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urBmwv$m; 'Drdkua&pDESifh vl@tcGifhta&; awmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;

(Democracy and Human Rights Movement around the World)
ed'gef;
vl[m todOm%f zGH@òz;wdk;wufvmwmeJ@
tr# ydkrdktqifajyEdkifr,fhb0rsKd;udk ydkifqdkifzdk@ tm;xkwfpjrJ
jzpfygw,f? 'g[m vlom;wOD;csif;&J@ udk,fusKd;pD;yGm; jzpfyg
w,f? 'Dvdkudk,fusKd; pD;yGm;awGudk o[Zmwjzpfatmif
pkpnf;+yD; vlaer_todkif;t0dkif;xJutrsm;pk 'grSr[kwf EdkifiH&J@
tusKd;pD;yGm;udk wm0ef&SdolawGu tjrJwrf; azmfaqmifay;
ae&ygw,f? wu,fvdk@ ysufuGufvm&if cHpm;&wJh vlaer_
todkif;t0dkif;xJuvlawG pkaygif;+yD; awmif;qdk vmawmhwm
ygyJ? 'DvdktjzpfrsKd;[m [dk;vGefcJhwJh bDpD (12)&mpkuwnf; ydkvef taxGaxGoydwf}uD; (21 ZGef 1919)
uae ,ae@xufwdkif vlom;awGvkyaf eus rxl;qef;wJh
udpPyJ jzpfygw,f?
vlwOD;csif;&J@ udk,fusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf awmif;qdkwmr[kwfyJ vlaer_todkif;t0dkif;wckvHk;
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om vltrsm;pku awmif;qdk&wJhtxd jzpfvmwJhudpPygyJ? b,fEdkifiHrSmrqdk wm0ef&Sdol tm%mydkifqdkwm
vlenf;pkyJ jzpfygw,f? vlenf;pk[m vlrsm;pk&J@qENudk vdkufavsmwJhxHk;pHudk vdkufemay;rSom vlr_todkif;
t0dkif; wckvHk;[m jidrf;csrf;pGmeJ@ wdk;wuf&wm jzpfygw,f?
tcsKd@tm%mydkifawG[m olwdk@tJ'DvdkrSm;wmudk0efrcHwwfyJ xyfqifhrSm;wwf=uygw,f?
b,fvdkrSm;ovJqdkawmh t=urf;enf;/ tEkenf;/ &ufpufwJhenf;/ vSnfhpm;wJhenf;/ tcsKdowfwJhenf;/ tcsdef
qGJwJhenf; pwJh &Edkifor#enf;rsKd;pHkoHk;+yD; awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;olawGudk tpGrf;ukef ESdyfuGyf [ef@wm;òzcGJwmyJ
jzpfyg w,f?
tcef;qufazmfjyr,fh 'Daqmif;yg;rSm ausmif;om;/ tvkyform;eJ@tjcm;tv$mtoD;oD;rS
EdkifiHwum v_yf&Sm;r_tjzpftysufawGudk ordkif;aemufcH tjzpftysufawGeJ@twl EdkifiHtvkduf/ vlyk*~dKvf
wOD;csif;tvdkuf/ v_yf&Sm;yHk trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf pkpnf;azmfjyay;oGm;rSm jzpfygw,f?

ausmif;om; qENjyyGJ
vltrsm;pku olwdk@jzpfapcsifwJhqENtwdkif; ajz&Sif;ay;Edkifzdk@ tpGrf;tp&SdolawG 'grSr[kwf
tpdk;& tm%mydkifawGqDrSm awmif;qdk v_yf&Sm;wwf=uygw,f? tvkyform;awGu v_yf&Sm;vm&if tvkyf
orm; v_yf&Sm;r_ (Labour Strike)/ ausmif;om;awGu v_yf&Sm;&if ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ (Student Strike)
qdk+yD; v_yf&Sm;oltrsKd;tpm;tvdkuf trnfowfrSwfay;wwf=uygw,f? v_yf&Sm;r_udk [ef@wm;òzcGJwJhtcg/
awmif;qdkcsufawGudk rvdkufavsmay;wJhtcgrSm v_yf&Sm;r_ us,fus,fjyef@jyef@eJ@ tm;aumif;&if aumif;ovdk
EdkifiHa&;bufudk toGiful;ajymif;oGm;wwfygw,f?
ausmif;om;vli,fawGu uef@uGufqENjyw,f qdkwm ynma&;/ EdkifiHa&;/ vlr_a&;/ vHkðcHa&;/
w&m;r#wa&;/ pD;yGm;a&; tp&SdwJhudpPawGrSm rausreyf/ rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf&wma=umifh jyefvnf jyifqifay;ap
vdkwJh olwdk@qENtwdkif; ausmif;om;trsm;pku awmif;qdkwJh v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;qENjyyGJawGrSm
trsm;tm;jzifh wuUodkvf/ aumvdyfeJ@ txufwef;ausmif;awGu ausmif;om;awGyg0if+yD; olwdk@xJu
acgif;aqmifawGu OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? tvkyform;vli,fawGeJ@ tv$maygif;pHku tjcm;vli,fawG
vnf; yl;aygif;yg0if v_yf&Sm;wwf=uygw,f? tcsKd@qENjyyGJawGrSmqdk&if rlvwef;/ tv,fwef; uav;i,f
awGudkawmif awG@&wwfygw,f?
vGwfvyfpGm ynmoif=um;cGifh&Sd=uwJh wuUodkvf/ aumvdyf/ aausmif;wGrSm wufa&muf
ynmoif=um;ae=uwJh ausmif;om;ausmif;olawG[m rsm;aomtm;jzifh ynmoif=um;a&;/ vHkðcHa&; 'grS
r[kwf ausmif;om;or*~v_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ ywfoufvdk@ olwdk@&J@qENtwdkif; jzpfapvdkwJhtcgrSm oufqdkif&m
ausmif;tkyfcsKyfolawGudk aqG;aEG;!d‡Ed_if;cGifh&Sd=uwJhtwdkif; ESpfzufawG@qHkaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? ausmif;om;awG
bufuvnf; tvGeftu|Hrawmif;qdkwwfovdk ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;bufuvnf; ajyvnfatmifvdkufavsm
ay;=uwm rsm;ygw,f?
'gayr,fh rajyvnf&if ausmif;om;awG oHk;avh&SdwJhenf;vrf;[m trsm;tm;jzifh wrsKd;
wnf;om &Sdwwfygw,f? tJ'guawmh t=urf;rzuf jidrf;csrf;pGm zdtm;ay;wmjzpfygw,f? olwdk@zdtm;ay;wJh
yHkpHuawmh v_yf&Sm;olausmif;om;a&m tjcm;ausmif;om;awGtm;vHk;uyg ynmoifESpfudk txdcdkufcH+yD;
twef;wufr,fhudpPudk jiif;qefvdkuf=uwmyJ jzpfygw,f? olwkd@awmif;qdkwm r&rcsif; pmoifcef;xJ r0if=u
awmhygbl;?
ausmif;om;qENjyyGJ jzpf&wJh aemufwrsKd;uawmh ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpD tp&SdwJh
wm0ef&SdolawG[m tJ'Dausmif;u ausmif;om;wOD;OD;udk ol@&J@ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh ausmif;xkwf
vdkufwJhtcg “'g[m rw&m;bl;”vdk@ ausmif;om;awGu ,lqwwf=uygw,f? bma=umifhvnf;qdkawmh
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_qdkwm v_yf&Sm;r_rSm yg0ifwJh ausmif;om;awGtwGufa&m ryg0ifEdkifwJh ausmif;om;awG
twGufyg udk,fpm;ðy v_yf&Sm;ay;wmjzpfw,fvdk@ oabmxm;wJhtwGuf jzpfygw,f?
'ghtjyif ausmif;om;wOD;-wzGJ@u olwdk@udkf,fwdkif 'grSr[kwf tjcm;olawG =uHKawG@&wJh
vlr_a&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ usef;rma&;/ bmoma&;/ aea&;xdkifa&; tp&SdwJhudpPwckckrSm jy\emjzpfvdk@ wm0ef
&SdolawG[m w&m;Oya'abmiftwGif;u r#r#ww rajz&Sif;ay;Edkifbl;qdk&if usefwJhausmif;om;awG yg0if
vm+yD; w&m;r#wa&;twGuf awmif;qdk qENjyavh&Sd=uygw,f?
wcgw&HrSm jynfolvlxku =uHKawG@cHpm;ae&wJh
tusyftwnf;awG[m ausmif;om;awGbufudk ul;pufvmavh &Sd
ygw,f? erlemtm;jzifhqdk&if rdbjynfolawG pD;yGm;a&;usyfwnf;&if
ausmif;om;awGrSmvnf; tenf;eJ@trsm; xdcdkuf&wmrsKd; jzpfyg
w,f? pD;yGm;a&;usyfwnf;&wm[m wOD;wa,mufwnf;u cH&
wmrsKd;r[kwfyJ pD;yGm;a&;pepf tp&SdwJh tpdk;&ydkif;qdkif&m c|wf,Gif;
r_a=umifh jynfolawG tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf rjzpfoihfyJ cH&wmrsKd;
jzpfygw,f? 1997 ckESpfrSm tm&S aiGa=u;jy\emay:aygufvmvdk@ orRw ql[mwdk E_wfxGufay;zdk@
awmif;qdkae=uwJh wuUodkvf
tif'dkeD;&Sm;jynfolawG tvl;tvJcHae&ygw,f? aemufwESpf arv ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;
xJrSm ausmif;om;awGqENjywmudk ppfwyfu uvdefuuspf ypfcwf
ðzdcGJcJhwmup+yD; vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_ jyif;xefoGm;cJhygw,f? aemufqHk;awmh ESpfaygif;(30)ausmf tm%m,pfrl;
aewJh orRw ql[mwdk[m ausmif;om;awG awmif;qdkwJhtwdkif; &mxl;uE_wfxGufay;vdkuf&ygw,f?
tjcm;erlemawGrSmawmh v#yfppfrD;r&wJhtcg/ a&r&wJhtcg/ o,f,lydk@aqmifa&; p&dwf
puawG }uD;jr‡ifhwJhtcg/ tpdk;&u aps;E_ef; (odk@) tcGef jr‡ifhwifvdkufwJhtcgrSm jzpfwwfygw,f? jrefrmEdkifiHrSm
xif&Sm;wJh Oyrmwckuawmh EdkifiHhtm%mydkifawGu w&m;0ifoHk;pGJaewJh aiGpuULawGudk &kwfw&uf zsufodrf;
vdkufwJhtcgrSm ausmif;om;awG rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf+yD; qENjyyGJawG tqifhqifh jzpfay:vmcJhwm &Sdzl;ygw,f?
'DaemufrSmawmh &Spfav;vHk; vlxktHkºur_eJ@twl taxGaxGoydwf}uD; ay:aygufvm+yD; (26)ESpfausmf
=umatmif tkyfpdk;aewJh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;a[mif; OD;ae0if;&J@ tm%m&Siftpdk;& ðywfusoGm;ygawmhw,f?
'ghtjyif jynfolvlxk wOD;-wzGJ@udk tm%mydkifawGu Oya'rJhðyrlwJhtcgvnf; rw&m;wm
vufrcHwwfwJh ausmif;om;awGu qef@usif uef@uGufqENjyavh&Sdfygw,f? tpdk;&[m vl@tcGifhta&;awG
(Human  Rights)udk csKd;azmufae+yD/ tjrefqHk; jyefvnfjyifqifxdef;odrf;zdk@ vdktyfae+yDvdk@ owday;vdkwm
a=umifhjzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;[m ausmif;om;tcGifhta&;awGtjyif vl@tcGifhta&;awGudkvnf; odae
wwfygw,f? vl@tcGifhta&;tjyif vlaer_todkif;t0dkif;&J@ vGwfvyfcGifh (Civil Liberty)udk csKyfcs,fxdyg;vm
&ifvnf; ausmif;om;vli,fawGu qef@usifuef@uGufavh&Sdygw,f?
jrefrmEdkifiHu OD;oef@ta&;tcif;vdkrsKd; udpPawGrSm tpdk;&tm%mydkifawGu oduQmrJhatmif
vkyf&if/ *k%fðyxdkufwJhwm0efudk ysufuGuf&ifvnf; ausmif;om;ta&;udpP jzpfvmwwfygw,f? ausmif;om;
awG&J@ &nf&G,fcsufuawmh &mZ0ifwifavmufwJh/ armfuGef;xdk;avmufwJh tckvdkrsKd;udpPawGudk tpdk;&
tqufqufu aemufaemif tusifhygroGm;apzdk@ tajrmftjrif }uD;}uD;eJ@ óuwif[ef@wm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f?
vlxka&;&meJ@ ywfoufvmwJh tpdk;&qef@usifa&; qENjyyGJawGrSmvnf; ausmif;om;awG
yg0ifvmwwfygw,f? wcgwavrSm olwdk@udk,fwdkifu OD;aqmif+yD; vlxkoabmxm;udk udk,fpm;wifjyoGm;
wmvnf; &Sdwwfygw,f? olwdk@&J@ &nf&G,fcsufuawmh tJ'Dvdk jy\emawGudk tpdk;&tm%mydkifawGu
w&m;enf;vrf;uspGm tjzpfEdkifqHk; taumif;qHk; ajz&Sif;ay;apvdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_awG[m rsm;aomtm;jzifh tcsdefwdkwdktwGif;rSmyJ tqHk;owfavh
&Sd=uygw,f? awG@qHkaqG;aEG; !‡dEd_if;tajz&Smvdk@ &wmvnf; &Sdovdk tpdk;&tm%mydkifawGu t=urf;zuf
0ifa&muf òzcGJESdrfESif;+yD; twif;t"rR tqHk;owfapwmvnf; &Sdygw,f? rsm;aomtm;jzifh 'Drdkua&pD
r[kwfwJh EdkifiH/ 'Drdkua&pDudk [efjyusifhoHk;aewJhEdkifiHawGrSm ausmif;om;qENjyyGJawG[m t=urf;zuf òzcGJ
cH&wwfygw,f?
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_[m t&Sdeft[kef aumif;vmwJhtcgrSm EdkifiHa&;yHkpH ouf0ifoGm;
wwfygw,f? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh tJ'DtcgrSm EdkifiHa&;u|rf;usifolawGu yl;aygif;yg0ifvm+yD; t&Sdefjr‡ifhwif
ay;avh&Sdvdk@ygyJ? EdkifiHa&;yHkpH &SdoGm;wJhtcg vlxkuvnf; ausmif;om;awGbufu tjrJyg0ifyl;aygif; ulnDay;
wwf=uygw,f? 'Dvdkjzpfvm&if tpdk;&tm%mydkifawGtaeeJ@ ajz&Sif;&cufwJh taetxm;udk rjzpfrae
&ifqdkif&ygawmhw,f? ajz&Sif;wJh enf;vrf;ay:rlwnf+yD; ajyvnfoGmwm/ tpdk;&tajymif;tvJ vkyfwm/
tpdk;& ðywfuswmqdk+yD; trsKd;rsKd; jzpfoGm;Edkifygw,f?

ausmif;om;or*~
ausmif;om;or*~ (Student  Union)udk ausmif;om;tpdk;& (Student  Government)
'grSr[kwf ausmif;om;aumifpD (Student  Council) vdk@vnf; ac:a0:=uygw,f? aumvdyfawG wuUodkvf
awGudk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; oufqdkif&m ausmif;y&0k%ftwGif;rSmyJ vlr_a&;eJ@ ausmif;om;a&;&mudpPawGtjyif
wcgw&HrSm EdkifiHa&;t&vnf; v_yf&Sm;wJhtzGJ@tpnf;awG jzpfygw,f? txufwef;ausmif; tawmfrsm;rsm;
rSmvnf; ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm &Sdwwf=uygw,f? aumvdyf/ wuUodkvfawGavmuf t&Sdeft[kef
raumif;vSayr,fh ol@twdkif;twmeJ@olawmh wufwufºuºu &Sdaewwfygw,f?
ausmif;om;or*~rSm ausmif;olausmif;om;awGuyJ tptqHk; pDpOfv_yf&Sm;=uwm jzpfyg
w,f? ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpD/ rdb-q&mtoif; tp&SdwmawGeJ@vnf; vGwfvGwfuif;uif; &yfwnf
Edkif=uygw,f? ausmif;om;or*~&J@ &nf&G,fcsufuawmh rdrdwdk@wufa&mufaewJh wuUodkvf aumvdyf 'grS
r[kwf a'ota&;/ EdkifiHhta&;awGeJ@ywfouf+yD; ausmif;om;awG&J@ oabmxm;tjrifudk wifjyEdkifzdk@ jzpfyg
w,f?
ausmif;om;or*~ cyfrsm;rsm;uawmh EdkifiHa&;orm;awGarG;xkwfay;zdk@ ar#mfvihfcsufeJ@
EdkifiHa&;t& tvGefyJ wufºuvSygw,f? or*~v_yf&Sm;r_awG/ pum;&nfvkyGJawGqdk&if or*~0ifawG[m
vli,fyDyD tm;rmeftjynfh ZGJaumif;aumif;eJ@ v_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? &yfwnfcsufawGvnf; trsKd;rsKd; &Sd=u
ygw,f? or*~&J@ pme,fZif;awGawmifrS udk,fydkif&yfwnfcsufeJ@ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf &Sdae=uygw,f? tcsKd@EdkifiH
awGrSm ausmif;+yD;oGm;wJholawG/ wydkif;wpeJ@ ausmif;xGufvdkuf&olawGu taxGaxG ausmif;om;rsm;
or*~ (General Studentsʹ Union) qdk+yD; wnfaxmifv_yf&Sm;=uygw,f?
ausmif;om;or*~awGxJrSm t}uD;rm;qHk;uawmh
tar&duefEdkifiH tdkuvm[kd;rm;jynfe,f pwpfvf 0g;wm;òr•rSm
&SdwJh tdkuvm[kd;rm; jynfe,f wuUodkvf (OSU)yJ jzpfygw,f?
tJ'DwuUodkvfu ausmif;om;ausmif;olawG[m olwdk@&J@ y&0k%f
twGif;rSm pOf;pm;rdEdkifor# tzGJ@tpnf;aygif;pHkudk zGJ@pnf;+yD;
v_yf&Sm;ae=uygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;yJjzpfjzpf ynma&;yJjzpfjzpf vHkðcHa&;yJ
jzpfjzpf ausmif;om;awG rausreyfjzpfapavmufwJhudpPawG ay: tdkuvm[dk;rm;jynfe,fwuUodkfvfrS
aygufvmwJhtcg ausmif;olausmif;om;tcsif;csif;pk&Hk;+yD; wm0ef ausmif;om;,leD,HtaqmuftOD
&SdolawGqDuaeajz&Sif;csufawmif;qdkwJh v_yf&Sm;r_qdkwm&Sdygw,f? 'gudk
ausmif;om;awG&J@ uef@uGufqENjyyGJ (Student Protest)vdk@ ac:ygw,f?
uef@uGufqENjy=uwJh ausmif;olausmif;om;awG[m xdkifoydwfarSmuf
wm/ y&0k%ftwGif;rSm&SdwJh taqmuftODwckck 'grSr[kwf y&0k%f
wckvHk;udk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufwmawGtygt0if jzpfEdkifor# enf;vrf;
awGeJ@ t=urf;rzuf jidrf;csrf;pGmuef@uGufqENjy awmif;qdk=uygw,f?
xdkifoydwf

tvkyform; or*~
tvkyform;or*~ (trade  union  or  labor  union) uawmh ae@pm;-vpm; 0ifaiG&&SdwJh
tvkyfvkyfolawGtwGuf vkyfief;cGiftajcaeawGudk xdef;odrf;jr‡ifhwifay;zdk@ zGJ@pnf;xm;wJh or*~jzpfygw,f?
tvkyform;or*~awGudk urBmwv$m;rSm ykHo¿meftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif+yD; v_yf&Sm;aewm ESpfaygif;
(300)ausmfyg+yD? tajccHtm;jzifh wlnDEdkifzdk@&Sdwm (4)csuf&Sdygw,f?
• or*~tzGJ@0ifawG tvkyf&yfqdkif;rcH&atmif tmrcHay;wm/ xdcdkuf'%f&m&r_eJ@ usef;rma&;p&dwf/
ouf}uD;yifpif/ tokbp&dwf pwJhtusKd;pD;yGm;awGudk aqmif&Gufay;ygw,f? wdk;wuf+yD;EdkifiHtrsm;pk
rSmawmh EdkifiHawmfu wm0ef,l=uwmrsKd; &Sdwwfygw,f? 'gayr,fh vkyfief;cGifu|rf;usifr_/ Oya'
t=uHay;/ or*~udk,fpm;ðyudpPawGrSmawmh tvkyform;or*~uae vkyfay;&wmjzpf+yD; ta&;ygwJh
tusKd;cHpm;cGifhawGyJ jzpfygw,f?
• vpmaiGeJ@ vkyfief;cGifwdk;wufaumif;rGefa&;udpPawGrSm wdk;wufaumif;rGefapzdk@ tvkyf&SifeJ@ aqG;aEG;
ajz&Sif;wJhtcgrSm tvkyform;or*~u tzGJ@0ifawGtm;vHk;udk udk,fpm;ðy+yD; vGwfvyfpGm !‡dE_dif;vkyf
aqmifvdk@&ygw,f?
• oD;jcm;&nfrSef;xm;wJh tcsKd@udpPawGrSm tvkyform;oydwfarSmufzdk@ or*~uae pDpOfvkyfaqmifay;
Edkifygw,f?
• tvkyform;xkw&yfvHk;twGuf tusKd;pD;yGm;jzpfxGef;Edkifr,fh tvkyform;Oya'awG jzpfay:vma&;
twGuf or*~u wdkufyGJ0ifay;ygw,f? tvkyform;or*~u OD;aqmifpDpOfwJh v_yf&Sm;r_awG
(Campaign)/ oufqdkif&mawGqDrSm csOf;uyfwdkufwGef; arwWm&yfcHwmawG (Lobby)/ EdkifiHa&;
orm;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;ygwDawGudk aiGa=u;axmufyHulnDwmawG &Sdwwfygw,f?
b,fvdkoydwfarSmuf=uovJ
wcgwavrSm tvkyform;or*~u ta&;,laqmif&Gufwm
r[kwfyJ or*~tzGJ@0if tvkyform;awG udk,fwdkifu oydwfarSmufwwf=uyg
w,f? 'DvdkrsKd;jzpfcJh&if w&m;r0ifwJh tvkyform;oydwf (Wildcat  Strike)vdk@
ac:ygw,f? or*~u }uD;r–;wJh tvkyform;oydwfvdk tumtuG,fr&yJ
oydwfwdkufyJG 0if&wmjzpfygw,f?
tvkyform;awG oydwfarSmufwwfwm trsKd;rsKd;&Sdygw,f?
yxrwrsKd;uawmh oydwfarSmufwJh tvkyform;awG[m vkyfief;cGifudk 0if
a&mufvkyfudkifzdk@ jiif;qefwwf=uygw,f? aemufwrsKd;uawmh oydwfarSmufwJh tvkyform;awGu
vkyfief;cGiftjyifbufrSm pk&Hk;ae=u+yD; tvkyfvkyfzdk@vmwJh tjcm;tvkyform;awGudk tvkyfrvkyfzdk@
pnf;&kH;wm/ wm;qD;wmawG vky=f uygw,f? Picketing vdk@ac:yg w,f? t=urf;rzufwJh tvkyform;
v_yf&Sm;r_jzpfygw,f?
aemufwrsKd;uawmh tvkyform;awG[m vkyfief;cGifxJ 0ifa&mufae&m,lxm;ayr,fh
tvkyfrvkyfyJ xdkifae=uwmjzpfygw,f? 'DtcgrSm tvkyf&Sif[m olwdk@ae&mrSm tpm;xdk;zdk@ tjcm; tvkyf
orm; (Scab  Labour)awGudk ac:oHk;vdk@r&yJ jzpfaeygawmhw,f? Sitdown  Strike vdk@ac:ygw,f? trdef@
pnf;rsOf; Oya'oawGudk qef@usiftmcHwJh Civil  Disobedience trsKd;tpm;wckjzpfygw,f? (20)&mpk
tpykdif;avmufu pwifusifhoHk;vmcJhwJhenf; jzpfygw,f?
odyfrjyif;xefwJhenf;wrsKd;uawmh tjzpfoabmavmufyJ vkyfay;+yD; oydwfarSmufwm
(Work‐to‐rule) jzpfygw,f? vkyfief;oabmt& rjzpfraevkyfay;&wJh tvkyfudkom a&G;vkyfvdkufwmyJ
jzpfygw,f? tedrfhqHk;vdktyfcsufudkyJ vkyfwJhtwGuf vkyfief;vnfywfr_t&Sdef usqif;oGm;&ygw,f? Oyrm
qdk&if olemðyq&mrwOD;[m vlemudk ðypkapmifha&SmufwJhtvkyfudkyJvkyf+yD; w,fvDzkef;jrnfaewmudk jyef
rajzyJ aewmrsKd;jzpfygw,f? ausmif;q&mwOD;qdk&ifvnf; pmoifwmudkyJvkyf+yD; tjcm;tvkyfrSefor#
vkyfay;zdk@ jiif;qefwmrsKd; jzpfygw,f? pmtkyf}uD;twdkif; vkyfw,f (Rule‐book  slowdown)vdk@vnf;
vlodrsm;ygw,f?
tJ'DvdkrsKd; cyfqifqif &Sdwmuawmh tvkyfvkyfwJht&Sdefudk wrifwumav#mhcs+yD; oydwf
arSSmufwm (Slowdown) jzpfygw,f? vpmr&wJhtcg/ tvkyfðzwfcH&zdk@ &SdaewJhtcgrSm oHk;wwf=uygw,f?
tvkyform;awGu oydwfarSmufwJhtcgrSm vkyfief;&Sifu
tvkyform;or*~ &Sdae&ufeJ@ !‡dE_dif;aqG;aEG; tajz&SmwmrsKd;rvkyfyJ
tvkyf&Hkudkydwf+yD; wkef@jyefwwfwmvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'gudk Lockout vd@k
ac:ygw,f? trsm;tm;jzifhrSmawmh tvkyform; vpmaiGawGudk r&Sif;ay;
EdkifwJhtcgrSm jzpfwwfygw,f? tvkyfvkyfay;csifwJh tvkyform;awG &Sdae
&ifawmifrS ay;r0ifawmhygbl;? tvkyfrSmt&Sdefav#mhcswJh Slowdown vdk
oydwfrsKd;&Sd&ifvnf; ydkif&Sifu puf&Hktvkyf&Hkudk ydwfypfwwfygw,f?
'ga=umifh tcsKd@ tvkyform;oydwfawGrSm tvkyform;awGu puf&Hk
tvkyf&Hkudk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufwmawG vkyfavh&Sdygw,f? Oyrm- jyifopf
wEdkifiHvHk; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;wJh ar 68 taxGaxGoydwf}uD;rSm puf&Hkaygif;
(50)avmufudk tvkyform;awGu t&iford f;ydkufxm;vdkuf+yD;rS olwdk@&J@ ar 68 taxGaxG oydwf}uD;
tvkyform; tcGihfta&;awGudk awmif;qdkcJh=uygw,f?

