BG+ ) = H2 (BG) = C. H 2 (G. H1 G G = EA tèleia. ˜ → P . C ) = H 2 (BG. EpÐshc èqoume: H α epˆgei ènan isomorfismì sta π2 : π2 (BG+ ) → π1 (BC ) → π1 (P ) → π1 (BG+ ) ìpou π1 (BC ) = C . BC → B G qrhsimopoi¸ntac to Je¸rhma Hurewicz. H apìdeixh gÐnetai me kun gi diagrammˆtwn. 33 . H apeikìnish α α : BG+ → K EM (C. omotopikˆ isodÔnamoi. ˜+ ∼ P π1 (P ) = 0 ⇒ B G H apeikìnish apoteleÐ isomorfismì omologÐac. Apì tic apeikonÐseic ˜ + → BG+ . 2) BG ìpou BG → BG+ → K EM (C.˜ + → BG+ . β Sunep¸c π1 (P ) = 0.

dhlad  ˜ →X ˜+ X X → X +.Isqurismìc: π2 (BEA+ ) = K2 A = H2 (EA) π3 (BEA+ ) = H3 (StA). Je¸rhma 1. X = BGLA. π1 (X 'Estw o kalÔptwn q¸roc pou antistoiqeÐ sthn 'Eqoume to ex c tetrˆgwno: N ⊂ π1 (X ). TìX + (pou exartˆtai apì thn N ) kai mia apeikìnish i : X → X+ • • tètoia ¸ste: Oi omˆdec π1 (X )/N π1 (X + ) eÐnai isìmorfec. EA = N kai profan¸c EA ⊂ GLA kai paÐrnoume ta BGLA+ . na isqÔei ìti h epagìmenh apeikìnish sthn omologÐa i∗ : H∗ (X. i) kajorÐzetai mèqri omotopik c isodunamÐac. L) apoteleÐ isomorfismì. . Tìte π1 (X + ) = π1 (X )/N . i∗ L) → H∗ (X. Gia kˆje π1 (X + ) − mod L. Apìdeixh: H Apìdeixh ousiastikˆ sunÐstatai apì thn kataskeu  tou q¸rou X + me tic epijumhtèc idiìthtec. 'Estw te upˆrqei ènac q¸roc N ⊂ π1 (X ) mia tèleia kanonik  upoomˆda. π1 (X ) = GLA. ˜ X ˜) = N. π1 (BGLA+ ) = Gia thn K-JewrÐa kˆnoume tic ex c epilogèc: 34 . H Apìdeixh tou IsqurismoÔ eÐnai apl  apì ta parapˆnw: π2 (BEA+ ) = H2 (BEA+ ) = H2 (BEA) = H2 (EA) = K2 A. To zeÔgoc (X + . π3 (BEA+ ) = π3 (BStA+ ) = H3 (BStA) = H3 (StA).

Sunep¸c to BEA+ BGLA kai BGLA + apoteleÐ thn pagkìsmia kˆluyh tou BGLA opìte ìpou πn (BGLA+ ) = πn (BEA+ ). Gia n=2 Gia èqoume sunep¸c π2 (BGLA+ ) = K2 A. n ≥ 2. n ≥ 1. EpÐshc H∗ (BGLA. 35 . L) gia ìla ta prìtupa pˆnw sthn tetrˆgwno H∗ (BGLA+ . π3 (BGLA+ ) = H3 (StA). L) kai èqoume kai to parakˆtw metajetikì K1 A ˜ + BEA → BGLA BGLA → BGLA+ ˜ + h pagkìsmia kˆluyh kai oi katakìrufec apeikonÐseic BEA → BGLA ˜ + → BGLA+ apoteloÔn pull back. orismì thc K-Omˆdac tou n=3 èqoume sunep¸c ' Ara loipìn ftˆsame sthn genikì Quillen : Orismìc 1: Kn A := πn (BGLA+ ).GLA/EA = K1 A.

tìte h lègetai akuklik  . Oi akuklikèc apeikonÐseic eÐnai kleistèc sthn sÔnjesh. (b. ta parakˆtw eÐnai isodÔnama: ˜ ∗ F = 0. T ]|π1 (a) : π1 (X ) → π1 (T )killsN } apoteleÐ isomorfismì. Y apote- loÔn CW -sÔmploka me shmeÐa bˆshc). Gia mia apeikìnish f :X→Y (ìpou oi q¸roi X. Eˆn ta parapˆnw isqÔoun.) To anèbasma isomorfismì (ìpou ˜ Y ˜ →Y ˜ f : X ×Y Y thc h pagkìsmia kˆluyh tou f :X→Y Y ). N ⊂ π1 (X ). π1 ( X AfoÔ 36 . L) apoteleÐ isomorfismì. DojeÐshc miac tèleiac kanonik c upoomˆdac pˆrqei monadik  (mèqri omotopik c isodunamÐac) akuklik  apeikìnish Y tètoia ¸ste Epiplèon gia kˆje q¸ro N = ker[π1 (f )] (ìpou π1 (Y ) = π1 (X )/N ). ˜ X ènac kalÔptwn q¸roc tou X me ˜) = N. ìpou H omotopik  Ðna shmaÐnei na antikatast soume thn f me mia inopoÐhsh (fibration) (a.1. h epagìmenh apeikìnish f ∗ : [Y. ta kai ta omotopikˆ omotopikˆ pull-backs push-outs. (g. f apoteleÐ omologikì Orismìc 1. uf :X→ Je¸rhma 1.6 Diˆlexh 6 DÐdoume qwrÐc apìdeixh thn parakˆtw Prìtash pou ja mac qrhsimeÔsei gia na d¸soume amèswc parakˆtw ènan basikì Orismì: Prìtash 1. T .) H π1 (f ) : π1 (X ) → π1 (Y ) eÐnai epÐ kai gia kˆje π1 (Y ) − mod L isqÔei ìti h epagìmenh apeikìnish stic omologÐec f∗ : H∗ (X. Apìdeixh: To basikì shmeÐo sthn apìdeixh tou jewr matoc eÐnai h ka'Estw taskeu  tou Y.) H omotopik  Ðna F thc f eÐnai akuklik . Pìrisma 1. dhlad  kai na pˆroume mia Ðna. f ∗ L) → H∗ (Y. T ] → {a ∈ [X.

πn (BGLA+ ) = Kn A. Shmei¸noume ìti en¸ o BGLA den apoteleÐ h − space. Upˆrqei mia suneq c apeikìnish µ : G∞ × G∞ → G∞ (me x0 shmeÐo bˆshc) tètoia ¸ste µ(x0 . x) = x kai µ(x. Eˆn EA. • π2 (BGLA+ ) = π2 (BEA+ ) = H2 (BEA+ ) = H2 (EA) = K2 A. ìpou f : BGLA → BGLA+ h monadik  akuklik  apeikìnish me ker[π1 (f )] = ˜ + h pagkìsmia kˆluyh kai π1 (BGLA+ ) = GLA/EA = K1 A. • π3 (BGLA+ ) = H3 (StA). f akuklik  tìte kai h f To sumpèrasma ìlwn aut¸n eÐnai ìti: • H BGLA+ èqei pagkìsmia kˆluyh thn BEA+ . push out X . • π1 (BGLA+ ) = K1 A. Eˆn efarmìsoume to parapˆnw sthn perÐptwsh thc kanonik  upoomˆda thc tetrˆgwno: EA pou apoteleÐ tèleia GLA = π1 (BGLA). G∞ = limk→∞ Grk (C∞ ) = BGLC ìpou da Gr sumbolÐzei tic Grassmannians kai Grk (C∞ ) = BGLk C. x0 ) = x0 . Ja doÔme thn sqèsh aut¸n me thn Topologik  K-JewrÐa (dec to Kefˆlaio 3 parakˆtw twn shmei¸sewn). ja pˆroume to ex c metajetikì ˜ + BEA → BGLA BGLA → BGLA+ . o BGLA+ apoteleÐ. n ≥ 1. 37 . Sthn omˆ- Sto eujÔ ˆjroisma dianusmatik¸n desm¸n ξ ⊕ η antistoiqeÐ mia dom  h − space ston G∞ . • Genikˆ. BGLA ˜ : BEA → BGLA ˜ + epÐshc akuklik .f :X→Y akuklik . GLC jewroÔme thn fusik  thc topologÐa. qrhsimopoioÔme to akuklikì ˜ →X ˜ +.

UpenjumÐzoume kai to ex c gegonìc: 'Estw a ∈ GLn C.. h suzugÐa me stoiqeÐa thc EA sthn BGLA+ eÐnai tetrimmènh (mèqri omotopÐac) .. x2 . . xn ] ∼ F o daktÔlioc twn poluwnÔmwn me suntelestèc apì kˆpoio s¸ma F ... xn ]) = K0 F. Genika oi upologismoÐ thc (An¸terhc) Algebrik c K-JewrÐac eÐnai exairetikˆ polÔplokoi. x2 . O Grothendieck apèdeixe ìti K0 (F [x1 . 38 .. Allˆ epeid  π1 (BGLA+ ) = GLA. Autì isqÔei sthn Topologik  K-JewrÐa allˆ OQI sthn Algebrik  K-JewrÐa. . H suz ugÐa mèsw stoiqeÐwn thc konÐseic den eÐnai tetrimmènh (an jewr soume tic apei- shmeÐa bˆshc) .. Parajètoume merikoÔc gnwstoÔc upologismoÔc: 'Estw F [x1 . GnwrÐzoume ìti omotopikoÐ q¸roi èqoun isìmorfec dianusmatikèc dèsmec. en¸ o Quillen apèdeixe ìti kˆje dianusmatik  dèsmh pˆnw apì ènan daktÔlio poluwnÔmwn eÐnai tetrimmènh. Oi apeikonÐseic a→ kai a 0 0 1 1 0 0 a GL2n C kai eÐnai omotopikèc sthn fusik  a→ apeikonÐzoun thn omˆda GLn C sthn topologÐa allˆ oi apeikonÐseic  a 0 0 a→ 0 1 0  0 0 1 kai   1 0 0 a→ 0 a 0  0 0 1 conjugate (suzugeÐc) mèsw EA BGLA sthn pou diathroÔn ta  eÐnai enìc stoiqeÐou thc EA.

4. o Borel dimQ [Kn Z ⊗ Q] = Z. apèdeixe kai ta ex c: Sthn perÐptwsh pou A = Z. Kn (Fq ) = 0. n = 4. n = 0. 2. Q)] pou den eÐnai parˆ to gnwstì Je¸rhma Milnor-Moore. n = 1. Epeid  o apoteloÔn BGLA+ apoteleÐ h-q¸ro. Q) π∗ (BGLA+ ) ⊗ Q = P rim[H∗ (GLA. Kn (Fq ) = 0. n = 1. n = 2. ìpou h pr¸th apeikìnish eÐnai to anèbasma Brauer. n = 5. qrhsimopoi jhke to parakˆtw je¸rhma: Fq (pou eÐnai arketˆ Je¸rhma 2. n = 3. Epiplèon gnwrÐzoume ìti ìti oi H∗ (BGLA+ . 39 . 8. 5. ton BGLFq sthn h − f ibre (omotopik  Ðna) thc Ψ q Gia touc upologismoÔc twn K-Omˆdwn tou s¸matoc epÐponoi). Kn (Fq ) = Zq3 −1 . Upˆrqei kai mia apeikìnish apì q −1 + : BU → BU . 6. gnwrÐzoume ˆlgebra Hopf. BU = G∞ sthn topologÐa q kai h deÔterh apeikìnish eÐnai h Ψ (L) = L . 9.'Estw ex c: Fq èna peperasmèno s¸ma me q stoiqeÐa. dimQ [Kn Z ⊗ Q] = 0. etc 'Eqoume tic ex c apeikonÐseic: BGLFq → BU → BU. Kn (Fq ) = Zq2 −1 . 7. H apeikìnish q −1 : BU → BU ) BGLF+ q → h − f ibre(Ψ eÐnai omotopik  isodunamÐa. Kn (Fq ) = F+ q Zq−1 . n = 0. Tìte èqoun upologisjeÐ ta Kn (Fq ) = Z. 3.

eÐnai eÔkolo na upologÐsoume thn diaforˆ twn diastˆse¸n touc pou ja thn sumbolÐzoume foume [V0 ] − [V1 ]. AnaptÔssoume: 0 → KerT → V0 → V1 → cokerT → 0. 40 . 2. (Gia eukolÐa suqnˆ antÐ gia dim V ja grˆ- [V ] kai ja ennooÔme thn diˆstash enìc dianusmatikoÔ q¸rou).Kefˆlaio 2 Analutik  K-JewrÐa (K-OmologÐa) Ja mporoÔse kˆpoioc na pei pwc h Analutik  K-JewrÐa apantˆ sthn er¸thsh pìso kˆnei ∞ − ∞ (pou sto gumnˆsio lègame ìti apoteleÐ aprosdiìristh morf ). ˆlgebra kai gewmetrÐa (sun thn topologÐa). 'Ena enallaktikì ìnoma gia thn analutik  K-JewrÐa eÐnai K-OmologÐa . 'Estw T : V0 → V1 ènac grammikìc telest c. EpÐshc o Orismìc tou DeÐkth enìc telest  (Frèntqolm) apoteleÐ ènan apì touc pio qr simouc orismoÔc sta majhmatikˆ diìti apì autìn prokÔptoun ta diˆfora Jewr mata DeÐkth pou anamfÐbola apoteloÔn ta pio kombikˆ apotelèsmata twn majhmatik¸n tou deÔterou misoÔ tou 20ou ai¸na afoÔ susqetÐzoun anˆlush. V1 duo dianusmatikoÐ q¸roi peperasmènhc diˆstashc (me kˆpoio F). Eˆn s¸ma V0 .1 Diˆlexh 1 GnwrÐzoume apì thn Topologik  K-JewrÐa ìti K0 (∗) = Z.

allˆ apì to dexÐ mèloc Ðswc katafèroume. sugklÐnei ston H . [KerT ] − [V0 ] + [V1 ] − [cokerT ] = 0. efodiasmènoc me eswterikì ginìmeno pou eÐnai pl rhc . Je¸rhma 1 (Grammik  ' Algebra). Sto kefˆlaio autì ìloi oi telestèc. Mia grammik  apeikìnish (grammikìc telest c) eˆn upˆrqei kˆpoioc jetikìc pragmatikìc H1 lègetai fra gmènh toioc ¸ste ||T x|| ≤ c||x||. To je¸rhma isqÔei gia kˆje kont  akrib  akoloujÐa dianusmatik¸n q¸rwn peperasmènhc diˆstashc. Ac upenjumÐsoume sÔntoma ton orismì tou q¸rou Hilbert: Orismìc 1. na pˆroume mia (saf  kai) peperasmènh apˆnthsh. se kˆpoiec eunoðkèc peript¸seic an o telest c lìc. bˆshc QÐlmpert Dojèntoc enìc q¸rou QÐlmpert. 'Enac q¸roc QÐlmpert H eÐnai ènac (migadikìc) dianusmati- kìc q¸roc ˆpeirhc diˆstashc. orÐzetai h ènnoia thc wc proc kˆpoiec bˆseic QÐlmpert stouc kai H0 . tìte to aristerì mèloc thc parapˆnw exÐswshc den èqei nìhma (diìti dÐdei aprosdiìristh morf  ∞ − ∞). ektìc eˆn dhlwjeÐ kˆti diaforetikì. O kalÔteroc tètoioc jetikìc pragmatikìc arijmìc lègetai sumbolÐzetai nìrma thc T kai ||T ||. ja jewroÔntai grammikoÐ.ìpou cokerT = V1 /ImT = V1 /T (V0 ) = (ImT )⊥ . dhlad  kˆje akoloujÐa ( xn ) ∈ H me ||xn || < ∞. An jewr soume dianusmatikoÔc q¸rouc ˆpeirhc diˆstashc (ìpwc q¸rouc Hilbert gia parˆdeigma). Xanagrˆfoume thn sqèsh tou Jewr matoc se mia pio bolik  morf : [V0 ] − [V1 ] = [KerT ] − [cokerT ]. T eÐnai ka- (Sunep¸c h diaforˆ ∞−∞ mporeÐ na mhn eÐnai pˆnta aprosdiìristh). T : H0 → arijmìc c tè- Orismìc 2. ∀x ∈ H. H1 parapˆnw. kˆje fragmènoc 41 .

