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# BAHAN PROGRAM INTERVENSI PPSMI 2007 UNTUK MURID TINGKATAN LIMA ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

MINIMUM SYLLABUS REQUIREMENT 1.FUNCTIONS: Express the relation between the following pairs of sets in the form of arrow diagram, ordered pair and graph. Arrow diagram Ordered pair Graph a ) Set A = { Kelantan, Perak , Selangor } Set B = { Shah Alam , Kota Bharu ,Ipoh } Relation: ‘ City of the state in Malaysia ‘ b )Set A = { triangle,rectangle, pentagon } Set B = { 3,4,5 } Relation : ‘ Number of Sides’

Determine domain , codomain , object, image and range of relation.

1. Diagram 1 shows the relation between set P and set Q.

3 2 1 -2 -3 Set P Diagram 1

9 5 4 3 1 Set Q

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Domain = { ……………………………………… } { Codomain = ……………………………………… } Object =…………………… Image =…………………… Range =…………………... Ordered Pairs = ………………………………

Classifying the types of relations

State the type of the following relations a)
x

x 2
4 16 36

b)

x

xX 3 2 -2 -3

4 9

2 4 6

…………………………………………….. c)
x X2

………………………………………….
Type of number

d) 4 9 -3 Prime Even

3 2 -3

4 9

……………………………………………..

……………………………………………

2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS: A. TO EXPRESS A GIVEN QUADRATIC EQUATION IN GENERAL FORM

ax2 + bx + c = 0

Example 1 .x2 = 5x – 9 .x2 – 5x + 9 = 0 Compare with the general form ax2 + bx – c = 0 Thus, a = 1, b = -5 and c = 9

Example 2 4x =
x 2 − 2x x

4x(x) = x2 – 2x 4x2 - x2 – 2x = 0 3x2 – 2x = 0 Compare with the general form Thus, a = 3, b = - 2 and c = 0

Exercises Express the following equation in general form and state the values of a, b and c

1.

3x =

5 2x

.2.

(2x + 5) =

7 x

3.

x( x + 4 ) = 3

.4. (x – 1)(x + 2) = 3

5.

4 x +3 = 5 −x x

6.

x2 + px = 2x - 6

7. px (2 – x) = x – 4m

8.

(2x – 1)(x + 4) = k(x – 1) + 3

9. (7 – 2x + 3x2) =

x +1 3

10. 7x – 1 =

x 2 − 2x x

B. FORMING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS FROM GIVEN ROOTS Example 1 3 , 2 x=3 , x=2 x - 3 = 0 , x-2 = 0 (x-3)(x-2)=0 x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 x = 1 , x = -3 x–1=0 , x+3=0 (x – 1 ) ( x + 3 ) = 0 x2 + 2x – 3 = 0

Example 2 1, - 3 a) b) 2, 4 , -7

−1 3

c)
1 , 3

1 2
d)
1 , 5 −2 3

e) 4 , 0

3. QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS: INEQUALITIES Example Find the range of values of x for which x 2 − 2 x − 15 > 0 Solution Let f ( x ) = x 2 − 2 x −15 = ( x + 3)( x − 5) ( f x) = 0 When
x 2 − 2 x − 15 > 0

( x + 3)( x − 5) = 0

x = −3 or 5

For − x2 3 − 2 x −f 15 x > 0< x > 5 or x < −3

( )

0

5

4.SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS: EXPRESS ONE UNKNOWN IN TERM OF THE OTHER UNKNOWN Guidance 1 Arrange the linear equation such that one of the two unknowns becomes the subject of the equation. (avoid fraction if possible) 2 Substitute the new equation from step 1 into the non-linear equation . Simplify and express in the form ax2 + bx + c = 0. 3 Solve the quadratic equation by factorisation, completing the square or by using the formula Example x + 2y = 1 x= ( )2 + 4y2 = 13 =0 (2y – 3)( y= 4 Substitute the values of the unknown obtained in step 3 into the linear equation.
3 or 2 3 , 2

) = 0,

When y =

x = 1 – 2( ) = When y = x= ,

5.INDICES AND LOGARITHM: INDICES Examples Solve each of the following equations Exercises

1.