tatmifjrifqHk; tvkyform; oydwf


xl;xl;jcm;jcm; rSwfom;avmufwJh erlemuawmh 1980 =o*kwfu ydkvefEdkifiH
*sefcfhpf (Gdańsk)oabFmusif;rSmjzpfoGm;wJh tvkyform;v_yf&Sm;r_ygyJ? tvkyform;
tcGifhta&; twGuf pwifwdkifyGJ0if v_yf&Sm;cJhayr,fh EdkifiHa&;toGifudk ul;ajymif;oGm;wJh
trsKd;tpm;jzpfygw,f? vJhcf0gvufqm
(Lech  Wałęsa) u OD;aqmifcJhwm jzpfyg
vJhcf0gvufqm
w,f? tJ'Duae tvkyform;awG ydkrdk
aoG;pnf; nDnGwfoGm;cJh=u+yD; vGwfvyfwJh
tvkyform;or*~udk zGJ@pnf;wnfaxmifv_yf&Sm;cJh=uygw,f?
aemufqHk;rSm ydkvefEdkifiHu uGefjrlepf tpdk;&udk z,f&Sm;EdkifcJh
ygw,f? usefwJh ta&S@Oa&myEdkifiHawGrSmvnf; uGefjrLepf
tpdk;&awG twkH;t&kef; ðywfusoGm;avmufatmif ta&;yg
cJhygw,f? qufwdkufqdkovdk qdkAD,uf,leD,HðyduGJoGm;+yD;
Oa&myuGefjrLepfEdkifiHawG[m 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawG jzpfvmcJhyg *sefcfhpf oabFmusif; tvkyform; v_yf&Sm;r_
awmhw,f?
--------------0000000------------------

(1973) atoif pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om; tHkºur_


(1973) The Athens Polytechnic Uprising

tJ'Dae@reufrSmyJ atoifòr•awmf&J@ vrf;awGrSm


ppftpdk;& ppfwyfawG/ wifhum;awG ae&m,l+yD;wJhaemuf qENjyaewJh
vlxk}uD;udk ypfcwf òzcGJygawmhw,f? tenf;qHk;wifhum;(25)pD;
&Sdw,fvdk@ rsufjrifoufaoawG&Sdygw,f? ppfom;awGa&m wifhum;
awGuyg jrifjrifor#a&m rjrif&or# odrf;=uHK;ypfcwfaewJhtjyif
vufajzmifhwyfom;awGuvnf; ta0;=unfh rSefajymif;wyfxm;wJh
aoewfeJ@ cdk;a=umifcdk;0Suf pdrfajyeajy vlowfwrf; upm;ae=uyg
w,f? rSwfwrf;awGrSmawmh pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;0if;tjyifbufrSm t&yfom;(24)a,muf towfcHc&Jh
w,fvdk@ azmfjyxm;ygw,f?
towfcH&olwOD;uawmh (19)ESpt f &G,f vli,fav; rdkufu,f
(Michael  Mirogiannis)jzpfygw,f? ol@udk G.  Dertilis qdkol ppfwyft&m&Sd
wa,mufu aoG;at;at;eJ@ ypfowfcJhwmjzpfygw,f? (16)ESpft&G,f
txufwef;ausmif;om; Diomedes  Komnenos  vnf; tJ'Dae@ ypfowfcH
&wJhpm&if;rSm &Sdaeygw,f? usnfqefrdk;&GmcsaewJhtcsdefrSm ig;ESpft&G,f
a,musfm;av;wOD;vnf; aoqHk;cJh&ygw,f? 'DtcsdefrmS *&dukd tvnftywf
txufwef;ausmif;om; a&mufaewJh aemfa0cav;rav;wOD;vnf; vnfyif;wnfhwnfhudk aoewfypfcH
rdkufu,f (19)ESpf &ygw,f? vlxktHkºur_udk ypfcwfESdrfESif;vdk@ aoqHk;&olawG&J@pm&if;udk ESpfaygif;
(30)ausmf=umvm+yDjzpfwJh 'Dae@tcsdefxd pHkprf;azmfxkwfaeqJygyJ? EdkifiHa&;t&vnf; wu,fhjy\em}uD;
jzpfaewkef;ygyJ? aoqHk;olpm&if;udk w&m;0ifxkwfjyef&mrSm tedrf@qHk;xm;wGufcJhwm jzpfygw,f?

ausmif;om;awGa&;wJh pwkwˆ ordkif;pmrsufESm


ausmif;om;awGa&;wJh pwkwˆ ordkif;pmrsufESmuawmh *&dEdkifiHrSm 'Dae@xdwdkifatmif
wnf&SdaewJh Edk0ifbm(17)&uf ausmif;ydwfwJhae@ygyJ? ausmif;awG wuUodkvfawGtm;vHk; Edk0ifbm(1&)&uf
a&mufwdkif; ydwf=uygw,f? atmif;arhzG,f tcrf;tem;vkyfwJh t"duae&muawmh atoif ydkvDwufuepf
pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;0if;xJrSmyg? ausmif;0if;udkawmh Edk0ifbm (15)&ufrSmvnf; ydwfygw,f? 15-11-
1973 ae@wkef;u 'Dausmif;0if;udk ausmif;om;awG yxrOD;qHk; odrf;ydkufEdkifcJhwJh txdrf;trSwfeJ@ jzpfygw,f?
1940 0ef;usifu *&dEdkifiH vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf ydkvDwufuepf pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;awG yg0if
wdkufcdkuf&if; usqHk;cJh&zl;ygw,f? olwdk@udk owd&atmif;;arh+yD; Edk0ifbm (15)&ufae@a&mufwdkif; yef;acGcs
*k%fðy=uygw,f? Edk0ifbm (17)&uf rSmawmh ausmif;om;awG tygt0if EdkifiHa&;orm;awGeJ@ jynfolawGu
ausmif;0if;xJuae tar&duef oH&Hk;a&S@xd pDwef;vSnfhvnf=uygw,f? 1980 0ef;usif/ 1990 0ef;usif
ESpfawGrSm 'Dvdk ESpfpOf pDwef;vSnfhvnfwkef;u apmifh=uyfaewJh &JawGeJ@ c%c% tcsif;rsm;=uvdk@ xdcdkuf
'%f&m&wmawGvnf; &Sdzl;ygw,f?
*&d ausmif;om;awG[m ppftm%m&Sipf epfudkòzzdk@ oHEMdXmef cdkifrmcJh=uygw,f? cufcuf
cJcJvnf; qef@usifv_yf&mS ;cJh&ygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; tawmfrsm;rsm;u ausmif;om;awG&J@tHkºur_udk csDusL;
cJh=uygw,f? tm%m&Sifudk wdkufzsufwJh oauFwwcktjzpfeJ@vnf; wifpm;=uygw,f?
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ aygufuGJwJh vwfwavm EdkifiHa&;tajctae
21-4-1967 &uf tm%modrf;+yD;csdefup+yD; ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmif ygy'dkydk;avmhpf
(Georgios  Papadopoulos)u *&dEdkifiHrSm w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&; jyefvnfwnfaqmufwmawG r+yD;ao;
vdk@om 'Drdkua&pD tcGifhta&;awGudk ,m,Dtm;jzifh xdef;csKyfuef@owfxm;&ygw,fvdk@ t=udrfaygif;rsm;pGm
[efaqmif vSnfhpm;ajymqdkaecJhygw,f? aoewfajr‡mufjy+yD; vlxkaumif;pm;zdk@ 'Drdkua&pD&&Sdzdk@ aºua=umf
aewJh EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifwOD; urBmrSm xGufay:vmcJhjyefyg+yD?
'gayr,fh jynfolvlxkudk ppftm%m&SifpepfeJ@ awmufav#muf wif;wif;=uyf=uyf tkyfcsKyf
aecJhwmuawmh rajymif;vJcJhygbl;? 1973 ckESpfa&mufawmh tm%m&Sifqefqef csKyfudkifxm;wmawGxJu
tenf;tusOf;avmufudk av#mhayghay;vdkufygw,f? EdkifiHa&;,Hk=unfcsufeJ@ tusOf;uscHae&olawGudk
ppftpdk;&u jyefv$wfay;vdkufygw,f? owif;arSmifcs/ ydwfqdk@/ y,fzsufwm wcsKd@udk av#mhay;vdkufygw,f?
+yD;awmh zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya'topf a&;qGJr,f/ a&G;aumufyGJtopfvkyfr,f/ 'Daemuf t&yfom;
tpdk;&udk tm%mv$Jay;r,fvdk@ ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmif ygy'dkydk;avmhpfu uwdawG ay;vmygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm
ppftpdk;& tzGJ@twGif; oabmxm;wif;rmolawGeJ@ aysmhajymif;olawG twGif;vd_uf aygufuGJaeyg+yD?
ppftpdk;&&J@ tpDtpOft&qdk&if tJ'Dwkef;u&SdaewJh vuf0JuGefjrLepf
awGeJ@ 'Drdkua&pD todkif;t0dkif; trsm;pktwGuf EdkifiHa&;rSm ppftpdk;&udk ausmf+yD;
ae&m&Edkifzdk@ rjzpfEdkifoavmufygyJ? wenf;tm;jzifhqdk&if ppftpdk;&u tjcm;yHkpHwckeJ@
vSnfhpm;+yD; qufvuftkyfpdk;oGm;zdk@ wrifwum &nf&G,f vkyfaqmifaewmygyJ?
'DvdktajctaerSm *&dausmif;om;awGuvnf; EdkifiHa&;rSm Edk;=um;aecJh+yD;
jzpfygw,f? yxrOD;qHk; olwdk@twk,lEdkifwmuawmh jyifopforRw'Da*g (Charles de 
ar 68 ydkpwm Gaulle) vufxuf “ar 68”(May 1968)vdk@ xifxif&Sm;&Sm; atmifjrifcJhwJh jyifopf
wuUodkvfeJ@ txufwef;ausmif;awG&J@ taxGaxGoydwf v_yf&mS ;r_ jzpfygw,f? t&if (5)ESpfavmufu
jzpfcJhzl;wJh jyifopfausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_yg? aemufwcsufu *&dausmif;om;awGudk,fwdkif ordkif;pmrsufESm
wpfeJ@ESpfwdk@udk a&;EdkifcJhwJh tawG@t=uHK/ cHpm;csufeJ@ pdwf'gwfawG &SdESifh+yD; jzpfaeygw,f? 'DtcsufawG[m
vlrqefwJh tm%m&Sifpepfatmufu wwdkif;jynfvHk;&J@ '%f&m'%fcsufawGeJ@ aygif;qHkoGm;wJhtcg
ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_udk xdef;vdk@r&EdkifyJ aygufuGJapcJhwm jzpfygw,f?
*&dEdkifiH&J@ tm%m&Sif Adkvfr–;}uD; ygy'dk ydk;avmhpf
ol[m vuf0JuGefjrLepf qef@usifa&;udk jyif;jyif;xefxef ESdyfuGyfaeol
jzpfygw,f? EdkifiHwumtjrifrSmvnf; tJ'Dvdkjzpfaeatmif txl;ojzifh tar&duef
tpdk;&&J@ axmufcHr_&Edkifzdk@ta&;twGufvnf; jzpfygw,f? trSefawmh ol[m
uGefjrLepfawGudkom ESdyfuGyfaewm r[kwfcJhygbl;? 'Drdkua&pD todkif;t0dkif;udkvnf;
t&ufpufqHk; zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fxm;wmjzpfygw,f? (1973) atoif pufr_wuUodkvf
ausmif;om;tHkºur_udk aoG;at;at;eJ@ ypfcwfESdrfeif;wmudk=unfh&if ygy'dk ydk;avmhpf
[m tm%mruf+yD; &mxl;u z,fray;csifwm odEdkifygw,f? ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmif
ygy'dkydk;avmhpf
ygy'dkydk;avmhpf&J@
tm%mrufarmwJh^mOf[m 1956 ckESpfuwnf;u txif;om;
ay:vGifaecJhygw,f? ol[m tJ'DESpfrSm *&dbk&if aygvf (Paul 
of  Greece)udk tm%m oddrf;zdk@ tm;xkwfcJhayr,fh
ppftpd;k &tzGJ@0ifrsm; ratmifjrifcJhygbl;? 'Daemuf AdkvfcsKyf *dk*dk;qpf (Gogousis)&J@
vufatmufrSm&SdwJh axmufvSrf;a&; &Hk;rSm tr_xrf;aecJh&if;eJ@
1967ckESpfrSm Adkvfr–;=uD;&mxl; &vm ygw,f? 1967 arv a&G;aumufyJrG wdkifrD wvtvdk *&dbk&if
uGefpwefwif (Constantine  II)eJ@0ef}uD;csKyf ygyef'&D,dk (George  Papandreou)wdk@ rajyrvnfjzpf=uvdk@
EdkifiHa&;tajctaeawG tawmfqdk;0g;aecJh wmudk ygy'dkydk;avmhpfu tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; tm%modrf;awmh
atmifjrifoGm;cJhygw,f? oufwrf;(6)ESpf ausmf tm%m&Sifb0eJ@ rif;rlEdkifcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol tjrJrjywf
[pfaºu;aewJ@ vpfb&,f EdkifiHa&; tpDtpOf[m pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;awG&J@ tHkºur_a=umifh
tqHk;owfcJh&ygw,f?

tHkºur_ aemufqufwGJ
(1973)atoif pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;tHkºur_t+yD; 25-11-1973 rSm oabmxm;
wif;rmwJh 'kwd,Adkvfr–;csKyf 'DrDx&Da&mhpf (Dimitrios  Ioannides)u jidrf0yfydjym;a&;eJ@ w&m;Oya'
pdk;rdk;a&;udk ta=umif;jy+yD; ygy'dkydk;avmhpfqDuae tm%modrf;cJhjyefygw,f? 'Daemuf ppftkyfcsKyfa&; Oya'
xkwfjyef+yD; tkyfcsKyfaecJhygw,f? ygy'dkydk;avmhpfudk aetdrftus,fcsKyfcsxm;vdkufygw,f? orRweJ@
0ef}uD;csKyfawG cef@tyfcJhayr,fh aemufuG,fuae óu;udkifaecJholuawmh tm%modrf;ol 'DrDx&Da&mhpf ygyJ?
1974 ckESpfrSm qdkufy&yfppfyGJ jzpfyGm;cJhygw,f? qdkufy&yfpfrSm&SdwJh 'DrDx&Da&mhpf&J@ ppfwyfu
qdkufy&yfpf orRwudk ðzwfcszdk@ óu;yrf;wJhtcg wl&uDu *&dudk 0ifwdkufvdkufygw,f? 'Dta&;tcif;a=umifh
*&dppfwyfxJ twGif;=udwfaygufuJrG _awGjzpfcJh+yD; ppftm%m&Sifpepf tqHk;owfoGm;ygw,f? 'DaemufrSm
awmh 1974 vGwfvyfwJha&G;aumufyGJ rwdkiftxd toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGuf =um;jzwftpdk;&udk
wnDwnGwfwnf; wifajrmufEdkifcJh=uygw,f?
wdkif;jynfrSm 'Drdkua&pDudk jyefvnfwnfaqmufEdkifwJhtcsdefudk a&mufcJhyg+yD? t&ifu
&uf&ufpufpuf tkyfpdk;cJhwJh tm%m&Sif ygy'dkydk;avmhpfeJ@ ol@&J@vkyfazmfudkifzuftm;vHk;udk &Hk;wifppfaq;yg
awmhw,f? ygy'dkydk;avmhpfudk EdkifiHawmfopPmazmufr_/ tm%modrf;r_/ wdkif;jynfudk &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfpGm
tkyfcsKyfr_pwJh pGJcsufawGeJ@ppfaq; ao'%fay;vdkufygw,f? aemufydkif; woufwu|ef;jypf'%f av#mhayghay;
vdkufygw,f? t&ifu vkyfcJhor#awGtwGuf aemifw&rdygw,fvdk@0efcH&if vGwfjidrf;csrf;omcGifhay;r,fqdkwJh
urf;vSrf;csufudk ygy'dk ydk;avmhpfu jiif;y,fcJhygw,f? ol[m axmifxJrSmyJae&if; touf(80)rSm uifqm
a&m*geJ@ qHk;oGm;cJhygw,f?

vufqifhurf;ay;vmwJh oifcef;pm
tm%m&SifrSm tjrJ&Sdaewmu vlowfvufeuf/ +yD;awmh rw&m;xkwfjyefxm;wJh
Oya'awG wcsufv$wftrdef@awG/ tJ'Dtrdef@udk taumiftxnfazmfay;&olawG jzpfygw,f? 'gawGom
ruygbl;? wdkif;jynf&J@b¾meJ@ t&if;tjrpfrSefor#udk olwdk@udk,fusKd;twGuf toHk;csxm;wmjzpfvdk@
ppftm%m&Sif&J@tiftm;u odyfaumif;aewwfygw,f? 'Dtiftm;udk ðzdEdkifrSmu vlxkpGr;f tm;jzpf+yD;?
AsL[majrmuf enf;vrf;u aoewfrudkif/ t=urf;rzufvrf;pOfjzpfygw,f? 'DESpfckaygif;+yD; ðzdrS atmifyGJ
&EdkifwJhudpP jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh *&djynfolvlxk[m ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_bufu &yfwnf+yD; axmufcH
v_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? (1973) atoif pufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;tHkºur_[m *&dEdkifiH&J@ordkif;rSm tvGef
xif&Sm;wJh jzpf&yfwckomruygbl;? urBmay:rSm tm%m&Siftpdk;&awG &Sdaeao;oa&G@ 'Drdkua&pD&zdk@
vGwfajrmufzdk@ vlxkwdkufyGJawGudk vrf;jyay;aer,fh rD;&–;wefaqmifwcktjzpfeJ@vnf; tcdkiftrm &yfwnf
aeqJ jzpfygw,f?

jrefrmeJ@ *&d tjzpfcsif;wlae


*&dEdkifiH&J@uHqdk;rdk;arSmifuscJh&wJh tjzpftysuftawmfrsm;rsm;[m jrefrmEdkifiHeJ@ oGm;wlae
ygw,f? 'kwd, urBmppfxJ0ifygwm/ ppft+yD; uGefjrLepfawmfvSefa&;a=umifh jynfwGif;ppfjzpfwm/ 'Daemuf
ppfwyfu tm%modrf;wmutp ppftm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm jynfolawG cHpm;&wm/ jyefvnfwGef;vSef
wmawG[m wxyfwnf;vdk@ qdk&ravmufatmif wlaeygw,f?
ydk+yD;tHhtm;oifhp&m jzpf&wmuawmh ppftm%m&SifawG&J@ =uHpnfvkyfaqmifyHkcsif;
tawmhfudk qifwlaewmyJjzpfygw,f? tm%m&SifrSef&if 'DykwfxJu 'DyJjzpf=uwJhtwdkif; wOD;eJ@wOD; wl=urSm
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tjyif EdkifiHwumuvnf; jrefrmEdkifiH&J@ 'Drdkua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;udk txl;*&kpdkuf tm;ay;axmufcH
aew,f qdkwJhtcsufudk qifjcifowdðy&rSm jzpfygw,f?
--------------0000000------------------

ar 68
May 1968
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yJ&pf wuUodkvf &mZ0iftusOf;


yJ&pf wuUodkvf (University  of  Paris; Université
de Paris)udk jyifopfEdkifiH&J@ òr•awmf yJ&pfrSm (12)&mpktv,favmuf
pu+yD; wnfaxmifzGifhvSpfcJhygw,f? 1970 rSmawmh ar68 ausmif;om;
ta&;tcif;a=umifh A[dkuae wif;wif;=uyf=uyf csKyfudkifxm;wm
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vGwfvyfwJh wuUodkfvf(13)ck uGJxGufoGm;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh wuUodkvf Nanterre Paris University 10
tm;vHk;&J@ t"dywdwOD;uae OD;aqmifay;xm;ygw,f? emrnftm;jzihfvnf; yJ&pf wuUodkvf (1) (2) (3)
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Paris  II:  Panthéon‐Assas vdk@ac:ygw,f? Oya'/ pDyGm;a&; bGJ@awGrSm emrnf}uD;wJh wuUodkvfygyJ?
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rajz&Sif;EdkifcJhvdk@vnf; jy\em ydk}uD;vm&yg+yD?

qHyifeDeDeJ@ ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif 'ifeD,,f rmhcf uGefbef;'pf


ar 68 ta&;tcif;rSm p+yD;xif&Sm;wJh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifuawmh
jyifopfrSmarG;wJh *smref-*sL;vlrsKd; qHyifeDeDeJ@ ausmif;om;av; 'ifeD,,f rmhcf
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'ifeD,,f rdef@cGef; rSmvnf; pmawGa&;aewJh anarchist wOD;jzpfygw,f? anarchism qdkwm v_@H aqmf
ajymaeyHk (2004) ay;vdkufvdk@ qlyltHkºu+yD; xdef;rEdkifodrf;r& jzpfapwmvdk@ trsm;pku ,lq=uyg
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taemufzufjcrf; (La  Rive  Gauche)&J@ Place Denfert-Rochereau
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uGefjrLepf ygwD(PCF‐French  Communist  Party;  Parti  communiste  français)[m
tjcm;tvkyform;or*~}uD;ESpfckjzpfwJh CGT‐The General Confederation of Labour 
(Confédération  générale  du  travail)  eJ@ CGT‐FO  The  General  Confederation  of 
Labor  ‐  Workersʹ  Force  (Confédération  Générale  du  Travail  ‐  Force  Ouvrière) 
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0ifcJh=uwJh tvkyform;awG[m olwdk@&J@ tcGifhta&;awGtwGuf arv(14)&ufrSm qufvufwdkufyJ0G ifcJh
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tvkyform;awGu xdkifoydwfarSmuf=uygw,f? ol@aemufrSmawmh Renault um;ukr`%Du puf&HkawGrSm
tvkyform;awG oydwfarSmuf=uygw,f? arv(16)txd puf&Hkaygif;(50)avmufudk tvkyform;awGu
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qdkwm oabmaygufoGm;vdk@ jzpfygw,f? olwdk@[m yxrawmh vpmaiGwdk;ay;zdk@eJ@
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awmif;qdkwmawG rsm;jym;us,fjyef@vmygw,f? EdkifiHa&;rSm ydkrdkyg0ifEdkifzdk@tjyif
tpdk;&eJ@ orRw 'Da*g E_wfxGufay;zdk@/ tcsKd@qdk&if puf&Hkudk olwdk@udk,fwdkif vnfywfcGifh
ay;zdk@txd tpGef;xGufvmcJhygw,f? CGT‐The  General  Confederation  of 
Labour u =um;0ifndSEd_if;ay;vdk@ tedrfhqHk;vpmaiGudk (35)&mcdkifE_ef;eJ@ tjcm;vpm
aiGudk (7)&mcdkifE_ef; wdk;ay;zdk@ oabmwlcJh=uygw,f?
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OD;aqmif+yD; tvkyform; odef;aygif;rsm;pGmu orRw 'Da*gudk &mxl;uxGufay;zdk@ yJ&pfrSm csDwufqENjy=u
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ygw,f? tvkyform;awGvnf; wjznf;jznf; vkyfief;cGifjyef0if=uolawG &Sdovdk tvkyfðywfoGm;olawG
vnf; &SdcJhygw,f? jyifopfausmif;om;or*~(UNEF)u vrf;ray:qENjywmawGudk &yfqdkif;vdkufyg+yD? tpdk;&
u vuf0JtzGJ@tpnf;awGudk zsufodrf;vdkufygw,f? ZGefv(16)&ufrSm yJ&pfwuUodkvf (Sorbonne)udk
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'DaemufrSmawmh ar 68 ta&;tcif;u +yD;qHk;oGm;cJhygawmhw,f?
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ar 68 ta&;tcif;rSm jyifopftpdk;& wzGJ@vHk;
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aeqJyg? 'gayr,fh oludk,fwdkif *smreDEdkifiHu avwyftajcpdkuf
pcef;wckrSm c%avmuf wdrf;a&Smifcdkv_HaecJh&ygw,f? vlajym Charles de Gaulle     Georges Pompidou
rsm;ayr,fh twnfrðyEdkifao;wJh owif;t& 'Da*g[m tJ'DrSm wdrf;a&Smif&if;eJ@ ar68 ta&;tcif;udk
ppfa&;t& 0ifa&mufpGufzufzdk@ aqG;aEG;aewmjzpfEdkifw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? ol[m urBmppfESpfckpvHk;udk wdkufcJh
zl;wJh ppfAdkvfcsKyf}uD;b0uae EdkifiHa&;orm;jzpfvmolyg?
ppfwyfudk ol@bufrSmaocsmatmif t&if pnf;&Hk;xm;vdkufygw,f? 'Daemuf EdkifiHawmfydkif
&kyfjrifoH=um;u oydwfvSefwJhtxdapmifh+yD;rS wEdkifiHvHk;udk a=unmvdkufygw,f? ol@a=unmcsufrSm
trsKd;om;ygvDrefudk zsufodrf;vdkufwm/ ZGef(23)&ufrSm ygvDrefa&G;aumufyGJtopf vkyfay;r,fqdkwm yg&Sd
ygw,f? tvkyform;awGudkvnf; vkyfief;cGifjyef0ifzdk@ trdef@ay;vdkuf+yD; r0ifcJh&if ta&;ay:tajctaeudk
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r,fhvnf; a&G;aumufyGJEdkifoGm;wJhtcgusawmh aygrfyD'dk;udk 0ef}uD;csKyf jyefrcef@awmhyJ tjcm;wa,mufeJ@
tpm;xdk;cJhygw,f? 1969 qENcH,lyGJrSm &–H;edrfhcJhvdk@ orRw&mxl;u tem;,loGm;ygw,f? ol@ae&mudk
aygrfyD'dk;u qufcHygw,f? 'Da*g[m touf&Spfq,frjynfhrD ESpfygwftvdkrSm usef;usef;rmrm &Sdae&if;uae
&kwfw&uf aoqHk;cJhygw,f?