Gia parˆdeigma. 2 . Orismìc 4.. O T T eÐnai Frèntqolm.. h eikìna tou epÐshc to phlÐko Fredholm eˆn o pur nac tou KerT èqei pepeImT apoteleÐ kleistì uposÔnolo tou H1 kai H1 /ImT èqei epÐshc peperasmènh diˆstash.. Apìdeixh: ArkeÐ na apodeÐxoume ìti o tautotikìc telest c I apoteleÐ e- swterikì shmeÐo tou sunìlou twn antistrèyimwn telest¸n diìti eˆn tìte ||A|| < 1. Orismìc 3.grammikìc telest c T mporeÐ na anaparastajeÐ me ènan pÐnaka ∞ × ∞ (ousia∞×∞ pÐna- stikˆ me ton Ðdio trìpo pou mˆjame sthn grammik  ˆlgebra na anaparistoÔme grammikèc apeikonÐseic me pÐnakec). O eÐnai antistrèyimoc mìntoulo sumpageÐc ( pacts). To B (H ) to sÔnolo ìlwn twn fragmènwn telest¸n apì uposÔnolo twn antistrèyimwn telest¸n sto B (H ) eÐnai anoiktì. 'Enac grammikìc telest c T lègetai sumpa g c eˆn ∀ > 0. AntÐstrofa. Sthn peperasmènhc tˆxhc . b. 'Enac pÐnakac ∞×∞ prˆgmati orÐzei ènan fragmèno telest  eˆn (allˆ pl joc mh-mhdenik¸n stoiqeÐwn ìqi apokleistikˆ) èqei perÐptwsh aut  lègetai peperasmèno telest c . upˆrqei telest c peperasmènhc tˆxhc F tètoioc ¸ste ||T − F || < . o tautotikìc telest c I:H→H DEN eÐnai sumpag c. eÐnai polÔ pio dÔskolo na apofanjoÔme eˆn autìc orÐzei kˆpoion fragmèno telest . dhlad  upˆrqei ènac ˆlloc telest c invertible modulo comS : H1 → H0 tètoioc ¸ste oi 42 . IsqÔei ta parakˆtw basikì Je¸rhma: Je¸rhma 1. (I − A) −1 = I + A + A + . 'Estw ton H ston H. dojèntoc enìc ka. 'Enac fragmènoc telest c Frèntq olm ( ) T : H0 → H1 metaxÔ dÔo q¸rwn QÐlmpert lègetai rasmènh diˆstash. Prìtash 1. ( Atkinson) Ta parakˆtw eÐnai isodÔnama: a.

sunep¸c to T eÐnai kˆtw fragmènoc ston T (KerF ) eÐnai kleistì. H0 apoteleÐ S : (ImT ) → (ImT )⊥ . èqei peperasmènh ||ST − I − F || < 1/2. ˆra o KerT èqei peperasmènh diˆstash. . an gnwrÐzoume pwc to T S −I ja d¸sei ìti o cokerT ImT eÐnai kleistì. Tìte oi telestèc ST − I kai T S −I eÐnai peperasmènhc b. ⇒ a. F peperasmènhc tˆxhc. opìte o I |KerT eÐnai sumpag c. Tìte eˆn x ∈ KerF ||ST x − x|| ≤ (1/2)||x||. Apìdeixh: a. Allˆ ImT = T (KerF ) + T ((KerF )⊥ ) kleistì. opìte ||ST x|| ≥ (1/2)||x||. 43 . sunep¸c ||T x|| ≥ dhlad  o 1 x. O (KerT )⊥ kai KerT en¸ o H1 ⊥ apoteleÐ thn xènh ènwsh twn upoq¸rwn ImT kai (ImT ) H1 /ImT . ˆra ⊥ upˆrqei grammik  apeikìnish (KerT ) → ImT . 'Estw upˆrqei S tètoioc ¸ste oi ST − I kai TS − I eÐnai sumpageÐc. QrhsimopoioÔme to Je¸rhma thn xènh ènwsh twn upoq¸rwn KleistoÔ Graf matoc thc Sunarthsiak c Anˆlushc apì to opoÐo prokÔptei ìti h parapˆnw suneq c amfeikìnish (1-1 kai epÐ) èqei mia suneq  antÐstrofh ⇒ b. 2||S || KerF . tˆxhc.telestèc ST − I kai TS − I eÐnai sumpageÐc stouc H0 kai H1 antÐstoiqa. Perio- rÐzoume ton pr¸to ston KerT opìte (ST − I )|KerT = −I |KerT . Parìmoio epiqeÐrhma gia ton diˆstash.

eÐnai topikˆ 44 . e1 . . T1 ∈ F red(H ). thn posìthta DeÐkth Orismìc 5. T1 ∈ F red(H ) kai mporoÔn na sundejoÔn mèsw miac Tt t ∈ [0. diìti gia antistrèyimouc telestèc o DeÐkthc mhdenÐz etai . Eˆn T ∈ F red(H ). o mhdenikìc upìqwroc en¸ dim(cokerU ) = 1. suneqoÔc troqiˆc T0 . H basik  idiìthta tou DeÐkth eÐnai h ex c: epÐshc Eˆn T0 . Sunep¸c Apì to parapˆnw parˆdeigma prokÔptei ìti o DeÐkthc exartˆtai perissìtero apì touc q¸rouc aut¸n.. Gia parˆdeigma. H0 .. Meletˆme ti sumbaÐnei kontˆ sto shmeÐo t → IndTt t = t0 . tìte Eˆn IndT0 = IndT1 . kai ja sumbolÐzetai me IndT := dim(KerT ) − dim(cokerT ) = [KerT ] − [cokerT ] ∈ Z. tìte orÐzoume ton tou IndexT (  pio sÔntoma me IndT ). tìte T0 T1 ∈ F red(H ) kai Ind(T0 T1 ) = IndT0 + IndT1 . Ja mporoÔse kˆpoioc diaisjhtikˆ na pei ìti o DeÐkthc enìc telest  apoteleÐ mètro tou pìso apèqei o telest c apì to na eÐnai antistrèyimoc. 1] telest¸n Frèntqolm. èstw o H èqei mia bˆsh e0 . H1 kai ligìtero apì ton grammikì telest  T metaxÔ Prìtash 2.Ja sumbolÐzoume me F red(H ) to sÔnolo twn telest¸n Frèntqolm apì ton H ston H. T. Apìdeixh: ArkeÐ na apodeÐxoume ìti h apeikìnish stajer . e2 . kai èstw telest c U :H→H pou orÐzetai wc ex c: U e 0 = e1 U e 1 = e2 etc Tìte KerU = {0} IndU = −1. Fanerˆ o deÐkthc enìc telest  Frèntqolm eÐnai ènac akèraioc arijmìc.

Tt0 na eÐnai epÐ. 45 . eÐnai epÐshc antistrèyimoi. g. PKerTt0 x).. Apìdeixh: JewroÔme ton Tt = T + tK kai efarmìzoume thn Prìtash 2. tìte o T +K eÐnai Frèntqolm kai Ind(T + K ) = IndT. 'Iswc o Tt0 eÐnai amfeikìnish (dhlad  antistrèyimoc). ˆra eÐnai stajerìc kontˆ sto t = t0 . Allˆ o St0 eÐnai amfeikìnish opìte o DeÐkthc tou St eÐnai stajerìc kontˆ sto t0 . Tìte epilègoume mia orjo- kanonik  bˆsh apì ta ei kai èstw Qn h probol  en+1 . . Isqurizìmaste ìti o ston q¸ro èstw Hn . St : H → H ⊕ Cn . opìte o DeÐkthc mhdenÐzetai. Pìrisma 1.a. Sunep¸c Ind(Qn Tt0 ) = IndTt0 + m kai efarmìzoume thn perÐptwsh (b) parapˆnw. Tìte oi geitonikoÐ Tt b. . pou parˆgetai Qn Tt0 : H → Hn eÐnai epÐ gia arketˆ megˆlo n. AutoÐ oi telestèc eÐnai Frèntqolm kai IndSt = IndTt − n.. dhlad  èstw 'Ena ˆllo endeqìmeno eÐnai o JewroÔme ton telest  dim(KerTt0 ) = n. en+2 . x → (Tt x. . MporeÐ na mhn isqÔei tÐpote apì ta parapˆnw. Eˆn T Frèntqolm kai K sumpag c telestèc.

L2 (S 1 ) to sÔnolo twn tetragwnikˆ oloklhr¸simwn migadik¸n sunart sewn tou kÔklou. tìte f (x) = ìpou cn einx . O q¸roc autìc apoteleÐ q¸ro QÐlmpert me eswterikì ginìmeno < f. H orjog¸nia probol  P : L2 (S 1 ) → H 2 (S 1 ) 46 . An jewr soume ton kÔklo wc to phlÐko [0. q¸roc Hardy. 2π H migadik  anˆlush upagoreÔei thn melèth tou upoq¸rou H 2 (S 1 ) = {f ∈ L2 (S 1 )|f = ∞ n n=0 cn z }. n ∈ Z.2. 0 MporoÔme epÐshc na doÔme ton kÔklo wc uposÔnolo tou epipèdou Tìte oi parapˆnw sunart seic bˆshc grˆfontai wc Argand. tìte mporoÔme na sqhmatÐsoume ton q¸ro L2 (M ) = {f : M → C| M |f |2 dµ < ∞}. M mia sumpag c kai prosanatolÐsimh pollaplìthta R man. g >= M Gia parˆdeigma.2 Diˆlexh 2 GnwrÐzoume ìti F red(H ) Eˆn Z × G∞ . cn = S 1 ⊂ C. 2π dhlad  eˆn f ∈ L2 (S 1 ). 2π ]/(0 = 2π ). tou dhlad  to kleistì diˆsthma [0. 1 en = √ z n . 1 2π 2π f (x)e−inx dx. tìte skefteÐte tic gnwstèc seirèc Fourier. 2π ] me taÔtish twn ˆkrwn. Mia pl rhc orjokanonik  bˆsh L2 (S 1 ) dÐdetai apì tic sunart seic 1 en (x) = √ einx . dhlad  tic sunart seic me jetikoÔc mìno suntelestèc Fouriè. èstw fg ¯dµ.

Tìte wc proc thn bˆsh (en ) pou anafèrame parapˆnw. sunep¸c sumpag c). dhlad  dojeÐshc miac f ∈ C (S ). Autìc apoteleÐ fragmèno telest  me ||Mf || = sup|f |. L2 (S 1 ) apoteleÐ prìtupo epÐ tou C (S 1 ). z −1 . Orismìc 1. Eˆn f ∈ C (S 1 ). Me prosèggish oloklhr¸netai h apìdeixh. Mf ] = P Mf − Mf P apoteleÐ sumpag  telest  (sunep¸c h probol  Qˆrnti den eÐnai topik  allˆ ìqi polÔ makriˆ apì to na eÐnai topik ). Prìtash 1. Tf Tg − Tf g eÐnai sumpag c. Tìte o telest c Tf = P Mf . prokÔptei h apìdeixh (prokÔptei f eÐnai poluwnumik  sunˆrthsh. opìte apì to Je¸rhma Stone-Weierstrass prokÔptei ìti ta polu¸numa 1 eÐnai puknì uposÔnolo tou C (S ). 47 . + am z m . h f anaparÐstatai wc pÐnakac. PaÐrnontac ton metajèth me ton telest c peperasmènhc tˆxhc. L mma 1.. Apìdeixh: Upojètoume arqikˆ pwc h f apoteleÐ polu¸numo twn z . H f lègetai 'Estw O telest c telest c sÔmbolo Toeplitz Tf : H 2 (S 1 ) → tou Tf . twn su1 neq¸n migadik¸n sunart sewn tou kÔklou. ' Ara eˆn h Mf . tìte o metajèthc [P. Mf ] apoteleÐ telest  peperasmènhc tˆxhc.lègetai probol  Qˆrnti. . èstw f = a−m z −m + . Mètro thc mh-topikìthtac enìc telest  apoteleÐ o metajèthc autoÔ me touc pollaplasiastikoÔc telestèc .. tìte o metajèthc [P. H 2 (S 1 ) eÐnai o f ∈ C (S 1 ). 2 1 2 1 mporoÔme na orÐsoume ènan pollaplasiastikì telest  Mf : L (S ) → L (S ): Shmei¸noume ìti o q¸roc (Mf g )(x) = f (x)g (x).

Apìdeixh: O Tf −1 eÐnai ènac antÐstrofoc mìntoulo sumpageÐc. . 1.. paÐrnoume apeikonÐseic [S 1 . .. . 48 . Er¸thma: Poioc o deÐkthc tou Tf ? 'Estw f : S 1 → Cx ) mia apeikìnish tètoia ¸ste h kampÔlh na mhn dièrqetai UpenjumÐzoume ìti o apì thn arq  twn axìnwn. . Je¸rhma 1. o arijmìc strof c winding number thc f apoteleÐ thn monadik  topologikˆ analloÐwth posì- thta tètoiwn apeikonÐsewn. jewroÔme thn An antÐ twn parapˆnw jewr soume telestèc tìte oi nèoi telestèc eÐnai Frèntqolm eˆn h Tf ìpou f : S 1 → Mn (C). P ]Mg f ∈ C (S 1 ) eÐnai sumpag c. 'Opwc kai prohgoumènwc. Eˆn h eÐnai antistrèyimh. Cx ] → Z. dhlad  f eÐnai antistrèyimh. Gia parˆdeigma.. eˆn f : S → GLn (C).. e1 . 'Omwc ìpwc eÐdame 1 GLn (C) → GLn+1 (C). .Apìdeixh: O P Mf P Mg − P 2 Mf Mg = P [Mf . Kˆje omotopik  klˆsh emperièqei èna antiprìswpo se autìn ton antiprìswpo poia eÐnai h apˆnthsh. Sunep¸c o Tz eÐnai aplˆ h metatìpish me deÐkth −1. f → IndTf orÐzei genikìtera mia apeikìnish [S 1 . i = 0.. Tìte o Tz = Tf dÐdetai apì thn Tz (ei ) = ei+1 . en¸ Mz (ei ) = ei+1 . Apìdeixh: Epeid  o deÐkthc eÐnai posìthta analloÐwth stic apomorfoh antistoÐqish poi seic ( deformations). ( wn(f ). dhlad  f → IndTf . Pìrisma 1. 2. tìte o Tf eÐnai Frènt- qolm. zm opìte aplˆ elègqoume f (x) = z opìte o H 2 (S 1 ) parˆgetai apì ta e0 . IndTf = −wn(f ). GLn (C] → Z pou se kˆje sunˆrthsh f antistoiqoÔn ton deÐkth IndTf . e2 .

b. 49 . GLn (C] → Z [S 1 . Sto ìrio n→∞ paÐrnoume mia apeikìnish (sthn ousÐa apoteleÐ omomor- fismì omˆdwn) K −1 (S 1 ) → Z. 'Enan q¸ro QÐlmpert H pou apoteleÐ prìtupo thc ˆlgebrac (daktu- lÐou) C (X ) (dhlad  C (X ) → B (H )). Ta parapˆnw mporoÔn na genikeujoÔn gia opoiond pote sumpag  q¸ro (antÐ tou kÔklou X S 1 ) efodiasmènou me ta parakˆtw dedomèna: a. =f Tf˜ = . Upˆrqei fusikˆ kai o sqetizìmenoc antÐstoiqoc omomorfismìc K −1 (X ) → Z. Mia autosuzug  probol  P ston H. Sunep¸c èqoume èna metajetikì diˆgramma [S 1 . ∀f ∈ C (X ). GLn+1 (C] → Z ìpou oi orizìntiec apeikonÐseic eÐnai oi deÐktec kai h katakìrufh h apeikìnish tou perièqesjai. efodiasmènou me ènan omomorfismì algebr¸n f → Mf.f→ Tìte f 0 0 1 Tf 0 0 1 ˜. O telest c P Mf − Mf P na eÐnai sumpag c Ta parapˆnw dedomèna perigrˆfoun èna q¸rou perittì K-kÔklo ( X (perittì diìti orÐzoun èna stoiqeÐo tou K −1 (X )). odd K-cycle ) tou g. Auto upodhl¸nei ìti oi K-kÔkloi ja prèpei na parˆgoun mia jewrÐa duðk  thc K-JewrÐac pou lègetai K-OmologÐa .

50 . ta Ðdia perÐpou dedomèna orÐzoun ènan perittì K-kÔklo thc mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac. UpenjumÐzoume epÐshc ìti Ki (C (X )) = K −i (X ). 1. i = 0.Eˆn antÐ thc ˆlgebrac logikì q¸ro C (X ) (pou proèrqetai apì kˆpoion sumpag  topo- X) jewr soume mia tuqaÐa ˆlgebra A.

Orismìc kÔkloc 'Estw X sumpag c topologikìc q¸roc. 1]). eˆn [P. Oi ekfulismènoi K-kÔkloi antistoiqoÔn sto mhdèn thc omˆdac K1 (X ).2. t ∈ [0. ∀f • • pou epˆgei thn mhdenik  apeikìnish K −1 degenerate (X ) → Z. Mia probol  P ston (dhlad  P = P 2 = P ∗ ). f ] sumpag c. 'Enac perittìc K- tou X apoteleÐtai apì ta parakˆtw dedomèna: a. 51 .3 Diˆlexh 3 1. to sÔnolo ìlwn twn omotopik¸n klˆsewn peritt¸n KEˆn pˆroume sthn kÔklwn apoteleÐ hmi-omˆda me prˆxh to eujÔ ˆjroisma. Upˆrqoun dÔo basikèc ènnoiec isodunamÐac metaxÔ K-kÔklwn: H mo- nadiak  isodunamÐa. 'Enac perittìc K-kÔkloc dÐdei kai ènan omomorfismì K −1 (X ) → Z pou sthn ousÐa eÐnai o deÐkthc tou antÐstoiqou telest  Toeplitz. ) Orismìc 2. Sunep¸c èqoume èna zeugˆrwma (ginìmeno) K1 (X ) ⊗ K −1 (X ) → Z. 'Enac K-kÔkloc eÐnai ekfulismènoc ( 0. dhlad  Ôparxh monadiakoÔ telest  isodunamÐa (Ôparxh suneqoÔc oikogèneiac U (H. Pt ). ∀f ∈ C (X ). f ] = Oi K-kÔkloi mporoÔn na prostejoÔn me eujÔ ˆjroisma. b. sunèqeia thn omˆda lian ) omˆda Grothendieck aut c thc hmi-omˆdac paÐrnoume thn (abe- K1 (X ). g. 'Enan q¸ro QÐlmpert H H ston opoÐo dra h C (X ). kai h omotopik  Gia dosmèno X. [P. L mma 1.