33x = 81 33x = 34 3x = 4 x =
4 3

1. 9x = 271-x

2.

2x . 4x+1 2x . 22 (x+1) x + 2x + 2 3x x
8 x −16 x+1 = 0

= 64 = 26 =6 =4 =
4 3

2. 4x . 8x -1

=4

3.

3. 5x - 25x+1
=0

=0

(2 )

3 x

− (2

1 4 x+

(2 )

)

3 x

= 24

( )

x+ 1

2 3 x = 2 4 x +4 3x = 4x + 4
x=-4

6.COORDINATE GEOMETRY Examples 1. Determine whether the straight lines 2y – x = 5 and x – 2y = 3 are parallel. 2y – x = 5, y=
1 1 x + 5 , m1 = 2 2

Solution

x – 2y = 3
1 1 x − 3 , m2 = 2 2 Since m1 = m2 , therefore the straight lines 2y – x = 5

y=

and x – 2y = 3 are parallel.

2. Given that the straight lines 4x + py = 5 and 2x – 5y – 6 = 0 are parallel, find the value of p.

Step1: Determine the gradients of both straight lines. 4x + py = 5 y = − p x + p , m1 = − p 2x – 5y – 6 = 0 y=
5 x +3 , 2 m2 = 5 2
4 5 4

Step 2: Compare the gradient of both straight lines. Given both straight lines are parallel, hence
m1 = m2
− 4 2 = p 5

p = -10 3. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point P(-3, 6) and is parallel to the straight line 4x – 2y + 1 = 0. 4x – 2y + 1 = 0, y = 2x +
1 . 2

Thus, the gradient of the line, m = 2. Therefore, the equation of the line passing through P(-3, 6) and parallel to the line 4x – 2y + 1 = 0 is y - 6 = 2 (x - -3) y = 2x + 12.

Examples 1. Determine whether the straight lines 3y – x – 2 = 0 and y + 3x + 4 = 0 are perpendicular. 3y – x – 2 = 0 y=

Solution

1 2 1 x + , m1 = 3 3 3

y + 3x + 4 = 0 y= – 3x – 4, m2 = −3
m1 m2 = 1 × ( −3) = -1. 3

Hence, both straight lines are perpendicular.

Examples 2. Find the equation of the straight line which is perpendicular to the straight line x + 2y – 6 = 0 and passes through the point (3, -4). x + 2y – 6 = 0 y= −

Solution

1 1 x + 3 , m1 = − 2 2

Let the gradient of the straight line which is perpendicular = m 2
 1  − m2 = -1  2 m2 =

The equation of the straight line = y=

7.STATISTICS The number of vehicles that pass by a toll plaza from 1 p.m to 2 p.m. for 60 consecutive days is shown in the table below. Number of vehicles
50 60 70 80 90 − 59 − 69 − 79 −89 −99

Number of days 4 10 24 16 6

Calculate the median of the number of cars using formula. Solution : Number of vehicles
Median lies in this interval

50 60 70 80 90

− 59 − 69 − 79 −89 −99

Number of days (f) 4 10 (24) 16 6
Tn
2

Cumulative frequency 4 (14) 38 ( ) ( )
= T30

Step 1 : Median class is given by =

= T60
2

Therefore, the median class is 70 −79

Step 2 : Median =

n  −F L + 2  fm  

  c   
  (   

= =

(___) 76.17

 60 −14  + 2  24  

__ )

L = lower boundary of the median class = 69.5 n = F = cumulative frequency before the median class = 14 fm = frequency of the median class =24 c = size of the median class = upper boundary ─ lower boundary = 79.5 ─ 69.5 = 10

To estimate the mode using a histogram Modal class = 70 − 79 (c) Class boundary 49.5 ─ 59.5 Number of days (frequency) 4 10 24 16 6

(c) The histogram is shown below Frequency

25

20

15

10

5

49.5

59.5

69.5

79.5

89.5

99.5 Number of vehicles

Mode = 76

8.CIRCULAR MEASURE Convert Measurements in radians to degrees and vice versa. Convert the following angles in radians to degrees and minutes. a. 1.5 rad b. 0.63 rad

c.