ar 68 0ef;usifu EdkifiHwum tajctaeESifh ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;


jyifopfEdkifiHwckwnf;rSmom ar 68 ausmif;om;-tvkyform; ta&;tcif; jzpfysufcJhwm
r[kwfygbl;? tjcm; urBmhEdkifiHrsm;rSmvnf; ausmif;om; v_yf&Sm;r_awGeJ@twl qlyltHkºu rjidrfrouf jzpfae
wmawG &SdcJhygw,f?
ar 68 rwdkifrD rwfvrSm tar&duefEdkifiHorRw *|efqif[m 1968 orRwa&G;aumufyGJ
tóuv_yf&Sm;r_uae E_wfxGufoGm;ygw,f? 'Drdku&ufwpforRwavmif; a&mbwfuae'D (Robert  F. 
Kennedy) vkyf=uHcH&wm/ AD,uferfppfyJu G dk axmufcHwma&m a0zefwma&m jyif;xefvmaewm/ 'gawG&J@
aemufqufwGJ jy\emawGa=umifh 'Drdku&ufygwDwGif;rSm jy\em t}uD;tus,fwufaeygw,f? {+yDfv(4)
&ufrSm tar&duefeJ@ urBmwv$m; vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm tausmf=um;qHk;acgif;aqmif jidrf;csrf;a&;
EdkA,fqk&Sif rmwifvlomuif; (Martin  Luther  King) vkyf=uHcH&jyefygw,f? vlrsKd;a&;eJ@ tom;ta&mif
cGJjcm;r_ qef@usifa&; ppfqef@usifa&;pwJh v_yf&Sm;r_awGeJ@twl udkvHbD,mwuUodkvfausmif;om;awGu {jyD
(23)rSm ausmif;udk odrf;ydkufvdkufwJh v_yf&Sm;r_uvnf; &SdaecJhjyefygw,f?
urBmtEHS@ ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ &kef;&if;qefcwfr_awG jzpfaewJhtxJrSm ruUqDudk
wuUodkvfausmif;om;awG &uf&ufpufpuf ypfowfcH&wmuvnf; Tlatelolco Massacre vlowfyGJ qdk+yD;
tawmfhudk xif&Sm;cJJhygw,f? 1968 ruUqDudk tdkvHypf tm;upm;ðydifyGJudk EdkifiHwumu tm&Hkpdkufaewmudk
wuUodkvfausmif;om;awGu tcGifhaumif;w&yftaeeJ@toHk;cs+yD; vaygif;rsm;pGmuwnf;u EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;
aecJh=uwmjzpfygw,f? ðydifyGJrwdkifrD (10)&uftvdk atmufwdkbm(2)&ufrSm tpdk;&ppfwyfu &uf&uf
pufpuf 0ifypfvdk@ a=uuGJzG,f&m tqHk;owfcJh&ygw,f?
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awG[m tvkyform;-0efxrf;avmueJ@ uif;a0cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh tDwvD
eJ@ tm*sifwD;em;rSmawmh ausmif;om;eJ@ tvkyform;aygif;+yD; vHk;0jcm;em;
wJh vl@todkif;t0dkif; jzpfvmapzdk@ v_yf&Sm;cJh=uygw,f? ta&S@Oa&myEdkifiH
awGu ausmif;om;awGuvnf; taemufEdkifiH ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_awGudk
tm;ustwk,lcJh=uygw,f? ydkvefeJ@ ,l*dkpvm;AD,m;EdkifiHawGrSm uGefjrLepf
tpdk;&u vGwfvyfpGmajymqdkcGifh wm;jrpfxm;wmudkqef@usifwJh ausmif;om;
v_yf&Sm;r_awG&SdcJhygw,f? csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrSmqdk&if 1968 Zefe0g&D y&m[m aEGOD;
(5)&ufup+yD; tJ'DESpf =o*kwf(20)&ufrSm tqHk;owfcJhwJh y&m[maEGOD;(Prague  Spring)qdkwm
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pmcsKyftzGJ@0if tjcm;EdkifiHawGu ppfwyfeJ@ t=urf;zuf 0ifa&mufacsr_ef;vdk@ jzpfygw,f?

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'ga=umifh “rdbjynfol” vdk@ac:wmudk jiif;csufxkwfvdk@ rjzpfygbl;?
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acwfa&pD;a=umif; ajymif;vJwm[m taumif;bufu&Sdovdk tqdk;bufuvnf; &SdEdkif
wmygyJ? ajymif;vJwdkif; aumif;wmawmhr[kwfygbl;? omrefjynfoltrsm;pk qdkwm 'DvdktqHk;tjzwf ay;wJh
ae&mrSm tvGefta&;ygwJh vlwef;pm;jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifv h nf; tajccHvlwef;pm;vdk@ ac:=uwm
jzpfygw,f? tajccH vlwef;pm;trsm;pk&J@qEN ryg&SdyJ ajymif;vJwmrSefor#/ qef@usifwmrSefor# wdkif;jynf
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arSmufae+yD; jynfolwoef;u yJ&pfrSm csDwufqENjyaewJhtajctaerSm tu,fIrsm; 0ef}uD;csKyfaygrfyD'dk;u
ausmif;om;awG awmif;qdkwmudk vdkufavsmray;bl;vdk@ ol@&J@oabmxm;udk a=unmcJh&if (odk@) aygrfyD'dk;&J@
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olwdk@ESpfa,muf[m jynfoltrsm;pk&J@ qENoabmxm;udkqef@usifwJh 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&vdk@ tac:cH&awmhrSm
jzpfygw,f? 'gqdk&if 'Drdkua&pD ppfrSef&J@vm; qdkwm wurBmvHk;u 0dkif;0ef;ar;cGef;xkwf=uawmhrSm jzpfygw,f?
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(1967-68)/ jrefrmausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_(1974) wdk@jzpfygw,f? olwdk@v_yf&Sm;wJhtcsdefwkef;u &SdaewJh
EdkifiHa&;taetxm;udk ausmif;om;awGu ajymif;vJoGm;atmif rpGrf;aqmifEdkifcJhayr,fh ausmif;om;
v_yf&Sm;r_&J@ tusKd;oufa&mufwmawGudk aemifwcsdefrSm wdkuf&dkufjzpfap/ oG,f0dkuf+yD;jzpfap cHpm;&wmawmh
trSefygyJ?
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0ef}uD;tawmfrsm;rsm;[m 1960 0ef;usif/ 1970 0ef;usifwkef;u ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_awGrSm yg0ifc=Jh u
olawG jzpf=u+yD; wdkif;jynf&J@ t"dutcef;u¾awGrSm jynfoludkudk,fpm;ðywJh wm0efawGudk w&m;0if
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--------------0000000------------------

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awG usL;ausmfae+yD? av,mOfuGif;udk odr;f +yD;oGm;+yD? orRweef;awmfvnf;
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aoewfeJ@csdef&if; orRweef;awmf b,frSmvJvdk@ ar;ae=uw,f? vufxJrSmvnf; urBmvSnfhc&D;onf ajrykH
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aoewfarmif;ðzwfawmhr,fh vlwa,mufa&S@rSm tjcm;vlwa,muf&J@ toufwacsmif;
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aoewfeJ@csdef+yD; ar;aewJhjrifuGif;? =um;vdkuf&wmu @ @ @
“tcsdefrqGJeJ@ jrefjrefajymprf;”
'guawmh csufEdkifiHrSm EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmuf vmvkyfaewJh tar&duefvlrsKd; Alan Levy 
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qdkAD,ufppfom;awGudk &ifqdkifae&wJh csufjynfolawG[m
tckawmh y&d,m,fygygeJ@ tcsed q f JaG e=uyg+yD? csufwEdkifiHvHk;&J@ tcsKyftjcm
tm%m[m wdkif;wyg; usL;ausmfolawG&J@vufxJudk a&mufoGm;+yDjzpfvdk@ 'Dvdk
tcsdefrSm b,fcsufEdkifiHom;rS usL;ausmfolawGudk ,dkif;yif;ulnDay;vdkwJhqEN
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ta&;ygaevdk@ jynfolvlxku taqmuftODudk 0dkif;0ef;umuG,fay;ae=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh r=umcifrSmyJ
a=unmcsufzwfaewm w0ufwysufeJ@&yfoGm;+yD; EdkifiHawmfoDcsif;oHudkom =um;vdkuf&ygawmhw,f?
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wmyJ jzpfw,f? 'DtrSefw&m;[m aemufqHk;rSmtEdkif&rSmjzpfw,f?” a=unmcsuf zwfaeol [m 'DxufydjkyD;
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“awmfawmhudk pdwftaESmifht,Suf jzpf&wmygyJ? tJ'Dreufcif;rSm tem;u
"gwfqDqdkifrSm t&ifqDjznfh+yD; uGefjrLepfygwD A[dkaumfrwD &Hk;taqmuftODxJ
vSrf;0ifvdkufawmh avScg;xpfrSm vlwa,muf vJusaoqHk;aewmudk yxr
OD;qHk; awG@&wmygyJ? i,fi,fav;yJ &Sdygao;w,f? usr t&rf;udk pdwfxdcdkufrdcJh
&ygw,f? 'Dae@xdwdkifvnf; aumif;aumif; jyefajymEdkifpGrf;r&Sdatmif pdwf
xdcdkuf ae&wkef;ygyJ?”
csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrSm tJ'Dwkef;u vlodrsm;wJh
owif;a=unmol umrDvm (Kamila  Mouckova) ajymjyoGm;wm jzpfyg
w,f? jynfyusL;ausmfwyfawG nu0ifvm+yD qdkwJhowif;udk =um;vdk@ olr[m
wifhum;tajrmuf'%f y&m[m òr•vnfacgifrSm&SdwJh &kyfjrifoH=um;XmeudkomG ;+yD; &oavmuf wm0ef
xrf;aqmifay;zdk@ um;eJ@xGuftvmrSm =uHKvdkuf&wm
jzpfygw,f? olwdk@ &kyfjrifoH=um;Xmeuae (21)&ufae@u wreufcif;vHk;
tcsdef&or# owif;awGudk v$ifhxkwfay;=uygw,f? jynfolawG ua,muf
u,ufrjzpfyJ wnfwnfjidrfjidrf&Sd=uzdk@ olru wdkufwGef; toHv$ifhay;cJh
ygw,f? 'Dvdk vlrqefqHk; &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_awG qufjzpfaeOD;r,fvdk@
trSefwu,f ,HkwJhola&m &dSOD;rSmvm;? umrDvm uawmh r,HkcJhygbl;?
tajctae[m aumif;oGm;vdrfhr,fvdk@ ,lq aecJhol wOD;ygyJ?
“tjyifa&mufaewJholawG tdrfjyef=uzdk@/ tdrfrSmyJae=uzdk@/
vrf;rawGbufudk rxGufzdk@ usr wwfEdkifoavmuf ajymay;aecJhygw,f? emZDwyfawG usL;ausmf
'Dvdk jzpfysufaewmawG[m trSm;wckomjzpf+yD; aemufqHk; rSmawmh jyefaumif;oGm;ygvdrfhr,f?”
'gayr,fh csufjynfolawG rcHcsifvdk@ v_yf&Sm;
vmwJh qENjyyGJawG/ &kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfwmawG/ towfcH&wJh
owif;awGyJ wuf+yD;&if;wufaevdk@ vlxk[m wcgrS rjzpfcJh
zl;wJh a'grmef[kefawG aygufuGJae=uyg+yD? bmajymajym r,Hk
=uawmhygbl;?
“awmfawmf}uD;udk pdwfqdk;cJh&ygw,f?
pdwfqdk;vGef;vdk@ usr yg;pyfxJu tjrSKyfawGawmif xGufae
cJh&ygw,f? 'g wu,fjzpfcJhwmyg? usL;ausmfppfom;awG
vkyfyHkudk usr r,kHEdkifavmufatmif jzpfcJh&ygw,f? ajy;olajy;/ vJolvJ
tifrwefrS &dkif;pdkif;apmfum;vGef;ygw,f? bmawGjzpfae
ovJqdkwm jynfolawG odaeatmifqdk+yD; ajcmuf&ufavmuftxd usrwdk@[m cGifhðycsufr&yJ toHv$ifhay;
EdkifcJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh aemufqHk; olwkd@a&mufvmwJhtcgrSmawmh usrwdk@udk aoewfeJ@csdef+yD; z,f&Sm;vdkuf
ygw,f? usrwdk@wa,mufpD[m &mZ0wfom;awGvdk tkwfeH&HrSm ausmay;vufajr‡muf+yD; wef;pD&yfaecJ&h
w,fav?”
&kyfjrifoH=um;rSm owif;a=unmol umrDvm &J@ udkf,fawG@jzpfygw,f?
vGwfvyfawmhrvm;
“y&m[m aEGOD;”qdkwmu csufudkpvdk AufuD;,m;
EdkifiHrSm EdkifiHa&;vGwfvyfcGifh&SdcJhwJh tcsdefumvudk &nfn$ef;ac:qdk
=uwm jzpfygw,f? “y&m[m aEGOD;”[m 1968 Zefe0g&D(5)&ufuae 1969 csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m; ajryHk
tJ'DESpf =o*kwf (20)&ufxd jzpfygw,f? vlwa,muf[m (23)ESpf
vHk;vHk; axmifusaecJh+yD;aemuf (8)vavmuf tjyifrSm vlwef;aph v_yf&Sm;oGm;vmvGwfvyfcGifh &Sdaew,f
qdk&if b,hfavmufrsm; aysmfaevdkufyghrvJ?
1991 rSm =unf=unfjzLjzL wdkif;jynfcJaG xmif=uwJh csufeJ@ pvdkAufESpfEdkifiH[m 1918 ckESpf
txd =op=wD;,m;-[efa*&D tifydkif,mxJrSm &SdaecJhygw,f? 'Dhaemuf 1938 xd csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;
EdkifiHtjzpf oD;jcm;&yfwnfvmcJh+yD;rS 1939-45rSm emZDvufatmufudk a&mufcJh&ygw,f? 'kwd, urBmppf
t+yD;upvdk@ qdkAD,uf,leD,H(USSR‐  The  Union  of  Socialist  Republics) &J@r[mrdwf jzpfae&wJhtjyif
0gaqmpmcsKyf (Warsaw  Pact) tzGJ@0ifvnf; jzpfaecJhygw,f? 'Dawmhvnf;
csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHom;awG[m wif;=uyfwJh uGefjrLepf wygwDpepfatmufrSm rajyvnfwJh
pD;yGm;a&;udk &kef;&if;uef&if;eJ@ vGwfajrmufr,fhae@udk ar#mfvifh ae&+yDjzpfygw,f?
'DvdktajctaerSm csufuGefjrLepf ygwD (KSČ) yxrtwGif;a&;r–;ae&meJ@
orRwae&m ESpfckpvHk;udk ,l xm;oluawmh EdkAdknif(Antonín  Novotný) jzpfygw,f?
ol[m 1967 ausmif;om;v_yf&mS ;r_udk qdk;qdk;0g;0g; udkifwG,fajz&Sif;vdkufwma=umifh
ygwDwGif; =oZmtm%m usqif;cJh&jyD; yxr twGif;a&;r–;ae&mudk tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf
(Alexander  Dubček)udk 1968Zefe0g&D(5)&ufrSm v$Jajymif;ay;vdkuf&ygw,f? 'ghtjyif
orRw&mxl;udkvnf; 22-3-1968 rSm qAdkbdk'g (Ludvik  Svoboda)udk
tvufZef;'g; v$Jay;vdkuf&jyefygw,f?
'k&Suf
tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;jzpfygw,f? ol[m
vpfb&,f0g'udk usifhoHk; Edkifr,fh vrf;a=umif;ay:a&mufzdk@ wqifhyJvdkawmhwJh ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;awGudk
pvkyfygawmhw,f? owif; arSmifcs ydwfqdk@jzwfawmufwmawGudk z,f&Sm;ypfvdkufygw,f? owif;eJ@
pme,fZif;awG/ a&'D,dk &kyfjrif oH=um;awGuae ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;udk OD;wnfwJh v_H@aqmfvrf;n$efwmawGudk
tm;ay;ygw,f? jynfolawG vnf; ukefypPnf;awGudk tqifajyatmif 0,f,lpm;oHk;EdkifaecJhygw,f?
t&ifwkef;uqdk&if 'grsKd;awG[m ygwD oabmw&m;a&;&m ynm&SifawGu t}uD;tus,f uef@owf
xdef;csKyfxm;cJhwmawGyJ jzpfygw,f? “y&m[maEGOD;” rSmawmh csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiH[m
qdk&S,fvpfpepfudk 'Drdkua&pD toGifajymif;zdk@ vlxk w&yfvHk;u vGwfvGwfvyfvyf v_yf&Sm;EdkifaecJhyg+yD?
tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m {+yDvup+yD; v_yf&mS ;r_tpDtpOf(Action  Programme)udk
taumiftxnf pazmfygawmhw,f? oleJ@twl ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm;awG/ tv,ftvwfoabm&SdwJh
uGefjrLepf ygwD0ifawG/ vuf0J-vuf,mr[kwfwJh tv,fvrf;pOform;awGtjyif a&S;&dk;0g'DawG pkaygif;
OD;aqmif+yD; rl=urf;a&;qGJwmudk ygwDOao#miftzGJ@u twnfðyvdkufygw,f? Action  Programme t&
qdk&S,fvpfpepf&J@ yHkpHopfudk azmfaqmifzdk@ygyJ? csufEdkifiH&J@tajctaeawGeJ@ vdkufzufnDwJh 'Drkdua&pDudk
cHpm;Edkifzdk@/ wdkif;wyg;csKyfcs,fr_r&SdwJh trsKd;om;a&;udk v_yf&Sm;Edkifzdk@ jzpfygw,f? trSefawmh pwmvif&J@
uGefjrLepfpepfudk z,f&Sm;wmomjzpf+yD; uGefjrLepfpepf &nfrSef;csufudkyJ taumiftxnf azmfaeOD;rSmvnf;
jzpfygw,f? qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@ tjcm;ta&S@tkyfpkEdkifiHawGeJ@ r[mrdwftjzpf &SdaeOD;rSmudkvnf; xyfavmif;
twnfðyrSm jzpfygw,f?
csufrSm Action  Programme  t& EdkifiHudkOD;aqmifr,fh trsKd;om;wyfOD;eJ@ a&G;aumufyJG
pepfudkvnf; 'Drdkua&pDenf;eJ@ usifhoHk;awmhrSm jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD ygwDpHk tpdk;&pepfuvnf; jzpfvmzdk@
&Sdaeyg+yD? aemuf+yD; csufeJ@ pvdkAufudkvnf; wef;wlnDr#r_&SdwJh z,f'&,fESpfEdkifiH jzpfapzdk@ pDpOfaeyg+yD?
jynfolawG vGwfvGwfvyfvyf pk&Hk;oGm;vm v_yf&mS ;cGifhwdk@/ a&;om;ajymqdk azmfjyEdkifcGihfwdk@ qdkwmawGvnf;
tajccHOya'u jyXmef;awmhrSm jzpfygw,f? pD;yGm;a&;yHkpHopfudkvnf; taumiftxnfazmfawmhrSm
jzpfygw,f? jynfolawG 0rf;omvHk;qdk@ae&wJh “y&m[m aEGOD;” ygyJav?
9-9-1968 rSm (14)=udrfajrmuf ygwDnDvmcH usif;yr,fvdk@ tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufu
arvrSm a=unmvdkufygw,f? Action  Programme udk KSČ  ygwD&J@ w&m;0ifvdkufem&r,fh pnf;rsOf;
Oya'tjzpf nDvmcHu twnffðyrSmjzpfygw,f? +yD;awmh z,f'&,fOya'udk rl=urf;a&;wmeJ@ ydkvGwfvyfwJh
A[dkaumfrwD topfudka&G;cs,fzdk@vnf; &Sdygr,f?
bmyJjzpfjzpf “y&m[maEGOD;”umv tm%m&Sifpepf c%wðzwfavmuf csKyf+idrf;aecsdefrSm
awmufywJh tem*wfudk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf ar#mfvifh+yD; v_yf&Sm;vdk@ &aewmu wu,fh tcGifhta&;wckygyJ?
b&ufZnufAfeJ@ oabmwlcJh&
Action  Programme  [m csufuGefjrLepfygwD&J@ vrf;n$efr_atmufuom oGm;&r,fvdk@
wdwdusus azmfjyxm;ayr,fh csufcsif;ajymif;vJzdk@ vlxkzdtm;ay;wmawG rsm;vmygw,f? owif;
vGwfvyfcGifhawGvnf; &vm+yDqdkawmh tpGef;a&mufwJhoabmawG/ qdkAD,ufqef@usifa&;awGudk azmfjy vm
wJhtxd pdwfvGwfudk,fvGwf vGwfvyfcGifhudk cHpm;vm=uygw,f?
27-6-1968 rSm Ludvík  Vaculík qdkoluae “pum;vHk;aygif; ESpfaxmif”trnf&SdwJh
rl0g'a&;&m (Manisfesto)udk vlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefvdkufygw,f? ol[m woufvHk; uGejf rLepfwOD;jzpf+yD;
topfzGJ@pnf;r,fh A[dkaumfrwDrSmvnf; ygvmEdkifol jzpfygw,f? olu KSČ ygwDwGif;rSm&SdwJh a&S;&dk;0g'DawGeJ@
csufEdkifiHxJu jynfywyfawGudk pdk;&drf&a=umif; azmfjyxm;ygw,f? ('Dtcsdef[m 0gaqmpmcsKyfudk tcGifh
aumif;,l+yD; qdkAD,ufeJ@ usefwJhtzGJ@0ifawGu csufrSm ppfa&;avhusifhr_awGvkyf+yD; wyftcsKd@udkjyefr&kyfyJ
csefxm;cJhcsdef jzpfygw,f?) ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; tpDtpOfudk taumiftxnf pazmfzdk@ olu vlxkudk wdkufwGef;
xm;cJhygw,f? tvufZef;'g;'k&SufeJ@wuG ygwDOao#miftzGJ@/ trsKd;om;wyfOD;/ tpdk;&tzGJ@wdk@u ol@&J@
Manisfesto udk jywfjywfom;om;yJ &H_@csvdkuf=uygw,f?