Kontˆ y0 . X = [(H. mia geitoniˆ tou sunep¸c kai h Sy eÐnai antistrèyimh y0 . P ) ekfulismènoc. mporoÔme na broÔme mia probol  peperasmènhc sundiˆstashc tètoia ¸ste o telest c Qm Qm Ty na eÐnai epÐ tou pedÐou tim¸n tou Qm gia kˆje y ∈Y. T¸ra oi pur nec se kˆpoio shmeÐo Ker(Qm Ty ) sqhmatÐzoun mia dianusmatik  dèsmh. Ta stoiqeÐa tou pr¸tou aristeroÔ parˆgonta eÐnai oi perittoÐ K-kÔkloi ìpou h (P. JewroÔme Sy : H → (RangeQm ) ⊕ (Ker(Qm Ty0 )). slant product eÐnai na apodeÐxoume pwc mia Frèntqolm oikogèneia pˆnw apì ton Y . P ∞ ]. ˆra apoktˆme mia apeikìnish Y → F red. 52 JewroÔme thn eikìna thc antÐstro- . sth sunèqeia thn apeikìnish H apeikìnish Sy0 ∀y ∈ U . ⊕ P ). H ). nusmatikèc dèsmec diìti oi diastˆseic mporeÐ na parousiˆzoun phd mata. To basikì shmeÐo sthn kataskeu  tou Eˆn to Y = {∗}. y → Ty . 'Estw sthn ∞ ∞ K1 ( X ) kai Y = [(H ∞ . P )] Y ⇒ X = 0. .Apìdeixh: 'Estw (H. Tìte X+Y = Ja prèpei na upˆrqei kai to anˆlogo tou slant product K1 (X ) ⊗ K −1 (X × Y ) → K 0 (Y ). H ) C (X ) dra ston gnwrÐzoume pwc y → gy → Tgy H . Gia ta stoiqeÐa tou deÔterou aristeroÔ parˆgonta X × Y → GLn (C) = Y → M aps(X → GLn (C)) dhlad  ∈ F red(P. Jèloume o deÐkthc IndTy na eÐnai h diaforˆ twn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n [KerTy ] − [cokerTy ]. SqhmatÐzoume ton K-kÔklo (⊕ H. dhlad  mia suneq c apeikìnish Y → F red orÐzei mia K-klˆsh sthn K 0 (Y ). ìpou U eÐnai antistrèyimh. H idèa eÐnai na jewr soume tic apeikonÐseic {KerTy : y ∈ Y } → Y kai {cokerTy : y ∈ Y } → Y . h apeikìnish aut  den eÐnai tÐpote ˆllo apì ton deÐkth Y → F red(H ). 'Omwc. o Qm Ty0 eÐnai epÐ tou pedÐou tim¸n tou Qm . Dustuq¸c ìmwc autèc mporeÐ na mhn sqhmatÐzoun diatou antÐstoiqou telest . apì prohgoÔmenh ergasÐa sthn analloiìthta tou deÐkth se apomorfopoi seic.

periorismènh sthn neiac twn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n En katakleÐdi. Apìdeixh: ProkÔptei apì ta parapˆnw. 53 . F redS (H )] → K 0 (Y ) apoteleÐ isomorfismì. H apeikonish aut  eÐnai o deÐkthc. W dÔo dianusmati- Y . Gia to pr¸to (epÐ). Sunep¸c h KerSy sqhmatÐzei mia dianusmatik  dèsmh. dÐdei mia amfeikìnish metaxÔ thc oikogèKerSy → U kai thc stajer c oikogèneiac O ⊕ Ker(Qm Ty0 ) → U . tic emfuteÔoume se mia arketˆ megˆlh tetrimmènh QÐlmpert H èqei ˆpeirh diˆstash) V → CN → H kai W → CN → H. JewroÔme ton q¸ro F redS (H ) = { Je¸rhma 2. T 0 0 1 |T ∈ F red(H )}. Je¸rhma 1. Apìdeixh: Ja prèpei na apodeÐxoume ìti h apeikìnish eÐnai epÐ kai 1-1. H apeikìnish [X. F red(H )] → K 0 (Y ) = [Y. H apeikìnish F red(H ) → Z × G∞ apoteleÐ (asjen ) omotopik  isodunamÐa.fhc apeikìnishc −1 Sy (O ⊕ Ker(Qm Ty0 )) = KerSy . Sunep¸c h U . . orÐsame mia apeikìnish Sy . Z × G∞ ]. ergazìmaste wc ex c: Dojèntwn k¸n desm¸n pˆnw apì ton dèsmh (diìti o q¸roc V. [Y.

mporoÔme na upojèsoume ìti h dianusmatik  dèsmh eÐnai tetrimmènh. Epilègontac megˆlo m.. qrhsimopoioÔme kai to gegonìc ìti apì to L mma Whitehead U 0 0 U −1 ∼ 1 0 0 1 . Gia to deÔtero (1-1). Sqhmatikˆ. mpo- roÔme na thn apomorfopoi soume se mia oikogèneia me stajerì sun-pur na diˆstashc m. kai −1 Uy ⊕ Uy ⊕ Uy ⊕ . èstw (Ty ) mia oikogèneia telest¸n me deÐkth mhdèn. dhlad  oi parakˆtw klˆseic mporoÔn na sundejoÔn me omotopÐa Uy ⊕ 1 ⊕ 1 ⊕ . H omˆda GLH eÐnai surriknoÔmenh (h Gia thn stajer  èkdosh pou mac endiafèrei ed¸. qreiazìmaste mìno na gnwrÐzoume ìti o q¸roc { U 0 0 1 |U ∈ GLH } eÐnai surriknoÔmenoc. UpenjumÐzoume to ex c gegonìc: apìdeixh eÐnai dÔskolh). ìpou S kˆpoioc fixarismènoc q¸roc.. Gia na oloklhrwjeÐ h apìdeixh. Wy Vy . 'Etsi h mporeÐ na apomorfopoihjeÐ se mia oikogèneia antistrèyimwn telest¸n. o q¸roc QÐlmpert grˆfetai wc ˆjroisma twn upoq¸rwn KerTy . Qrhsimopoi¸ntac kˆpoion telest  Qm wc kìyimo ( cutoff ) KerTy KerTy ìpwc prin. 54 .. . oi pur nec sqhmatÐzoun mia stajerˆ tetrimmènh dianusmatik  dèsmh diˆstashc m.O q¸roc QÐlmpert H grˆfetai wc eujÔ ˆjroisma twn upoq¸rwn ⊥ en¸ Wy . S. AfoÔ o deÐkthc eÐnai mhdèn. H grammik  apei- kìnish metaxÔ touc eÐnai sunep¸c h Ty + Uy pou eÐnai antistrèyimh. Vy⊥ kai Ty eÐnai h grammik  apeikìnish metaxÔ touc. Ty (KerTy ) ⊥ kai C m ..

ìpou x ⊗ y → x\y. Isqurismìc: K1 X ⊗ K −1 (X × Y ) ⊗ K 0 Z → K 0 (Y × Z ). Autì eÐnai profanèc diìti eˆn anarwthjoÔme poio to ginìmeno K −1 W ⊗K 0 Z → K −1 (W × Z ). UpenjumÐzoume to stoiqei¸dec gegonìc: K 0 (R × X ) = K −1 X. X→Y epˆgei mia apeikìnish X + → Y +.4 Diˆlexh 4 periodikìthta Ja asqolhjoÔme me thn Bott. K ∗X 'Etsi h periodikìthta me tic Bott anˆgetai se Je¸rhma pou susqetÐzei tic K ∗ (R × X ). ˜ i X + := Ker(K i X + → K (∗)). K iX = K O parapˆnw orismìc èqei nìhma diìti lìgw sunarthtikìthtac ( mia apeikìnish functoriality). x ⊗ y ⊗ z → (x\y ) ⊗ z = x\(y ⊗ z ). 'Etsi eisˆgoume thn idèa thc K-JewrÐac gia topikˆ sumpa geÐc q¸rouc (dh- lad  q¸rouc gia touc opoÐouc kˆje shmeÐo èqei mia sumpag  geitoniˆ). h apˆnthsh prokÔptei apì to gegonìc ìti kˆje automorfismìc miac dèsmhc V pˆnw apì ton W orÐzei to stoiqeÐo V ⊕ V thc pr¸thc K-Omˆdac. UpenjumÐzoume to slant product: K1 X ⊗ K −1 (X × Y ) → K 0 Y. 55 . dhlad  X + = X ∪ {∞}. 'Estw loipìn enìc shmeÐou tou X ènac topikˆ sumpag c q¸roc X . kai X+ h sumpagopoÐhsh Orismìc 1.2.

HmisfaÐrio apoteleÐtai apì ta shmeÐa me omogeneÐc suntetagmènec (1. HmisfaÐrio apoteleÐtai apì ta shmeÐa me omogeneÐc suntetagmènec (z0 . x → b ⊗ x. β : K 0 X → K −1 (R × X ) = K 0 (R2 × X ). stoiqeÐ sthn sunˆrthsh 'Estw z → 1/z ston S 1 . epilègoume (z0 . Tìte β : K 0 X → K −1 (R × X ). b ∈ K −1 R o genn torac pou anti- Ac sumbolÐsoume me β ton parapˆnw isomorfismì kai ac pro- spaj soume na ton perigrˆyoume. x → b ⊗ x. z1 ) omogeneÐc suntetagmènec. Shmei¸noume ìti ˜ 0 (S 2 ) β : K 0 (∗) → K −1 R → K 0 (R2 ) = K ìpou β (1) h tautologik  dèsmh eujei¸n (eujeÐa dèsmh. Upˆrqoun kai oi apeikonÐseic K −1 (R × X ) → K −1 (S 1 × X ) allˆ kai h apeikìnish a\ : K −1 (S 1 × X ) → K 0 X. Je¸rhma 1. 1) kai apoktˆme thn Hopf line bundle. z1 ) en¸ to N. line bundle). OrÐzoume thn apeikìnish α : K −1 (R × X ) → K 0 X.EpÐshc (R × X )+ = SX/A ìpou A ta dÔo shmeÐa korufèc thc anˆrthshc ( suspension) SX . Sthn perÐptwsh S 2 = CP 1 . to B. K −1 (R × X ) Apìdeixh: K 0 X. 56 .

JewroÔme thn apeikìnish K 0 (R2 × X ) → K 0 (R2 × X × R2 ). Shmei¸noume ìti h eikìna tou y = (y ⊗ b)\a apì to L mma 1. Gia na oloklhr¸soume thn apìdeixh tou Jewr matoc 1 ìti h apeikìnish β apoteleÐ isomorfismì. To parapˆnw eÐnai gnwstì kai wc to trik tou Atiyah. Epeid  o pÐnakac 0 −I I 0 pou dra ston R2 ⊕ R2 eÐnai omotopikìc me ton monadÐaio. p) → (p. . Sth sunèqeia ja qreiastoÔme to ex c L mma 1. y → y ⊗ b.ìpou a ∈ K1 (S 1 ). ∀x ∈ K 0 X. α(β (x)) = x. ìpou (v. 'Estw V mia tuqaÐa Bott gia na upologÐsoume tic X. GenikeÔoume to parapˆnw: O X × R2k eÐnai o olikìc q¸roc miac tetrim- mènhc migadik c dianusmatik c dèsmhc pˆnw apì ton migadik  dianusmatik  dèsmh pˆnw apì ton periodikìthta X. arkeÐ na apodeÐxoume pwc eÐnai epÐ. dhlad  ja jèlame na apodeÐxoume ìti kˆje y ∈ K 0 (R2 × X ) eÐnai thc morf c b ⊗ (−). ja èqoume y = (y ⊗ b)\a = (b ⊗ y ˜)\a = b ⊗ (˜ y \a). −v ). Allˆ y⊗b=b⊗y ˜. KV MporoÔme na genikeÔsoume thn qrhsimopoi¸ntac tic KX ? 57 . Apìdeixh L mmatoc: a\(b ⊗ x) = (a\b) ⊗ x = 1 ⊗ x = x. . ìpou y ˜ y upì thn apeikìnish R2 × X → X × R2 . opìte α(y ) = a\y .

of Maths. complex line bundle).J. May 1968. 'Estw V =L mia migadik  eujeÐa dèsmh ( Thom eÐnai h tautologik  dèsmh pˆnw apì ton isomorfismoÔ Thom eÐnai parìmoia me to Mia qr simh parapomp  gia thn paroÔsa diˆlexh eÐnai h ex c ergasÐa: M. O isomorfismìc β eÐnai to ginìmeno me mia klˆsh Thom tou V.H apˆnthsh eÐnai katafatik . H apìdeixh tou trik tou Atiyah. Q. Atiyah: ”Bott Periodicity and the Index of Elliptic Operators”.F. Oxford. dhlad  mia klˆsh thc KV pou o periorismìc thc se kˆje Ðna eÐnai o sun jhc genn torac Bott. Upˆrqei mia apeikìnish β : KX → KV pou apoteleÐ isomorfismì. 58 . H klˆsh P(L ⊕ 1).

To sÔnolo K (H ) twn sumpag¸n telest¸n pou droun se ènan q¸ro QÐlmpert (sthn pragmatikìthta to K (H ) apoteleÐ ide¸dec tou B (H )). ìpou X+ h sumpagopoÐhsh enìc shmeÐou tou X. Banach efodiasmènh me mia anèlixh C ∗ -ˆlgebra eÐnai (involution) tètoia ¸ste Mia ParadeÐgmata: mia ˆlgebra ||xx∗ || = ||x||2 . Autì apoteleÐ epÐshc mia C ∗ -ˆlgebra qwrÐc monˆda C0 (X ) = Ker(C (X + ) → C). UpenjumÐzoume ìti mia ˆlgebra Banach eÐnai mia pl rhc ˆlgebra me nìrma. H legìmenh ˆlgebra Calkin Q(H ) = B (H )/K (H ).5 Diˆlexh 5 K-JewrÐa al gebr¸n Ja asqolhjoÔme me thn Banach kai C∗ -al gebr¸n . d. tìte to C (X ) (sÔnolo twn su- neq¸n migadik¸n sunart sewn tou X) efodiasmèno me thn nìrma ||f || = sup|f | kai thn anèlixh g∗ = g ¯ ìpou g ¯ to migadikì suzugèc. To sÔnolo B (H ) twn fragmènwn telest¸n pou droun se èna q¸ro QÐlmpert. 'Omwc sto ˆpeiro. g. a. f → f (∞). ShmeÐwsh 1: Eˆn X topikˆ sumpag c (kai Qˆousntorf).2. jewroÔme to sÔnolo C0 (X ) twn suneq¸n migadik¸n sunart sewn tou X pou mhdenÐzontai . Eˆn X sumpag c q¸roc Qˆousntorf. 59 . b.

Connes. ìpou J + = {j + λi : λ ∈ C}. opìte kˆje metajetik  C ∗ -ˆlgebra antistoiqeÐ Sunep¸c h topologi- se ènan sumpag  q¸ro Qˆousntorf (to fˆsma aut c). ìpou Gr h omˆda Grothendieck thc hmi-omˆdac π0 (P (A)). alg K1 A = K1 A. P (A) to ìrio P (A) = lim Pn (A).Kˆje trìpo: C ∗ -ˆlgebra qwrÐc monˆda mporeÐ na sumpagopoihjeÐ me autìn ton J → J + → C. Orismìc 2. k  K-JewrÐa ousiastikˆ eÐnai h K-JewrÐa twn metajetik¸n h melèth tuqaÐwn C ∗ -al gebr¸n kai sthn melèth thc mh- C∗ -al gebr¸n (metajetik¸n   mh) antistoiqeÐ thc mh-metajetik c topologÐac . Gia th sunèqeia. sto ( P (A) h omotopÐa kai h suzugÐa conjugacy) OMWS parˆgoun thn Ðdia sqèsh isodunamÐac. dhlad  o orismìc thc mhdenik c K-Omˆdac eÐnai o Ðdioc me ton orismì thc Algebrik c mhdenik c K-Omˆdac. 60 . èstw to sÔnolo twn probol¸n ( Tìte sumbolÐzoume me A mia ˆlgebra Mpˆnaq me monˆda kai èstw Pn (A) P 2 = P ) sto sÔnolo twn n × n pinˆkwn Mn (A). K0 A = Gr[π0 (P (A))]. K1 A = π0 (GLA). Autì eÐnai èna enarkt rio shmeÐo metajetik c gewmetrÐac tou A. n→∞ Orismìc 1. L mma 1. Epiplèon. alg K0 A = K0 A. ShmeÐwsh 2: Apì to Je¸rhma Gelfand gnwrÐzoume pwc h topologÐa enìc sumpagoÔc q¸rou Qˆousntorf sullambˆnetai apì thn ˆlgebra nai mia metajetik  C (X ) pou eÐC ∗ -ˆlgebra.

orÐzoume tic K-Omˆdec wc ex c: Ki J = Ker(Ki (J + ) → Ki C). 2.diìti π0 (GLA) = π1 (BGLA+ ). n→∞ sunep¸c K∗ (K (H )) = lim K∗ (Mn C) = lim K∗ C = K∗ C. i = 0. IsqÔei to parakˆtw 61 . Eˆn K (H ) to sÔnolo twn sumpag¸n telest¸n enìc q¸rou QÐlmpert H. UpenjumÐzoume ìti K (H ) = lim Mn C. Erqìmaste sth sunèqeia sto ex c er¸thma: Poia ja prèpei na eÐnai h K-Jewrhtik  èkdosh miac akriboÔc akoloujÐac enìc zeÔgouc C ∗ -algebr¸n (X. i = 0. Eˆn B (H ) to sÔnolo twn fragmènwn telest¸n enìc q¸rou QÐlmpert H. A)? 'Estw U = X/A. 1. Ki (C (X )) = K −i X. n→∞ n→∞ 3. ElpÐzoume o anagn¸sthc apì ta sumfrazìmena na mporeÐ na diakrÐnei to sumpagopoÐhshc enìc shmeÐou kai to + thc plus construction tou + thc Quillen. Tìte upˆrqei mia akrib c akoloujÐa 0 → C0 (U ) → C (X ) → C (A) → 0. Eˆn J mia C ∗ -ˆlgebra qwrÐc monˆda . Basikèc sqèseic: 1. tìte K0 (K (H )) = Z en¸ K1 (K (H )) = 0. 1. tìte Ki (B (H )) = 0.