π
2

d.

Convert the following angles to radians. a. 500 b. 124.30

c. 72035’

d. 285021’

Arc Length of a circle Find the length of arc. 1.
P 8 cm 0.5 rad Q O
A 152° O 6.4 cm B

2.

Complete the table below by finding the values of θ , r or s.

θ

r 9 cm

s

2.

14 cm

30 cm

3.

35 cm

Complete the table below, given the areas and the radii of the sectors and angles subtended.
1 A = r 2θ , θ is in radians 2

Area of sector 1.

Angle subtended 500

2.

90 cm2

9.15 cm

3.

72 cm2

4.

18 π cm2

6.5 cm

5.

200 cm2

6.

145 cm2

8 cm

9.DIFFERENTIATION:

1.

y = 10
dy = dx

2. y = x 5
dy = dx 7 x

3. f (x) = -2 x 3 f ‘(x)=

4. y =

dy = dx

Always change a fractional function to the negative index before finding differentiation

5. f ( x) = − f ‘(x)=

1 3x 3

6. y = 4 x 2 + x
dy = dx

d  2 1   2 x − 2 + 5x  = 7. dx  x 

8.

y = x(3 x − 2) dy = dx

9. Given y = 3 x 2 − 4 x , find the value of
dy when x =2. dx

10. Given f ( x ) = x(1 + x 2 ) , find the value 1). of f ' (0) and f ' ( −

11.INDEX NUMBER

The table shows the price of 3 types of goods: A, B and C in the year 2005 and 2006. Types of good Price 2005 A B C RM 1.20 x RM 0.60 Price index in 2006 2006 RM 1.60 RM 2.30 y (Base year = 2005) z 110 102

Find the value of x, y and z

Calculate the composite index for each of the following data Index number, I Weightage, W 120 3 110 4 105 3

1.PROGRESSIONS 1. Find the 9th term of the arithmetic progression. 2. Find the 11th term of the arithmetic progression.

2, 5 , 8 , ….. Solution: a=2 d = 5-2=3 T9 = 2 + (9 − 1)3 = _______ 3. For the arithmetic progression 0.7, 2.1 , 3.5, ….. ,find the 5th term .

5 3, , 2,........ 2

4. Find the nth term of the arithmetic progression 1 4, 6 ,9,..... 2

5. Find the 7 th term of the geometric progression. - 8, 4 , -2 , ….. Solution: a=-8 T7 = (-8)( =
1 −8

6. Find the 8 th term of the geometric progression. 16, -8, 4,…

r=

1 7-1 ) −2

4 1 = −8 − 2

7. For the geometric progression
4 2 , , 1 , ….. ,find the 9 th term . 9 3

8. Find the 3 th term of the geometric progression 50, 40, 32…….

Find the sum to infinity of geometric progressions S∞ = sum to infinity a = first term r = common ratio

a S∞ = 1− r

1. Find the sum to infinity of a given geomertric progression below: Example: 2 2 6, −2, , − ,....... 3 9 a=6 −2 1 r= =− 6 3 a S∞ = 1− r 6 =  1 1-  - ÷  3 9 = 2 2.

24, 3.6, 0.54, …….

81, -27,9, ……..

3.

1 1 1 , , ,....... .. 2 4 8

* example on recurring decimals

2.LINEAR LAW STEPS TO PLOT A STRAIGHT LINE Using a graph paper.