'DtawmtwGif;rSmyJ qdk&S,f'Drdku&ufawGu oD;jcm;ygwDaxmifzdk@ vkyfvmygw,f? KSČ


eJ@ rywfoufwJh EdkifiHa&;toif;tzGJ@awGudkvnf; vlxku wnfaxmifaecJh=uyg+yD? tJ'DvdkjzpfvmwmawGudk
ESdyfuGyfzdk@ uGefjrLepfygwDwGif;rSm tpOftvmudk rjyifcsifwJholawGu wdkufwGef;ayr,fh vlxkqENudk vdkufavsm
zdk@tm;oefwJh tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufuawmh odyft=urf;rudkifzdk@yJt=uHay;+yD;/ KSČ uGefjrLepfygwD acgif;aqmif
ydkif; uspfvpfcdkifrmzdk@udk txl;*&kpdkufaecJhygw,f?
'DtcsufawG[m qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmifydkif;udk owday;vdkufovdk jzpfaecJhyg+yD? Zlvdkifv
v,favmufrSm csufEdkifiHrygyJ 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJ@0ifawG pnf;a0;cJh=u+yD; csufuGefjrLepfygwD acgif;aqmif
ydkif;udk pmydk@cJhygw,f? tJ'DpmrSm Ludvík  Vaculík &J@“pum;vHk;aygif; ESpfaxmif” rl0g'a&;&m[m wefjyef
awmfvSefa&;twGuf pnf;&Hk;zdk@ EdkifiHa&; ae&m,laew,fvdk@ &nfn$ef;xm;ygw,f? owif;vGwfvyfcGifhudk
jyefvnfydwfyifzdk@/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDawG tzGJ@tpnf;awG zGJ@wmudk wm;jrpfzdk@/ ygwDtwGif;u vuf,morm;awG
udk ESdyfuGyfzdk@vnf; awmif;qdka&;om;xm;ygw,f? 'ghtjyif csuf&J@ qdk&S,fvpftoD;tyGifhawGudk umuG,fzdk@
[m csufEdkifiHomru 0gaqmpmcsKyf tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHawG&J@ wm0efvnf; jzpfw,fvdk@ a=unmcJhygao;w,f?
'gayr,fh csuf KSČ ygwDu tJ'gawGtm;vHk;udk y,fcsvdkuf+yD; qdkAD,ufeJ@om aqG;aEG;vdkw,fvdk@ arwWm&yf
cHcJhygw,f?
“y&m[maEGOD;”tcsdefumvwkef;u qdkAD,uf,leD,Hacgif;aqmif[m
b&ufZnufAf (Leonid  Brezhnev) jzpfygw,f? qdkAD,ufeJ@ 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJ@0ifawG
(&dkar;eD;,m; ryg)u tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf&J@ Action  Programme  [m ppfat;acwf
(Cold  War)rSm qdkAD,uftkyfpkudk tm;enf;oGm;apEdkifw,fqdk+yD; pdk;&drfylyefae=uygw,f?
'Dawmh qdkAD,uf,leD,H acgif;aqmifawGu csufuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ aqG;aEG;+yD; pDrHudef;udk
&yfvdkufzdk@/ uef@owfzdk@ óu;yrf;cJh=uwmygyJ? b&ufZnufAf
tJ'DESpf ZlvdkifrSm qdkAD,ufeJ@ csufwdk@[m ESpfEdkifiHe,fpyfrSm&SdwJh Čierná  nad  Tisou rSm
ESpfbufaqG;aEG;=uygw,f? tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufu ol@&J@pDrHudef;udk umuG,fcJhovdk 0gaqmpmcsKyfeJ@ ta&S@
tkyfpk pD;yGm;a&;aumifpD (udkrDuGef-COMECOM)rSm csufEdkifiHu qufvufyg0ifaeOD;r,fvdk@ tmrcHxm;cJh
ygw,f? 'gayr,fhjzpfcsifawmh csufuGefjrLepfygwDxJrSm tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk axmufcHwJh ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;
orm;awGeJ@ a&S;&dk;tpOftvmorm;awG oabmxm;uGJcJh=uygw,f? qdkAD,uf,leD,H pdk;&drfylyefwmawG
rjzpfapzdk@ tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf bufu uwdawGay;ovdk qdkAD,ufuvnf; csufEdkifiHxJu ol@wyfawG
jyef&kyfodrf;zdk@ oabmwlcJhygw,f? pufwifbm (9)&ufrSmvkyfr,fh csufuGefjrLepfygwD nDvmcHudkvnf; cGifhðy
vdkufygw,f?
=o*kwfv(3)&ufrSm qdkAD,uf,leD,H/ ta&S@*smreD/ ydkvef/ [efa*&D/ bla*;&D;,m;eJ@ csuf
wdk@u Bratislava  Declaration  udk oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xdk;=uygw,f? rmhcfpf-vDeif0g'eJ@ ypPnf;rJh
vlwef;pm;tay: r,drf;r,dkif opPm&Sdzdk@/ blZGm(bourgeois) tawG;tac:eJ@ qdk&S,fvpf qef@usifa&;awGudk
qufwdkufzdk@tjyif 'Drdkua&pD toGifo¿mefeJ@ EdkifiHa&;ygwDawG wnfaxmifvmwJhpepf(pluralism)&SdcJh&if
qdkAD,uf,leD,Hu ppfa&;t& 0ifa&mufpGufzuf EdkifcGifh&Sd&r,f qdkwmawGjzpfygw,f? 'gawG[mwu,fawmh
b&ufZnufAf&J@ oabmw&m;a&;&mawGygyJ?
qdkAD,ufwyfawGudk csufEdkifiHxJuawmh jyef&kyfay;vdkufayr,fh e,fpyfwav#mufrSm wyfpGJae
wkef;ygyJ?

0ifodrf;+yD

òr•awmf y&m[mxJ usL;ausmf0ifa&mufaewJh qdkAD,ufwifhum;awG


csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiH&J@ òr•awmf y&m[m(Prague)udk qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@ &dkar;eD;,m;
rygwJh 0gaqm pmcsKyftzGJ@0if ig;EdkifiHwdk@u 20-8-1968 oef;acgif,H ausmfwmeJ@ pwifusL;ausmf 0ifa&muf
cJhyg+yD? OD;qHk; qdkAD,ufppfav,mOfawGu òr•awmfy&m[m&J@ Ruzyne avqdyfudk rar#mfvifhyJ 0ifa&muf
odrf;vdkuf=uygw,f? tJ'DaemufrSmawmh e,fpyfrSmtoifh&SdaewJh wifhum;awGu òr•awmfy&m[m&J@
usOf;ajrmif;wJh vrf;awGay:udk vSdrfh0ifvmygawmhwmygyJ? usL;ausmv f mwJh wifhum;tpD;a& (5000)uae
(7000)xd&Sdygw,f?
em&Dydkif;twGif;rSm tqufrjywf0ifvmaewJh usK;ausmfppfom;awG[m ppfa&;AsL[m
ajrmufwJhae&mawGudk odr;f ydkufae&m,l xm;vdkuf=uygw,f? olwdk@ta&twGufudk ESpfodef;uae wygwf
t=umrSm ajcmufodef;xd wdk;csJ@vdkufygw,f? csufuGefjrLepfygwD&J@ A[dkaumfrwD taqmuftOD&J@ ywfywf
vnf ae&mtm;vHk;rSm usL;ausmfwyfawGudk jzef@csxm;vdkufygw,f? jynfolawG pk&Hk;vmEdkifwJh òr•awmf
y&m[m&J@ &ifjyif (Wenceslas  Square)udkvnf; odrf;vdkufygw,f? aemufqHk;rSmawmh csuf a&'D,dkeJ@
&kyfjrifoH=um;udk xdef;csKyfvdkufygw,f?
ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;orm; csufuGefjrLepfygwDacgif;aqmif tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufu ppfa&;t&
usK;ausmfvmolawGudk rckcHzdk@ ol@EdkifiHom;awGudk yef=um;vdkufygw,f? oludk,fwdkifvnf;tzrf;cH+yD; vkyfazmf
udkifzufawGeJ@twl armfpudk ydk@vdkufawmh rwkefrv_yfygyJ?
'gayr,fh qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfodrf;ydkufvdk@ ESpfygwftwGif;rSmaoqHk;cJh &wJh csufjynfolawG[m
(72)OD; &Sdaeygw,f? &maygif;rsm;pGmvnf; '%f&mawG&ae=u ukefyg+yD? cef@rSef;ajc jynfolckESpfaomif;[m
wdkif;jynfuae taemufEdkifiHawGqDudk csufcsif;xGufajy; cdkv_HcJh=uygw,f? olwdk@vdkyJ aemufxyfxGufajy;
vmolawGudkyg aemufqHk;pm&if;csKyfvdkufawmh pkpkaygif;oHk;odef;xd &Sdvmygw,f? trsm;pkuawmh ynmwwf
vlwef;pm;awGyg? ZmwdEdkifiHudk tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf pGef@cGmxGufajy;&wmrsKd; t&ifu r&SdchJzl;ygbl;?

arwWm&yfcH zdwfac:vdk@ 0ifvmcJh&wmyg


=o*kwf(20)&uf noef;acgifrSm 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJ@0if ppfwyfawG[m csuftpdk;& (ČSSR)
udk todray;yJ e,fpyfudk jzwfausmf0ifa&mufcJhw,fvdk@ csuforRw qAdkbdk'gu a=unmoGm;ygw,f? ygwD
Oao#mif tpnf;ta0; csufcsif;usif;y+yD; qdkAD,uf 0ifa&muf usL;ausmfwmudk &_H_@cscJhovdk KSČ ygwD A[dk
aumfrwD0if oHk;yHkESpfyHkuvnf; qef@usifcJh=uygw,f?
'DtcsdefrSm qdkAD,uf&k&Sm;bufu wefjyef&Sif;vif;csufawGudk xkwfjyefvmwmuawmh
rqef;vSygbl;? csufuGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ EdkifiHacgif;aqmifawGu vufeufudkifwyfawGtygt0if tultnD
csufcsif; vdktyfaevdk@qdkwJh ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ arwWm&yfcHvmwJhtwGuf qdkAD,ufwyfwawG 0ifa&mufulnD
&wmjzpfw,fvdk@ owif;awG xkwfjyefygw,f? rl&if;jzpfygw,fvdk@qdkwJh arwWm&yfcHpmwapmifudk y&my'g/
tpfZbuf&Sm;pwJh qdkAD,uf uGefjrLepf owif;pm}uD;awGu 22-8-1968 rSm tcsdeftcgudkuf azmfjy=u
ygw,f? (wu,fawmh 'Dw&m;0ifarwWm&yfcHpmudk armfpudkrSm pm=urf;a&;wmygyJ? 'ga=umifh vufrSwf
rxdk;&ao;yJ jzpfaeygw,f? owif;pmawGrSm azmfjyvdkufwm tJ'D vufrSwfrxdk;&ao;wJh pm=urf;yg?)
EdkifiHxJrSm jynfyusL;ausmfwyfawG &Sdae+yDjzpfvdk@ csufuGefjrLepfygwDnDvmcHudk pufwifbm
(9)&uftpm; tcsdefapm+yD; 22-8-1968rSm v#Kd@0Sufusif;yvdkuf=uygw,f? qdkAD,uf ppfa&;usL;ausmfr_udk
vnf; jypfwif &H_@cscJh=uygw,f? Action  Programme udkvnf; qufvuf vkyfaqmif=ur,fvdk@ qHk;jzwfcJh
=uygw,f? tJ'DrSm csufacgif;aqmifydkif;tm;vHk;u qdkAD,ufudk arwWm&yfcHwmr&Sdbl;vdk@ tav;teuf
xkwfazmf ajymqdk=uygw,f? 'gudk=unhf+yD; zdwfac:pm[m twkjzpfw,f/ wu,fwrf; arwWm&yfcH zdwfac:
wm r&SdcJhbl;vdk@ a0zefa&;orm;awGu oHk;oyf=uygw,f?
ESpfaygif; ESpfq,fausmfavmuf=umvm+yD;aemuf 1991 apmapmydkif;
avmufrSm csufEdkifiHorRw Am;uvuf[mAJ (Václav  Havel)udk &k&Sm;tpdk;&u tJ'D
zdwfac:pmqdkwJh aumfyDwapmif xkwfay;vmygw,f? aumfyDrSm csufudkpvdk AufuD;,m;
uGefjrLepfygwD(KSČ) tzGJ@0if(5)a,muf(Biľak,  Švestka,  Kolder,  Indra  and 
Kapek)wdk@u vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; qdkAD,uftm%mydkifawGqDudk vdyfrlxm;wmawG@&
Am;uvuf [mAJ
ygw,f?
pmxJrSmygwmuawmh rsufuef;rsKd;cspf vuf,mrD'D,mawGu trsKd;om;a&;toGifeJ@ qlyl
tkHºur,fh ykefuefr_awGvkyfaea=umif;/ uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;eJ@ qdkAD,ufqef@usifa&;udk v_H@aqmfaea=umif;/
'ga=umifh csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrSm wefjyefawmfvSefa&; vkyfvmawmhr,fh tEW&m,fuae vGwfajrmuf
atmif qdkAD,ufu u,fwifay;zdk@eJ@ b,fvdkenf;eJ@rqdk ulnDay;Edkifa=umif; pwmawG jzpfygw,f?

w=udwfxJw=uHwnf; qdkAD,uftkyfpkeJ@ ygwDwGif;uvlawG tm%modrf;zdk@=uH


(KSČ)tzGJ@0if Biľak,  Kolder eJ@ taygif;ygawGu qdkAD,ufwyfawG rusK;ausmfrD tcsdef
awmfawmf=umuyJ tm%modrf;zdk@udk pDpOfaecJhygw,f? olwdk@[m qdkAD,ufoH&kH;rSm awG@qHkaqG;aEG;avh&Sdyg
w,f? 'ghtjyif csufEdkifiH&J@t}uD;qHk; Orlík qnfem;u KSČ  ygwD0ifawG&J@ tyef;ajz&dyfomrSmvnf;
c%c% awG@qHk=uygw,f? ygwDOao#miftzGJ@rSm (11)OD;yg&Sd+yD; (6)a,mufu oabmwl&if ygwDtaxGaxG
twGif;a&;r–;udk z,f&Sm;Edkifwmjzpfvdk@ tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk qef@usifEdkifr,fholawGqDu rJ&atmif pnf;&Hk;
xm;cJh=uygw,f? csufudk ppfa&;t&usL;ausmf0ifa&mufay;zdk@ qdkAD,ufudk arwWm&yfcHwmvnf; olwdk@ygyJ?
qdkAD,ufuawmh tenf;qHk; =o*kwf(26)&ufrSmvkyfr,fh pvdkAufygwDnDvmcHtxd apmifhaezdk@ pOf;pm;aewm
jzpfygw,f?
tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk qef@usif=uwJh Biľak,  Kolder eJ@ taygif;ygwdk@[m csufrSm
EdkifiHa&;rwnfrjidrfjzpfwm/ wefjyefawmfvSefa&; &SdvmEdkifwmawGudk qdkAD,uf ,Hk=unfvmatmif wu,fyJ
v#Kd@0Suf=uHpnffóu;yrf;EdkifcJhygw,f? olwdk@[m qdkAD,ufwyfawG jrefjrefusL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmEdkifatmif
vnf; zdtm;ay;cJhygw,f? Oyrmwckuawmh =o*kwf(3)ae@ Bratislava  Declaration t+yD; wygwft=um
avmufrSm tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk qef@usifolawG z,f&Sm;cH&r,fqdkwJh v#Kd@0Sufowif;udk olwdk@&vm
cJhw,fvdk@ qdkAD,uf&k&mS ;udk ta=umif;=um;vkdufygw,f? qdkAD,uftultnD tjrefqkH;ay;zdk@vnf; arwWm
&yfcHxm;ygw,f? tJ'Dowif;t&qdk&if tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m ol@udkqef@usifvmEdkifwJholawGudk pm&if;vkyf
xm;+yD; &Sif;vif;awmhr,fvdk@ qdkxm;ygw,f?
tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m Čierná and Tisou  u aqG;aEG;yGJrSm oludk,fwdkif uwday;cJhwm
awGudk pdwfr0ifpm;cJhygbl;? uwday;xm;wmudk a&;xm;wJh pmESpfapmif[m tvufZef;'g;'k&SufrSm &Sdae
ayr,fh olu vlodrcHyJ zHk;zdxm;ygw,f? aemufydkif;rSm zGifhcsvmawGt&qdk&if tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufu pm
ESpfapmif zHk;zdxm;w,fqdkwJhudpPudk ygwDwGif;u qef@usifaewJh Biľak, Kolder wdk@tkyfpku odoGm;ygw,f?
olwdk@tpDtpOfuawmh A[dkaumfrwD&J@ jyef=um;a&;Xmeudk OD;aqmifwJh Kašpar  u
EdkifiHawmftajctaeudk wu,fjzpfaewmxufydk+yD; pdk;&drfae&avmufatmif tvGeftu|H owif;xkwfjyef
r,f/ +yD;&if pmESpfapmifta=umif;udk zGifhcsvdkufr,f/ 'DtcgrSm tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m bma=umifh pm
ESpfapmif zHk;zdxm;&ovJ qdkwmudk a&S;&dk;0g'D uGefjrLepfawGu twif;ar;=ur,f/ 'Daemuf olwdk@pnf;&Hk;
xm;wJo h al wGeJ@ t,Hkt=unfr&Sd rJcJq
G Hk;jzwf+yD; rJtrsm;pkeJ@ tEdkif,lzdk@/ tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk z,f&Sm;zdk@
jzpfygw,f? wqufwnf;rSmyJ wefjyefawmfvSefa&;vkyfvm&if wm;qD;Edkifatmif olwdk@u qdkAD,ufwyfawG
0ifvmay;zdk@ arwWm&yfcHrSm jzpfygw,f?
wu,fwrf;vnf; EdkifiHawmftajctae tpD&ifcHpmudk Kašpar  uxkwfjyefcJhygw,f?
óuwifpDpOfxm;wJhtwdkif; 20-8-1968 rSm ygwDOao#mif tzGJ@0ifESpfOD;jzpfwJh Kolder  eJ@  Indra  wdk@u
EdkifiHawmf ta&;ay:tajctaeudk a=unm+yD; aoG;pnf;nDn$wfa&; tultnD (fraternal  assistance) vdk@
ac:wJh jynfywyfawGudk zdwfac:vdkufygw,f?
jynfyrSm pDpOfxm;wmawGudk =unfhvdkuf&if qdkAD,ufwyfawG vkyfay;rSmu csufEdkifiH&J@
ppfwyfa&m jynfolawGuyg wefjyefckcHvm&if ESdyfuGyfay;zdk@ jzpfygw,f? 'DtpDtpOfudk pdwfxJrSmxm;+yD;
=o*kwf 16-17 &ufawGrSmvkyfwJh tpnf;ta0;uae csuf uGefjrLepfygwDeJ@ csufjynfolawGudk ppfa&;t&
ulnDay;zdk@ oabmwl qHk;jzwfcsufcsvdkufygw,f?
18-8-1968rSm 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJ@0ifawG&J@ v#Kd@0Suftpnf;ta0;vkyaf wmh b&ufZnufAu f
a=unmygw,f? bla*;&D;,m;/ ta&S@*smreD/ [efa*&DeJ@ ydkvefwdk@u aoG;pnf;nDnGwfa&;udk axmufcHzdk@
rSefrSefuefuef tqdkwifoGif; arwWm&yfcHwJhtwdkif; 0gaqmpmcsKyftzGJ@0ifawGu qufvufaqmif&GufEdkifrSm
jzpfw,f? 20-8-1968 nrSm ppfa&;t& 0ifa&mufpGufzufr,fvdk@ qdkygw,f?

jynfolawGu jidrf;csrf;pGm wGef;vSef/ t=uHorm;awG


tcufawG@
qdkAD,uf[m olwdk@oabmuswJh Indra udk
tpdk;&zGJ@pnf;apzdk@ orRw qAdkbdk'gudk zdtm;ay;vmyg
w,f? 'gayr,fh qAdkbdk'gu awmufav#muf wif;cHae
cJhygw,f? csufjynfolawG[mvnf; qdkAD,ufusL;ausmf
wyfawGukd qef@usif&wJh vlrsKd;*k%f/ EdkifiHiHh*k%fudk
csuforRw bmrSwdkufwGef;p&m rvkad vmufatmif wnDwnGwf
qbdkAdk'g
wnf; xdef;odrf;aecJh=uygw,f? jynfyusL;ausmfolawGu
taqmuftODwGif
t=urf;zuf wkef@jyefvmEdkifapwJh tðytrlawGudk a&Smif=uOf=uzdk@ orRw csdwfqGJxm;aom "gwfyHkrSm
qAdkbdk'gu jynfolawGudk owday;cJhtwdkif; vlxkqENjyyGJawGudk rv_yf&Sm; csuforRw qbdkAdk'g jzpfonf
cJh=uygbl;? 'gayr,fh 23-8-1968 rSm tjzpfoabm wem&D=um tvkyf
&yfqdkif;+yD; taxGaxG oydwfarSmuf=uwmwckyJ &SdcJhygw,f?
csufEdkifiHom;awG[m ppfa&;t& usK;ausmf
vmolawGudk rckcHcJh=uygbl;? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh olwdk@
av;pm;tm;udk;wJh tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufuvnf; yef=um;
xm;cJhvdk@ygyJ? 'gayr,fh olwdk@[m b,folurS wdkufwGef;
pDpOfwmr[kwfyJeJ@ jynfyusL;ausmfwyfawGudk t=udrfaygif;
rsm;pGm t=urf;rzuf qENjycJh=uygw,f? òr•awmfy&m[meJ@ òr•awmf y&m[m&J@ emrnf}uD; *|efvifEGef
tjcm;òr•}uD;awGrSm vlxku jynfywyfawGudk qef@usif eHtk&w
Hay:u
fwHw&kdkiyf;ay:u
fajymif *&wfzDwD (erlem)
a0zef=uygw,f? aomufa&/ pm;p&mwdk@utp jzpfEdkifor# bmrS ,dkif;yif;ulnD ray;=uygbl;?
usK;ausmfwyfawG/ qdkAD,uf acgif;aqmifawGeJ@ jynfwGif; opPmazmufawGudk qef@usifavSmifajymif&_H@cswJh
ydkpwm/ oauFw/ &kyfyHkawG/ vrf;ay:utEkynm vdk@ac:=uwJh tkwfeH&Hay:u pmawG yHkawG(Graffiti)
trsm;}uD; awG@&ygw,f? vrf;oGm; vrf;vmawG jrifEdkifr,fh ae&mrSefor# tvGwfray;yJ
qef@usif&H_@csxm;ovdk vlxkaxmufcHwJh tvufZef;'g; 'k&SufeJ@ orRw qAdkbdk'g wdk@&J@yHkawGudkvnf;
ae&mwdkif;rSSm awG@ae&ygw,f?
vlxkw&yfvHk;u 0dkif;0ef;qef@usifuef@uGufaewmawG[m tawmf xda&mufoGm;ygw,f?
jynfolawGnDnGwfaeawmh usL;ausmfolawGvnf; &nfrSef;csuf ratmifrjrifjzpffae&yg+yDf? csufuGefjrLepfygwD
yxr taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r–; tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufudk &mxl;uz,f&Sm;zdk@ t&ifutpDtpOfudk pGef@v$wfvdkuf
&ygawmhw,f? tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m qdkAD,ufwyfawG 0ifvmwJhnrSmyJ tzrf;cH&+yD; armfpudk oGm;cJh&ay
r,fh aemufqHk;jyefa&mufvmwJhtjyif t&iftwdkif; yxrtaxGaxGtwGif;a&;r–; &mxl;udk xrf;aqmifcGifh
&cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol@&J@ Action  Programme  udkawmh t&ifxuf trsm;}uD;av#mh+yD; toifhtwifh
oabmavmufeJ@yJ vkyfcGifh& ygawmhw,f?

qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@twl c&D;qHk;txd w&ufrS raecsifawmh


wu,fvdk@rsm; yJ&pfòr•vnfacgifrSm tckvdk
wifhum;awG usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvmaew,fqdk&if b,fvdk
rsm;jzpfEdkifrvJ? wcgrSrpOf;pm;rdwmawG rjzpfEdkifwmawG jzpf
vmrSmyJaygh? 'DvdkyJ csufEdkifiH òr•awmfy&m[mudk qdkAD,uf
wifhum;awG 0ifa&mufaewJhtcg wcgrSmr=uHKzl;wmawG =uHK
ae&yg+yD? y&m[mrSm&SdwJh trsKd;om;jywdkufuae òr•opf-
òr•a[mif; qHkwJhae&mbufqDudk qif;oGm;&if axmifhrSefpwk*H
yHkpH&SdwJh 0JefqJpfvwfpf &ifjyif (Wenceslas  Square)udk jzwf
oGm;&rSm jzpfygw,f? tJ'DrSm bdk[D;rD;,m;acwfqDu
yufx&Gef pdef@ 0JefqJpfvwfpf (Patron  Saint  Wenceslas) 0Jeq
f Jpfvwfpf &ifjyifeJ@ trsKd;om;jywdkuf 
txdrf;trSwf jrif;pD;&kyfwk &Sdygw,f? 1968 rSma&m 1989 rSmyg ordkif;0if jzpf&yfawG jzpfvmchJwJh&ifjyif
jzpfygw,f?
tckawmh 'D&ifjyifudk jynfyusL;ausmfwyfawGu odrf;ydkufxm;aevdkufyg+yD? wifhum;awGu
usnfrdk;&Gmcsvdkufvdk@ trsKd;om;jywdkufvnf; ZumaygufawG jzpfaecJh&yg+yD? usnfqefawG=um;u wzufoyf
vufeufeJ@ tEdkifusifhaewmawGudk ra=umufr&GH@ rSwfwrf;wifaeolawGuawmh "gwfyHkq&mawGygyJ? jynfol
awGuvnf; a=umufvef@w=um; awmif;yefoleJ@/ ajy;v$m;ykef;a&SmifoleJ@ &_yf&Sufcwfaeygw,f? csdefxm;wJh
aoewfawGuawmh ra&rwGufEdkifatmif&Sdaeygw,f? csufEdkifiH&J@ tem*wfuawmh ar#mfvifhcsufenf;enf;yJ
&SdaecJh&yg+yD/ 'gayr,fh csufjynfolawGu vG,fvifhwultav#mhay;rSmawmh r[kwfygbl;? olwdk@[m &ufaygif;
awmfawmf=umatmif axmifeJ@aomif;eJ@csD+yD; qef@usifuef@uGufaecJh=uygw,f? olwdk@[m jynfyusL;ausmf
wyfawGeJ@&kef;&if;qefcwf jzpfcJh&ygw,f? 'gayr,fh EdkifiHom;
olwdk@uyJ usL;ausmfolawGudk awmif;yefcJh&yg w,f? &&if&ovdk
olwdk@[m uef@uGufqENjywJh pmwrf;awG udkvufurcscJh=uygbl;?
aºu;ausmfoHawGvnf; [pfaºu;aewkef; ygyJ? olwdk@&J@&ifxJu
rauseyfcsufawGudk vljrifuGif; tkwfeH&H awGrSm
a&;cs,foDuHk;aecJh=uwkef;ygyJ? olwdk@tm;vHk;[m w&m; r#wr_udk
wnDwnmwnf; awmif;qdkae=uwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
wifhum;tajrmufa&S@wnfhwnfhu 'DvdktjzpftysufawG&J@cHpm;r_[m aemifESpfaygif; (35)
csufjynfolwOD;
ESpf =umcJhwJhwdkifatmif tkwfeH&HawGay:rSmraysmufrysuf &Sdae wkef;jzpfygw,f? 'DxJu &Sif;&Sif;av;eJ@
cHpm;vdkuf&wm wckudk Zbdk&Du jyefawG@awmh tckvdk jyefajymjyoGm;ygw,f?
“tkwfeH&Hay:upmawG/ &kyfyHkawGudk jyefawG@&awmh [dk;vGefcJhwJh (35)ESpfqDu csufjynfol
awG[m olwdk@&ifxJutodpdwfeJ@ vrf;awGay:xGufvm+yD; uef@uGufqENjyae=uwmudk jyefjrifa,mifrdw,f
Asm? usaemf wu,fyJ 0rf;omtm;& jzpfrdygw,f? tkwfeH&Hay:u uAsmawG/ pmawG/ [moawG/ oa&mfxm;
wmawG[m &uf&ufpufpufESdyfuGyfvmwJh qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfr_qdkwm bmvJqdw k Jh ar;cGef;udk jyefajzxm;=u
wmawGyg? aºu;ausmfoHwckqdk&if 'Dar;cGef;udk &nf&G,fxm;wJh pHerlemtajzygyJ? t&ifwkef;u csufjynfol
awG aºu;ausmfcJh&wmu qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@twl c&D;qHk;xd qdkwmjzpfygw,f? qdkAD,uf usL;ausmfvmwJh
tcgrSmawmh olwdk@aºu;ausmfoH ajymif;oGm;cJhyg+yD? csufjynfolawG aºu;ausmfaewmu qdkAD,uf,leD,HeJ@
twl c&D;qHk;txd w&ufrS raecsifawmh qdkwmyJ jzpfygw,f?”