P = kai èstw . GnwrÐzoume pwc mporoÔme pˆnta na anebˆsoume ton pÐnaka u 0 0 u−1 M2n A. se ènan antistrèyimo pÐnaka 'Estw 1 0 0 0 ∈ M2n (J + ) Q = R−1 P R ∈ M2n (J + ). 'Estw to empìdio ( tou u ∈ Mn (A/J ) antistrèyimoc. P ∈ M2n A. 62 . R∈ (akribèstera thn klˆsh autoÔ tou pÐnaka). Tìte [P ] − [Q] ∈ K0 J. Se kˆje kont  akrib  akoloujÐa C ∗ -algebr¸n 0 → J → A → A/J → 0. parapèmpoume sthn bibliografÐa. antistoiqeÐ h ex c akrib c akoloujÐa K-Omˆdwn K1 J → K1 A → K1 (A/J ) K0 (A/J ) ← K0 A ← K0 J. Tìte h apeikìnish ∂ apoteleÐ ènan . ìpou oi katakìrufec apeikonÐseic K0 (A/J ) → K1 J kai ∂ : K1 (A/J ) → K0 J kˆnoun to parapˆnw diˆgramma metajetikì. Endiafèrousa eidik  perÐptwsh eÐnai h ex c: J = K (H ). Apìdeixh: ParaleÐpetai.Je¸rhma 1. To stoiqeÐo ∂ [u] ja prèpei na apoteleÐ obstruction) tou anebˆsmatoc (lift) se ènan antistrèyimo pÐnaka Mn A. A = B (H ) genikeumèno deÐkth opìte A/J = Q(H ).

dhlad  eˆn H. 'Estw -prìtupo Orismìc 4. èqoume to ex c basikì Voiculescu) Ta megˆla prìtupa eÐnai aporrofhtikˆ. ρ(a)]compact}. H Paschke D (X ) tou X eÐnai h C ∗ -ˆlgebra D(X ) = {T ∈ B (HX ) : [T. ∀a ∈ A = C (X ). parapèmpoume sthn bibliografÐa. ìpou X sumpag c. Epilègou- me èna megˆlo prìtupo HX . duðk  Orismìc 6. Mia ousiastik  isodunamÐa metaxÔ X -protÔpwn eÐnai ènac monadiakìc ( unitary) telest c u:H→H tètoioc ¸ste uρ(a)u∗ − ρ (a) ∈ K sumpag c. Pìrisma 1. 'Enac q¸roc QÐlmpert H apoteleÐ èna X eˆn upˆrqei mia anaparˆstash ρ : A → B (H ). 'Estw X kˆpoioc topologikìc q¸roc (sumpag c. H dÔo X -prìtupa kai to H eÐnai megˆlo. K 63 . Sth sunèqeia orÐzoume: Orismìc 7. 'Ola ta megˆla prìtupa eÐnai ousiastikˆ isodÔnama. metroÔmenoc (metrisable) topologikìc q¸roc. ˜ i X = (K ˜ i A =)K1−i (D(X )). ( Apìdeixh: ParaleÐpetai.Sthn sunèqeia ja asqolhjoÔme me thn K-OmologÐa twn C ∗ -algebr¸n. 'Ena X -prìtupo lègetai megˆlo eˆn h apeikìnish ρ : A → B (H ) → Q(H ) eÐnai 1-1. tìte to H ⊕ H eÐnai ousiastikˆ isodÔnamo me to H . A = C (X ). Me bˆsh touc parapˆnw orismoÔc. Orismìc 5. Orismìc 3. Je¸rhma 2. metroÔmenoc).

Epeid  D(X. Y ) D(X ).Upˆrqei mia akrib c akoloujÐa enìc zeÔgouc OmologÐa. Y ) → D(X ) → D(X )/D(X. D(X. Y ) sthn K- Orismìc 8. ∀a ∈ C0 (X − Y )}. Y ) = {T ∈ D(X ) : T ρ(a) ∈ K (H ). 64 . Tìte èqoume: C ∗ -albebr¸n (X. èqoume mia kont  akrib  akoloujÐa C ∗ -algebr¸n: 0 → D(X. Y ) → 0.

Fillmore anarwt jhkan: analloÐwth posìthta upì thn ousiastik  EÐnai to ousiaisodunamÐa gia stikì fˆsma h mình touc ousiastikˆ kanonikoÔc telestèc? H apˆnthsh eÐnai arnhtik . O N lègetai kanonikìc normal ) eˆn N N ∗ = N ∗ N. wc apìrroia tou Jewr matoc tou Voiculescu. Eˆn o N eÐnai kanonikìc. 'Enac telest c ) essentially normal Sth sunèqeia oi eˆn o N ∈ B (H ) lègetai N N ∗ − N ∗ N ∈ K (H ) eÐnai sumpag c. ìpou σ (N ) = {λ ∈ C : (N − λI )−1 } to fˆsma tou N. 'Estw H ènac q¸roc QÐlmpert. R. O fˆsmatoc ( Berg apèdeixe pwc kathgoriopoioÔntai essential spectrum σe (N ). parˆgei mia metajetik  C ∗ -upoˆlgebra thc B (H ). dhlad  ) pl rwc mèsw tou ousiastikoÔ σ (π (N )). Proc. π : B (H ) → Q(H ) = B (H )/K (H ). Douglas: K-Homology and Index Theory. classify) touc kanonikoÔc telestèc mè- Ja jèlame na kathgoriopoi soume ( qri monadiak c ( unitary) isodunamÐac mìntoulo sumpageÐc. Pure Math. Douglas. Brown. 65 . analutikìtera mporeÐ na apodeiqjeÐ ìti h upoˆlgebra pou parˆgetai apì ton N eÐnai isìmorfh me thn C (σ (N )). Brown. Orismìc 1.2. Douglas. ousiastikˆ kanonikìc Orismìc ( 2. Fillmore: C ∗ -algebra Extensions and K-Homology . Symp.G. EpÐshc sunÐstatai jermˆ kai to ˆrjro twn P. Vol 38 (1982) Part I. N ∈ B (H ) ( ènac fragmènoc telest c.6 Diˆlexh 6 Gia thn diˆlexh aut  mia kal  anaforˆ eÐnai to ˆrjro twn Brown.

anafèroume to allˆ σ e (U ) = S 1 kai IndU = −1 unilateral shift U . IndN = 0. eÐnai oi telestèc N1 kai N2 ousiastikˆ isodÔnamoi? 1. ∀N kanonikì. EpÐshc eÐnai gnwstˆ kai ta ex c: • • To BDF (X ) apoteleÐ hmi-omˆda me prˆxh to eujÔ ˆjroisma. GnwrÐzoume ìti Gia kˆje λ pou den an kei sto ousiastikì fˆsma tou N . sÔnolo twn monomorfism¸n To sÔnolo BDF (X ) eÐnai epÐshc Ðso me to C (X ) → Q(H ). C (X ) → Q(H ). gia λi ∈ C − X . 2.Wc antiparˆdeigma. ParadeÐ gmata: 66 . o deÐkthc Ind(N − λI ) ∈ Z Eˆn: apoteleÐ analloÐwth posìthta ousiastik c isodunamÐac. H apˆnthsh se autì to er¸thma eÐnai katafatik . Ind(N1 − λi I ) = Ind(N2 − λi I ). Opìte mpo- roÔme na rwt soume to ex c: σe (N1 ) = σe (N2 ) = X . (Apì to Je¸rhma Voiculescu). kˆje kanonikìc telest c orÐzei èna tau- totikì stoiqeÐo. ìpou A h ˆlgebra pou parˆgetai apì ton N kai to profaneÐc katakìrufec apeikonÐseic perièqesjai K (H ) kai upˆrqoun kai oi A → B (H ). OrÐz oume to sÔnolo BDF (X ) pou apoteleÐtai apì tic ousiastikèc klˆseic isodunamÐac twn ousiastikˆ kanonik¸n telest¸n me ousiastikì fˆsma X. C∗ - To sÔnolo BDF (X ) eÐnai Ðso me to sÔnolo twn epektˆsewn twn algebr¸n: 0 → K (H ) → A → C (X ) → 0 0 → K (H ) → B (H ) → Q(H ) → 0.

BDF (S 1 ) = Z. 2. BDF (I ) = 0. tètoioc ¸ste eˆn φ= tìte π ◦ φ11 = α. opìte φ11 (xx∗ ) φ12 (xx∗ ) φ21 (xx∗ ) φ22 (xx∗ ) sunep¸c = φ11 (x) φ12 (x) φ21 (x) φ22 (x) φ11 (x∗ ) φ12 (x∗ ) φ21 (x∗ ) φ22 (x∗ ) . Je¸rhma ( Averson) Dojèntoc enìc omomorfismoÔ α : C (X ) → Q(H ). ParathroÔme ìti BDF (X ) → Hom(K −1 X. opìte o α ⊕ β eÐnai anelkÔsimoc (liftable) sto B (H ). H antÐstoiqh makrˆ akrib c akoloujÐa perièqei mia apeikìnish K1 (C (X ))(= K −1 X ) → K0 (K (H ))(= Z).1. Z) kai 0 → K (H ) → A → C (X ) → 0. ìpou I = [0. φ12 . 67 . φ21 prèpei na eÐnai sumpageÐc (dhlad  me timèc se sumpageÐc telestèc) kai to φ22 ja prèpei na eÐnai ènac ˆlloc ∗-omomorfismìc èstw β . Shmei¸noume ìti ta Apìdeixh: H basik  idèa eÐnai h ex c: φ(xx∗ ) = φ(x)φ(x∗ ). 1. φ11 (xx∗ ) = φ11 (x)φ11 (x∗ ) + φ12 (x)φ12 (x∗ ). upˆrqei ènac omomorfismìc φ : C (X ) → B (H ⊕ H ) φ11 φ12 φ21 φ22 . 1] ⊂ C. .

Z). Apìdeixh: Parajètoume ta basikˆ stoiqeÐa: α : C (X ) → Q(H ) φ : C (X ) → B (H ⊕ H ). me tic antÐstoiqec katakìrufec apeikonÐseic. BDF (X ) = K1 X.. Tìte to [φ. UpenjumÐzoume tic ex c sqèseic: K1 (C (X )) = K −1 X kai K1 X = BDF (X ) = Ext(C (X )) = Hom(K −1 X. . H sunèqeia perilambˆnei kun gi diagrammˆtwn: K1 A → K1 X → K1 (X. 0 −φ12 φ21 0 ∈ K (H ) To X apoteleÐ genikˆ kˆpoio polÔedro tou R3 kai BDF (X ) → Hom(K −1 X.To basikì apotèlesma twn Brown. Z) → . Z) → 0 kai K −1 X → Z(= K0 (K (H ))) → K0 A → K 0 X → 0(= K1 (K (H ))). p] = apoteleÐ akrib¸c ènan K-kÔklo. Fillmore eÐnai to parakˆtw Je¸rhma 2. 68 . Z) → Hom(K −1 X.. Telikˆ èqoume ta ex c: 0 → Ext(K 0 X. Douglas. p:H ⊕H →H h probol  ston pr¸to ìro. ìpou φ= 'Estw φ11 φ12 φ21 φ22 . A) → K0 A → Hom(K −1 A. Z). Z) → K1 X → Hom(K −1 X.

Kˆpoiec apodeÐxeic protˆsewn kai jewrhmˆtwn paraleÐpontai en¸ ìsec upˆrqoun eÐnai sunoptikèc (anafèrontai mìno oi basikèc idèec).F. h diˆstash aut  mporeÐ na eÐnai diaforetik  apì thn topologik  diˆstash tou E ). ApaitoÔme kˆje Ðna (n ma) na èqei dom  dianusmatikoÔ q¸rou diˆstashc èstw opìte ja lème antÐstoiqa ìti h dèsmh èqei diˆstash n (prosoq  ed¸. E pou ja lègetai olikìc q¸roc 2. Eˆn o dianusmatikìc q¸roc eÐnai pragmatikìc (antÐstoiqa migadikìc) ja lème ìti èqoume pragmatik  (antÐstoiqa migadik ) dianusmatik  69 . (sun jwc ja upojètoume ìti o   aplˆ bˆsh B eÐnai pollaplìthta) pou ja lègetai bˆshc .Kefˆlaio 3 Topologik  K-JewrÐa Oi shmei¸seic autoÔ tou kefalaÐou basÐzontai en mèrei stic dialèxeic tou M. Orismìc 1. n. Mia suneq  apeikìnish Gia kˆje b ∈ B.F.1 Diˆlexh 1 Ja xekin soume me ton orismì thc dianusmatik c dèsmhc ( vector bundle). 3. Mia dianusmatik  dèsmh ξ pˆnw apì ènan topologikì q¸ro q¸roc B 1. 3. Atiyah: K-Theory. 1967. Atiyah sto Panepist mio tou Qˆrbarnt katˆ thn dekaetÐa tou 1960 pou upˆrqoun sthn bibliografÐa.   n ma Ðna (tou shmeÐou b). apoteleÐtai apì ta parakˆtw dedomèna: 'Enan topologikì q¸ro (sun jwc pollaplìthta) . o q¸roc π : E → B pou ja lègetai Fb (ξ ) = π −1 (b) ⊂ E lègetai probol  . Benjamin. sÔggramma Gia perissìterec leptomèreiec mporeÐ kaneÐc na dei to klasikì M.

'Estw M (diaforÐsimh) pollaplìthta diˆstashc n. ξ. Oi apeikonÐseic autèc menopoi seic h lègontai topikèc tetrim- en¸ oi apeikonÐseic R n → F b (ξ ) me v → h(b. H efaptìmenh dèT M ⊂ M × Rn = {(x. O orismìc miac magadik c dianusmatik c dèsmhc eÐnai ìmoioc me ton parapˆnw. isìmorfec DÔo dianusmatikèc dèsmec kai ja to sumbolÐzoume ξ η.dèsmh. ( globally 2. Upˆrqei mia apeikìnish (jewroÔme pragmatik  dianusmatik  dèsmh diˆstashc n) h : Ub × Rn → π −1 (U ) pou apoteleÐ omoiomorfismì. èstw Ub ⊂ B mia geitoniˆ tou b. ìpou B tuqaÐoc topologikìc tetrimmènh n H basik  diaforˆ eÐnai pwc mia tuqaÐa dianusmatik  dèsmh en¸ eÐnai tetrimmènh topikˆ (dhlad  topikˆ isìmorfh me thn tetrimmènh dianuautì mporeÐ na mhn isqÔei sunolikˆ smatik  dèsmh katˆllhlhc diˆstashc). Fanerˆ h (pragmatik ) dianusmatik  dèsmh (diˆstashc èstw n) apote- leÐ genÐkeush tou KartesianoÔ ginomènou (pragmatik ) dianusmatik  dèsmh (diˆstashc q¸roc. η me thn Ðdia bˆsh ja lègontai Orismìc 2. pˆnta B × R pou onomˆzetai n). eˆn upˆrqei omoiomorfismìc metaxÔ twn olik¸n touc q¸rwn pou eˆn perioristeÐ se kˆje Ðna na dÐdei ènan grammikì isomorfismì. v ) : v ∈ Tx M } apoteleÐ pragmatik  dianusmatik  dèsmh diˆstashc n me bˆsh M . v ) apoteloÔn grammikoÔc isomorfismoÔc dianusmatik¸n q¸rwn. ParadeÐgmata: 1. Profan¸c isìmorfec dianusmatikèc dèsmec èqoun thn Ðdia diˆstash. ) . apl¸c antikajistoÔme to Rn me to Cn . Gia kˆje b ∈ B. 4. smh 70 .