Identify Y and X from part (a)

Construct a table

Follow the scale given. Label both axes Line of best fit

Determine : gradient –m Y-intercept c QUESTION x y 2 2 3 9 4 20 5 35 6 54 Table

The above table shows the experimental values of two variables, x and y. It is know that x and y are related by the equation y = px2 + qx Non- linear a) Draw the line of best fit for a) From your graph, find, i) p ii) q
y against x x

SOLUTION

STEP 1 y = px2 + qx
y qx px 2 = + x x x y = px + q x

Reduce the non-linear To the linear form The equation is divided throughout by x To create a constant that is free from x On the right-hand side i.e, q Linear form Y = mX + c

Y = mX + c Note : For teacher’s reference

STEP 2 x y
y x

construct table

2 2 1

3 9 3

4 20 5

5 35 7

6 54 9

STEP 3

Using graph paper, - Choose a suitable scale so that the graph drawn is as big as possible. - Label both axis - Plot the graph of Y against X and draw the line of best fit

y x

12

10 x 8 x 6 x 4 x 2 x x -2 -4 1 2 3 4 5 6

STEP 4

From the graph, find p and q Construct a right-angled triangle, So that two vertices are on the line of best fit, calculate the gradient, p Determine the y-intercept, q from the straight line graph

9 −1 Gradient , p = =2 6 −2

y- intercept = q= -3

3.INTEGRATION

1.

Given

that

2 1

2

1

f ( x) dx = 3

and 2.

Given

that

4

0

f ( x) dx = 3

and

2

3

f ( x) dx = −7 . Find

4

0

g ( x)dx = 5 . Find
4 0

(a) the value of k if (b)

∫ [ kx − f ( x)] dx = 8

∫ [ 5 f ( x) − 1]dx
3 1

∫ f ( x)dx ×∫ g ( x)dx (b) ∫ [ 3 f ( x) − g ( x) ] dx
(a)
0 4 0 4

Answer : (a) k = (b) 48

22 3

Answer: (a) – 15 (b) 4

4.VECTOR

VECTOR IN THE CARTESIAN COORDINATES 1. j and also in Cartesian coordinates State the following vector in terms in i and ~ ~ Solutions P
→  2 OA = 2 i =  ÷ ~ 0 → 0 OB = 3 j =  ÷ ~ 3 →

Example j
~

5 4 3 B 2 1 0 1

p
~

A 2 3 4 5 0

OP = p = 3 i + 4 j
~ ~

Exercise j
~

3 = ÷  4 Solutions (a) OP =

(b) OQ =

4 3

P
→ →

Q

2 1

T
-3 -2 -1 O

(c) OR = i
~

(d) OS =

1-1

1

2

3

4

-2

R

W

S (e) OT =

(f) OW =

2.

Find the magnitude for each of the vectors +5 j = (a) 2 i ~ ~

Example −2 j = 3i ~ ~ 3 +2
2 2

= 13 unit

i − 12 j = (b) 5 ~ ~

− j= (c) − i ~

3.

Find the magnitude and unit vector for each of the following = 2 i− 6 j (a) r ~ ~ ~

Example r = 3i+ 4 j
~ ~ ~

Solution : Magnitude, r = 32 + 4 2
~

=5 ∧ 1 unit vector, r, = (4 i + 3 j ) ~ 5 ~ ~  −6  = ÷ (b) a ~ 3   −1  = ÷ (c) h ~  −2 

SPM 2003/no. 12 / paper 1.

1.

u u u u r u u u r Diagram 2 shows two vectors, OP and QO . y Q(-8,● 4)
●P(5,

3)

O x Express u u u r  x (a) OP in the form  ÷,  y u u u r (b) OQ in the form xi + yj.

[ 2 marks]

5.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

To sketch the graph of sine or cosine function , students are encouraged to follow the steps below. 1. Determine the angle to be labeled on x-axis. eg : Function y = sin x y = cos 2x
3 x 2

angle x = 90o 2x = 90o x = 45o
3 x = 90o 2

y = sin

x = 60o 2. Calculate the values of y for each value of x by using calculator eg : y = 1 – 2 cos 2x x y 0 -1 45 1 90 3 135 1 180 -1 225 1 270 3 315 1 360 -1

3. Plot the coordinates and sketch the graph y 3 • 2 1 • • 45 90 • 135 180 • • 225

• 270 315 360 • x

6.PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS

1. The number of ways of arranging all the alphabets in the given word. Example Solution: 6! = 6.5.4.3.2.1 = 720

2. The number of ways of arranging four of the alphabets in the given word so that last alphabet is S Example Solution: The way to arrange alphabet S = 1 The way to arrange another 3 alphabets= P3
5