yiftyfwacsmif; vl@toufwacsmif;
qdkAD,ufOD;aqmifwJh jynfyusL;ausmfwyfawGu 0ifa&mufESdyfuGyv f mwJhtwGuf “y&m[m
aEGOD;” [m aoG;pufaygif;rsm;pGm/ toufaygif;rsm;pGm paw;cH+yD; tqHk;owfoGm;&ygawmhw,f? tJ'Dupvdk@
aemufxyf (21)ESpftwGif;rSmawmh csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrSm jynfolawG[m zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fcHae&wmu
vGJvdk@ 'Dvdk aoG;ajruscJh&wJhae@rsKd; w&ufrSr&Sdawmhygbl;? 1968 =o*kwf&J@ trJa&mifae@&ufawGrSm qdkAD,uf
qef@usifckcHa&; csufvlrsKd; ol&Jaumif; (72)a,muf usqHk;cJh&ygw,f? olwdk@xJu wa,mufuawmh
ausmif;om;av; uvma&mAfh (Klarov)ygyJ? ol[m rawmfwq usnfqefxdrSef+yD; aoqHk;&wm r[kwf
ygbl;? usL;ausmfolawG&J@ wrif&nf&G,fypfowfwmcH&wJh wckwnf;aomta=umif;&if;uawmh ol@tusôrSm
csufEdkifiH&J@ oHk;a&mifcs,ftvHudkazmfn$ef;wJh yiftyfwacsmif;udk pdkufxdk;xm;rdvdk@yg?

yHkrSefqufqHa&;acwf
1969 {+yDvrSmawmh tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m ygwD yxr twGif;a&;r–; ae&muae trSef
wu,fyJ z,f&Sm;cH&ygawmhw,f? ol@ae&mrSm qdkAD,ufvdkvm;wJh *l;pwuf[;l quf (Gustáv  Husák)eJ@
tpm;xdk;vdkufwmygyJ? *l;pwuf[l;quf wufvmwJhtcg tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf&J@ Action  Programme  udk
y,fzsufvdkuf+yD; qdkAD,ufeJ@ yHkrSef qufqHa&; (Normalization)udk wnfaqmufygw,f?
'Dtcsdefup+yD; csufjynfolawG[m zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fwmawGudk pwifcHpm;&ygawmhw,f?
vpfb&,ft,ltq&Sdol uGefjrLepf ygwD0ifawG z,f&Sm;cH&ygw,f? EdkifiHa&;tvSnfhtajymif;rSm qef@usif
a0zefwJh wwfodynm&SifawG/ jynfolawGvnf; &mxl;u z,f&Sm;cHvdkuf&ygawmhw,f? yHkrSefqufqHa&;
(Normalization)udk qef@usifol/ qef@usifr,fholawG[m EdkifiHa&;ajccsKyfrdaecJh&wm[m aemufxyfESpfaygif;
(21)ESpfwdkifwdkifyg? olwdk@&J@om;orD;awG[m wuUodkvfynmudkawmif oif,lEdkifcGifhr&Sdawmhygbl;? EdkifiHjcm;
wdkif;jynfawGudk rxGufcsifyJ xGuf&olawGvnf; &SdcJh&yg+yD? cHpm;cJh&olawGuawmh vG,fvG,feJ@ arhypfvdk@
&EdkifrSm r[kwfygbl;?
yHkrSefqufqHa&;qdkwm tkyfpdk;oleJ@ jynfolt=um;u tay;t,lr#wwJh yJkrSefqufqHa&;
r[kwfygbl;? wjcm;pDyg? tkyfpdk;oleJ@ qdkAD,uf,leD,Hwdk@ ESpfO;D ESpfzuftusKd;pD;yGm;twGufyJ yHkrSefqufqHa&;udk
qdkvdkwmjzpfygw,f? jynfoleJ@urBmudk em;vSnfhyg;&dkufvdkufwmygyJ?

&ifjyifu 0d^mOf
16-1-1969rSm òr•awmfy&m[m&J@ &ifjyif (Wenceslas  Square) rSm 0rf;enf;
a=uuGJp&mudpPwck jzpfcJhygw,f? qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfwyfawG&J@ tkyfcsKyfr_atmufrSm
vGwfvyfpGm ajymqdkcGifh ydwfyifcsKyfcs,fwmudk qef@usifuef@uGufwJhtaeeJ@ (21)ESpft&G,f
ausmif;om;av; Jan Palach [m ol@udk,folrD;&–d@ tqHk;pD&ifoGm;ygw,f? rD;avmif'%f&m
a=umifh ol[m aemufokH;&uf t=umrSm aoqHk;oGm;cJhygw,f? ol@tokb[m csufjynfol
Jan Palach awG&J@ jynfyusL;ausmfr_udk t}uD;tus,f qef@usifuef@uGufyGJ jzpfcJh&ygw,f? wvausmf
avmuft=umrSm aemufxyf ausmif;om;av; Jan Zajíc u Jan Palach aoqHk;cJhwJhae&mrSmyJ ol@udk,fol
rD;&–d@ tqHk;pD&ifjyefygw,f? tJ'DESpf {+yDrSm Evžen  Plocek uwcg ol@udk,folrD;&–d@ tqHk;pD&ifjyefygw,f?
y&m[mrSmawmh r[kwfygbl;? Jihlava òr•rSm jzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk toufawG qHk;&_H;cH+yD; aoa=umif;=uHcJh=u
ayr,fh acwWc%tm;jzifh wdkif;jynfrSm xdwfvef@wkefv_yfcJh&wmuvGJvdk@ csuftm%m&SifawGuyJ qufvuf
zdESdyfcsKyfcs,faeovdk qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfwyfawGuvnf; jyef&kyfroGm;cJhygbl;? 'ga=umifh tm%m&SifeJ@
usL;ausmfolawGudk qef@usiftHwkEdkifzdk@ xda&mufwJh enf;vrf; jzpfrvmcJhygbl?
'gayr,fh Jan Palach eJ@ Jan Zajíc wdk@aoqHk;cJh+yD; ESpf(20)jynfh
rSmawmh olwdk@udk wrf;wwJh wygwfwm uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udk 1989
Zefe0g&D (15)&ufuae (21)&ufxd ðyvkyfcJh=uygw,f? xHk;pHtwdkif; t"du&k%f;&J
awGu t=urf;zufESdrfESif; ðzdcGJcJhayr,fh tJ'Dup+yD; aemufxuf (11)vt=umrSm
csufjynfolawG[m uGefjrLepftm%m&SifawGudk ðzwfcswJh uwWDyg awmfvSefa&;
(Velvet Revolution)udk atmifatmifjrifjrif qifE$JEdkifcJh=uygw,f? ordkif;0if armfuGef;
wif&wJh urBmausmf awmfvSefa&;}uD; jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
uwWDyg Wenceslas Square
awmfvSefa&;t+yD;rSm Jan Palach eJ@
Jan Zajíc wdk@usqkH;oGm;cJhwJhae&mjzpfwJh trsKd;om;jywdkuf
a&S@u 0JefqJpfvwfpf &ifjyifrSm a=u;ca&mhpfwckeJ@ *k%fðycJh=u
ygw,f? Jan Palach udk trSwfw& *k%fðywJhtaeeJ@h csuf
  vlrsKd; Luboš Kohoutek u 22-8-1969 rSm olpwif awG@&Sd
trsKd;om;jywdkufa&S@ &ifjyifay:u  Jan Palach  cJhwJh aeywfvrf;a=umif;xJu ð*d[fwckudk Palach vdk@ emrnf
eJ@  Jan Zajíc wdk@udk *k%fðywJh a=u;ca&mhpf ay;vdkufygw,f? Oa&mywckvHk;u òr•}uD;awGrSmvnf; Jan
Palach &J@ trSwfw&awG tawmfrsm;rsm;xm;&Sd *k%fðyaecJh
=uygw,f?
[m csufcsif;raoayr,fh cE<mwckvHk;&J@(85) &mcdkifE_ef; third‐degree burns 
Jan Palach
rD;avmif'%f&ma=umifh oHk;&ufyJ cHygw,f? ol@vdkysufpD;qHk;&_H;wJh vrf;pOfrsKd;udk b,folrS erlemr,loifhbl;vdk@
arwWm&yfcH&if; ukwifay:rSmyJ aoqHk;oGm;cJhygw,f?
eJ@ Jan Zajíc wdk@&J@ 0rf;enf;a=uuGJzG,f&m tjzpfqdk;awG[m jynfy usL;ausmf
Jan Palach
wyfawGeJ@ jynfwGif;opPmazmuf tm%m&l;wdk@udk toufpaw;cH qef@usifwJh aemufqHk;jzpf&yfawGyJvdk@
qdkEdkifp&m&Sdygvdrfhr,f?

tvufZef;'g;'k&SufeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfpepf tay: &_jrifoHk;oyf


qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfwyfawG 0ifvmcgp em&Dydkif;twGif;rSm bmawGjzpfvmrvJqdkwm csuf
EdkifiHacgif;aqmifydkif;uvnf; apmifh=unhfae&wJhoabm &SdcJhygw,f? yxrae@rSmyJ tvufZef;'g;'k&SufeJ@
tjcm;acgif;aqmifawGtm;vHk;udk qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmifydkif;eJ@ pum;ajymzdk@qdk+yD; armfpudkòr•awmfudk ac:oGm;
ygw,f? trSefawmh olwdk@&J@ pdwf"gwfudk&dkufcsKd;zdk@ vkyfcJhwmygyJ?
“y&m[maEGOD;”rwdkifcif uGefjrLepfqef@usifa&; ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;rSm yg0ifcJhzl;wJh
Zbdk&D (Zdenek  Zboril)[m tckawmh pvdkAuf EdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm&SifwOD; jzpfaeyg+yD? ol[m
=unfhaumif;wJh rsufESmxm;ydkif&Sifjzpfygw,f? pdwf0ifpm;zdk@aumif;wmuawmh oljyefajymwhJ t=uyfudkifcH
&wJh ta=umif;awGyg? oleJ@ tjcm;v_yf&Sm;olawG[m ðyjyifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tpDtpOf (Action  Programme)
xJutcsKd@udk &H_@csygw,fvdk@ vufrSwfa&;xdk;ay;cJh&ygw,f? ydkqdk;wmu csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHxJudk
qdkAD,ufwyfawG ppfa&;t& 0ifa&mufpGufzufwm[m w&m;0if+yD; EdkifiHwGif;rSm jynfywyfawG&Sdaewmudk
oabmwlw,fvdk@ t=uyfudkifcH&wJhtjzpfygyJ?
tvufZef;'g;'k&SufeJ@ywfouf+yD; Zbdk&Du ol@tjrifudk xkwfajymygw,f?
“csufEdkifiHxJudk qdkAD,uf usL;ausmf0ifa&mufvdkufwmeJ@ qdk&S,fvpfpepf[mvnf;
wcgwnf; pcef;odrf;oGm;cJh&yg+yD? 'gudk tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufu vufrcHwm[m/ jyefayt;vmaumif;Edk;Edk;eJ@
apmifhaecJhwm ol@&J@ t}uD;qHk;trSm;ygyJ? bmyJjzpfjzpf 'g[m ol@b0wav#mufvHk;rSm u|rf;u|rf;usifusif
ay;qyfcJhwJhpepfyJ jzpfygw,f?”
“tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf[m uGefjrLepfwOD; jzpfcJhygw,f? 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;rjzpfrDeJ@ jzpf+yD;
aemufydkif; csufEdkifiHrSm uGefjrLepfpepf[m tvGefvlóuufrsm;cJhayr,fh 1968=o*kwfaemufydkif;rSmawmh
vHk;0 ,Hk=unfvufcHvdk@&wJh pepfwck r[kwfawmhygbl;? 'gudk ,Hk=unfvufcHwJhol[m uGefjrLepfpepfudkrSD+yD;
ypPnf;OpPmeJ@ taqmifta,mif vdkcsifrufarmvdk@ 'grSr[kwf uGefjrLepfr[kwfolawGudk pdwf"gwfa&;&mt&
tay:pD;u qufqHcsifvdk@om jzpf&ygvdrfhr,f? uGefjrLepfpepfeJ@ udkf,fusKd;&Sm; tjrwfxkwfvdkwJh tcGifha&;
orm;oufoufygyJ? uGefjrLepfpepfudk ouf0if,Hk=unf&r,fqdkwJhoabmudk b,folrS vufrcH=uawmh
ygbl;? 'Dvdk vufrcH=uawmhwJhvlawGxJrSm aemufqHk;vluawmh tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf yJjzpfrSmyg?”
tvufZef;'g;'k&Suf&J@ ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; Action  Programme  ratmifjrifcJhwmawmifrS
ol@tay:a0zef&mrSm oufoufnSmnSm &SdvSwJh EdkifiHjcm;owif;axmuf Alan  Levy  u Zbdk&D ajymwmudk
vufcHcJhygw,f? tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufwdk@wodkuf armfpudkujyefvmwJhtcgrSmawmh tm;vHk;&J@tjrifrSm olwdk@
[m &kyfao;&kyfawGygyJ? 1968 qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfcH&wJht+yD; csufEdkifiHrSmomru EdkifiH&yfjcm; awmfawmf
rsm;rsm;rSmvnf; uGefjrLepfpepfudk ,Hk=unfudk;pm;r_ r&Sd=uawmhygbl;?

y&m[m aEGOD;eJ@ &dkar;eD;,m; wkef@jyefr_


qdkAD,ufeJ@ 0gaqmwyfawG csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;udk ppfa&;t& usL;ausmf0ifa&muf
cJhwmudk taemufEdkifiHawGu a0zefjypfwifwmuvGJ+yD; bmrS rvkyfay;EdkifcJhygbl;? ppfat;acwf&J@ tJ'Dtcsdef
avmufrSm ta&S@eJ@taemuf tEkjrLudpPawG rajyrvnf jzpfaecJhygw,f? ta&S@Oa&myrSm &SdaewJh qdkAD,uf
ppftiftm;udk taemufEdkifiHawGu r,SOfEdkifcJhwm trSefwu,fygyJ? 'ga=umifh ppfa&;t& vufwkef@jyefzdk@
vufa&SmifaecJhw,fvdk@ qdk&rSm jzpfygw,f?
xdxda&mufa&muf a0zefEdkfifcJhwmuawmh &dkar;eD;,m;EdkifiHygyJ? &dkar;
eD;,m;orRw acsmifqufpul; (Nicolae Ceauşescu) [m qdkAD,uf=oZm v$rf;rdk;wmudk
b,fawmhrSrcHwJholjzpfygw,f? tvufZef;'g;'k&Sufbufu &yfwnfvdk@vnf; a=unmay; acsmifqufpul;
cJhygw,f? csufudk usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwJhae@rSmyJ ol[m qdkAD,ufay:vpDawGudk &dkar;eD;,m; òr•awmf
blcg&ufpfuae+yD; vlod&Sif=um; jyif;jyif;xefxef a0zefaeygawmhw,f? 'Daemuf olu ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;
orRwwD;wdk;(Josip  Broz Tito)eJ@ ,m,Dr[mrdwfzJ@G vdkufwJhtcg olwdk@ESpfa,muf[m qdkAD,ufqef@usifa&;
vkyfawmhrvdkvdk jzpfvmygw,f?
acsmifqufpul;[m trSefwu,fyJ qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk ajymifwif;wif; qef@usifol
jzpfw,fqdkwm oufaojyaecJh+yD;om;yg? 'ga=umifhvnf; &dkar;eD;,m;[m aemufxyf ESpfawmfawmf=umwJh
xdwdkifatmif uGefjhrLepf t&dyftm0goatmufrSmae&if; vGwfvGwfvyfvyf ajymEdkifa0zefEdkifaecJhygw,f?
wu,fvdk@ qdkAD,ufwyfawGu &dkar;eD;,m;udk tvm;wlusL;ausmfvmr,fqdk&if vufeufudkif wGef;vSefckcH
=uzdk@ acsmifqufpul;u jynfolawGudkpnf;&Hk;ajymjywJhtcg tpydkif;rSmuwnf;u &dkar;eD;,m;jynfolawG[m
tm;wufoa&m wkef@jyefaecJh=uygw,f? t&ifwkef;u uGefjrLepfygwD0if rjzpfao;olawmif pwifzGJ@pnf;
vdkufwJh rsKd;cspfppfonfrsm; t&HwyfzGJ@ (paramilitary  Patriotic  Guards)udk pm&if;ay; 0ifvm=uwJhtxd
acsmifqufpul; atmifjrifoGm;cJhygw,f?
aemufydkif;rSmawmh tJ'DwyfzJ@G [m ppfwyfyHkpHtwdkif; avhusifh+yD; ppfwyfxufawmif ydkqdk;
oGm;ygawmhw,f? Oyrm t&Hppfonfvkyfae=uwJh ausmif;om;awG[m pmoifcef;udk jyefroGm;&awmhyJ
aoewfypfwmudkyJ avhusifhae&wmrsKd;txd jzpfukefygw,f? aemufqHk; acsmifqufpul;&J@ vufudkifwkwf
jzpfvmcJh+yD; vlxkrsufrkef;usKd;cH&ygawmhw,f? tJ'D rsKd;cspfppfonfawG Zmwford f;oGm;wmuawmh 1989ckESpf
tm%m&Sifvufatmufu jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&;wdkufyGJrSm jzpfygw,f? tm%m&Sif acsmifqufpul;&J@
trdef@udk emcHrdvdk@ vlxkeJ@ ppfwyf&J@ acsr_ef;wmudk cHvdkuf&jcif;ygyJ?
taemufEdkifiHjzpfwJh zifvefqdk&ifvnf; 1968 0ef;usifavmufrSm qdkAD,uf&J@ =oZmv$rf;
rdk;wm cHae&ygw,f? tjcm;taemufEdkifiHawGjzpfwJh tDwvD/ jyifopfwdk@u uGefjrLepfygwDawGvdkyJ zifvef
uGefjrLepfygwDu qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfr_udk jypfwif&_H@cscJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh zifveforRw(Urho  Kekkonen)
uawmh qdkAD,ufvufatmufu csufEdkifiHudk yxrOD;qHk;oGm;a&mufcJhwJh taemufbufu EdkifiHa&;orm;
wOD;yg? ol[m csuforRw qAdkbdk'g csD;jrSifhwJh csufEdkifiH&J@ tjrifhqHk;*k%fxl;aqmifqkudk 4-10-1969 rSm
vufcH,lcJhygw,f?
csufrSm qdkAD,ufwefjyefawmfvSefa&; rjzpf&atmif ppfa&;t& 0ifa&muf pGufzufwmudk
axmufcHwJh taemufEdkifiHawG&J@ wOD;wnf;aom EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifuawmh ay:wl*D uGefjrLepfygwD&J@
taxGaxG twGif;a&;r–; (Álvaro Cunhal) ygyJ?
&k&Sm;rSmawmh qdkAD,ufusL;ausmfr_udk ajymifwif;wif; qef@usifwm awmfawmfrsm;cJhygw,f?
&k&Sm;jynfolawGu b&ufZnufAfqDudk usL;ausmfr_ qef@usifuGufpm trsm;tjym; ydk@cJh=uygw,f? 25-8-
1969 u &ifjyifeD (Red  Square)rSm qef@usifqENjyol(7)a,muf tzrf;cH&
ygw,f? tzrf;cH&olawGxJrSm vm&Dqm bdk*dk&mhZf(Larisa  Bogoraz) qdkol
trsKd;orD; v_yf&Sm;olwOD; yg0ifcJhygw,f? olrudk tr_pD&ifqHk;jzwf+yD; qdkuf
ab;&D;,m;udk av;ESpf=umatmif ydk@vdkufygw,f?
armfpudk&ifjyifeD
ordkif;tarGtESpf xm;cJh+yD
“y&m[m aEGOD;”qdkwm taemufEdkifiH rD'D,mawGu ay;vdkufwJh emrnfyg? csufudkpvdkAuf
uD;,m;udk qdkAD,ufeJ@ 0gaqmwyfawG 0ifa&mufusLK;ausmfwm urBmtESH@ owif;jyef@oGm;atmif taemuf
EdkifiH rD'D,mawGu vkyfEdkifcJhygw,f? aemufydkif; csufuvnf; 'DemrnfudkyJ oHk;vmygawmhw,f? “y&m[m
aEGOD;”rwdkifrD ESpfaygif; (120)u Oa&mywdkufEdkifiHawG[m blZGmawmfvSefa&;udk 1848 aEGOD;&moDrSm qifEJ$
cJh=uzl;ygw,f? European  Revolutions  of  1848  /  Spring  of  Nations  /  Year  of  Revolution qdkwJh
emrnftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ awmfvSefa&;vd_if;vHk;}uD;[m Oa&mywcGif jyef@ESH@v_yf&Sm;cJhwm ordkif;rSm txift&Sm; &Sdae
ygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u Oa&my&J@ EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;pepfawGudk txdkuftavsmuf ajymif;vJay;Edkif
cJhygw,f? tckk 1968 “y&m[maEGOD;”uawmh aemifESpfaygif;(20)ausmfrSm urBmhEdkifiHa&;pepfawGudkawmif
ajymif;vJEdkifapcJhwJh vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_&J@ tpueOD;awGxJu xif&Sm;wJh v_yf&Sm;r_ygyJ?
&kyfjrifoH=um;rSm owif;a=unmol umrDvm utckvdkajym=um;oGm;ygw,f?
“EdkifiHwdkif;rSm udkf,fydkifordkif;a=umif; &Sd=uwmyJjzpfygw,f? jynfolwdkif;u udk,fhEdkifiHordkif;udk
odxm;oifhygw,f? 1968 =o*kwfv&J@ &ufawG[m ordkif;a=umif;rSm trSefwu,f ta&;ygwJh&ufawGyg?
'gawGudk pmoifausmif;awGrSm txl;*&kpdkuf oifay;zdk@wifruygbl;? 'grsKd;aemufxyfrjzpfap&atmif jynfol
w&yfvHk;u oifcef;pm,l=u&rSmvnf; jzpfygw,f?”
“y&m[maEGOD;”&J@ tjzpftysufawGa=umifh vDeif&J@t,ltqawGudk ouf0if,Hk=unfcJh=uwJh
taemuftkyfpk vuf0J0g'D tawmfrsm;rsm;[m zGwfxGufrSawmifydk@rSef; odvm&awmh rausreydjzpf=u&yg
w,f? cHpm;csufawGjyif;xefvmwJhtcgrSm taemuftkyfpkuGefjrLepfygwDawGuae olwdk@EdkifiHawGrSmusifhoHk;wJh
'Drdkua&pDeJ@ ydkrdkvdkufzufEdkifapr,fh oDtdk&DeJ@usifhpOfw&yfvdk@qdkwJh Oa&myuGefjrLepf (Eurocommunism)udk
azmfxkwfzdk@ 1970 0ef;usifrSm óu;yrf;cJhygw,f? 'gayr,fh aemufqHk;rSm tJ'DtzGJ@awGvnf; tpdwfpdwf
tr$mr$m uGJoluGJ/ zsufodrf;wJhol zsufodrf; jzpfoGm;&ygw,f?
“y&m[maEGOD;” tjyD; q,fESpfavmuf=umvmwJhtcg uGefjrLepfw&kyfjynfrSmvnf;yJ
emrnfwl EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;wJh “yDuif;aEGOD;”(Beijin  Spring)qdkwm acwWc% ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? 1970
0ef;usif ,l*dkpvm;AD;,m;EdkifiHrSmvnf; “c&dk&Sef; aEGOD;” (Croatian  Spring) &SdcJh+yD; jynfolawGaxmufcHwJh
EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ jzpfcJhygw,f?
csufEdkifiHtwGufuawmh 1968 qdkwm tpuawmh ar#mfvifhcsufawG/ uwdtmrcHay;wJh
EdkifiHhacgif;aqmifawGeJ@ 0rf;omtm;& jzpfcJh&ygw,f? ESpful;wdkif; “ESpfopfrSm aysmf&$ifygap”vdk@ qkawmif;ay;
=uwm &mE_ef;jynfhrSefawmhrvdk &Sdae&muae 0rf;enf;zG,f tqHk;owfvdkuf&ygw,f? ar#mfvifhcsufawGvnf;
ysufpD;cJJh&yg+yD? tem*wftwGuf tm;i,faecJh&yg+yDf? 'DvdkrsKd; jzpfvmvdrfhr,fvdk@ b,folrS óurodcJh=uygbl;?
wdkif;jynf&J@uH=urRm/ jynfoloef;aygif;rsm;pGmwdk@&J@ uH=urRmawGudkvnf; jynfolvlxk vdkvm;ESpfoufjcif;r&SdyJ
ajymif;vJoGm;apcJhwm (21)ESpfvHk;vHk;ygyJ?
1968 wkef;u csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;udk usL;ausmfcJh=uwJh 0gaqmtzGJ@0if (5)EdkifiHtjyif
uGefjrLepf [kwfola&m r[kwfolawGyg wef;wlpnf;a0;=uwJh yxrOD;qHk; 0gaqmtpnf;ta0;udk 1989
'DZifbm (4)&ufae@ armfpudkrSm usif;ycJhygw,f? tpnf;ta0; qHk;jzwfcsufuawmh tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkif
olwyg;wdkif;jynfudk usL;ausmf pGufzufwmudk &_H@csoifhwJhudpPjzpfw,f qdkwmygyJ? 'Dxufydk+yD; ta&;ygwJh
aemufqufwGJ jzpf&yfuawmh pepfwckudk oufqdk;&SnfapvdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufwckwnf;twGufeJ@ ppfa&;t&
usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwJh qdkAD,ufacgif;aqmif b&ufZfnufAf&J@ oabmw&m;(doctrine)udk ppftcrf;tem;
rygyJ aemufqHk;o+*õK[fvdkufwmyJ jzpfygawmhw,f? 'gayr,fh qdkAD,ufppfwyfawGu csufEdkifiHxJrSm qufae
wkef;ygyJ? usL;ausmfwyfawG[m 1991ckESpf qdkAD,uf,leD,H rðyduGJrDtcsdefxd pkpkaygif; (23)ESpfeD;yg;avmuf
tm;&atmifae+yD;rS jyef&kyfodrf;oGm;cJhygw,f?
urBmausmf 1968 “y&m[maEGOD;”Zmwfvrf; +yD;qHk;cJhyg+yD? 'gayr,fh wcgwkef;u jynfol
awG cHpm;aygufuJv G dkuf&wJh rcHcsifpdwfawG[m csufEkdifiH y&m[mòr•awmf&J@ tcsKd@tkwfeH&HawGuae yJhwifoH
tjzpfeJ@ 'Dae@xd &dkufcwfaeqJyg?