η dÔo dianusmatikèc dèsmec pˆnw ξ ⊕ η pou apoteleÐ nèa dianusmatik  E (ξ ⊕ η ) ⊂ E (ξ ) × E (η ) apì ton X. 71 . V ect(X ) to sÔnolo twn isìmorfwn klˆsewn twn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n pˆnw apì ton X . e) : πξ (e) = f (x)}. tìte orÐzoume thn f ∗ (ξ ) → X pou lègetai to trˆbhgma pÐsw thc ξ pˆnw apì ton X mèsw thc f kai apoteleÐ mia dianusmatik  dèsmh pˆnw apì ton X me olikì q¸ro Trˆbhgma pÐsw ( Pull-back ) : Eˆn E (f ∗ (ξ )) ⊂ X × E (ξ ) me E (f ∗ (ξ )) = {(x. orÐ- dèsmh pˆnw apì X me olikì q¸ro ìpou E (ξ ⊕ η ) = {(v. Oi probolikoÐ q¸roi (migadikoÐ kai pragmatikoÐ) kai oi Gkrasmˆnianc Gk (R ) n kai oi pollaplìthtec CP n kai RP n kaj¸c Stiefel Vk (Rn ) apoteloÔn paradeÐgmata (pragmatik¸n   migadik¸n antÐstoiqa) dianusmatik¸n desm¸n (breÐte tic bˆseic).3. To eujÔ ˆjroisma ⊕ pou orÐsame parapˆnw orÐzei mia prosjetik  prˆxh sto V ect(X ): 'Estw [ξ ] + [ η ] = [ ξ ⊕ η ]. H diˆstash thc dèsmhc aut c eÐnai Ðsh me to ˆjroisma twn diastˆsewn twn ξ. Sto sÔnolo autì mporoÔme na orÐsoume tic ex c prˆxeic: EujÔ ˆjroisma : Eˆn zoume to eujÔ ˆjroisma to ξ. Ac jewr soume kˆpoion stajerì q¸ro sÔnolo X wc bˆsh kai ac melet soume to me bˆsh ton V B (X ) X ìlwn twn (pragmatik¸n   migadik¸n) dianusmatik¸n desm¸n kai me peperasmènh diˆstash (ˆlla ìqi kajorismènh). η en¸ h Ðna prokÔptei apì to eujÔ ˆjroisma twn antÐstoiqwn in¸n (pou mporoÔn na prostejoÔn wc dianusmatikoÐ q¸roi): Fx (ξ ⊕ η ) = Fx (ξ ) ⊕ Fx (η ). w) : πξ (v ) = πη (w)}. f : X → Y mia suneq c apeikìnish kai ξ → Y mia dianusmatik  dèsmh pˆnw apì to Y . H Ðna orÐzetai wc ex c: Fx (f ∗ (ξ )) = Ff (x) (ξ ).

Gia th sunèqeia jewroÔme ìti o topologikìc q¸roc X . +) apoteleÐ . dhlad  apoteleÐ omo- morfismì hmi-omˆdwn. Oi antiprìswpoi twn K-klˆsewn eÐnai epÐshmec diaforèc thc morf c [ξ ] − [η ]   [ξ ] − [Cn X ]. 'Estw ìpou X → Y mia suneq c apeikìnish. metajetik . jewroÔme ton ∆:A→A×A opìte KA eÐnai to sÔnolo twn sunsunìlwn tou ∆(A) sto A × A pou apoteleÐ epˆgei summetrikˆ stoiqeÐa sto hmiomˆda phlÐko allˆ h enallag  twn paragìntwn sto kartesianì ginìmeno A×A KA opìte proˆgetai se omˆda. kai h opoÐa diathreÐ to Epˆgei thn f ∗ : V ect(Y ) → V ect(X ) f ∗ : K (Y ) → K (X ) eujÔ ˆjroisma. upˆrqei oudètero stoiqeÐo allˆ den upˆrqoun summetrikˆ stoiqeÐa. eÐnai sumpag c kai Qˆousntorf kai oi dianusmatikèc dèsmec eÐnai migadikèc L mma 1. DojeÐshc mia dianusmatik c dèsmhc ξ pˆnw apì ton X . Ac upenjumÐsoume sÔntoma thn kataskeu : Eˆn diag¸nio omomorfismì hmiomˆdwn A hmiomˆda. tìte to V ect(X ) apoteleÐ hmi-daktÔlio kai to KX apoteleÐ daktÔlio). upˆrqei dianusmatik  dèsmh η pˆnw apì ton X tètoia ¸ste ξ ⊕ η = CN X. OrÐzoume wc V ect(X ). Orismìc 3. ξ → f ∗ ξ . sunep¸c dÐdei ènan omomorfismì abelian¸n omˆdwn. sunep¸c to (prosjetik . abelian ) hmi-omˆda (V ect(X ). 72 . (SumbolÐzoume me KX thn pagkìsmia omˆda thc hmi-omˆdac KOX kai KX thn pragmatik  kai thn migadik  (Eˆn jewr soume wc epiprì- perÐptwsh dianusmatik¸n desm¸n antÐstoiqa).H prˆxh aut  eÐnai prosetairistik . sjeth prˆxh kai to tanustikì ginìmeno metaxÔ dianusmatik¸n desm¸n.

Tìte smatik c dèsmhc diˆstashc dèsmh ξ η tètoia ¸ste ∗ k fξ (ηN ) diìti h Ðna thc ξ x eÐnai h Ðna thc k ηN pˆnw apì to fξ (x).L mma 2. pˆnw apì to shmeÐo ∗ k fξ (ηN ) UpenjumÐzoume ìti Gk (Cn ) → Gk (Cn+1 ) kai èstw Gk = lim Gk (Cn ) = n→∞ n Tìte isqÔei to parakˆtw: Gk (Cn ). f1 : X → Y omotopikèc shmaÐnei ìti upˆrqei suneq c F : X × I → Y . epilègoume mia dianusmatik  N apoteξ ⊕ η = CN X . f1 : X → Y omotopikèc kai ξ mia ∗ ∗ ξ. antÐstrofh: DojeÐshc miac dianu- k pˆnw apì ton X . ìpou I = [0. sunep¸c [X. H antistoÐqish x → Fx (ξ ) orÐzei mia n apeikìnish fξ : X → Gk (C ). Gk (Cn ) h Gkrasmˆnian twn dianusmatik¸n upoq¸rwn diˆstashc k k Cn kai f : X → Gk (Cn ) suneq c. 73 . 'Estw pˆnw apì ton f0 . tètoia ¸ste f0 (x) = F (x. Gk (Cn )] → V ectk (X ) upˆrqei apeikìnish metaxÔ tou sunìlou twn omotopik¸n klˆsewn twn apeikonÐsewn f : X → pˆnw apì Gk (Cn ) ton X . Pìrisma 1. 1). ξ eÐnai isìmorfh me thn f1 Y . 1]. Tìte h f0 dianusmatik  dèsmh To ìti f0 . V ect(X ) = N 'Estw tou kai Eˆn X surriknoÔmenoc (dhlad  omotopikìc me shmeÐo). Fanerˆ h apeikìnish fξ exartˆtai apì thn epilog  thc η . Tìte f ∗ (ηn ) ∈ V ect(X ). h Ðna Fx (ξ ) ⊂ C leÐ dianusmatikì upìqwro diˆstashc k . pou den eÐnai ˆllh apì thn Fx (ξ ). Gia kˆje x ∈ X . trìpon tinˆ. tìte KX = Z. kai tou sunìlou twn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n diˆstashc k H apeikìnish aut  èqei mia. 0) kai f1 (x) = F (x.

H apeikìnish [X. ξ : X → Gk (C ) → Gk (C Tìte oi apeikonÐseic kai ˜ f ξ kai fξ eÐnai omotopikèc sunep¸c ta sÔnola V ectk (X ) [X. Gk ] eÐnai isodÔnama. ηn tìte h apeikìnish tou Jewr matoc 1 kaneÐ to ex c: f → f ∗ (η k ). Autì pou ja prèpei na mac apasqol sei sta parapˆnw eÐnai h exˆrthsh thc fξ : X → Gk (Cn ) 'Estw loipìn apì thn epilog  thc ξ. X = ξ ⊕ ζ ⊕ CX = ξ ⊕ CX Sunep¸c h η orÐzei thn fξ : X → Gk (CN ) → Gk (CN +M ) en¸ h ζ orÐzei thn M N +M ˜ f ). Eˆn jèsoume k = η k = lim ηn n→∞ n k . ξ ⊕ η = CN X kai ξ ⊕ ζ = CM X opìte M CN X ⊕ ζ = ξ ⊕ η ⊕ ζ = CX ⊕ η en¸ N +M N ξ ⊕ η ⊕ CM .Je¸rhma 1. 74 . Gk (Cn )] → V ectk (X ) n→∞ eÐnai 1-1 kai epÐ (isomorfismìc sunìlwn) gia kˆje sumpag  q¸ro Qˆousntorf X. Gk ] = lim [X.

KX 'Omwc nish K (∗) = Z en¸ h diˆstash thc dianusmatik c KX → Z ìpou [ξ ] − [η ] → dim(ξ ) − dim(η ). GnwrÐzoume ìti gia tic Gkrasmˆnianc upˆrqoun oi parakˆtw apeikonÐseic perièqesjai: Gk (Cn ) → Gk (Cn+1 ) kai paÐrnontac to epagwgikì ìrio katal goume sthn Gk = lim Gk (Cn ) = n→∞ n 75 Gk (Cn ). KXa KX = en¸ eÐdame ìti eˆn Gk = n Gk (Cn ). . thn 'Estw h bˆsh elattwmènh ˜ sumbolÐzoume X èqei èna shmeÐo bˆshc x0 . Tìte (me K (reduced) K-JewrÐa. M ∈ Z tètoioi ¸ste Orismìc 2. tìte V ectk (X ) = [X. Ac doÔme thn omotopojewrhtik  ermhneÐa thc omˆdac KX . 1. bˆsh prokÔptei wc xènh ènwsh X= tìte Xa .2 Diˆlexh 2 Tìte eˆn h JewroÔme migadikèc dianusmatikèc dèsmec me sumpag  bˆsh.3. Gk ] (gia thn akrÐbeia ennooÔme isìthta plhjarÐjmwn kai ìqi pragmatik  isìthta sunìlwn). ˜ KX K-Omˆda tou X orÐz etai wc to sÔnolo twn stajerˆ isìmorfwn klˆsewn twn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n pˆnw apì ton X. dèsmhc orÐzei mia apeikì- Orismìc DÔo dianusmatikèc dèsmec ( ξ kai η pˆnw apì ton tai stajerˆ isìmorfec stably isomorphic ) eˆn upˆrqoun akèraioi X lègonN. blèpe Orismì 2 parakˆtw) ˜ = Ker(KX → K (x0 )). H elattwmènh N ξ ⊕ CM X = η ⊕ CX .

sumbolÐzoume me X pou orÐzetai wc CX = Tìte h anˆrthsh X × [0. f (x)v ) V (f ) → SX apoteleÐ dianusmatik  dèsmh. 1] . 'Estw f : X → GLk (C) mia apeikìnish. v ) ≡ (x. ˜ = [X. G∞ ]. (x. OrÐzoume to sÔnolo V (f ) = H C+ X × Ck ∪ C− X × Ck .EpÐshc Gk (Cn ) → Gk+1 (Cn+1 ) opìte Gk+1 = lim Gk+1 (Cn+1 ) = n→∞ n ' Ara Gk+1 (Cn+1 ). KX Sth sunèqeia ja melet soume dianusmatikèc dèsmec pˆnw apì thn anˆrthsh ( suspension) SX X enìc q¸rou X. CX ton k¸no tou Eˆn kˆpoioc topologikìc q¸roc. Tìte èqoume to ex c basikì: Je¸rhma 1. Gk → Gk+1 . sqèsh pou mac dÐdei thn dunatìthta na orÐsoume kai to epagwgikì ìrio G∞ = lim Gk = k→∞ k Diaisjhtikˆ to metablhtèc Gk . X ×0 SX tou X orÐzetai wc SX = C+ X ∪X C− X. G∞ eÐnai to diplì epagwgikì ìrio twn Gk (Cn ) ìtan kai oi dÔo k kai n teÐnoun sto ˆpeiro. 76 .

'Estw f0 . ΩG∞ ]. GLC]. K Parat rhsh: EÐdame ìti ˜ = [X. G∞ ). 77 . ˜ (SX ) = [X. ìpou ΩG∞ o q¸roc brìgqwn tou G∞ . EpÐshc isqÔei kai to parakˆtw basikì: Je¸rhma 2. f1 : X → GLk (C) V (f0 ) omotopikèc apeikonÐseic. GLC]. G∞ ] = [X. k GLC = lim GLk (C) = k→∞ tìte èqoume thn epèktash tou Jewr matoc 2: Je¸rhma 3. Eˆn jewr soume thn apeikìnish perièqesjai GLk (C) → GLk+1 (C) pou dÐdetai apì thn A→ kai jèsoume A 0 0 1 GLk (C). GLk (C)]. dhlad  ΩG∞ = M aps∗ (S 1 . 'Omwc ˜ KSX = [SX.L mma 1. G∞ ] KX en¸ ˜ KSX = [X. Sunep¸c ΩG∞ GLC. V ectk (SX ) = [X. Tìte V (f1 ).

X . 'Estw X sumpag c kai A⊂X sumpag c upìqwroc. Gk (Cn )] = π1 (Gk (Cn )) = 0 diìti oi Gkrasmˆnianc eÐnai surriknoÔmenoi q¸roi. ˜ 1 = 0. Akìmh [S 2 . UpenjumÐzoume ìti gia tic anart seic twn sfair¸n parakˆtw: S 2n (S 1 ) = S 2n+1 kai S 2n−2 (S 2 ) = S 2n . KS Ac doÔme tic sunomologiakèc idiìthtec thc K-JewrÐac. H pr¸th èkdosh thc periodikìthtac Bott eÐnai h ex c: ˜ (S 2 X ) K en¸ ˜ KX [S 1 . Sthn pio apl  thc morf  dhl¸nei ìti upˆrqei isomorfismìc metaxÔ twn KX ⊗ K (S 2 ) kai K (X × S 2 ). dhlad  S 2 X = n anˆrthsh S X enìc isqÔoun ta SumbolÐzoume me S 2X thn deÔterh anˆrthsh tou q¸rou S (SX ). Gk (Cn )] = π2 (Gk (Cn )) = Z. h periodikìthta To basikì je¸rhma sthn K-JewrÐa eÐnai Bott me thn opoÐa ja asqolhjoÔme sthn sunèqeia. Epilègoume kˆpoio n∈N kai orÐzoume: ˜ −n X = K ˜ (S n X ). KS ˜ 2 = Z. K 78 . KS ˜ 2n+1 = 0 KS kai ˜ 2n = Z. Epagwgikˆ mporoÔme na orÐsoume kai thn n-st  q¸rou X .dhlad  omˆdac h ˆpeirh Gkrasmˆnian G∞ apoteleÐ q¸ro kathgoriopoÐhshc thc ˆpeirhc GLC: G∞ = BGLC.

SunoyÐzontac: 1. G∞ ] en¸ K 1 (X. A). 79 . A) → K 0 X → K 0 A K 1 A ← K 1 X ← K 1 (X. dhlad  ˜ (X + ) = KX. oi K 0 (X. ∅) = X + kai to X+ eÐnai o X me thn xènh ènwsh enìc shmeÐou bˆshc. K Qrhsimopoi¸ntac thn periodikìthta kai èqoume: Bott epekteÐnoume ton parapˆnw orismì K n (X. GLC]. ∅). ∀n ∈ Z. A) K n+2 (X.Gia thn sqetik  K-JewrÐa èqoume ton ex c orismì: ˜ −n (X. upˆrqei mia epagìmenh apeikìnish pou apoteleÐ omomorfismì f ∗ : K n (X. lìgw periodikìthtac h K 0 (X. Ousiastikˆ. B ) en¸ tautìqrona apì thn X/A ← X ← A paÐrnoume thn akrib  akoloujÐa thc K-JewrÐac gia èna zeÔgoc K 0 (X. K −n X = K ìpou orÐzoume (X. A) ìpou upˆrqoun oi katakìrufec sundetikèc apeikonÐseic δ : K 1 A → K 0 (X. A) = K n−2 (X. A) kai δ : K 0 A → K 1 (X. A) = K ˜ −n (X/A) = K ˜ (S n (X/A)) K kai telikˆ ˜ −n (X. 2. A) = Eˆn dojeÐ mia apeikìnish f : (X. A) = [X/A. upˆrqoun dÔo K-Omˆdec. A) ìpou Bott. A). A) → (Y. A) opìte to parapˆnw tetrˆgwno eÐnai metajetikì. B ). A) ← K n (Y. A) kai [X/A. Oi omˆdec K n (X. A) orÐzontai gia kˆje n en¸ K n (X. K 1 (X.

H antistoÐqish thgorÐac twn topologik¸n q¸rwn kai thc kathgorÐac twn abelian¸n omˆdwn. A) pou prokÔptoun apì ta a- Ac doÔme tic idiìthtec twn omˆdwn xi¸mata Eilenberg-Steenroad: (X. A) → K n (X. G∞ ]. Apì to sÔnolo twn isìmorfwn klˆsewn dianusmatik¸n desm¸n V ect(X ) orÐsame thn omˆda K 0 X = [X. Z × G∞ ] en¸ h elattoÔmenh mhdenik  K-Omˆda orÐzetai wc ˜ 0 = Ker(K 0 X → K 0 (∗)) = [X. 80 . H akrib c akoloujÐa eÐnai fusik .3 'Estw Diˆlexh 3 X sumpag c kai sunektikìc topologikìc q¸roc. 4. ∅). ∗). Upˆrqei mia akrib c akoloujÐa gia ta zeÔgh (dec tèloc prohgoÔmenhc diˆlexhc). GLC] K en¸ gia ènan sumpag  upìqwro A⊂X kai n∈N èqoume ˜ −n X = K ˜ 0 (S n X ). K EpÐshc eÐdame pwc ˜ 1X = K ˜ 0 (SX ) = [X. 5. IkanopoieÐtai h idiìthta thc ektom c ( excision): K n (X.3. A) = K ˜ −n (X/A). A) K n (X/A. ìpou X + = X/∅ kai K n (X. 3. A) apoteleÐ sunartht  metaxÔ thc ka- 1. K ˜ −n (X. Omotopikèc apeikonÐseic epˆgoun ton Ðdio omomorfismì metaxÔ abelia- n¸n omˆdwn. K n (X. A) qrhsimopoi¸ntac thn periodikìthta Bott. 2. A) = K n−2 (X. K K −n X = K −n (X.

