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ENERGY BALANCE

Reference temperature = 273 K

PRE-HEATER
Inlet temperature of solution

25C

Outlet temperature of solution

60C

Qf

mCp dT

Qf

[(111.1*1.429)+(4.187*2.268)]*(298-273)

168.258

Qf

4206.4504 kJ/hr

Qp

168.258

10095.48 kJ/hr

Heat carried in
by the feed stream

25

Heat carried out


by the product stream

60

Heat to be supplied,

Qp - Qf =

Steam requirement

5889.03

( Qp - Qf )/ s

(s=2260 kJ/kg)

2.60576 kg/hr

Assuming 80% heat transfer efficiency in the equipments


Actual steam requirement, S

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Steam
Total

3.25 kg/hr

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


4206.4504
5889.01
10095.46

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


10095.48
10095.48

SULFONATOR

Qf

Qp

(235.8*1.17*30) + (10095.48) + [(228.2*1.3734)+(.437*4)] * 100

58128.25 kJ/hr

[(326.5*2.045) + (288.2*1.43136) + (4*.437) + (4.253*22.674)] *120

141524.46 kJ/hr

Heat of reaction:
No. of moles of anthraquinone taking part in the reaction = 1.13365 kmol/hr

C14H8O2

H2SO4

(in the presence of M)

HR

Hf

Hf

(Hf ASA + Hf W)

C14H8SO5 +

H2O

ASA

CpdT
-

(Hf A + Hf H)

Cp

CpdT
HR

Total heat

(-675320-285830) - (-58240-814000)

-88910 kJ/kmol

Cp Products

(588.96+76.554) (297.723+140.04)

228.474

228.474 * 95

-88910 + 21705.03 =

-76186.914 kJ/hr

Qp Qf + HR

7209.296 kJ/hr

Cp Reactants

21705.03 kJ/kmol
-67204.97 * 1.3365

Hence, heat should be supplied to get products at required temperature


Steam required,S

7209.296/2260

3.19 kg/hr

Assuming around 80% heat transfer efficiency in the equipments


Actual steam requirement, S

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Heat of reaction
Steam
Total

4 kg/hr

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


58128.25

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


141524.46

76186.914
7209.4
141524.5

141524.46

CRYSTALLIZER
Qf

141524.46 + (15*4.187*25)

143094.6 kJ/hr

Qp

(326.5*2.045 + 288.2*1.311 + 4*.437 + 37.67*4.2) * 80

96448 kJ/hr

Heat to be removed =

Qp - Qf

-46646.6 kJ/hr

Brine water is to be supplied for this cooling purpose


Brine is available @ 288 K
Brine required

46646.6/(3.996*40)

179.6 kg/hr

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Brine
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


143094.6
-

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


96448
46646.6
143094.6

143094.6

Assuming 80% heat transfer efficiency, actual brine required = 225 kg/hr

PRECIPITATOR
Qf

= [(326.5*2.045 + 10*4.2) * 80] + [(34.63*.677 + 253.97*4.187) * 25]


= 84992.37 kJ/hr

Qp

= [ 151.53*3.5075 + (1.05*4.2)*280.97 + 192.63*2.045 ] * 85


= 183982.29 kJ/hr

Heat of reaction:
C14H8SO5 +
ASA

KCl

C14H7SO5K +
PAS

HCl
C

No. of moles of potassium anthraquinone-1-sulfonate formed = 0.4644 kmol

CpdT

HR

Hf

Hf

(Hf PAS + Hf C) -

(-1153981.62 167370) ( -675320 420680)

-225351.62 kJ/kmol

(Hf ASA + Hf P )

Cp

CpdT
HR

Total heat

Cp Products

(1144.357 + 25.8785) (588.96 + 50.485)

530.82 * 60

31849.23 kJ/kmol

-225351.62 + 31849.23

-193502.39 * 0.4644

-89862.76 kJ/hr

Qp Qf + HR

9127.157 kJ/hr

Steam required=

9127/2260

Cp Reactants

4.038 kg/hr

Assuming 80% efficiency, actual steam requirement = 5 kg/hr

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Heat of reaction
Steam
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


84992.3725
89862.76
9127.01
183982.14

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


183982.2896
183982.2

COOLER
Inlet temperature

85C

Outlet temperature =

25C

Qf

(133.5*3.5075 + 2.5*2.045 + .28*.709) * 85

40252.79 kJ/hr

11839.05 kJ/hr

Heat released

-28413.74 kJ/hr

Brine required

28413.74/(3.996*10)

Qp

711.05 kg/hr

Assuming 80% efficiency, actual brine requirement = 888 kg/hr

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Brine
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


40252.79
-

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


11839.05
28413.74
40252.79

40252.79

NEUTRALIZER
Qf

Qp

(11839.05 + 0.86*1.145*25)

11863.66 kJ/hr

(133.5*3.5075 + 0.45*.8645 + 4.326*2.7 + 0.14*4.187+.919*.35)*25

12030.7 kJ/hr

Heat of reaction:
Reaction 1:
2 C14H8SO5

Na2CO3

ASA

2 C14H7SO5Na +
NAS

CO2

CpdT

HR

Hf

Hf

(Hf NAS + Hf O + Hf W) - (Hf ASA + Hf S)

[-2*1091200 393500 285830] [-2*675320 1130770]