--------------0000000------------------
zdvpfydkif vlxkpGr;f tm; v_yf&Sm;r_
vlxkpGrf;tm;
1986 ckESpfup+yD; tzdESdyfcH urBmjhynfolawG 0rf;omtm;
wuf&oavmuf tm%m&Sifacgif;aqmifawG t}uD;tus,f pwifwkefv_yf
ajcmufjcm;vm&wJhESpfjzpfygw,f? tm%m&SifawG a=umufvnf; a=umuf
xdkufygw,f? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh zdvpfydkifjynfol oef;aygif;rsm;pGmu
t=urf;rzuf jiddrf;csrf;wJh vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_enf;eJ@ (4)&ufyJ qufwdkuf
qef@usifawmfvSefvdkufwm ESpf(20)oufwrf;&SdaewJh tm%m&SiforRw
rm;udk@pf ðywfusoGm;vdk@ jzpfygw,f? 'DatmifyJ[ G m “vlxkpGrf;tm;
awmfvSefa&;” (People  Power  Revolution)vdk@ urBmwv$m;
ausmf=um; oGm;cJhygw,f? 1986 zdvpfydkif awmfvSefa&; (Philippine 
Revolution  of  1986)eJ@ tD;'Dtufpfat awmfvSefa&; (EDSA 
Revolution) vdk@vnf; vlodrsm;yg w,f?

emrnftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ b,fvdkyJ wifpm;ac:a0: *k%fðy=u


ayr,fh 'Duae@xdwkdif tausmf=um;qHk;jzpfaewJh pum;vHk;uawmh vlxk
pGrf;tm; (People Power) ygyJ? tm%m&Sifwdkif; a=umufvSef@ ajcmufjcm;
vlxkpGrf;tm;
ae&wJh pum;vHk; jzpfoGm;yg+yD?
EDSA vdk@ac:vdkuf=uwmuawmh jynfoloef;aygif;
rsm;pGm pka0;qENjy=uwJh vrf;&J@ emrnf (Epifanio  de  los  Santos 
Avenue)udk twdkaumuf,lxm;wm jzpfygw,f? òr•awmf reDvm (Metro 
Manila)&J@ awmifeJ@ajrmufudk qufoG,fay;xm;wJh ta0;ajy; vrf;r}uD;
jzpfygw,f?
reDvmòr•awmf[m EdkifiHrSm vlOD;a&txlxyfqHk;/
pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ b¾ma&;rSm tcsuftcsmtusqHk; jzpfygw,f? òr•awmfudk
jzwfoGm;wJh EDSA vrf;[m um;(10)pD; ,SOfarmif;Edkifatmif us,f0ef;+yD;
ae@pOf um;pD;a& (225000)ausmf jzwfoef;oGm;vmaeygw,f? 'Dvdk
ae&mrsKd;udk a&G;cs,frdwmuawmh EdkifiHa&;t& ta=umif;wdkufqdkifoGm;vdk@
jzpfayr,fh v_yf&Sm;r_qdkif&m r[mAsL[mt& xda&mufwJhae&maumif;wck
taeeJ@ taxmuftuljzpfapcJhygw,f? jynfolvlxk[m EDSA ta0;ajy;vrf;r}uD;
a&&Snfaumif;pm; zdk@ ar#mfvifhcsufeJ@ rdrdwdk@&J@ pD;yGm;a&;awGudk acwWc%
tysufcH+yD; qENjy=uwm ygyJ? vlxkpGrf;tm;eJ@ av;&ufwdkifwdkif ydwfqdk@qENjy
awmif;qdkv_yf&Sm;vdkufvdk@ tm%m&Sifrm;udk@pf[m wdkif;jynfxJuae
acG;ajy;0ufajy; xGufajy;cJh&ygw,f? 'ga=umifh jynfolawG&J@ yg;pyfzsm;rSm
0rf;omtm;& a&yef;pm;oGm;wJhemrnf jzpfygw,f?
jynfoloef;aygif;rsm;pGm&J@ vlxkpGrf;tm;v_yf&Sm;r_udk pwifwJh
ae@uawmh 1986 azaz:0g&D (22)&ufjzpf+yD; av;&uft=um (25)&ufae@rSm udk&mZH tuGDEdk
atmifyGJ&oGm;wmygyJ? OD;aqmifoluawmh twdkuftcH acgif;aqmif udk&mZH udk&D tuGDEdk (Corazon 
“Cory”  Aquino) jzpfygw,f? olr[m tm%m&Sifrm;udk@pf vufxufrm S vkyf=uHcHwJh twdkuftcH
acgif;aqmif befepfEd keDEdGKif; tuGDEdk (Benigno  Ninoy Aquino, Jr.) &J@ZeD; jzpfygw,f?
aemufcHZmwfvrf;
befepfEdk eDEdGKif; tuGDEdkeJ@ rm;udk@pfwdk@[m EdkifiHa&;ðydifzufawG jzpf=u
ygw,f? tuGDEdk[m aumvdyf+yD;atmif rwufawmhyJ pme,fZif;avmuudk 0ifvmcJh
olyg? touf (22)ESpft&G,frSmyJ olykefacgif;aqmifwOD;udk vufeufcsvmatmif
aphpyf!d‡Ed_if;ay;EdkifcJhvdk@ EdkifiHa&;avmurSm emrnfausmf=um;aeygw,f? ol EdkifiHa&;
=oZmanmif;wJh Tarlac  jynfe,frSm 1963 a&mufawmh tkyfcsKyfa&;r–; jzpfvmcJhyg
w,f? 'Daemuf 1967 rSm txufv$wfawmftrwf jzpfvmygw,f? zdvpfydkif befepfEdkeDEdGKif; tuGDEdk
&mZ0ifrSm toufti,fqHk; ygvDreftrwfvdk@ rSwfwrf;wifcH&olygyJ? ol[m udk&mZH (Corazon 
Conjuangco)udk vufxyfcJhygw,f? udk&mZHwdk@rdom;pk[m zdvpfydkifEdkifiH&J@ tcsrf;omqHk; pm&if;0ifawG
jzpfygw,f? zdvpfydkifa'ocHeJ@ aoG;aESmoGm;cJhwJh xif&Sm;wJh w&kwfrsKd;qufygyJ?
rm;udk@pfuvnf; Ilocos Norte jynfe,frSm 1949 up+yD; oHk;=udrfqufwdkuf ta&G;cH&wJh
v$wfawmftrwftjzpfeJ@ EdkifiHa&;=oZmaumif;aecJhygw,f? aemifwcsdef rm;udk@pf vufxyfcJhwJh tDr,fvf'g&J@
rdom;pkuvnf; Lyete jynfe,f&J@ EdkifiHa&;rSm v#rf;v#rf;awmufaeygw,f? tDr,fvf'g[m rm;udk@pf orRw
xdkifcHkay:u jyefrqif;&a&;twGuf t"dutaxmuftul trsm;=uF;ay;cJhol jzpfw,fvdk@
emrnfxGufcJholygyJ?
rm;udk@pf[m 'kwd,urBmppftwGif;u zdvpfydkif
vufeufukdifwyfzGJ@rSm Adkvftqifhwm0ef xrf;aqmif&if;eJ@ *syef
ppfwyfudk aemufa=umif;u0ifwdkuf+yD; ppfom;(50)ausmfudk owf
cJhw,fvdk@ ukd,fa&;twˆKy`wdrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f? taxmuf
txm; rcdkifvHkayr,fh 'Dtcsuf[m rm;udk@pfukd emrnf}uD;/ &mxl;
awG wdk;oGm;apcJhwmuawmh trSefygyJ? aemufydkif;rSm tvdrfay:
oGm;w,fvdk@vnf; qdkygw,f?
1965ckESpf rm;udk@ orRwtjzpf usrf;opPm 1963 rSm txufv$wfawmf OuUXjzpfvmcJhwJh
usdefqdkaeyHk/ tv,frStrskd;orD;rSm ol@ZeD; rm;udk@pf[1 1965rSm orRwjzpfvmygw,f? 1969rSm 'kwd,
tDr,fvf'g jzpfonf?
t=udrf xyfrHta&G;cH&jyefygw,f? 'Daemuf 1972ckESpfrSm rm;udk@pf
[m ausmif;om;qlylr_awGudk ESdrfESif;zdk@qdk+yD; ppftkyfcsKyfa&; (Martial  Law)udk xkwfjyefygw,f? 'gayr,fh
xkwf+yD;+yD;csif; yxrOD;qHk;vkyfwmuawmh tuGDEdk tygt0if twdkuftcHawGudk zrf;qD;axmifcsvdkufwm
jzpfvdk@ tm;vHk; tHhtm;oihfukef=uygw,f? 'Dtcsufay:rlwnf+yD; wu,fvdk@ rm;udk@pfuom rm&S,favm
rxkwfbl;qdk&if aemufw=udrf a&G;aumufyJGrSmjzpfjzpf 'grSr[kwf vlxkaxmufcHr_eJ@ a&G;aumufvdk@yJjzpfjzpf
tuGDEdku rm;udk@pfudktEdkif&zdk@ &SdEdkifw,fvdk@ avhvmtuJjzwfolawGu oHk;oyf=uygw,f? wenf;tm;jzifh
tuGDEdk[m rm;udk@pftwGuf EdkifiHa&;ðydifzuf jzpfwJhtwdkif; orRw&mxl;udkyg t"dujcdrf;ajcmufolwOD; jzpfae
w,fvdk@ rm;udk@pfu ,lq+yD; vufOD;atmif t&ifESdyfuGyfwmyJJ jzpfygw,f?
tuGDEdk[m axmifxJrSm qdk;qdk;0g;0g;aecJh&ygw,f? 1977 rSm ol@udk tzsuftarSmifh vkyf
w,fqdk+yD; ppfcHk&Hk;uae ao'%fcsrSwfcJhygw,f? axmifxJrSmae&if; pmzwf/ w&m;xdkifEdkifcJhwmawGa=umifh
ydkrdkyDjyifav;eufwJh twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&;orm;aumif;wOD; jzpfvmcJhygw,f? 1980 a&mufawmh rm;udk@pfu
tuGDEdkudk tar&dum;rSm ESvHk;a&m*gudk ukozdk@ oGm;a&mufcGifhay;vdkufygw,f? tuGDEdk[m ZeD;jzpfoleJ@twl
jynfyudk xGufvmcJhygw,f? tuGDEdkr&SdwJhaemufwESpfrSm rm;udk@pf[m ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk jyefvnf&kyfodrf;
ay;vdkufygw,f?
tar&dum;a&mufaewJh tuGDEdk[m t&ifxufydk+yD; ausmf=um;vm&kHru jynfya&muf
twdkuftcHtzGJ@awG&J@ t"duacgif;aqmif jzpfvmcJhygw,f? zdvpfydkif jynfwGif;u vlxk&J@axmufcHr_udk ydkrdk
&&Sdvmygw,f? 'g[m rm;udk@pf orRw &mxl;wnfjrJa&;udk jyefvnff jcdrf;ajcmufvmwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
tuGDEdk[m 1983 rSm zdvpfydkifudk jyefvmzdk@ pDpOfygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm orRwrm;udk@[m
usef;rma&;tajctae raumif;awmhygbl;? wdkif;jynfudk orR uawmf tDr,fvf'g rm;udk@pfeJ@ ppfOD;pD;csKyf
azbD,ef Am; (Fabian  Ver)wdk@u cs,fvS,fxm;vdk@ zdvpfydkifEdkifiH[m pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;tajctaeawG
tawmfav;qdk;0g;aeygw,f? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;[m rm;udk@pf+yD;&if 'kwd,=oZmt&SdqHk;jzpf+yD;/
Rolex  12 vdk@ac:wJh rm;udk@pf&J@ t,Hk=unf&qHk; vl&if;(12)a,mufrSmvnf; tjrifhqHk;
tm%m&Sdol jzpfygw,f? wyfxJrSm pdwfoabmxm;uGJwmawG xifxif&Sm;&Sm; jzpfvm
wma=umifh jynfwGif;ppf jzpfEdkifw,fvdk@vnf; wGufqukef=uyg+yD?
'gudk wm;qD;Edkifzdk@u enf;vrf;ESpfckyJ &Sdw,fvdk@ tuGDEdkifu oHk;oyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD; Am;
ygw,f? ol@taeeJ@ orRwrm;udk@pfudk tm%mv$Jay;zdk@ ajzmif;zsvdk@&&ifvnf;&/
r&&ifvnf; twdkuftcHtiftm;pkudk wm0ef&Sd&Sd pkpkpnf;pnf; wnfaqmuf+yD; EdkifiHa&;t& wdkufyJ0G ifzdk@yJ
jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh tuDGEdkjyefvm&if uGefjrLepfawGu 'grSr[kwf rm;udk@pfopPmcHawGu owfvdrfhr,fvdk@
tDr,fvf'g rm;udk@pfu wdwdususyJ óuwif xkwfajymvmygw,f?
1983 =o*kwf (21)&ufrSm tar&dum;uae tuGDEdk
wu,fyJ jyefvmcJhygw,f? reDvm EdkifiHwumavqdyfa&mufvdk@ avqdyf
tapmifhppfom;awG&J@ tapmifhta&SmufeJ@ av,mOfay:u qif;vmcgprSmyJ
vkyf=uHcHcJh&ygw,f? acgif;udkxdrSef+yD; yGJcsif;+yD; aoqHk;oGm;cJh&wmyg? tpdk;&
a=unmcsufrSmawmh Rolando Galman qdkol uGefjrLepf wOD;wnf;uom
tuGDEdkudk ypfowfoGm;wmjzpf+yD; avqdyftapmifh ppfom;awGu tJ'Dvkyf=uH
oludk csufcsif;yJ taoypfowfvdkuf&w,fvdk@ azmfjyygw,f? 'gayr,fh
jynfolawGa&m EdkifiHwumuyg t,Hkt=unf r&Sd=uygbl;?
twdkuftcHacgif;aqmifudk vkyf=uHowfjzwfwm[m
ppfa&; t& v#Kd@0Suf=uHpnf usL;vGefwmjzpfw,fvdk@ trsKd;orD; w&m;ol}uD;
tuf*&mAg (Corazon  Juiliano  Agrava)OD;aqmifwJh 5OD;yg vGwfvyfwJh tuDGEdk avqdyfrSm vkyf=uHcH&
pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifu wESpfausmft=umrSm a=unmygw,f? 'gayr,fh
txufw&m;&Hk;u 'gudk vpfvsL&_vdkufygw,f? 'ghtjyif tpdk;& xkwfjyefwJhZmwfvrf;udk txufw&m;&Hk;u
rSefuefygw,fvdk@ twnfðyvdkuf&Hkru AdkvfcsKyfAm;eJ@ ppft&m&Sd (24)a,muf/ t&yfom;wOD;wdk@udkyg 1985
'DZifbmrSm w&m;ao v$wfay;vdkufygao;w,f? 'g[m orRwrm;udk@pfudk jynfwGif;jynfyrSmyg t,Hkt=unf
ydkrJhoGm;apcJhygw,f? 'ghtjyif aemifwcsdef tm%m&Sifpepfudkqef@usifzdk@ vlxkpGrf;tm;awmfvSefa&; ay:ayguf
vmap&Hkomru atmifyGJyg&oGm;EdkifcJhwJ@ t"duta=umif;&if;awGxJu wckygyJ?
tuGDEdk&J@ tokbtcrf;tem;rSm zdvpfydkif wEdkifiHvHk;
u jynfoloef;aygif;rsm;pGm vma&muf *g&0ðy=uygw,f? zdvpfydkif
&mZ0ifrSm trsm;qHk;vdk@ qdkygw,f? ysufqD;azmufjyefaewJh tpdk;&udk
qef@usif&if; rw&m;vkyf=uHcH&wmjzpfw,fvdk@ vlxku pdwfxdcdkufpGm
cHpm;=u&ygw,f? rm;udk@pfudkvnf; tjypfwif&if; trsufa'goawG
xGufae=uygawmhw,f? befeDEdk tuGDEdk[m touf&SifpOfu omref
twdkuftcHacgif;aqmif EdkifiHa&;ðydifzuftjzpfeJ@om&SdaecJhayr,fh vkyf
=uHcH&+yD;wJhtcgrSmawmh ydkrdkausmf=um; vlóuufrsm;oGm;wm jzpfvdk@ befeDEdt
k uGED dk tbkbtcrf;tem;
rm;udk@pftwGufqdk&if tcktcsdefrSm vlxkeJ@ EdkifiHwumaxmufcHr_ &zdk@
ydkrdkcufcJvmaeyg+yD? tuGDEdk[m vlxk&J@axmufcHr_udk&oGm;wJh tmZmenfwOD; jzpfoGm;cJh&ygw,f? jynfol
awG[m wae@ae@rSm rm;udk@pfudk rjzpfraeðzwfcsEdkifygawmhr,f? vlxkudk wm;qDvdk@r&Edkifawmhygbl;? taES;eJ@
tjrefygyJ?
tm%m&Sif rm;udk@pfvufxufrSm (1) //
jynfe,fv$wfawmftrwf a&G;aumufyJGwkef;u vlxkudk rJqG,fwJhtcg aemifESpfaygif;
(20)avmuf=um&if cifAsm;wdk@xJuwOD;OD;udk orRw jzpfvmapzdk@ usaemf uwday;ygw,fvdk@ rm;udk@pfu
ajymcJhzl;ygw,f? trSefwu,fyJ ESpf (20)ausmft=umrSm oludk,fwdkif orRw&mxl;u xGufay'vdkuf
&ygw,f? rm;udk@pf[m txufv$wfawmftrwfb0ae orRwa&G;aumufyGJ 0ifðydifwJhtcg tEdkif&&SfoGm;
ygw,f? rm;udk@pf&J@ orRwoufwrf; pkpkaygif;[m 1965 'DZifbm (30) &ufuae 1986 azaz:0g&D (25) &uf
xd ESpfaygif; (20)eJ@(2)veD;yg; qufwkduf&SdaecJyh gw,f? orRwtjzpf usr;f opPmused fqdk+yD; tzGifhrdef@cGef;ajym
wkef;u zdvpfydkifEdkifiHudk t}uD;tus,f atmifjrifwdk;wufwJhEdkifiH jzpfap&r,fvdk@awmh uwday;cJhzl;wmygyJ?
rm;udk@pf[m 1965ckEpS fa&G;aumufyGJrSm tEdkif&+yD;wJhtcg tcGefaumufcHwmudk wif;wif;
=uyf=uyf xdef;csKyf+yD; b¾ma&;wnfjidrfatmif xdef;csKyfzdk@ óu;pm;ygw,f? EdkifiHwum tzGJ@tpnf;awGuae
aiGa=u;tajrmuftjrm;acs;,l+yD; wdki;fjynf&J@ vrf;yrf;qufoG,fa&; pDrHudef;awG wnfaqmufygawmhw,f?
qefudkjynfytrSDtcdkuif;apzdk@twGuf v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;u¾rSm zGH@òz;wdk;wufvmatmif ododomom
tm;ay;cJhygw,f? jynfyEdkifiHawGeJ@ qufqHa&;aumif;rGefatmifvnf; óu;yrf;cJhygw,f? txl;ojzifh
tar&duefeJ@ajyvnfa&;udk OD;pm;ay;wmjzpfvdk@ awmifAD,uferfrSm&SdwJh tar&duefppfa&;v_yf&Sm;r_twGuf
axmufcHwJhtaeeJ@ zdvpfydkifppfom;awGudk apv$wfzdk@ oabmwlcJhygw,f? awmf&Hkwef&Hk jy\emawG
txift&Sm; &Sdaeayr,fhfvnf; wdkif;jynfwdk;wufr_twGuf vkyfaew,fqdkwJhtjrifeJ@ rm;udk@pfudk jynfol
vlxku av#mhwGufcJh=uygw,f?
'ga=umifhyJ rm;udk@pf[m 1969ckESpf Edk0ifbm orRw
a&G;aumufyGJrSm 'kwd,t=uddrf jyefvnfta&G;cH&ygw,f? awmf&Hkwef&Hk &Sd
aecJhwJh jy\emawG[m tqiftjcifrJh vGefuJvmygw,f? tpdk;&tzGJ@
xJrSm vmbfpm;r_awG jzpfcsifwdkif;jzpfaewm/ tpdk;&uvl@tcGifhta&;awG
csKd;azmufaewm/ ynmoifp&dwfpuawG jrifhwufvmaewmawGudk
ausmif;om;awGu oabmrusygbl;? +yD;awmh rm;udk@pf[m ppfa&;udk Malacañang Palace
OD;pm;ay;vmwm/ ol rvdkcsifwJh ppfbufqdkif&mawGudk csKd;ESdrfwm/ tar&dueftusKd;pD;yGm;eJ@ ay:vpDawGudk
tvGeftu|H vdkufavsmay;aewmawGudkvnf; ausmif;om;awGu r=udKufygbl;?
'ga=umifh jy\emawGudk a&iHkE_wfydwfraeawmhyJ 1970 Zefe0g&DrSm tpGef;a&muf
ausmif;om;tkyfpkESpfck (KM‐the Kabataang Makabayan and SDK‐the Samahand Demokratikong 
Kabatann)wdk@u orRw &Hk;pdkuf&m eef;awmf (Malacañang  Palace)udk 0ifa&mufzdk@ óu;yrf;wJhtcg
tapmifhawGu ypfcwfwm;qD;vdk@ ausmif;om; (6)a,muf aoqHk;+yD; trsm;tjym; '%f&m&&SdcJhygw,f? 'gudk
uGefjrLepfawGu tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk v_H@aqmfay;wmeJ@ ausmif;om;awGuvnf; olwdk@
jzpfapvdkwJh EdkifiHa&;qENawGudk xkwfazmfvm=uygawmhw,f? reDvmòr•awmfeJ@ tjcm;òr•=uD;awG&J@vrf;ay:rSm
ausmif;om; axmifaygif;rsm;pGmu t}uD;tus,f &_H@cs qENjy=uygawmhw,f?
zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm 1950 0ef;usifavmufuwnf;u uGefjrLepfawG wnf&Sdv_yf&Sm;aecJh=u
ygw,f? ydk+yD;tpGef;a&mufwJh tkyfpkuawmh armfpDwkef;&J@uGefjrLepfvrf;pOfudk ,Hk=unfwJh armf0g'D (Maoists)
awGjzpfygw,f? rm;udk@pf 'kwd,oufwrf;rSm olwdk@u zdvpfydkifuGefjrlepfygwD(CPP)udk jyefvnfpkpnf;vdkuf+yD;
ppfa&;qdkif&mtwGuf New  Peopleʹs  Army  (NPA) vdk@ac:wJh uGefjrLepfaysmuf=um;ppfwyfudk zGJ@pnf;
vdkufygw,f?
uGefjrLepfawG[m rm;udk@pfudk rauseyfwJhausmif;om;awG/ rm;udk@pfudk qef@usifolawGudk
wufwufºuºu tm;ay;axmufcH=uygawmhw,f? ausmif;om;tzGJ@tpnf;/ v,form;/ tvkyform;/
0efxrf;eJ@ ynm&SifawGqDudk pdrfh0ifcsOf;uyf=uygw,f? 'DvdkeJ@ NPA [m t&Sdeft0geJ@ =oZmtm%m
us,fjyef@vmatmif vkyfEdkifcJhygw,f?
uGefjrLepfawG&J@ t=urf;zufr_awG[m 1970 apmapmydkif;avmufuwnf;u pwifaecJhyg+yD?
reDvm[m t"du AHk;azmufcGJcH&wJhae&m jzpfvmygw,f? rm;udk@pf[m uGefjrLepfawGtay: tjypfyHkcs&if;
tzsuftarSmifhvkyfolawGqdk+yD; &maygif;rsm;pGm zrf;qD;wJhtcg ausmif;om;/ tvkyform;eJ@ ynm&Sif trsm;
tjym;vnf; yg0ifcJh&ygw,f?
1972 pufwifbm (21)&ufrSm rm;udk@pf[m ppftyk fcsKyfa&;udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;+yD; (23)
&ufae@rSm xkwfjyefvdkufygw,f? 'g[m rm;udk@pf&J@ tm%m&Sifpepf pwifvdkufwJh trSwftom;ygyJ? t"du
ta=umif;jywmuawmh wdkif;jynfudk u,fwifzdk@eJ@ vlaer_todkif;t0dkif;udk jyefvnf ðyjyifzdk@yJ vdk@qdkygw,f?
1935ckESpf zdvpfydkiftajccHOya'rSm orRw wOD;[m &SpfESpfxufydk+yD; wm0efrxrf;aqmif
apzdk@ uef@owfxm;wm&Sdaeawmh rm&S,favm&SdaerSom rm;udk@pftaeeJ@ tuef@towfr&Sd qufvuf
tkyfcsKyfEdkifrSmjzpfw,fvdk@ tuJjzwform;awGu ,lq=uygw,f? bma=umifhvnf;qdkawmh rm&S,favm[m
b,ffESpftxdyJ &Sd&r,fqdkwm tajccHOya'rSm rjyXmef;&ao;vdk@ygyJ?
rm;udk@pf[m trSefwu,fudkyJ ol@&J@orRwoufwrf;ukefqHk;r,fh 1973 Edk0ifbmudk ausmf+yD;
qufvuftkyfcsKyfaecJhygw,f? 'Daemuf ygvDrefudk zsufodrf;vdu k fygawmhw,f? 'DtcgrSm twdkuftcHawG
w&m;0if&yfwnfEdkifpGrf; r&Sdawmhygbl;? tajccHOya'rSm rm&S,favmoufwrf;udk jyefvnfrjyifqifEdkifatmif
vkyfwmvnf; jzpfEdkifw,fvdk@ oHk;oyf=uygw,f?
'DvdkeJ@yJ rm;udk@pf[m wOD;wnf;aom tkyfpdk;ol tm%m&Sif jzpfvmcJhygw,f? ol@&J@
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;tpdk;&[m tajccHOya't& tm%mydkifpdk;w,fvdk@vnf; ajymaevdkufygao;w,f? tajccH
Oya'udk ol@yg;pyfu xkwfajymayr,fh vufawG@rSm tajccHOya'udk rvdkufemol[m rm;udk@pfyJ jzpfygw,f?
Oyrmqdk&if tydk'f(3)rSmygwJh jynfolawG&J@ tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;udk oludk,fwdkifucsKd;azmufaewmygyJ?
rm&S,favm pvdkufwnf;u zdvpfydkifEdkifiH&J@ w&m;pD&ifa&;r¾dKif ysufqD;oGm;&yg+yD? tjrifhqHk; A[dkw&m;&Hk;
uae atmufqHk;u w&m;&Hk;awGtxd tm%m&Sif&J@ qHk;jzwfcsufeJ@om jynfolawG w&m;pD&ifcHae=u&
ygawmhw,f?
rm;udk@pfom befepfEdktuGDEdk tygt0if twdkuftcHEdkifiHa&;orm;awGudk t&ifqHk; zrf;
vdkufygw,f? 'Daemuf jynfolaxmifaygif;rsm;pGmudkvnf; tzsuftarSmifhvkyfw,fvdk@ pGyfpJ+G yD; qufvuf
zrf;qD;aeygawmhw,f? tzrf;cH&ol &maygif;rsm;pGm[m !‡if;yef;ESdyfpufcH=u&ygw,f? trsm;pk[m ppfwyf&J@
xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;awGrSm bmtr_rSr&SdyJ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm xdef;odrf;cHae&ygw,f? wcsKd@qdk&if tzrf;cH&+yD;
aysmufcsif;rvS aysmufqHk;aeygw,f? b,frSmrS pHkprf;&SmazGvdk@r&awmhygbl;?
rm&S,favmeJ@ tkyfcsKyfaeayr,fhvnf; uGefjrLepfolykefawG&J@ jy\emuawmh &yfqdkif;
roGm;cJhygbl;? 1986 rSm vufeuftjynfhtpHk udkifaqmifxm;wJh NPA uGejf rLepf
aysmuf=um;OD;a& (1600)xd &Sdw,fvdk@ tpdk;&uxkwf jyefygw,f? olwdk@[m ðcHcdk
wdkufcdkufwwfwJhtjyif vmbfpm;aew,fvdk@owif;&wJh tpdk;&0efxrf;awGudk
owfjzwfwJh t=urf;zufr_rsKd;awGudk usL;vGefwwfygw,f? Sparrow  units vdk@
ac:wJh NPA vlowftzGJ@awGudkzGJ@pnf;+yD; usL;vGef=uwmygyJ? olwdk@xdef;csKyf
xm;wJhe,fajrawGrSm vlxkqDu tcGefaumufcHygw,f? vlxk[m NPA uGefjrLepfaysmuf=um;
aysmuf=um;awGudk a=umuf&GH@ae=u&ygw,f? NPA