Eˆn A ⊂ X. n ∈ N. X K −n (X ∪ CA. A) epˆgontai apì tic apeikonÐseic A → X → X/A.6. n ∈ N. X ) → K −n (X ∪ CA) K −n (X/A) K −n−1 A = K −n (SA) en¸ upˆrqoun oi apeikonÐseic K −1 A → K 0 (X/A) kai K 0 A → K 1 (X/A). 81 . even. tìte SA en¸ X ∪ CA X SA EpÐshc X ∪ CA ← X ∪ CA → X/A. A) kai δ : K 0 A → K 1 (X. H apìdeixh thc akrÐbeiac ( exactness) eÐnai dÔskolh. A) ìpou oi katakìrufec sundetikèc apeikonÐseic δ : K 1 A → K 0 (X. K n (∗) = 0. Upˆrqei h akoloujÐa K 0 (X. odd en¸ K n (∗) = Z. Sunep¸c èqoume mia genikeumènh sunomologiak  jewrÐa . A) → K 0 X → K 0 A K 1 A ← K 1 X ← K 1 (X.

jewroÔme èna zeÔgoc (ξ. Tìte epˆgetai h apeikìnish K n (X. φ) 0 kai h omotopÐec thc φ. opìte orÐzetai h klˆsh [ξ. o isomorfismìc metaxÔ twn (ξ. H parapˆnw epekteÐnetai se mia apeikìnish K 0 X ⊗ K 0 Y → K 0 (X × Y ) 82 . OrÐzoume to X × Ck CA × Ck glueviaf kai paÐrnoume ìti X ∪ CA X/A. A). Gia to JewroÔme sth sunèqeia thn apeikìnish δ : K 1 A → K 0 (X.Ja epiqeir soume sthn sunèqeia na d¸soume mia gewmetrik  ermhneÐa twn sundetik¸n apeikonÐsewn δ thc akriboÔc akoloujÐac thc K-JewrÐac. 1. A). Gia tic Ðnec èqoume to ex c: Fx. diìti h ξ⊗η →X ×Y apoteleÐ nèa dianusmatik  dèsmh. A) ⊗ K m (Y. η ) → ξ ⊗ η to exwterikì tanustikì ginìmeno. Sth sunèqeia ja sqolhjoÔme me ta ginìmena. 'Estw V ect(X ) × V ect(Y ) → V ect(X × Y ) ìpou (ξ. A) me kˆpoia f : A → GLk (C).y (ξ ⊗ η ) = Fx (ξ ) ⊗ Fy (η ). φ] ∈ K (X. Upˆrqoun dÔo sqèseic isodunamÐac twn parapˆnw zeug¸n. φ) miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc ξ pˆnw apì ton X kai èstw φ mia tetrimmenopoÐhsh thc ξ/A. A × Y ∪ X × B ). K 0 (X. B ) → K n+m (X × Y.

Opìte paÐrnoume: ˜ 0 (S n (X/A))⊗K ˜ 0 (S m (Y /B )) → K ˜ 0 (S n (X/A)∧S m (Y /B )) = K ˜ 0 (S n+m ∧(X/A)∧(Y /B )). x0 × Y ∪ X × y0 smash product SX S n X. K QrhsimopoioÔme tic profaneÐc apeikonÐseic K 0 (X × Y ) → K 0 X apì thn X = X × y0 → X × Y kai thn K 0 (X × Y ) → K 0 Y apì thn Y = Y × x0 → X × Y. Ja doÔme thn epèktash sthn elattoÔmenh K-JewrÐa: ˜ 0X ⊗ K ˜ 0Y → K ˜ 0 (X ∧ Y ). me ton kÔklo: ìpou o Gia parˆdeigma h anˆrthsh apoteleÐ S1 ∧ X kai Sn ∧ X 2. K OrÐzoume gia to smash product to ex c: ˜ 0 (X ∧ Y ) = Ker(K 0 (X × Y ) → K 0 X ⊕ K 0 Y ).me ([ξ1 ] − [η1 ]) ⊗ ([ξ2 ] − [η2 ]) := [ξ1 ⊗ ξ2 ] + [η1 ⊗ η2 ] − [η1 ⊗ ξ2 ] − [ξ1 ⊗ η2 ]. A×Y ∪X ×B A B 83 . UpenjumÐzoume to X èqei shmeÐo smash product thc algebrik c topologÐac X ∧ Y bˆshc x0 kai o Y èqei shmeÐo bˆshc y0 . Tìte X ∧Y = X ×Y . K ìpou X Y X ×Y = ∧ .

Anafèroume kˆpoia paradeÐgmata: 84 . t¸ra eÐmaste H apeikìnish apoteleÐ isomorfismì ˜ 0 (S 2 ) ⊗ K ˜ 0X → K ˜ 0 (S 2 X ) K ˜ 0 S 2 = Z). kai K 1 X ⊗ K 1 X → K 0 X. Sthn Diˆlexh 2 eÐdame mia èkdosh thc periodikìthtac se jèsh na doÔme mia anajewrhmènh èkdosh: Bott. x).JewroÔme gia parˆdeigma thn eidik  perÐptwsh paÐrnoume: X=Y kai A = B = ∅. K 0 X ⊗ K 1 X → K 1 X. (upenjumÐzoume ìti K apoteleÐ Ðswc to pio qr simo ergaleÐo stouc upolo- H periodikìthta Bott gismoÔc. pou ousiastikˆ eÐnai h periodikìthta Bott. Tìte K n X ⊗ K m X → K n+m (X × X ) → K n+m X ìpou h teleutaÐa apeikìnish ∆∗ : K n+m (X × X ) → K n+m X epˆgetai apì thn diag¸nia apeikìnish ∆:X →X ×X me ∆(x) = (x. OrÐzoume kai to K ∗X = K 0X ⊕ K 1X pou apoteleÐ diabajmismèno ( graded) metajetikì daktÔlio. Sunep¸c èqoume tic apeikonÐseic K 0 X ⊗ K 0 X → K 0 X.

i ≡ 2(8). i ≡ 1(8).˜ 1 (S 2n+1 ) = Z = K ˜ 0 (S 2n ) K en¸ ˜ 1 (S 2n ) = 0 = K ˜ 0 (S 2n−1 ). en¸ π2n (UN ) = 0. i ≡ 7(8) kai πi (SON ) = Z/2. en¸ [S 2n . i ≡ 5(8). Gia thn eidik  orjog¸nia omˆda SON antÐstoiqa èqoume (gia N > i + 1): πi (SON ) = Z/2. GLC] = 0. N > 2n + 2). i ≡ 4(8). πi (SON ) = 0. πi (SON ) = Z. πi (SON ) = Z. K EpÐshc [S 2n+1 . i ≡ 3(8). GLC] = π2n+1 (GLC)(= π2n+1 (GLN (C)). πi (SON ) = 0. πi (SON ) = 0. tìte èqoume N > 2n + 1): π2n+1 (UN ) = Z. i ≡ 6(8). 85 . πi (SON ) = 0. i ≡ 1(8). Eˆn sumbolÐsoume me UN thn omˆda twn monadiak¸n ( migadik¸n pinˆkwn (profan¸c apoteleÐ upoomˆda thc (gia unitary) N × N GLN (C)).

A) ⊗ Q apoteleÐ kanonik  sunomologÐa. Q) = ⊕n≥0 H 2n (X . A) apoteleÐ mia (pollaplasiastik ) genikeumènh jew- rÐa sunomologÐac. EÐnai gegonìc pwc h K ∗ (X. X × B ∪ A × Y ). Tìte èqoume to parakˆtw basikì: Je¸rhma 1.4 Diˆlexh 4 qara- Sthn diˆlexh aut  ja asqolhjoÔme me thn apeikìnish pou orÐzei o kt rac Chern apì thn K-JewrÐa sthn kanonik  (gia parˆdeigma thn singular) sunomologÐa. . Q) = ⊕n≥0 H 2n+1 (X . ma Gia th sunèqeia upojètoume ìti o X eÐnai ènac kalìc q¸roc (gia parˆdeigfinite simplicial complex or finite CW-complex). Mia perÐlhyh thc apìdeixhc upˆrqei sto tèloc thc Diˆlexhc 4. Oi isomorfismoÐ autoÐ lègontai ( qarakt rec Chern Chern characters Apìdeixh: ) . Q) pou sèbontai ta ginìmena. 'Eqoume tic apeikonÐseic K n (X. Q) kai ch : K 1 X ⊗ Q → H odd (X . Tìte orÐzoume: H ev (X . 86 . EÐdame ìti h K n (X.3. A) × K m (Y. Q) kai H odd (X . Upˆrqoun fusikoÐ isomorfismoÐ ch : K 0 X ⊗ Q → H ev (X . Q). B ) → K n+m (X × Y.

87 . Tìte L∗ ⊗ L EpÐshc CX . Z). c1 (L1 ⊗ L2 ) = c1 L1 + c2 L2 . Dojèntwn twn L1 kai L2 mporoÔme na sqhmatÐzoume thn L1 ⊗ L2 en¸ h CX apoteleÐ to monadiaÐo stoiqeÐo tou tanustikoÔ ginomènou ⊗. Z) = Z[u]. Orismìc 1. jewroÔme thn dèsmh π (x) = P(Fx (ξ )) CP n−1 . 'Estw suntomÐa ja thn sumbolÐzoume aplˆ L → X mia migadik  dèsmh LX parakˆtw) kai èstw eujei¸n (gia V ect1 X = [X. Z). H ∗ (CP ∞ . H pr¸th klˆsh Chern thc L eÐnai ∗ c1 L = f L (u) ∈ H 2 (X . G1 ]. SumbolÐzoume me L∗ X := Hom(LX . ìpou u ∈ H 2 (CP ∞ .Gia th sunèqeia ja qreiastoÔme tic qarakthristikèc klˆseic twn migadik¸n desm¸n gramm¸n (eujei¸n). DojeÐshc miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc π : P(ξ ) → X me Ðna ξ → X diˆstashc n. ìpou fL : X → G1 = n Tìte G1 (Cn ) = n CP n−1 := CP ∞ . Z) apoteleÐ isomorfismì omˆdwn. H epagìmenh apeikìnish −1 π ∗ : H ∗ (X ) → H ∗ (P(ξ )) apoteleÐ omomorfismì daktulÐwn pou kajistˆ to tou daktulÐou H (X ) ∗ H ∗ (P(ξ )) èna prìtupo epÐ (me akèraiouc suntelestèc). C) thn duðk  dèsmh. H apeikìnish c1 : V ect1 (X ) → H 2 (X . L mma 1.

f ∗ : K ∗ (X ) → K ∗ (F (ξ )) eÐnai 88 . (W hitney sum f ormulae) c(ξ ) = 1 + c1 (ξ ) + c2 (ξ ) + . c1 (Lξ ) = u ∈ H 2 (P(ξ )) kai sqhmatÐzoume ta u2 .. To bˆsh thn 1. migadik  dianusmatik  dèsmh. Upˆrqei mia dèsmh eujei¸n Lξ pˆnw apì thn P( ξ ) me 1 ∈ H 0 (P(ξ )). 'Estw sqhmatÐzoume thn P(ξ ) kai epilègoume mia klˆsh ξ → X mia dianusmatik  dèsmh. Elègxte tic idiìthtec: ci (f ∗ (ξ )) = f ∗ (ci (ξ )). Z). dhlad  h epÐshc 1-1. u. Tìte èqoume to akìloujo: Je¸rhma 2. + cn (ξ ). . H parapˆnw exÐswsh orÐzei tic klˆseic Chern c2i (ξ ) ∈ H 2i (X .. Tìte nish H Splitting Principle) 'Estw ξ → X mia upˆrqei ènac q¸roc F (ξ ) kai mia apeikì- f : F (ξ ) → X tètoia ¸ste: f ∗ : H ∗ (X ) → H ∗ (F (ξ )) eÐnai 1-1 kai f ∗ (ξ ) L1 ⊕ L2 ⊕ .. . + ck (ξ )un−k + . + cn (ξ ).. u ∈ H 2 (P(ξ ).. u2 .. L mma 2.. (Arq  DiaqwrismoÔ. u3 klp. 2. tìte P(ξ ) = X × CP n−1 en¸ to upologÐzetai apì ton gnwstì H (X × CP ) = H ∗ (X ) ⊗ tÔpo Kunneth thc algebrik c to- ∗ n−1 pologÐac. Tìte −un = c1 (ξ )un−1 + c2 (ξ )un−2 + . 2. thc ξ . Z). c(ξ ⊕ η ) = c(ξ )c(η ) kai ck (ξ ⊕ η ) = i+j =k ci (ξ )cj (η ). ⊕ Ln .. Orismìc (Klˆseic Chern ).. H ∗ (P(ξ )) apoteleÐ eleÔjero prìtupo epÐ tou H ∗ (X ) me Apìdeixh: H basik  idèa thc apìdeixhc eÐnai h ex c: PerÐptwsh 1: ξ = X ×C H ∗ (CP n−1 ) 1 . ' Askhsh: 1.. me x ⊗ y → π ∗ (x)y. ìpou n h diˆstash To Ðdio isqÔei kai gia thn K-JewrÐa.'Estw h apeikìnish H ∗ (X ) ⊗ H ∗ (P(ξ )) → H ∗ (P(ξ )). Gia na oloklhrwjeÐ h apìdeixh qrhsimopoioÔme èna epagwgikì epiqeÐrhma tÔpou Mayer-Vietories.un−1 .

.f1 : P(ξ ) → X eÐnai 1-1 apì to L mma 1 parapˆnw. + exn opìte ch(E ) = c(L1 )c(L2 )... ⊕ Ln me c1 (L1 ) = x1 .. Gia mia dèsmh eujei¸n L orÐzoume ch(L) = ec1 (L) = 1 + c1 (L) + Gia mia tuqaÐa dianusmatik  dèsmh c2 1 (L) + . JumÐzei c1 (L) = x kai c1 (L dunamoseirèc F (x) (ch(L) = F (x)) ìpou F (x + y ) = F (x)F (y ).... 2 E èqoume: E = L1 ⊕ L2 ⊕ ... . Ti ja prèpei na eÐnai o ch(L) gia mia dèsmh eujei¸n L? ˜ ) = y .... 'Etsi katal goume ston ex c orismì: Orismìc 3. x2 . Sunep¸c ci (E ) = σi (x1 .. EpÐshc ˜ kai sthn sunèqeia gia na oloklhrwjeÐ to epiLξ ⊂ f (ξ ) ⇒ f (ξ ) = Lξ ⊕ ξ Apìdeixh: H ∗ ∗ qeÐrhma qrhsimopoioÔme epagwg . Jèloume na kataskeuˆsoume ton qarakt ra o opoÐoc ikanopoieÐ tic idiìthtec (den aplopoÐhshc sumbolismoÔ): Chern ch : K 0 (X ) → H ev (X .. . Tìte ch(E ) = ex1 + ex2 + .+cn (E ) diìti c(Li ) = 1 + xi ..xn ) 89 ..c(Ln ) = (1+x1 )(1+x2 ). Tìte c1 (L ⊗ L ˜ ) = x + y ..(1+xn ) = 1+c1 (E )+c2 (E )+.. Q) qrhsimopoioÔme agkÔlec [ξ ] gia lìgouc • ch(ξ ⊕ η ) = ch(ξ ) + ch(η ) • ch(ξ ⊗ η ) = ch(ξ )ch(η ).c1 (Ln ) = xn . sunep¸c 'Estw F (x) = ex . c1 (L2 ) = x2 .

ch : K ìpou wc gnwstìn ˜ 0 (SX ) K 1 (X ) = K kai ˜ ev (SX .... 'Eqoume isomorfismì ìtan X = S 2n diìti o qarakt rac Chern metatÐjetai me ta ginìmena... c2 (ξ ). σn ) + . Q)... Q) = Q ⊕ Q (to 1 antistoiqeÐ ston pr¸to ìro Q kai to u ston deÔtero). . Q) = H ˜ 0 (S 2 ) = Z kai X = S 2 .. ch([ξ ] − [η ]) = ch(ξ ) − ch(η ). Q). .ìpou to σi eÐnai h i − th stoiqei¸dhc summetrik  sunˆrthsh. tìte K K 0 (S 2 ) = Z ⊕ Z.. + xn = (x1 + x2 + ..... i<j 2 2 2 x2 1 + x2 + . cn (ξ )) + S2 (c1 (ξ ). . σn ) + S2 (σ1 .. σ2 ..... OrÐsame ton Tìte kai ch : K 0 (X ) → H ev (X . H odd (X ... Gia parˆdeigma c1 (E ) = x1 + x2 + . cn (ξ )) + .. 90 . EpÐshc ch(1) = 1 kai ch(ξ ) = 1+ u diìti H ev (S 2 . ˜ 0 (SX ) → H ˜ ev (SX . Apìdeixh Jewr matoc 1: B ma 1. Gia parˆdeigma ac doÔme analutikˆ to S2 : 2 (xi xj ) = σ1 − 2σ2 . Orismìc 4. + exn = n + S1 (σ1 .. Q). ch(ξ ) = dim ξ + S1 (c1 (ξ ).. σ2 . Tìte ch : K 1 (X ) → H odd (X . ... + xn ) − 2 1 ch(ξ ) = dim ξ + c1 (ξ ) + [c2 (ξ ) − 2c2 (ξ )] + . + xn en¸ c2 ( E ) = i<j xi xj opìte ex1 + ex2 + . Q). 2 1 JumhjeÐte ìti oi dÔo idiìthtec pou epijumoÔme ch(ξ ⊕ η ) = ch(ξ ) + ch(η ) ch(ξ ⊗ η ) = ch(ξ )ch(η ) prokÔptoun apì thn arq  diaqwrismoÔ. c2 (ξ ). Eˆn B ma 2.. Orismìc 5.