3. How many ways to choose 5 books from 20 different books Example solution:

The number of arrangement = 1 x 5 P 3 = 60 4. In how many ways can committee of 3 men and 3 women be chosen from a group of 7 men and 6 women ? Example Solution:

The number of ways=

20

C5

The numbers of ways = 7 C 3 x 6 C 3 = 700

= 15504

7.PROBABILITY

Question 2 3 4 6 8 9 The above figure shows six numbered cards. A card is chosen at random. Calculate the probability that the number on the chosen card (a) is a multiple of 3 and a factor of 12 (b) is a multiple of 3 or a factor of 12.

Answer Let A represent the event that the number on the chosen card is a multiple of 3, and B represent the event that the number on the chosen card is a factor of 12. A = {3, 6, 9}, n(A)= 3 B = {2, 3, 4, 6}, n(B) = 4 A ∩ B = {3, 6} A ∪ B = {2, 3, 4, 6, 9} (a) P(A ∩ B) =
2 1 = . 6 3

Alternative method

(b) P(A ∪ B) =

5 6

P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
3 4 2 + − 6 6 6 5 = . 6

=

Question A box contains 5 red balls, 3 yellow balls and 4 green balls. A ball is chosen at random from the box. Calculate the probability that the balls drawn neither a yellow nor a green.

Solution 3 . 12 4 P(green) = 12 P (yellow) = P(yellow or green) = 3 4 7 + = . 12 12 12

No 1.

Questions Box C contains 4 black marbles and 6

Solutions

4 10

Black

4 10 6

Black Yellow Black Yellow

6 10

Yellow

4 10 6
10

10

yellow marbles. A marbles is chosen at random from box C, its colour is noted and the marbles is noted and the marbles is returned to the box. Then a second marbles is chosen. Determine the probability that (a) both the marbles are black. (b) the two balls are of different colours. (c) at least one of the balls chosen is yellow.

(a) P(black

∩ black)=

4 4 4 × = 10 10 25

(b) P(same colours) = P(black ∩ black) + P(yellow =

6  13  4  6  +  × = . 25 10 10     25 4 21 (c) 1 – P(both blacks) = 1 – = 25 25

∩ yellow)

8.PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS Example 1 :

Find the value of each of the following probabilities by reading the standardised normal distribution table. (a) P(Z > 0.934)

(b)

P(Z ≤ 1.25)

Solution (b) P(Z ≤ 1.25) = 1 – P(Z > 1.25) = 1 – 0.1057 = 0.8944

1.25

1.25

(c) P(Z ≥ - 0.23)

Solution (c) P(Z ≥ - 0.23) = 1 – P(Z < - 0.23) = 1 – P(Z > 0.23) = 1 – 0.40905 = 0.59095

-0.23

0.23

(d)

P(Z > - 1.512)

Solution (d) P(Z < - 1.512) = P(Z > 1.512) = 0.06527

-1.512

1.512

(e)

P(0.4 < Z < 1.2)

Solution (e) P(0.4 < Z < 1.2) = P(Z > 0.4) – P(Z > 1.2) = 0.3446 – 0.1151 = 0.2295

0.4

1.2

0.4

1.2

(f)

P(- 0.828 < Z ≤ - 0. 555)

Solution

(f) P(- 0.828 < Z ≤ - 0. 555) = P(Z > 0.555) – P(Z > 0.828) = 0.28945 – 0.20384 = 0.08561

-0.828

-0.555

0.555

0.828

(g) P(- 0.255 ≤ Z < 0.13) Solution (g) P(- 0.255 ≤ Z < 0.13) = 1 – P(Z < - 0.255) – P(Z > 0.13) = 1 – P(Z > 0.255) – P(Z > 0.13) = 1 – 0.39936 – 0.44828 = 0.15236

-0.255

0.13

-0.255

0.13

14.3

Score- z

Example 2 :