-380320 kJ/kmol

No. of moles of sodium carbonate reacted = 0.004355 kmol

CpdT

HR1 =
=

0
Hf
-1656.3 kJ/hr

H2O
W

Reaction 2:
2 HCl

Hf

Na2CO3
S

2 NaCl

CO2

H2O
W

(Hf N + Hf O + Hf W) - (Hf C + Hf S)

[-2*408760 393500 285830] [-2*167370 1130770]

-31340 kJ/kmol

No. of moles of sodium carbonate reacted = 0.003776 kmol


HR2 =

-118.33 kJ/hr

HR

HR1 +

1774.63 kJ/hr

HR2

Heat to be removed
+ HR

Qp - Qf

12030.7 11863.66 1774.63

-1607.6 kJ/hr

Brine required=
=

1607.6/(3.996*10)
40.23 kg/hr

Assuming 80% efficiency, actual brine requirement = 50 kg/hr

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Heat of reaction
Brine
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


11863.66
1774.63
13638.3

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


12030.7
1607.6
13638.3

RECYCLE HEAT BALANCES


PAN DRYER
Amount of solid to be dried

292.2 kg dry solid/hr

Inlet air temperature, Tg2

120C

Outlet air temperature, Tg1

85C

Inlet solids temperature, Ts1

85C

Outlet solids temperature, Ts2

100C

Assumptions:

@ 25C, humidity of air is 50% (which is available from flue gas)


Hence, absolute humidity of available air = 0.01 kgwater/kg dry air

Y2

The enthalpy of air entering the drier,HG2=

[(Cg + Y2Cv)(Tg2 To) + Y2]

Specific heat of air,

Cg

1.005 kJ/kgC

Specific heat of vapor,

Cv

1.884 kJ/kgC

Enthalpy of vapor,

2502.3 kJ/kg

HG2

147.882 kJ/kg

HG1

(1.005+1.884Y1)85 + 2502.3

85.425 + 2662.44 Y1

The enthalpy of the solid entering the drier,


Hs1

Cp(Ts1 To) + X1(Ts1 To) Cw

(1.311+ 0.077*4.187) * 80 kJ/kg

130.7014 kJ/kg

The enthalpy of the solid leaving the drier,


Hs2

1.369*100

136.9 kJ/kg

Assuming no heat loss due to radiation to the surroundings

Moisture balance:
Ss X1

Gs Y2

Ss X2

Ss(X1 X2)

Gs(Y1 + Y2)

292.2(0.077)

Gs(Y1 + 0.01)

Gs(Y1 0.01)

22.5

Gs HG2

Ss Hs2 +

Gs Y1

Enthalpy balance:
Ss Hs1 +
292.2*130.7 +

Gs(147.882)

Gs(62.458 2662Y1)

Gs HG1 +Q

= 292.2(136.9) + Gs(85.424 + 2662Y1) + 0


=

1837.78

By solving,
Gs

1724.13 kg dry air /hr

Y1

0.023

Heat source
Ss Hs1
Gs HG2
Ss Hs2
Gs HG1
Total

Heat in kJ/hr
38190.54
254964.34

293154.88

Heat out kJ/hr

40002.18
253151.17
293153.35

COOLER
Qf

Qp

Qp Qf

(172.63*2.045 + 13*0.709 + 229.97*4.2) * 85

112890.1448 kJ/hr

(172.63*2.045 + 13*0.709 + 229.97*4.2) * 25

33203 kJ/hr

-79687.14 kJ/hr

Brine required=
=

68533.856/(3.996*10)
1994.17 kg/hr

Streams
Feed stream
Product stream
Brine
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


112890.1448
112890.1448

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


33203
79687.14
112890.14

NEUTRALIZER 2
Qp

Qp

(172.63*2.045 + 13*0.709 + 229.97*4.2 + (50.65*1.145)) * 25

34652.85 kJ/hr

(185.824*4.426 + 238.57*4.187 + 20.836*0.709 + 21.024*0.919)*25

46386.084 kJ/hr

Heat of reactions:
Same reactions as the previous neutralizer occur
HR1

-380320 kJ/kmol

No. of moles of sodium carbonate reacted = 0.6 kmol


HR2

-31340 kJ/kmol

No. of moles of sodium carbonate reacted = 0.356 kmol


Total heat of reactions=

Total heat

- 228192 - 11162.4

- 239354.4 kJ/hr

46386.084 34652.85 239354.4

Heat to be removed =

-227621.16 kJ/hr

Brine required

1.582 kg/s

Streams
Reactant stream
Product stream
Heat of reaction

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


34652.85
239354.4

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


46386.084
-

Brine
Total

274007.25

227621.16
274007.244

EVAPORATOR
Qf

46386.084 kJ/hr

Evaporator operated @ 120 C to completely vaporize water


Qp

(185.824*4.426 + 20.836*0.709 + 21.024*0.919)*120 + 2260*238.57

641954.29 kJ/hr

Qp Qf=

-595568.2125 kJ/hr

263.5 kg/hr

Assuming 80% efficiency in heat transfer equipments steam requirement is 330 kg/hr

Streams
Feed stream
Product stream
Steam
Total

Energy inlet (kJ/hr)


46386.084
595568.2125
641954.29

Energy outlet (kJ/hr)


641954.29
641954.29