NPA  uGefjrLepfaysmuf=um;awGudk ESdrfESif;zdk@qdk+yD; rm;udk@pfu ppfonftiftm;udk ESpfodef;


xd wdk;csJ@pkaqmif;vdkufygw,f? NPA jcdrf;ajcmufr_&SdwJh aus;vufa'oawGrSm t&yfom;umuG,fa&;
tzGJ@awG zGJ@ay;+yD; vufeufwyfqifay;xm;ygw,f?
NPA  udk axmufcHtm;ay;olawG&SdwJh aus;vufa'oawGrSm tpdk;&u vl@tGifhta&;awG
csKd;azmufaeygw,f? tpdk;&0efxrf;awGeJ@ =oZmwduUr&SdolawGu w&m;rJh usL;vGefae=uygw,f? vlxk[m
qif;&JwGif;u&kef;rxGufEdkif=uygbl;? 'DtcsufawG[m zdvpfydkifvli,fawGudk NPA uqGJaqmifwJh rufvHk;awG
jzpfvm&ygw,f? tm%m&Sif rm;udk@pf&J@ zdESdyfr_awGudk rsuf0g;xifxif awG@jrif&wJh c&pf,ef bkef;awmf}uD;
awGeJ@ oDv&SifawGawmif NPA udk ,dkif;yif;yl;aygif;vmae=uygawmhw,f? tcsKd@qdk&if NPA tzGJ@xJudk
awmif 0ifcJh=uygw,f?
ppftkyfcsKyfa&; xkwfjyefcgprSm EdkifiHa&;ygwDtm;vHk; v_yf&Sm;cGifhawG &yfqdkif;cHvdkuf&+yD;
1978 {+yDa&mufrS enf;enf;av; jyefvnfv_yf&Sm;vmEdkifygawmhw,f? trSefawmh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'
atmufrSm yxrOD;qHk;usif;ywJh toGiful;ajymiff;a&;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJ (7-4-1978 )ygyJ? axmifxJ
a&mufaewJh befepfEdk tuGDEdku 0ifðydifcGifh&ayr,fh rJqG,fv_yf&Sm;cGifh r&cJhygbl;? orRwuawmf tDr,fvf'g
rm;udk@pf OD;aqmifwJh Kilusang  Bagong  Lipunan  (KBL) ygwDu (164)ae&meJ@ tuDGEdk OD;aqmifwJh
Pusyon  Bisaya  (LABAN) ygwDu (64)ae&mrSm Edkifw,fvdk@ tpdk;&u a=unmygw,f? a&G;aumufyGJ
rormr_awG &SdcJhvdk@ rufx&dk reDvmrSm rD;avmifAHk;awG aygufuGJcJh& ygw,f?
'kwd,t=udrf a&G;aumufyJGudk 30-1-1980 rSmusif;y+yD;oGm;wJhtcgrSmawmh rm;udk@pf
ppftpdk;&udk axmufcHwJh tDr,fvf'g&J@ KBL ygwDuyJ xyfEdkifoGm;jyefygw,f? 'DtcgrSmawmh KBL udk 0dkif;
wdkufzdk@ EdkifiHa&;ygwDtopfawG xGufay:vmygawmhw,f? OD;aqmifwJh twdkuftcHygwDuawmh tuDGEdkf&J@
LABAN ygwDygyJ?

a&G;aumufyGJ oHk;oyfcsuf
rm&S,favmxkwfxm;wJhtcsdefrSm vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufaewJh ppftpdk;&u }uD;=uyf+yD;
a&G;aumufyGJudk vkyfwmjzpfygw,f? twdkuftcHygwDudk a&G;aumufyGJ 0ifðydifcGifhðyxm;w,f qdkayr,fh
tzsuftarSmifhvkyfw,f pGyfpJcG sufeJ@ zrf;qD;xm;wJh twdkuftcHacgif;aqmif tuGDEdkudk jyefv$wfray;yJ
xm;wmuawmh w&m;ojzifh r,SOfðydifbl;qdkwm xif&Sm;aewJhtcsufjzpfygw,f? t&iftpdk;&tqufquf
ygvDrefacwfawGrSm&SdczJh ;l wJh tajccHOya'qdkwm rm;udk@pf ppftpdk;&u twdkuftcHeJ@ jynfolawGudk ESdyfuGyfzdk@
twGuf vdk&ifoHk;+yD; ppftpdk;&twGuf xdcdkufr,fqdk&if y,fxm;wmuvnf; w&m;r#wwJh udpPr[kwfygbl;?
zGJ@xm;wJhEdkifiHa&;ygwDudk=unfhvdkufawmhvnf; vuf&Sdaygif;oif;aeqJ tm%m&SiforRw
uawmf 'Dr,fvf'grm;udk@pfu OD;aqmifwJhygwD jzpfaewm awG@&jyefygw,f? wcg a&G;aumufyJpG nf;rsOf;qdkwm
ppftpdk;& tm%mqufjrJatmif rm;udk@pfpdwf=udKufcef@xm;wJholawGu rm;udk@pftvdkus wzufoyf a&;qGJ
ay;xm;wm jzpfaejyefygw,f? 'ghtjyif twdkuftcHawGu a&G;aumufyJGudk 0ifðydif&ifawmif ppftpdk;&udk
axmufcHwJhygwDavmuf tbufbufu taumif;qHk;jzpfatmif jyifqif+yD;wJhtxd tcsdef,l óuwifrJqG,f
pnf;&Hk;xm;vdk@ &cJhwmr[kwfygbl;?
w&m;a&;r¾dKif ysufpD;aewm/ tpdk;&tzGJ@u qdk;qdk;0g;0g; tusifhysufvmbfpm;aewm/
Oya'rJh vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmufaewm/ EdkifiHwumqufqHa&;udk ppftpdk;&u vuf0g;}uD;tkyf wOD;wnf;
csKyfudkifxm;wmawGvnf; xifxif&Sm;&Sm; &Sdaeygw,f? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;jzpfaewJhtwdkif; ppftpdk;&&J@
wzufoyf xdef;csKyfxm;wmawGa=umifh owif;rD'D,m vGwfvyfcGifhvnf; r&Sdygbl;?
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;atmufrSm tm%moHk;+yD; xifwdkif;=uJaewJh rm;udk@pf ppftpdk;&u wzufoyf
pDpOf}uD;=uyfwJh a&G;aumufyJG[m 1974 ckEpS f *&dEdkifiH&J@ toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvrSm usif;yoGm;wJh
a&G;aumufyJeG J@ vHk;vHk;rwlygbl;? *&drSmu oduQmorm"d&Sd+yD; t&nftcsif;&Sdol EdkifiHom;awGeJ@ toGiful;
ajymif;a&;umvudk wESpftcsdef,l+yD;rS a&G;aumufyGJudk usif;yay;wmjzpfygw,f? vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh
tjyif jynfolvlxku 'Drdkua&pD tpdk;&udk rSefrSefuefuef a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufay;EdkifcJhygw,f? ppftkyfcsKyfa&;
Oya' xkwfjyefxm;wJh ppftpdk;&vufxufrSmusif;ywJh a&G;aumufyGJ[m ormorwf&dSzdk@ cJ,Of;ovdk
'Drdkua&pD enf;vrf;vnf;usEdkifrSm r[kwfygbl;? jynfolawGvdkvm;wJh ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&udk
zGJ@pnf;ay; EdkifrSmvnf; r[kwfwmuawmh aocsmaeygw,f?
tm%m&Sif rm;udk@pfvufxufrSm (2)
rm;udk@pf[m jrefjrefqefqef pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufvmatmif pDrHudef;tawmfrsm;rsm;udk
taumiftxnfazmfcJhwma=umifh 1980 a&S@ydkif;ESpfawGavmuftxd wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;[m yHkrSefwdk;wufae
cJhygw,f? v,form;awGudk pdkufysKd;a&;enf;ynmeJ@ aiGa=u;taxmuftyHhay;wJhtjyif rufvHk;awGyg ay;
xm;cJhygw,f? erlemtm;jzifhqdk&if pyg;pdkufwJhv,form;awGudk Price  support vdkrsKd;rufvHk;ay;xm;wJh
twGuf owfrSwfxm;wmxuf qefaps;usoGm;&if usoGm;oavmuf tpdk;&u aiGpdkufavsmfay;wmjzpfvdk@
pyg;pdkufv,form;awG 0ifaiGrxdcdkufvdk@ tm;wufoa&m pdkufysKd;=uygw,f? 'ga=umihf tpdk;&u v,f,m
pdkufysKd;a&;u¾rSm jynfwGif;zlv+Hk yDvdk@ 1976 ckESpfrSm a=unmEdkifcJhwJhtjyif qefwifydk@a&mif;cswJhEdkifiHawmif
jzpfoGm;ygw,f?
ajr,mopf pl;prf;azmfxkwfa&;pDrHudef;/ tEkjrL"gwftm;ay;puf&Hk pDrHudef;/ a&tm;v#yfppf
xkwfvkyaf &;eJ@ qnfajrmif;wmwrH pDrHudef;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; pDrHudef;/ Geothermal Power vdk@ac:wJh
ajratmuftyl&Sdefuae v#yfppf"gwftm;xkwf,la&;pDrHudef; tp&SdwJh pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òz;r_pDrHudef;awGrSm EdkifiHjcm;
uae aiGa=u;acs;iSm;+yD; axmufyHhay;cJhwmawG&Sdvdk@ pufr_vkyfief;eJ@ ukefoG,fa&;u¾awGrSmvnf; txdkuf
tavsmuf wdk;wufvmcJhygw,f?
'ghtjyif urBmvSnfhc&D;onfvkyfief;eJ@ EdkifiHjcm;oGm;a&muftvkyfvkyfolawGu EdkifiHjcm;aiG
jyefydk@wJhvkyfief;awGudk tm;ay;wJhtwGuf w[kefxdk; wdk;wufvm+yD; wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;udk tawmftwef
taxmuftul ay;vmEdkifcJhygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ jynfwGif;tvkyfvufrJhjy\emeJ@ EdkifiHjcm;aiG t}uD;
tus,f vdktyfaewJh jy\emawGudkvnf; ajz&Sif;EdkifcJhygw,f?
1975 rSm w&kwf/ 1976 rSm qdkAD,uf,leD,Hwdk@eJ@ qufqHa&;wnfaqmufvdkufwJhtjyif
tar&duefeJ@qufqHa&;rSmvnf; omrefðyjyifajymif;vJa&;awG vkyfvdkufygw,f? xl;jcm;oGm;wuawmh
zdvpfydkifrSm&SdwJh tar&duef a&wyfpcef;awG[m ESpfEdkifiHtusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf wnf&Sdaezdk@ oabmwl=uwmyJ
jzpfygw,f? rm;udk@pf[m tm&SEdkifiHawGeJ@vnf; ydkrdk&if;ESD;atmif qufqHvmcJhygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u ac:chJ
zl;wJh wwd,urBm (Third  World) todkif;t0dkif;rSm zdvpfydkif[m OD;aqmiftzGJ@0if jzpfvmwJhtxd
emrnfaumif;awG &aecJhygw,f?
Fort Bonifacio  vdk@trnf&wJh ppfwyf xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;rSm tusOf;cscHae&wJh tuDGEdk[m
tar&duefudkoGm;+yD; ESvHk;a&m*gukocGifhðyzdk@ arwWm&yfcHxm;wmudk 1980 rSm rm;udk@pfu cGifhay;vdkufyg
w,f? (8)ESpfavmuf txdef;odrf;cHaecJh&wJh t"du twdkuftcHacgif;aqmif befepfEdktuGDEdk[m ZeD; jzpfoleJ@
twl tar&dum;udk xGufvmcJhygw,f? wdkif;jynfrSm tuDGEdkifvnf;r&SdwJhaemuf 1981 Zefe0g&D (17)
&ufrSm ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udk rm;udk@pfu jyefvnf&kyfodrf;ay;vdkufygw,f? rm&S,favm oufwrf;pkpkaygif; (8)ESpf
(3)veJ@ (26)&uf=umcJhygw,f? tpdk;&taeeJ@ rm&S,favm xkwft+yD; a&G;aumufcH ygvDreftrwfawGr&SdyJ
a&;qGJxm;wJh 1973 tajccHOya'twdkif; pdwfóuuftkyfcsKyfvdk@ &aecJhygw,f?
1983 =o*kwf(21)&ufrSm befepfEdk tuDGEdk[m China  Airline av,mOfeJ@ zdvpfydkifudk
jyefvmcJhygw,f? jynfyrSm twdkiftcHacgif;aqmiftjzpf xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aewJhtjyif zdvpfydkifvlxkuvn;f
axmufcHtm;ay;vmwmawGa=umifh aemufESpfrSmvkyfzdk@ ar#mfvifhcsuf&SdEdkifwJh a&G;aumufyGJudk 0ifðydifzdk@ jzpfyg
w,f? tuGDEdk jyefa&mufvm&if ol@udkowfr,fholawG &Sdaew,fvdk@ tpdk;&ua=ujim+yD; jyefrvmEdkifatmif
[ef@wm;ygw,f? orRwuawmf tDr,fvf'g udk,fwdkifu vkuf=uHr_jzpfEdkifw,fvdk@vnf; xkwfajymcJhygw,f?
tuDGEkdtwGuf jynf0ifcGifhADZmvnf; xkwfray;cJhygbl;? 'gayr,fh tuDGEdkuawmh jyefzdk@udkom qHk;jzwf+yD;
c&D;oGm;vufrSwftwkeJ@ jynfawmfjyefvmcJhygawmhw,f?
reDvm EdkifiHwumavqdyfukd n(10)em&Davmuf
av,mOf qdkufa&mufvm+yD;+yD;csif;rSmyJ avqdyf tapmifhppfom;awGu
av,mOfay:wufvm+yD; tuGDEdkudk ac:xkwfoGm;ygw,f? av,mOfay:u
avScg;twdkif; qif;vmaewkef;rSmyJ aoewfoHwcsuf =um;vdkuf&+yD;wJh
aemuf aoewfoHawG qlnHoGm;ygawmhw,f? watmifhavmuft=umrSm
awG@vdkuf&wmuawmh aoG;tdkifxJrSmarSmufvJ+yD; aoqHk;aewJh tuDGEdkygyJ? oleJ@ rvSrf;rurf;rSm vky=f uH
owfjzwfolvdk@ owfrSwfcH&wJh &dkvef'dk a*gvfref;(Roland  Galman)udkvnf; aoewf'%f&mawGeJ@
aoqHk;aewm awG@&ygw,f?
“tEW&m,f&SdrSef;od&ufeJ@ pGef@pm;ae&w,f
qdkwm usaemf aumif;aumif; odygw,f”
“udkf,fxdvufa&muf wdkufcdkufvmr,fh
tEW&m,fvdk@ usaemfxifygw,f? bma=umifh
vJqdkawmh vkyf=uHowfjzwfcH&w,f qdkwm
cifAsm;wdk@odwJhtwdkif; jynfolvlxktwGuf
jynfawmfjyefc&D; av,mOfay:rSm vkyfaqmifay;&wmygyJ”
“usaemfwdk@tm;vHk;[m wae@ae@rSm ao&rSmyJvdk@ usaemfcHpm;rdygw,f?
wu,fvdk@ usaemf[m vkyf=uHowfjzwfolwOD;&J@ usnfqefa=umifh aoqHk;zdk@
uH=urRm&Sdvm&ifvnf; 'gudk vGefqefvdk@ r&ygbl;”
zdvpfydkifjynfawmfjyefc&D;pOf av,mOfay:rSm owif;axmuf
awGuar;vdk@ tuDGEdku wkefv_yfacsmufjcm;jcif;r&Sd tðyH;rysufyJ aemufqHk;
ajymcJhwJh pum;awGyg? avqdyftapmifhppfom;rsm;u
tuDGEdkudkowfol[m vkyf=uHcH&aom tuDGEdkudk
&dkvef'dka*gvfref; wOD;wnf;omjzpf o,faqmifoGm;pOf
w,fvdk@ tpdk;&u a=unmygw,f? +yD;awmh 'Dtr_udk txl;pHkprf;
ppfaq;zdk@vnf; orRw rm;udk@pfu trdef@ay;ygw,f? tuDGEdk&J@ ZeD;
jzpfol udk&mZHeJ@rdom;pku reDvmudka&mufrvmrD (12)em&D óuwif
+yD; vHkðcHa&;wyfawGudkcsxm;&if; tjrifhqHk;wyfvSef@xm;cJhygw,f?
rm;udk@pf&J@ EdkifiHa&; ðydifzufvnf;jzpf/ twdkuftcH
acgif;aqmifvnf;jzpfwJh tuDGEdk vkyf=uHcH&wJhudpP[m jynfol
vlxk&J@ ,Hk=unfcHpm;csufudk cdkfifrmjywfom;apcJhygw,f? rm;udk@pfudk
22-8-1983 ae@xkwf Manila Bulletin qdk;0g;,kwfrmwJhtm%m&Siftjzpf vlxku owfrSwfvdkuf=u+yD;
pwif;pm rsufESmzHk;owif; tuDGEdkudkawmh wdkif;jynf&J@tmZmenftjzpf armfuGef;wifvdkuf=u
ygawmhw,f? jynfoloef;aygif;rsm;pGmwd@k [m usef&pfolrkqdk;r udk&mZH tuDGEdkeJ@rdom;pktay: oem;*&k%m
oufcJh=uygw,f? olwdk@[m tuDGEdk&J@ tokb tcrf;tem;udkwufa&muf=u+yD; t&nftcsif;xufjrufwJh
acgif;aqmifwOD; qHk;&–H;&wJhtwGuf ,l=uHK;r& jzpfae=u&ygw,f?
òr•awmfreDvmeJ@ tjcm;òr•}uD;awGrSm rm;udk@pfqef@usifa&; qENjyyGJolawG[m “edEGdKif;tuGDEdk
twGuf qufvuf wdkufyGJ0if=u” vdk@aºu;a=umf&if; aygufuGJae=uyg+yD? ausmif;om;/ tvkyform;/ v,f
orm;/ pDyGm;a&;orm;/ twwfynm&Sif/ bmoma&; tzGJ@ pwJh vlxkvlwef;pm; tv$mtoD;oD;u yg0if
qENjy=uwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
vkyf=uHcH&wJhudpPudk ta=umif;ðy+yD; aoG;qlvG,folawGu vufeufudkifeJ@ tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;
awGudk wnfaxmifvm=uwmvnf; &Sdygw,f? tJ'gawGuawmh =o*kwf 21 v_yf&Sm;r_ (ATOM‐  Auguust 
Twenty‐One Movement)/ tuGDEdktwGuf w&m;r#wa&; (Justice for Aquino)/ tm;vHk;twGuf w&m;
r#wr_ (JAJA‐ Justice for ALL)/ Bagong Alyansang Makjabayang (BAYAN) tp&SdwJhtzGJ@awGygyJ?
tuGDEdk vkyf=uHcH&wJhtwGuf jynfyrSmvnf; tkwfatmfaomif;eif; jzpfaecJh=uygw,f?
tar&duefrSmqdk&if rm;udk@pfqef@usifwJh vlxktjrifawGudk us,fus,favmifavmif xkwfjyaecKj=uygw,f?
tJ'Dwkef;u tar&dueforRw &D*ifu tuDGEdkvkyf=uHcH&wmudk oHwrefa&;t& uef@uGufwJhtaeeJ@ zdvpfydkif
vmzdk@udpPudk zsufodrf;vdkufygw,f?
vkyf=uHcH&wJhudpPudk pHkprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwfzdk@ tpdk;&eJ@rywfoufwJh tjidrf;pm; t,lcHw&m;&Hk;
trsKd;orD; w&m;ol}uD; tuf*&mAg (Corazon  Juiliano  Agrava)OD;aqmifwJh 5OD;yg0ifwJhtzGJ@udk zGJ@pnf;zdk@
14-10-1983 rSm rm;udk@pfu xkwfjyefa=unmay;&ygw,f? olwdk@tzGJ@[m ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf Am;eJ@ tjcm;
AdkvfcsKyfESpfOD;tygt00f ppfbufqdkif&mu (25)OD;eJ@ t&yfom;wOD;wdk@udk pHkprf;ppfaq;ygawmhw,f? wESpf
ausmft=umrSm twdkuftcHacgi;f aqmifudk vkyf=uHowfjzwfwm[m ppfa&;ta& v#Kd@0Suf=uHpnf usL;vGef
wmjzpfw,fvdk@ vGwfvyfwJhpHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifu a=unmvdkufygw,f?
'gayr,fh tpdk;&cef@w&m;ol=uD; Manuel Pamaran &J@ txufw&m;&Hk;u 'gudk vpfvsL&_
vdkufygw,f? 'ghtjyif tpdk;&xkwfjyefwJh Zmwfvrf;udk txufw&m;&Hk;u rSefuefygw,fvdk@ twnfðyvdkuf
&Hkru AdkvfcsKyf Am;eJ@ ppfbufqdkif&mu (24)a,muf/ t&yfom; wa,mufwdk@udkvnf; tjypfr&Sdbl;vdk@
qHk;jzwf+yD; 1985 'DZifbm (2)&ufrSm w&m;ao v$wfay;vdkufygawmhw,f? 'Dvdkw&m;pD&ifwJhtjzpf[m
orRwrm;udk@pfudk jynfwGif; jynfyrSmyg t,Hkt=unf ydkrJhoGm; apwmuawmh trSefygyJ?
vGwfvyfwJhpHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifu pHkprf;ppfaq;aeqJrSmyJ zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm pD;yGm;a&; t=uyf
twnf;awG qdk;qdk;0g;0g; &dkufcwfaeyg+yD? a&eHaps;E_ef;jrifhwufvmwJhtwGuf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;awG t&Sdefus
qif;oGm;&ygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@a&mif;csae&wJh o=um;eJ@pm;tkef;qD tp&SdwmawGuvnf; aps;uswmeJ@
&ifqdkifae&ygw,f? tpdk;&u pD;yGm;a&;jyefOD;armhvmatmif IMF uae rjzpfraeaiGacs;&wJhtwGuf EdkifiHjcm;
aºu;jrD tar&duefa':vm (26)bDvsHxd &SdaecJhygawmhw,f? 'DtcgrSm twdk;jyefqyfzdk@twGufudkyJ wdkif;jynf
0ifaiGtrsm;tjym;udk oHk;pGJae&wmjzpfvdk@ jynfol@tusKd;ðyvkyfief;awGbufudk OD;pm;ray;EdkifawmhwhJ tajc
taeqdk;udk &ifqdkifvm&ygawmhw,f?
wdkif;jynfwGif;rSm rm;udk@pfqef@usifa&; qENjyyGJawGa=umifh urBmvSnfhc&D;onfvkyfief;udk
xdcdkuf+yD; EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiG ododomom avsmhenf;cJh&ygw,f? wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ ,Hk=unfpw d fcsvdk@r&awmhwJh
EdkifiHa&;taetxm;a=umifh EdkifiHjcm;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_awGudk [ef@wm;vdkufovdk jzpfoGm;ygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;b%f
awGu rm;udk@pftpdk;&qdk&if aiGracs;awmhygbl;? aiGacs;xm;wJh tzGJ@tpnf;eJ@b%fawGu t,Hkt=unfr&Sd
awmhwma=umifh &ufvGefaewJhaºu;jrDawGudk jyefqyfzdk@ rm;udk@pfudk pwifawmif;qdkae=uygawmhw,f?
EdkifiHjcm;aiGrm tvHktavmuf r&Sdawmhwmjzpfvdk@ pufr_ukef=urf;awG rwifoGif;EdkifyJ
jzpfae&ygw,f? puf&Hktrsm;tjym;udk ydwfypfae&yg+yD? tvkyform;awGudk rwwfomyJ ðzwfypf/ ta&
twGuf av#mhcsae&ygawmhw,f? tvkyfvufrJhawG wdk;yGm;vmwmeJ@twl rvdkvm;tyfwJh jy\emaygif;pHk
qifhuJqifhuJ jzpfay:vm&ygw,f? 'ghtjyif xGufukefyrm%usqif;oGm;wma=umifh ukefpnfeJ@aiGa=u;
pD;qif;r_ rrSefawmhyJ pD;yGm;a&;wckvHk;[m uarmufur jzpfae&ygawmhw,f?