Find the value of each of the following : (a) (b) (c) (d) P(Z ≥ z) = 0.2546 P(Z < z) = 0.0329 P(Z < z) = 0.6623 P(z < Z < z 0.548) = 0.4723

Solution (a) P(Z ≥ z) = 0.2546 Score-z = 0.66 0.2546

z

(b) P(Z < z) = 0.0329 Score-z = -1.84

(c)

P(Z < z) = 0.6623 1 - P(Z > z) = 0.6623 P(Z > z) = 1 – 0.6623 = 0.3377 Score-z = 0.419

(d)

P(z < Z < z 0.548) = 0.4723 1 – P(Z < z) – P(Z > 0.548) = 0.4723 1 – P(Z < z) – 0.2919 = 0.4723 P(Z < z) = 1 – 0.2919 – 0.4723 = 0.2358 Score-z = -0.72

Normal Distribution
Type 1 P( Z > positive no) P ( Z > 1.2 ) = 0.1151 Type 6
P (Negative no < Z < Negative no )

Type 1 P ( Z > K ) = less than 0.5 P ( Z > K ) = 0.2743

P ( -1.5 < Z < - 0.8 ) K = 0.6 = P ( 0.8 < Z < 1.5 ) ..................................................... Type 2 P(Z < negative no) P ( Z < - 0.8 ) = P (Z > 0.8) = 0.2119 = P ( Z > 0.8 ) – P ( Z > 1.5 ) = 0.2119 – 0.0668 = 0.1451 ...................................................... Type 2 P ( Z < K ) = less than 0.5 P( Z < K ) = 0.3446 ..................................................... Type 3 P ( Z < positive no) P ( Z < 1.3 ) = 1 – P ( Z>1.3) = 1 – 0.0968 = 0.9032 ..................................................... . Type 7
P ( negative no < Z < postive no )

P ( Z > - K ) = 0.3446 - K = 0.4 K = - 0.4

P ( -1.2 < Z < 0.8 ) = 1 – P ( Z > 0.8) – P ( z < -1.2 ) ....................................................... Type 3 P( Z < K ) = more than 0.5 P ( Z < K ) = 0.8849 P ( Z > K ) = 1 – 0.8849 = 0.1151 K = 1.2

..................................................... . Type 4. P( Z > negative no) P ( Z > - 1.4 ) = 1 – P ( Z < -1.4 ) = 1 – 0.0808 = 0.9192

= 1 – P ( Z > 0.8 ) – P ( Z > 1.2 ) = 1 – 0.2119 – 0.1151 =0.673

.................................................... Type 5 P( positive no < Z < positive no) P( 1<Z<2) =P(Z>1)–P(Z>2)
= 0.1587 – 0. 0228 = 0.1359

...................................................... Type 4 P ( Z > K ) = more than 0.5 P ( Z > K ) = 0.7580 P( Z < K ) = 1 – 0.7580 = 0.2420 P ( Z > -k ) = 0.2420 - K= 0.7 K = - 0.7

10.LINEAR PROGRAMMING Problem interpretation and the formation of the relevant equations or inequalities

The table below shows the mathematical expressions for the different inequalities used. a b c d e f g Example: A company delivers 900 parcels using x lorries and y vans. Each lorry carries 150 parcels while each van carries 60 parcels. The cost of transporting the parcels using a lorry is RM 60 while that of a van is RM 40 . The total cost spent on transportation is not more than RM 480. (a) Write down two inequalities other than x ≥0 and y ≥0 , that satisfy all of the above conditions. Solution (a)
150 x + 60 y ≥ 900 5 x + 2 y ≥ 30 60 x + 40 y ≤ 480 3 x + 2 y ≤ 24

Mathematical Expressions y greater than x y less than x y not more than x y not less than x The sum of x and y is not more than k y is at least k times the value of x y exceeds x at least k

Inequality y>x y<x
y ≤x y ≥x
x + y ≤k y ≥ kx

y−x≥k

……….. 1 ……….
2

The two inequalities that satisfy the given conditions are :
5 x + 2 y ≥ 30

and 3 x + 2 y ≤ 24

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