B ma 3. . Upojètoume ìti o X apoteleÐ èna simplicial complex me N simplices kai to A ⊂ X apoktˆtai apomakrÔnontac èna simplex korufaÐac diˆstashc. n Tìte ìmwc X/A = S kai qrhsimopoioÔme akribeÐc akoloujÐec kai to 5-L mma. X = S 2n+1 (prokÔptei apì ˆmeso upo- B ma 4. 'Eqoume isomorfismì ìtan logismì). 91 .

ìpou dim ∧n V = 1 kai genikˆ Ta parapˆnw epekteÐnontai se kˆje dianusmatik  dèsmh q¸ro ξ pˆnw apì kˆpoio X: SqhmatÐzoume tic exwterikèc dunˆmeic ∧k ξ pou apoteloÔn epÐshc dianusmatikèc dèsmec pˆnw apì ton X me Ðna Fx (∧k ξ ) = ∧k (Fx (ξ )). ∧n V . 'Estw V migadikìc dianusmatikìc q¸roc peperasmènhc diˆstashc èstw n.. dim ∧k V = (n!)/[k !(n − k )!].. . Parathr ste thn analogÐa me tic klˆseic Tsern: ck : V ect(X ) → H ev (X ... W dÔo dianusmatikoÐ q¸roi. ⊗ xk − sign(σ )x ⊗σ(1) x ⊗σ(2) .. ⊗ V )/(x1 ⊗ x2 ⊗ . ∧1 V = V. Q) 92 ... Fanerˆ ∧0 V = C. Q) apoteleÐ isomorfismì. Q) kai ch : K 1 (X ) → H odd (X .. . Apì thn grammik  ˆlgebra gnwrÐzoume tic exwterikèc dunˆmeic ∧k V = (V ⊗ V ⊗ ... Sth sunèqeia ja doÔme prˆxeic sthn K-JewrÐa .. Q) kai eÐdame to basikì je¸rhma ìti h apeikìnish ch : K ∗ (X ) ⊗ Q → H ∗ (X . Eˆn V. tìte ∧k (V ⊕ W ) = i+j =k ∧i V ⊗ ∧j W kai oi antÐstoiqh sqèsh gia tic dianusmatikèc dèsmec ja eÐnai parìmoia: ∧k (ξ ⊕ η ) = i+j =k ∧i (ξ ) ⊗ ∧j (η ).5 Diˆlexh 5 OrÐsame touc: ch : K 0 (X ) → H ev (X .. ∧k V. ⊗σ(k) x).3.

ìpou ck (ξ ⊕ η ) = i+j =k DojeÐshc miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc ci (ξ )cj (η ). G(K 0 (X )[[t]]) thn omˆda twn monˆdwn tou SumbolÐzoume wc gnwstìn me daktulÐou K (X )[[t]]. tìte tou ti Gia parˆdeigma eˆn ∧t (L) = 1 + tL kai ∧−t (−L) = 1 = 1 + tL + t2 L2 + . ∧k (ξ ⊕ η ) = i+j =k gÐnetai ∧i (ξ ) ⊗ ∧j (η ) ∧t (ξ ⊕ η ) = ∧t (ξ ) ∧t (η ) dhlad  èqoume mia apeikìnish ∧t : V ect(X ) → K 0 (X )[[t]]. Dojèntoc enìc sthn x ∈ K 0 (X ).. 0 dhlad  thn omˆda twn antistrèyimwn stoiqeÐwn tou o- pìte èqoume tic ex c apeikonÐseic pou sqhmatÐzoun èna trigwnikì diˆgramma ∧t : V ect(X ) → G(K 0 (X )[[t]]). L mia dèsmh eujei¸n. Katˆ sÔmbash jètoume ∧0 (ξ ) = 1 ∈ K 0 (X ) opìte h ∧t (ξ ) apoteleÐ epÐshma dunamoseirˆ me pr¸to ìro thn monˆda. 1 − tL 93 . kataskeuˆzoume thn seirˆ ∧t (ξ ) ∈ K 0 (X )[[t]] me metablht  t kai suntelestèc apì thn omˆda K 0 (X ). V ect(X ) → K 0 (X ) kai ∧t : K 0 (X ) → G(K 0 (X )[[t]]). orÐzoume to ∧i (x) na eÐnai o suntelest c −1 ∧i t (x). ˆra h daktulÐou ∧t (ξ ) apoteleÐ to monadiaÐo tou K 0 (X )[[t]].. ξ. dhlad  ∞ ∧t ξ = k=0 Tìte h tk ∧k ξ. tìte ∧t (x) = ∧t (ξ ) ∧t (η ) . Eˆn x = [ξ ] − [η ].

diìti S k L = L⊗k ... ⊗ V )Σk . 0 S k (V ⊕ W ) = i+j =k S i V ⊗ S j W. tìte St (L) = 1 + tL + t2 L2 + . autì pou UpenjumÐzoume tic summetrikèc dunˆmeic S k (V ) = (V ⊗ V ⊗ .. ˆra ∧−t (L)St (L) = 1 ⇔ ∧t (L)S−t (L) = 1 ⇒ ∧t (ξ )S−t (ξ ) = 1 ìpou h tuqaÐa dianusmatik  dèsmh ξ grˆfetai wc ˆjroisma desm¸n eujei¸n. t formal power series). èqei xekˆjaro nìhma eÐnai oi suntelestèc. Gia parˆdeigma. sunep¸c St (L) = ∧−t (−L).Ac shmei¸soume ed¸ pwc eÐnai dÔskolo nohmatikˆ na katano sei kˆpoioc to (gi' autì kai milˆme gia epÐshmh dunamoseirˆ. Kat' analogÐan sqhmatÐzoume tic summetrikèc dunˆmeic dianusmatik¸n desm¸n S k (ξ ) kai ∞ St (ξ ) = k=0 en¸ katˆ sÔmbash jètoume tk S k (ξ ) EpÐshc èqoume ìti S (ξ ) = 1. Me thn Ðdia mèjodo ìpwc parapˆnw sqhmatÐzoume to trigwnikì diˆgramma St : V ect(X ) → G(K 0 (X )[[t]]). 94 .. V ect(X ) → K 0 (X ) kai St : K 0 (X ) → G(K 0 (X )[[t]]). eˆn L mia dèsmh eujei¸n.

Oi apeikonÐseic Ψk : K 0 (X ) → K 0 (X ) lègontai prˆxeic Adams (Adams operations ) thc K-JewrÐac. 'Oloi oi suntelestèc eÐnai akèraia pollaplˆsia stoiqeÐwn thc Akìmh orÐzoume tic posìthtec Ψk (x) mèsw thc exÐswshc tk Ψk (x) = Ψt (x). OrÐzoume Ψt (x) := dim(x) − d d t ∧−t (x) = dim(x) − t log(∧t (x)). Parˆdeigma: Ψ1 − ∧1 = 0 95 .Apì thn arq  diaqwrismoÔ thc K-JewrÐac èpetai ìti gia kˆje dianusmatik  dèsmh ξ èqoume ∧t (ξ )S−t (ξ ) = 1 opìte ∧t ([ξ ] − [η ]) = (∧t ξ )(S−t η ) kai ∧k ([ξ ] − [η ]) = i+j =k (−1)j ∧i (ξ )S j (η ). prˆxeic Sth sunèqeia ja asqolhjoÔme me tic Adams thc K-JewrÐac. tìte gia Shmei¸noume kai to ex c shmantikì: Eˆn kˆpoio x ∈ K (Y ) f ∗ (∧i (x)) = ∧i (f ∗ x) 0 ìpou ∧i : K 0 (X ) → K 0 (X ). f :X→Y mia apeikìnish. 'Estw x ∈ K0 ( X ) kai Ψt (x) ∈ K 0 (X )[[t]]. ∧−t (x) dt dt K 0 (X ).

Eˆn L mia dèsmh eujei¸n. ± k ∧2 = 0. Ψk (Ψl (x)) = Ψkl (x). tìte Ψk (L) = Lk 3. dhlad  Ψ ↔ Φ i ∧ ↔ σi . Eˆn ˜ 0 (S 2n ).. . 96 .. 2. xn ). Eˆn p pr¸toc arijmìc... + xn k k stoiqei¸deic summetrikèc sunart seic σi (x1 ... Oi prˆxeic kai kai k k Adams sundèoun dunamoseirèc Φk (x1 .. u∈K tìte Ψk (u) = k n u. .. Ψk (xy ) = Ψk (x)Ψk (y ) 4. Ψk (x + y ) = Ψk (x) + Ψk (y ). H pr¸th idiìthta apodeiknÔetai wc ex c: Ψt (x+y ) = dim(x+y )− d t t ∧−t (x+y ) = dim(x+y )− = ∧−t (x + y ) dt ∧−t (x) ∧−t (y ) d (∧t (x) ∧−t (y )) dt kanìna Leibniz gia na pˆroume = kai qrhsimopoioÔme ton telikˆ to zhtoÔmeno Ψt (x) + Ψt (y ). tìte Ψp (x) = xp modp 6.Ψ2 − Ψ1 ∧1 +2∧2 = 0 Ψ3 − Ψ2 ∧1 +Ψ1 ∧2 −3∧2 = 0 Genikˆ Ψk − Ψk−1 ∧1 ±. x2 . 5.. : Oi basikèc idiìthtec twn prˆxewn ' Antamc eÐnai oi parakˆtw 1. x2 .. xn ) = xk 1 + x2 + .

1 − tL sunep¸c Ψt (L) = 1 + 97 .Gia thn deÔterh èqoume: ∧−t (L) = 1 − tL opìte d ∧−t (L) = −L. dt tL = 1 + tL + t2 L2 ⇒ Ψk (L) = Lk .

Eˆn L mia dèsmh eujei¸n. 98 .3. Ψk (x + y ) = Ψk (x) + Ψk (y ). Ψk (xy ) = Ψk (x)Ψk (y ) 4.6 Diˆlexh 6 Sthn prohgoÔmenh diˆlexh eÐdame tic prˆxeic ' Antamc: Eˆn sumbolÐsoume me ∧i (ξ ) tic exwterikèc dunˆmeic miac dianusmatik c dèsmhc ξ. Ψt (x) = Oi basikèc idiìthtec twn prˆxewn aut¸n eÐnai oi ex c: 1. tìte Ψk (L) = Lk kai Ψk : K 0 (X ) → K 0 (X ) 3. tìte ∧i : V ect(X ) → K 0 (X ) en¸ ∧t = opìte ti ∧i ∧t : K 0 (X ) → k 0 (X )[[t]] me ∧t ([ξ ] − [η ]) = ∧t (ξ ) ∧t (η )−1 kai Ψt (x) = dim x − ìpou d t ∧−t (x) ∧−t (x) dt ti Ψi (x). H apìdeixh sÔntoma eÐnai h parakˆtw: Apì prosjetikìthta. isqÔei gia dèsmec eujei¸n opìte apì arq  diaqwrismoÔ isqÔei gia kˆje dianusmatik  dèsmh. Ψk (Ψl (x)) = Ψkl (x). 2.

èqoume ˜ 0 (S 2 ) ⊗ K ˜ 0 (S 2 ) → K ˜ 0 (S 4 ) K en¸ o genn torac thc ˜ 0 (S 2n ) K eÐnai o h ⊗ h ⊗ .. Eˆn p pr¸toc arijmìc. + Ln )p modp.. + Ln . ⊗ h) = k n (h ⊗ h ⊗ . Epeid  S 4 = S 2 ∧ S 2.. Tìte Ψ (x) = tìte p p p Lp 1 + L2 + . Eˆn ˜ 0 (S 2n ). tìte Ψp (x) = xp + py = xp modp H apìdeixh en suntomÐa eÐnai h ex c: 'Estw dèsmec eujei¸n. u∈K Ψk (u) = k n u. Me thn qr sh tou qarakt ra Chern ch : K 0 (S 2 ) → H ev (S 2 . h = [J ] − 1 ∈ K UpologÐzoume thn Ψk (h) = Ψk [J ] − Ψk (1) = [J k ] − 1 ìpou [J k ] = k [J ] − (k − 1) ∈ K 0 (S 2 ).. ⊗ h) 99 ...5. + Ln x = L1 + L2 + . H apìdeixh eÐnai h parakˆtw: dèsmh eujei¸n 'Estw h ènac genn torac thc K 0 (S 2 ) kai J h Hopf pˆnw apì thn S 2 CP 1 . 6.. paÐrnoume ìti [J k ] − 1 = k [J ] − k... ⊗ h opìte Ψk (h ⊗ h ⊗ . Tìte ˜ 0 (S 2 ).. ìpou Li = (L1 + L2 + .. Q) upologÐzoume ìti K 0 (S 2 ) = Z ⊕ Z sunep¸c qrhsimopoi¸ntac thn [J k ] = k [J ] − (k − 1) ∈ K 0 (S 2 )..

4. 'Estw f : S 4n−1 → S 2n → S 2n ∪f C 4n = X. Eˆn λf perittìc. tìte n = 1. S 2n ) kai to phlÐko X/S 2 n = S 4n . Efarmog : Ja qrhsimopoi soume me tic prˆxeic ' Antamc gia na apodeÐxoume pwc den u- pˆrq oun apeikonÐseic Hopf analloÐwth 1. genn torac thc K ˜ 0 (X ) x∈K tètoio ¸ste Sth sunèqeia epilègoume kˆpoio stoiqeÐo i∗ (x) = u2n ìpou ˜ 0 (X ) → K ˜ 0 (S 2n ) i∗ : K kai jewroÔme to stoiqeÐo x2 : i∗ (x2 ) = 0. 2. Apìdeixh: UpenjumÐzoume ìti ˜ 0 (X ) = Z ⊕ Z K 100 .. Orismìc 1. UpologÐzoume zeÔgoc ˜ 0 (X ) = Z ⊕ Z qrhsimopoi¸ntac K (X. thn akrib  akoloujÐa gia to Epilègoume genn torec ìpou u4n eÐnai ènac ˜ 0 (S 4n ) → K ˜ 0 (X ) p : X → X/S 2n = S 4n kai p∗ : K ˜ 0 (S 4n ) = Z kai y = p∗ (u4n ) ∈ K ˜ 0 (X ). IsqÔei to parakˆtw basikì: Je¸rhma 1. ApodeiknÔetai ìti to λf eÐnai anexˆrthto apì thn epilog  tou x. H analloÐwth Hopf thc apeikìnishc f eÐnai o akèraioc λf pou orÐzetai apì thn exÐswsh x2 = λf y.

opìte 2n b + 32n a = 22n b + 3n a ⇔ 2n (2n − 1)b = 3n (3n − 1)a. diaireÐ to 3n − 1. S (K2 ) = S 15 → S 8 = KP 1 . k2 ) → [k1 . (k1 . ìpou Ψ2 (x) → Ψ2 (u2n ) = 2n u2n kai Ψ3 (x) → Ψ3 (u2n ) = 3n u2n . (z1 . Upˆrqoun treic klasikèc apeikonÐseic Hopf : S 3 → S 2 . S (C2 ) = S 3 → S 2 = CP 1 . S (H2 ) = S 7 → S 4 = HP 1 . Tìte: Ψ2 (x) = 2n x + ay kai Ψ3 (x) = 3n x + by en¸ Ψk (y ) = Ψk (p∗ (u4n )) = p∗ (Ψk (u4n )) = p∗ (k 2n u4n ) = k 2n y. 'Omwc Ψ2 (x) = x2 mod 2 = λf y mod 2 = y mod 2 ⇒ a odd. 2. (q1 . q2 ] S 15 → S 8 . k2 ] 101 . Sunep¸c apì thn 2n (2n − 1)b = 3n (3n − 1)a prokÔptei ìti to ìti 2n .me genn torec èstw x kai y (ènan gia kˆje antÐgrafo tou Z). z2 ) → [z1 . z2 ] S 7 → S 4 . EpÐshc upologÐzoume: Ψ6 (x) = Ψ3 (Ψ2 (x)) = 6n x + (2n b + 32n a)y Ψ6 (x) = Ψ2 (Ψ3 (x)) = 6n x + (22n b + 3n a)y. Me aplì upologismì prokeÐptei dhlad  n = 1. 4. q2 ) → [q1 .

H ley numbers.

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Caley numbers

me mètro

1 × S 7 ⊂ S 7 × S 7 → S 7 apoteleÐ omˆda, dhlad  eÐnai h-q¸roc 7 7 7 7 ìpwc kai o q¸roc S × 1 ⊂ S × S → S , dhlad  jèloume na doÔme eˆn oi i sfaÐrec S eÐnai parallelisable spaces , dhlad  eˆn
O q¸roc
parallhlopoi simoi q¸roi ( )

oi efaptìmenec dèsmec touc eÐnai tetrimmènec.

102

Kefˆlaio 4 Parˆrthma
Sto Parˆrthma sugkentr¸same kˆpoiec Protˆseic, Jewr mata kai OrismoÔc apì ˆllouc klˆdouc twn majhmatik¸n pou ja dieukolÔnoun ton anagn¸sth sthn mèleth tou. H anaforˆ eÐnai sÔntomh kai aposkopeÐ aplˆ sthn upenjÔmish, ìpwc anafèroume kai sthn eisagwg  oi shmei¸seic eÐnai kajarˆ metaptuqiakoÔ epipèdou kai o anagn¸sthc ja prèpei na èqei  dh mia kal  gn¸sh (sunarthsiak c) anˆlushc, (diaforik c) gewmetrÐac, ˆlgebrac kai (algebrik c kai diaforik c) topologÐac.

(Seifert)-van Kampen, pou ekfrˆzei thn jemeli¸dh omˆda enìc topologikoÔ q¸rou èstw X qrhsimopoi¸ntac tic jemeli¸deic omˆdec dÔo anoikt¸n, katˆ troqièc sunektik¸n (path connected) topologik¸n upoq¸rwn X1 , X2 ⊂ X pou kalÔptoun ton X :
Xekinˆme me to Je¸rhma
Je¸rhma

van Kampen.

'Estw

X

topologikìc q¸roc pou prokÔ-

ptei wc ènwsh twn eswterik¸n apì dÔo katˆ troqièc sunektik¸n upoq¸rwn

X0 = X1 ∩ X2 eÐnai mh kenì kai katˆ troqièc sunektikì. 'Estw ∗ èna shmeÐo bˆshc tou X0 kai èstw ik : π1 (X0 , ∗) → π1 (Xk , ∗) kai jk : π1 (Xk , ∗) → π1 (X, ∗) oi epagìmenec apeikonÐseic apì tic antÐstoiqec apeikonÐseic perièqesjai gia k = 1, 2. Tìte kai o X eÐnai katˆ troqièc
kai èstw ìti to sunektikìc kai h fusik  apeikìnish

X1 , X2 ⊂ X

π1 (X1 , ∗)

π1 (X0 ,∗)

π1 (X2 , ∗) → π1 (X, ∗) X
prokÔptei apì to

apoteleÐ isomorfismì, dhlad  h jemeli¸dhc omˆda tou

eleÔjero ginìmeno twn jemeliwd¸n omˆdwn twn upoq¸rwn

X1

kai

X2

me thn

103

amalgamatopoÐhsh thc jemeli¸douc omˆdac tou

X0 . X
mporoÔn na analu-

H basik  idèa thc apìdeixhc eÐnai ìti oi troqièc ston joÔn se kommˆtia troqi¸n entìc thc tom c

X0 ,

entìc tou

X1

allˆ ektìc tou

X2

kai entìc tou

X2

allˆ ektìc tou

X1 .

Sun jwc oi epagìmenec apeikonÐseic

thc perièqesjai den eÐnai 1-1 opìte pio akribeÐc morfèc tou jewr matoc qrhsimopoioÔn ta

pushouts

omˆdwn.

Upˆrqei genÐkeush kai gia mh sunektikoÔc (antÐ omˆdwn) (ìpwc gia parˆdeig-

q¸rouc sthn kathgorÐa twn

omadoeid¸n

ma sumbaÐnei sthn mh-metajetik  gewmetrÐa) allˆ kai genikeÔseic an¸terhc diˆstashc (gia parˆdeigma se 2-omˆdec, 2-kathgorÐec klp, gia perissìtera parapèmpoume stic shmei¸seic tou

J.P. May).
5-L mma

Ac èrjoume sthn sunèqeia sto legìmeno

thc omologik c ˆlge-

brac. Sthn pragmatikìthta to l mma autì isqÔei se kˆje abelian  kathgorÐa ìpwc oi kathgorÐec twn (abelian¸n) omˆdwn   twn dianusmatik¸n q¸rwn me dedomèno s¸ma:

5-L mma.

'Estw se mia abelian  kathgorÐa dÐdetai to parakˆtw metaje-

tikì diˆgramma (skˆla) ìpou h ˆnw gramm  eÐnai h

A→B→C→D→E
ìpou oi morfismoÐ eÐnai oi h kˆtw gramm  eÐnai h

f : A → B, g : B → C , h : C → D

kai

j : D → E,

A →B →C →D →E
ìpou oi morfismoÐ eÐnai oi

r : A → B , s : B → C , t : C → D kai u : D → E en¸ oi katakìrufec apeikonÐseic eÐnai oi l : A → A , m : B → B , n : C → C , p : D → D , q : E → E . Tìte eˆn oi grammèc eÐnai akribeÐc akoloujÐec, oi m kai p eÐnai isomorfismoÐ, h l apoteleÐ epimorfismì kai h q apoteleÐ monomorfismì, tìte h n apoteleÐ epÐshc isomorfismì.
H apìdeixh gÐnetai me mia teqnik  gnwst  sthn jewrÐa kathgori¸n pou lègetai kun gi diagrammˆtwn.

To 5-L mma apoteleÐ thn sÔmptuxh twn dÔo 4-Lhmmˆtwn pou to èna eÐnai to duðkì tou ˆllou. Eidik  perÐptwsh apoteleÐ to legìmeno
kontì 5-L mma

sthn perÐptwsh pou oi grammèc apoteloÔn kontèc akribeÐc akoloujÐec. Sthn

104

Z) ⊗ A → Hi (X . p eÐnai isomorfismoÐ to Ðdio ja isqÔei kai gia thn mesaÐa Erqìmaste sth sunèqeia sto ) pa gkìsmio je¸rhma suntelest¸n univer- sal coefficient theorem pou dÐdei mia sqèsh metaxÔ thc akèraiac ac Hi (X . Z) pou lègetai omomorfismìc Hurewicz. èstw to tanustikì ginìmeno Hi (X . A). A) → T or(Hi−1 (X . π1 (X )]. To je¸rhma Hurewicz apoteleÐ kombikì apotèlesma thc algebrik c topo- logÐac kai genikeÔei to je¸rhma tou megˆlou Pouankarè pou dÐdei thn basik  sqèsh metaxÔ omotopÐac kai omologÐac. Mia èkdosh eÐnai h parakˆtw: Je¸rhma Hurewicz. Apì to je¸rhma autì prokÔptei ˆmesa ìti gia apeikìnish abelianopoÐhshc k = 1 prokÔptei h kanonik  h∗ : π1 (X ) → π1 (X )/[π1 (X ).periptwsh aut  profan¸c A = A = E = E = 0 opìte èqoume mìno 3 katakìn. A). A) pou epiprìsjeta eÐnai 1-1 kai pou èqei sun-pur na T or (Hi−1 (X . Z) ⊗ A. Me ˆlla lìgia upˆrqei mia fusik  kont  akrib c akoloujÐa 0 → Hi (X . Gia kˆje topologikì q¸ro X kai fusikì arijmì k upˆrqei ènac omomorfismìc omˆdwn h∗ : πk (X ) → Hk (X . 105 . Aut  h akoloujÐa qwrÐzetai (allˆ ìqi me fusikì trìpo) kai h omˆda thc strèyhc ( torsion) mporeÐ na jewrhjeÐ wc to empìdio gia na eÐnai h i isomorfismìc. Upˆrqei sqetik  èkdosh allˆ kai tria- dik  èkdosh tou Jewr matoc. ( rufec apeikonÐseic kai to kontì 5-L mma lègei ìti eˆn oi akrinèc apeikonÐseic m. Upˆrqei antÐstoiqo je¸rhma (duðkì) kai gia thn sunomologÐa. Z) enìc topologikoÔ q¸rou èstw X me thn antÐstoiqh Hi (X . omologÐomologÐa Me ton parapˆnw sumboli- smì. Z) ⊗ A → Hi (X . Tìte upˆrqei omomorfismìc omˆdwn i : Hi (X . A). A) me suntelestèc apì mia tuqaÐa abelian  omˆda A: Pagkìsmio Je¸rhma Suntelest¸n. A) → 0.

Gia jetikì akèraio n = 0 jewroÔme touc epagìmenouc omomorfiJe¸rhma smoÔc f∗ : πn (X. x) → πn (Y. To je¸rhma Whitehead ousiastikˆ dikaiologeÐ thn qr sh CW −complexes wc to basiko antikeÐmeno melèthc thc algebrik c topologÐac afoÔ dhl¸nei pwc eˆn mia suneq c apeikìnish metaxÔ duo topologik¸n q¸rwn epˆgei isomorfismoÔc se ìlec tic antÐstoiqec omotopikèc omˆdec (dhlad  apoteleÐ asjen  omotopik  isodunamÐa). Lème ìti h f apoteleÐ mia asjen  omotopik  isodunamÐa eˆn h f∗ apoteleÐ iso- morfismì (1-1 kai epÐ) gia kˆje n. mia asjen c omotopik  isodunamÐa metaxÔ inwdik¸n (fibrant) kai suninwdik¸n (cofibrant) antikeimènwn apoteleÐ omotopik  isodunamÐa. 'Estw X. y ). Y duo CW − complexes me shmeÐa bˆshc x. 'Enac sunektikìc topologikìc q¸roc X Eilenberg-MacLane tÔpou K (G.dhlad  h pr¸th omologik  omˆda eÐnai isìmorfh me thn abelianopoÐhsh thc jemeli¸douc omˆdac (opìte isqÔei autì pou eÐqe anafèrei o Pouankarè ìti h omologÐa apoteleÐ grammikopoÐhsh thc omotopÐac. tìte h apeikìnish apoteleÐ omotopÐa eˆn kai mìno eˆn oi q¸roi apoteloÔn sunektikˆ CW − complexes: Whitehead. sthn ousÐa h anakˆluyh thc omologÐac apì ton Pouankarè ègine kurÐwc me autì to kÐnhtro). 'Estw G kˆpoia omˆda kai n fusikìc arijmìc diˆforoc tou mhdenìc. se kˆje kathgorÐa montèlwn (model category). EpÐshc ìpwc apèdeixe o Quillen. tìte o omomorfismìc Hurewicz apoteleÐ isomorfismì ∀k ≤ n (opìte h pr¸th omologik  omˆda mhdenÐzetai eˆn o q¸roc X eÐnai eÐnai katˆ troqièc sunektikìc kai h jemeli¸dhc omˆda tou eÐnai tèleia). CW −complexes apasqoloÔn ènan ˆllo klˆdo thc topologÐac pou lègetai jewrÐa morf c (shape theory). GenikeÔseic tou jewr matoc gia q¸rouc pou den apoteloÔn Oi q¸roi omotopÐac: Eilenberg-MacLane apoteloÔn tic domikèc monˆdec thc jewrÐac Orismìc q¸rwn Eilenberg-MacLane. Tìte eˆn h f apoteleÐ asjen  omotopik  isodunamÐa. n) eˆn h n − th omotopik  omˆda πn (X ) eÐnai isìmorfh me thn G kai ìlec oi upìloipec omotopikèc omˆdec lègetai q¸roc 106 . eˆn o EpÐshc (n − 1)-sunektikìc. tìte eÐnai kai omotopik  isodunamÐa. y antÐstoiqa kai f : X → Y mia suneq c apeikìnish tètoia ¸ste f (x) = y .

• K (Z2 . 2) = CP ∞ . Gia n > 1 h G ja prèpei na eÐnai abelian  opìte wc CW − complex o q¸roc Eilenberg-MacLane upˆrqei kai eÐnai monadikìc mèqri asjenoÔc omotopÐac. n) mporeÐ na kataskeuasjeÐ wc CW − complex arqÐzonn sfhnoeidèc ginìmeno paragìntwn S . Mia basik  idiìthta twn q¸rwn aut¸n eÐnai ìti thc omologÐac me suntelestèc apì thn omˆda apoteloÔn anaparastˆseic G: Gia kˆje abelian  omˆda G kai CW − complex X . 1 • K (G. Je¸rhma qwn ΩX . 'Estw T : X → Y grammikìc 107 .tou X mhdenÐzontai. G) (the n-th singular cohomology group with coefficients from G). K (G. Merikˆ paradeÐgmata: • K (Z. Hopf Tìte o omomorfismìc Milnor-Moore. To Je¸rhma KleistoÔ Graf matoc apoteleÐ basikì apotèlesma thc sunarthsiak c anˆlushc: Je¸rhma KleistoÔ Graf matoc. n) brÐsketai se fusik  n amfeikìnish me to sÔnolo H (X . n)] pou apoteleÐtai apì tic omotopikèc klˆseic twn apeikonÐsewn f : X → K (G. 1) = S 1 . mia gia kˆje genn tora thc G kai sth sunèqeia prosjètontac kuyèlec megalÔterhc diˆstashc (pijan¸n ˆpeirec) ¸ste na skot¸soun thn pleonˆzousa omotopÐa. to sÔnolo [X. Kˆje q¸roc tac apì to ìpou G eleÔjerh omˆda me k gen torec. 1) = ∧k i=1 S . K (G. 'Estw X 1-sunektikìc q¸roc me q¸ro brìgHurewicz epˆgei ènan isomorfismì algebr¸n U (π∗ (ΩX ) ⊗ Q) → H∗ (ΩX . 1) = RP ∞ . Q) ìpou me thc U sumbolÐzoume thn universal enveloping algebra kai o metajèthc Lie π∗ (ΩX ) ⊗ Q dÐdetai apì to Samelson product. • K (Z.

W eierstrass tautì- qrona se dÔo kateujÔnseic: AntÐ gia kleistì diˆsthma je¸rhse kˆpoion tu- X (upˆrqei peraitèrw genÐkeush akìmh kai gia mh-sumpageÐc q¸rouc T ychonof f ) kai antÐ gia poluwnumikèc sunart seic je¸rhse genikìterec upoˆlgebrec thc C (X ) (ˆlgebra twn migadik¸n suneq¸n sunart sewn tou X ).H. unif ormly ) To 1937 o M. Oi kathgorÐec autèc eÐnai isodÔnamec . Tìte o T eÐnai suneq c eˆn kai mìnon eˆn kleistìc. Je¸rhma kai èstw Shmei¸noume ìti upˆrqei kai pragmatik  èkdosh tou jewr matoc allˆ kai diˆforec genikeÔseic (gia topikˆ sumpageÐc q¸rouc Qˆousntorf.telest c metaxÔ dÔo q¸rwn Mpˆnaq pou orÐzetai se olìklhro ton grˆfhma tou X. KleÐnoume to Parˆrthma me mia anaforˆ sto Je¸rhma teleÐ mia afethrÐa thc mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac: Gelfand pou apo- Je¸rhma Gelfand. Pio sugkekrimèna: qaÐo sumpag  topologikì q¸ro Qˆousntorf Stone-Weierstrass. plègmata klp). To T orÐzetai wc {(x. Tìte h migadik  (kai me monadiaÐo) ∗-ˆlgebra pou parˆgetai apì to S eÐnai pukn  sthn C (X ). H deÔterh eÐnai h kathgorÐa twn sumpag¸n topologik¸n q¸rwn Qˆousntorf kai bèlh touc omoiomorfismoÔc. O pr¸toc sunartht c eÐnai o C (−) pou 108 . y ) ∈ X × Y : T x = y }. dhlad  eˆn to grˆfhma eÐnai kleistì uposÔnolo tou X ×Y (upojètoume thn topologÐa ginìmeno ston X × Y ).Stone genÐkeuse to je¸rhma tou K. UpenjumÐzoume epÐshc ìti to je¸rhma Weierstrass (1885) sthn anˆlush (pragmatik  kai migadik ) dhl¸nei ìti kˆje suneq c sunˆrthsh pou orÐzetai se kˆpoio kleistì diˆsthma mporeÐ na proseggisjeÐ omoiìmorfa ( apì mia poluwnumik  sunˆrthsh. 'Estw X sumpag c q¸roc Qˆousntorf S ⊂ C (X ) pou diaqwrÐzei shmeÐa (dhlad  gia kˆje zeÔgoc shmeÐwn x. y ∈ X upˆrqei sunˆrthsh f ∈ S tètoia ¸ste f (x) = f (y )). JewroÔme dÔo kathgorÐec: H pr¸th eÐnai aut  kai bèlh touc omo- me antikeÐmena tic metajetikèc me monadiaÐo morfismoÔc pou diathroÔn thn suzugÐa C ∗ -ˆlgebrec ∗.

H afethrÐa thc mh-metajetik c gewmetrÐac tou megˆlou gˆllou majhmatikoÔ Alain Connes eÐnai akrib¸c h pijan  epèktash thc parapˆnw isodunamÐac apì thn meriˆ thc topologik c kathgorÐac eˆn jewr soume mh-metajetikèc ˆlgebrec. 109 . H isodunamÐa isqÔei kai metaxÔ topikˆ sumpag¸n q¸rwn Qˆousntorf kai metajetik¸n C ∗ -algebr¸n qwrÐc monˆda. to fˆsma thc A.se kˆje sumpag  topologikì q¸ro Qˆousntorf kai me monˆda X antistoiqeÐ thn metajetik  C ∗ -ˆlgebra C (X ) twn suneq¸n migadik¸n sunart sewn tou X kai o deÔteroc sunartht c eÐnai o monˆda Spec(−) pou se kˆje metajetik  kai me C ∗ -ˆlgebra A antistoiqeÐ ton sumpag  topologikì q¸ro Qˆousntorf Spec(A).