tm%m&Sif rm;udk@pfvufxufrSm (3)


pD;yGm;a&;rSm tajccHutp tajctaeawG qdk;0g;vmaewmudk aq;jrD;wdkeJ@ ,m,Dukpm;
Edkifzdk@ rm;udk@pfu =uHygawmhw,f? EdkifiHwumaiGa=u; tzGJ@tpnf;awGqDrSm apmifhqdkif;umveJ@ twdk;jyef
qyfzdk@ aqG;aEG;!‡dEd_if;+yD;awmh jynfolawGtwGufvky&f wmygqdkwJh vlxk pm;0wfaea&; tpDtpOfopfwckudk
taumiftxnf azmfygw,f? 'DtwGuf tpdk;& toHk;p&dwfawGudk jzwfawmufypfvdkufygw,f? 'gayr,fh
evHrxlEdkifcJhygbl;? ta=umif;uawmh rm;udk@pftay:rSm t,Hkt=unfr&Sdwm/ tpdk;&tzG@Ju t}uD;tus,f
vmbfpm;azmufjyef aewmawGa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
rm;udk@pfeJ@eD;pyfwJhtodkif;t0dkif;u =oZmtm%m&Sdol tpdk;&0efxrf;awG[m EdkifiHydkifaiGawG
cdk;,l+yD; v#Kd@0Sufb%fawGrSm aiGrJawGudk &oavmufpkaqmif;ukef=uyg+yD? 'DvdkqHk;&–H;oGm;cJh&wJh yrm%[m
a':vmoef;aygif; b,favmuf&Sdw,fqdkwm a&wGufcef@rSef;vdk@ r&EdkifatmifygyJ? 'D=um;xJrSm orRw
udkf,fwdkifu olwdk@vifr,m; OD;aqmifwJh KLB ygwDu trwfavmif;awGtwGuf wdkif;jynfb¾maiGawGudk
'va[m oHk;pGJypfaeygao;w,f? wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufr_[m 1984ckESpfu+yD; tE_wfvuQ%m pjyvm
aeyg+yDf?
EdkifiHwum aiGa=u;tzGJ@tpnf;awGeJ@ tar&duefwdk@u zdvpfydkif&J@ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ b¾ma&;
bufrSm aemufxyfulnDEdkifzdk@twGuf rm;udk@pf[m ðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyf&r,fvdk@ zdtm;ay;vmwJhtcgrSm
=um;jzwfa&G;aumufyJG usif;yay;zdk@ &SdEdkifw,fqdk+yD; aumv[v xGufvmygw,f? 'Daumv[vu
trSefwu,fyJ jzpfvmcJhygw,f? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh 1985 Ekd0ifbmrSm =um;jzwf orRwa&G;aumufyGJ
vkyfr,fvdk@ rm;udk@pfu a=unmvdkufvdk@ygyJ? rm;udk@pf&J@ trsKd;om;nDvmcHuvnf; a&G;aumufyJaG e@[m
1986 azazmf0g&D (7)&ufjzpfw,fvdk@ Oya'jyXmef;ay;vdkufygw,f?
'DtcgrSm twdkuftcHbufrSm rm;udk@pfudk ,SOfðydifEdkifr,fh orRwavmif;udk a&G;zdk@ jy\em
&Sdvmygawmhw,f? t&nftcsif;&SdolawG trsm;tjym; xGufay:vmayr,fh twdkuftcHbufrSm wpkwpnf;
wnf;jzpfatmif rvkyfEdkifcJh=uygbl;? trSefwu,fwrf; jzpfoifhwm/ jzpfapcsifwmu twdkuftcH acgif;aqmif
wOD;wnf;uom twdkuftcHtiftm;pk wckvHk;&J@axmufcHr_eJ@ rm;udk@pfudk ,SOfðydifzdk@ygyJ? twdkuftcH
trsm;pkeJ@ rm;udk@pfqef@usifa&;orm;awGu udk&mZH tuGDEdkudk tqdkðy=uwJhtcg EdkifiHtESH@tjym;u jynfol
awGuvnf; oabmwl+yD; udk&mZHudk 0dkif;0ef;awmif;qdk=uvmygw,f?
'DtcgrSm olru wu,fvdk@ jynfol woef;u olrudk 0iffðydifzdk@ vufrSwfa&;xdk;
axmufcH&if rm;udk@pf ac:wJha&G;aumufyGJrSm 0ifa&muf,SOfðydifr,fvdk@ uwday;vdkufygw,f? rm;udk@pfu
=um;jzwfa&G;aumufyGJvkyfzdk@ w&m;0ifa=unm+yD;wJhtcgrSm pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;&Sif}uD;wOD;jzpfwJh Joaquin 
Chino  Roces u CAPM  (Cory  Aquino  for  President  Movement)  v_yf&Sm;r_tjzpfeJ@ vufrSwf
aumufcHyGJ vkyfay;wJhtcg wygwfttwGif;rSmyJ EdkifiHtESH@tjym;u jynfol woef;ausmf oabmwl
axmufcHwJhvufrSwfawGudk &&SdEdkifcJhygw,f?
reDvmu c&pf,ef oif;tkyfq&mawmf Jaime  Cardinal 
Sin &J@ =o0g'[m t&nftcsif;udk,fpD&Sdae=uwJh twdkuftcHacgif;aqmifawG
tm;vHk;udk wpnf;wvHk;wnf; tiftm;pkEdkifr,fh vrf;a=umif;ay:a&mufvmzdk@
t"dutaxmuftul jzpfapcJhygw,f? twdkuftcHawG&J@ nDnGwfru _ dk jywJh
taeeJ@ txufv$wfawmftrwfa[mif; avmf&,f (Salvador  ʺDoyʺ  H. 
Laurel)uvnf; orRwjzpfzdk@ &nfrSef;csufudk pGef@v$wf+yD; udk&mZHtuDGEdktwGuf
c&pf,ef oif;tkyfq&mawmf
'kwd,orRwavmif;tjzpfeJ@ yg0iftm;jznfhzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f? Jaime Cardinal Sin
a&G;aumufyGJ rJqG,w f Jhumv[m 11-12-1985 uae 5-2-1986 xdjzpf+yD; &ufaygif;
(60)eD;yg;avmuf &Sdygw,f? ðydifzuf EdkifiHa&;ygwDESpfckwdk@[m olwdk@udk,fydkif EdkifiHa&;aqmifyk'fawG/ oauFw
awG toD;oD;eJ@ vlxkudk pnf;&Hk;cJh=uygw,f? udk&mZHtuGDEdk&J@ygwD (LABAN)u t0ga&mif/ rm;udk@pf&J@ ygwD
KLB)u teDa&mifjzpfygw,f? tuDGEdk&J@ a&G;aumufyJG EdkifiHa&;aqmifyk'fu “&yfvdkufawmh/ vHkavmuf+yD/
ajymif;vJcsdefa&muf+yD”jzpf+yD;/ rm;udk@pfbufuawmh “rm;tdk@pfudk qufvuf tvdk&Sdw,f”qdkwJhaqmifyk'f
jzpfygw,f? tuDGEdk&J@ygwDu LABAN jzpfvdk@ L oauFwtrSwftom;udkoHk;+yD; rm;udk@pfbufu V oauFw
trSwftom;udk oHk;ygw,f?

tuDGEdk axmufcHolrsm;ESifh L sign orRwavmif; udk&mZHtuDGEdk orRw rm;udk@pf a&G;aumufyGJ rJqG,f


udk&mZHtuDGEdku olr[m rm;udk@pf&J@ tm%m&Sifpepfudk tqHk;owf+yD; jynfolawGtwGuf
vGwfvyfcGifh/ w&m;r#wcGifheJ@ 'Drdkua&pDudk jyefvnfazmfaqmifay;r,fvdk@ rJqG,fpnf;&Hk; v_yf&Sm;ygw,f?
rm;udk@pfeJ@ taygif;ygwpkwdk@[m zdvpfydkifjynfolawG&J@ b¾maiGawGudk vk,uf+yD; b%fawGrSm w&m;r0if
aiGpm&if; zGifhxm;=uw,fvdk@ xkwfazmfvdkufygw,f? rm;udk@pftpdk;&&J@ vl@tcGihfta&; csKd;azmufr_awGudk
olru &_H@csjypfwifvdkfuf+yD; epfemqHk;&–H;&olawGtwGuf w&m;ojzifh vkyfaqmifay;zdk@ufkvnf; uwday;cJh
ygw,f?
orRwrm;udk@pfu rJqG,fpnf;&Hk;&mrSm udk&mZHtuDGEdk[m tpdk;&vkyfief;aqmifwmawGrSm
tawG@t=uHKr&SdoljzpfwJhtjyif uGefjrLepfwOD;vnf; jzpfw,f/ olr&J@a,musfm;[m uGefjrlEpfygwDudk xlaxmif
wJhtxJrSm yg0ifzl;w,fvdk@ pGyfpJyG gw,f? udk&mZHtuGDEdk tEdkif&&if wdkif;jynf[m uGefjrLepf vufatmufudk
a&mufrSmjzpfw,fvdk@vnf; rm;udk@pfu owday;vdkufygao;w,f?
zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm tar&duefa&wyfpcef;wG&Sdaewmudk rm;udk@pfu qufvuf wnf&SdcGifhðyzdk@
rm;udk@pfu vdkvm;+yD; udk&mZHtuDGEdkuawmh zdvpfydkif-tar&duefoabmwlnDcsuf ukefqHk;wJh 1991 ckESpf
txdyJ cGifhðyzdk@ qEN&Sdw,fvdk@ xkwfajymygw,f? +yD;awmh olr&J@a,musfm; vkyf=uHcH&wJhtr_rSm rm;udk@pfrSm
wm0ef&Sdw,fvdk@ pGyfpJGvdkuf+yD; rm;udk@pf[m ol@udk,fola=unmaewJh 'kwd,urBmppfrSm *syefudkwdkufcdkufcJhwJh
ol&Jaumif;qdkwmr[kwfyJ vdrfvnfvkyf=uHajymqdkwmyJjzpfw,fvdk@vnf; vlxkodatmif zGifhcsjyvdkufygw,f?
1986 zdvpfydkifa&G;aumufyGJordkif;[m tvGefyJ xl;jcm;cJhygw,f? rJay;wJhae@rSm wEdkifiHvHk;
rSm&SdwJh rJ&Hkaygif; (86000)avmufrSm rJay;ol EdkifiHom; oef; (20)cef@&Sd+yD; zdvpfydkif a&G;aumufyGJordkif;rSm
rJay;ol trsm;qHk;jzpfcJh&ygw,f? 'ghtjyif a&G;aumufyGJ&v'f[m zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm r=uHKpzl; tjiif;yGm;&qHk;/
t&_yfaxG;qHk;/ EdkifiHwumu tm&Hktpdkuf&qHk;/ rJvdrfr_trsm;qHk;tjzpfvnf; rSwfwrf;wif&ygawmhw,f?
rm;udk@pf[m a&G;aumufyGJrSm rjzpfjzpfwJhenf;eJ@ oltEdkif&&Sdzdk@ =uHpnfxm;wJhtwdkif;
uvdru f uspf rJcdk;ygawmhw,f? 'ga=umifh zdvpfydkifrSm bmoma&;t& =oZm}uD;rm;wJh uufovpf
oif;tkyfq&mawmfawGvnf; raeomawmhygbl;? a&G;aumufyJt G +yD; wygwft=umrSm Catholic  Bishops 
Conference  of  the  Philippines‐  (CBCP) uGefz&ifhu a=unmcsufxkwfjyD; rJcdk;rJvdrfaewmawGudk &_H@cs
vdkufygw,f?
rm;udk@pf&J@ygwD KNL uxdef;csKyfxm;wJh trsKd;om;ygvDref (Batasang  Pambansa)
uvnf; rJay;wmawGudk taotcsm ppfaq;zdk@eJ@ tEdkif&&Sdoludk a=unmay;zdk@qdk+yD; nDvmcHvkyfygw,f?
'gudk twdkuftcHawGu 0dkif;0ef;uef@uGufwJh=um;u qufvkyfcJh+yD;aemuf rm;udk@pfu pkpkaygif; (10807197)rJ
&&SdjyD; tuDGEdku (9291715)rJ &&Sdwma=umifh rm;udk@pf tEdkif&&Sdw,fvdk@ 15-2-1986 ae@rSm a=unmvkduf
ygw,f? rJa&wGufwJhudpPudk rsKd;om;ygvDrefu ppfaq;ayr,fhvnf; ppfaq;wJhenf;avrf;awGrSmudkyJ rormr_
&Sdaew,fvdk@ twdkuftcHawGu axmufjycJhygw,f?
a&G;aumufyGJ rormr_a=umifh rm;udk@pf&J@ *k%foduQm[m jynfyrSmvnf; vHk;0 usqif;oGm;
cJh&ygw,f? EdkifiHwumowif;rD'D,mawG&J@ owif;jzef@csdwifjyEdkifpGrf;u tm;aumif;oGm;wma=umifh zdvpfydkif
jynfolvlxkomru EdkifiHwumrdom;pkuyg rm;udk@pfukd w&m;0ofta&G;cH&wJh orRwtjzpf todtrSwf
rðyEdkif=uawmhygbl;? udk&mZHtuDGEdkuom tEdkif&&Sdw,fvdk@ olwdk@tm;vHk;u ,Hk=unfvdkuf =uygw,f?
aemufqHk;rSmawmh qdkAD,uf,leD,HuvGJvdk@ bmfEdkifiHurS rm;udk@pfudk csD;usL;8K%fðypum; rajymyJ aecJh=u
ygw,f? tar&duef txufv$wfawmftrwf vl*g (Lugar)u zdvpfydkifa&G;aumufyGJavhvma&; tzGJ@
acgif;aqmiftaeeJ@ owif;ydk@vdkufwJhtcg tar&dueforRw &D*ifu ormorwfr&SdwJh a&G;aumufyGJrSm
rm;udk@pf jyefvnfta&G;cH&wmudk oHo,&Sdw,f vdk@ xkwfazmfajymqdkvdkufygw,f?
udk&mZHtuDGEdkuvnf; olruom tEdkif&&Sdw,fvdk@ ,Hk=unfwJhtwdkif; rm;udk@pfudk orRw
tjzpf jyefvnfa&G;cs,fwifajrmufwmudk vufrcHcJhygbl;? olrvdkyJ uufovpf c&pf,ef bk&m;&Sdkcdk;ausmif;
eJ@wuG toif;tzGJ@trsm;tjym;u olwdk@&J@ xkwfjyefa=unmcsuf (Statement)awGeJ@ a&G;aumufyJG rorm
wmudk &H_@csvdkuf=uygw,f? udk&mZHtuDGEdk[m 1986 azazmf0g&D )16)&ufup+yD; EdkifiHw0Srf;vHk; tpdk;& trdef@
tm%m qef@usifzDqefa&; (Civil Obedience)udk pwifOD;aqmif v_yf&Sm;ygawmhw,f?
vlxkpGrf;tm; awmfvSefa&; v_yf&Sm;r_ rjzpfrDuwnf;u rm;udk@pf[m awmfawmfav;
pdwf"gwfusaecJhwmyg? ol@rSm tcuftcJaygif;pHk 0dkif;&Haeygw,f? EdkifiHwumrdom;pku ol@udk todtrSwfðyzdk@
t,Hkt=unfr&Sdovdk tar&duef uGef*&ufu =oZmtm#m&SdolawGuvnf; rm;udk@pfudk &mxl;u E_wfxGuf
ay;zdk@eJ@ tuDGEdkudk tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;zdk@ wdkufwGef;aecJhygawmhw,f? wEdkifiHvHk;rSm EdkifiHa&; wif;rmaeyg+yD?
òr•awmf reDvmrSmawmh twif;rmqHk; taetxm;yg? tuDGEdk&J@ tpdk;&trdef@tm%m qef@usifzDqefa&;[m
us,fus,fjyef@jyef@rJ@ t&Sdeft[kefjrifh tm;aumif;vmaeyg+yD? aumvdyfwuUodkvfawGu ausmif;om;eJ@q&m
awGu oydwfparSmufvdkuf=uygw,f? oydwf[m us,fjyef@oGm;+yD; tvkyform;awGuvnf; taxGaxG
tvkyform;oydwfudk EdkifiHt0Srf;rSm qifEJ$vdkuf=uygawmhw,f?
rm;udk@pf[m 'DvdkEdkifiHa&; tusyftwnf;uae &kef;xGufEdkifzdk@ enf;vrf;ESpfckyJ &SdaewJh
txJu t=urf;zufEdSyfuGyfzdk@udkyJ tm&Hkpdkufvdkufygw,f? rm;udk@[m tm%mu z,f&Sm;rcH&a&;twGuf
tpGrf;ukef t=uHyufpufzdk@vnf; pDpOfaeygw,f? oydwfarSmuf qENjyaewmawGudk òzcGJypfr,fvdk@ jcdrf;ajcmuf
vdkufwJhtjyif rm&S,favm jyefxkwfzdk@udkvnf; wbufu jyifqifcdkif;xm;vdkufygw,f?
rm;udk@pf&J@ tpDtpOfuawmh ol@tay:opPmapmifhodwJh ppfom;awG axmufvSrf;a&;awGudk
t&yf0wfeJ@ òrhawmfreDvm&J@vrf;awGudk apv$wf+yD; tuDGEdkudk axmufcHolawGyJvdk [efaqmifcdkif;rSm jzpfyg
w,f? 'Daemuf rif;rJhp&dkufqefqef t=urf;zuf vlowf zsufqD;wmawGudk OD;aqmifvkyfcdkif;rSm jzpfygw,f?
'DtcgrSm ppfwyfu0ifa&muf òzcGJESdyfuGyf&if; 'DvdkrsKd: Oy0';uif;rJhwJh t=urf;zufr_awG&Sdaewma=umifh
rm&S,favm xkwf&ygw,fvdk@ ta=umif;jycsufay;zdk@ jzpfygw,f? rm&S,favm&SdoGm;wJhtcgrSm 1972 wke;f
uvdkyJ ppfwyfuae twdkuftcHacgif;aqmifawG/ aemufvdkufawGeJ@wuG oif;tkyfq&mawmfawGygrusef
rm;udk@qef@usifa&;vkyfoltm;vHk;udk zrf;qD;zdk@ygyJ? 'daemuf vufeufudkifqef@usifaeolawGudk ppfwyf
tiftm;eJ@ òzcGif;zdk@ jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh rm;udk@pf[m ol@&J@ *VKefqm;csuf t=uH}uD;udk pawmif rpvdkuf&
ygbl;? bmjzpfvdk@vJqdkawmh zdvpfydkifEdkifiH&J@ urBmausmf 1986 vlxkpGrf;tm; v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;u tcsdefrD
ay:aygufvmvdk@ygyJ?
rm;udk@pf&J@ ,kwfrmyufpufwJht=uHudk rD'D,mawGuwqifh urBmu tjcm;tm%m&SifawG
od&SdoGm;=u+yD; olwdk@&J@ aemufqHk;vufeuftjzpf &uf&ufpufpuf toHk;csvmwmawG@&ygw,f? txif&Sm;
qHk;eJ@ vufOD;atmif toHk;csvdkufwmuawmh jrefrmEdkifiHu OD;ae0if;/ OD;pdefvGif/ a'gufwmarmifarmif/
AdkvfcsKyfapmarmif/ AdkvfcsKyfoef;a&$/ axmufvSrf;a&;csKyf Adkvfr–;}uD;cifnGefwdk@ OD;aqmifwJh tm%m&SifwpkygyJ?
olwdk@[m rm;udk@pf&J@enf;udk jrefrmjynfolawG&J@ &Spfav;vHk; tHkºur_rSm toHk;cscJhygw,f? owif;rD'D,m
ydwfqdk@cHae&wma=umifh jrefrmjynfolawG[m EdkifiHwumowif;rSef tjzpfrSefawGudkrodyJ cHvdkuf&zl;ygw,f?

ppfwyfrS tm%modrf;&ef pDpOfae


wEdkifiHvHk;rSm rm;udk@pfqef@usifa&;awG rsm;oxufrsm;vmwJhtcdkufrSm ppfwyfxJu
t&m&Sdi,fwpk[m tm%m&Sifrm;udk@pfudk ðzwfcszdk@ 1985 rwfvrSm pwifpDpOf v_yf&Sm;=uygw,f? olwdk@[m
RAM  tzGJ@udk OD;aqmifzGJ@pnf;olawG jzpf=uygw,f? RAM  (Reform  the  AFP  Movement) qdkwmu
zdvpfydkif vufeufudkifwyf (Armed Forces of the Philippines) udk jyefvnf jyifqifzGJ@pnf;zdk@ v_yf&Sm;wJh
tzGJ@ygyJ?
olwdk@[m zdvpfydkifppfwuUodkvf ausmif;qif; t&m&SdawGjzpf=u+yD; wdk;wufwJhtjrif
&Sd=uygw,f? olwdk@v_yf&Sm;&wJhta=umif;&if;u tpdk;&XmeawG vmbfpm;azmufjyefaewmudk ppfwyf
(AFP‐  Armed  Forces  of  the  Philippines)u tvm;wl twkcdk;ysufpD;aewmawG/ ol@vludk,fhvl
cGJjcm;csD;ajr‡muf rsufESmomay;wmawG/ ppfwyf&J@*k%foduQmudk usqif;apwJh tpOftvmr&SdcJhzl;wJh udpPawG
a=umifhjzpf+yD; ppfwyfudk oduQm&Sd&Sd rSefrSefuefuef t&nftcsif;&Sd&Sd jyefvnf jyifqifzGJ@pnf;
csifvdk@ygyJ? 'grSvnf; EdkifiHrSm }uD;xGm;vmaewJh uGefjrLepf jcdrf;ajcmufr_udk ydk+yD; xdxd
a&mufa&muf wdkufcdkufwm;qD;EdkifrSmjzpfw,fvdk@ olwdk@u tcdkiftrm ,Hk=unfxm;cJh=u
ygw,f? olwdk@udk umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; tef&Dav; (Juan  Ponce  Enrile)u wdwfwqdyf
tm;ay; axmufcHxm;ygw,f? ppfwyfxJrSm jyefvnfjyifqifa&;orm;awG &Sdaew,f
qdkwm owif;xGufae+yD; olwdk@tzGJ@[m emrnf}uD;aecJhygw,f? tef&aD v;
olwdk@&J@ jyefvnfjyifqifa&; arwWm&yfcHcsufudk orRwrm;udk@pfeJ@
umuG,fa&; ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;wdk@u vufrcHyJvpfvsL&_vdkufwJhtcg RAM
tzGJ@uae tm%modrf;zdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkufygawmhw,f? tm%modrf;r,fhtzGJ@[m
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;eJ@ eD;pyfolawGjzpf+yD; acgif;aqmifuawmh Adkvfr–;}uD; [dkemqef
(Gregorio  ʺGringoʺ  Honasan)ygyJ? 0ef}uD;&J@ vHkðcHa&;t&m&SdcsKyfyg? 'gayr,fh
owif;ayguf=um;oGm;vdk@ rm;udk@pfu vdkufzrf;wJhtcsdefrSm RAM tzG@J0ifawG[m
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD; &Hk;pdkuf&m tuDGem'fdk pcef; (Camp Aquinaldo)
[dkemqef
rSm oGm;a&mufcdkv_H=uawmhwmygyJ? 'DtcgrSm tef&Dav;u vufcH
xm;vdkufygw,f? tuDGem'dk pcef;eJ@ rsufESmcsif;qdkifrSm&SdwJh c&drf; pcef; (Camp Crame)
u 'kwd, ppfOD;csKyfjzpfwJh 'kwd,AdkvfcsKyf}uD; &m;rdk@pf (Fidel  Valdez  Ramos) uvnf;
ol@pcef;udk oddrf;ydkufvdkuf+yD; tef&Dav;/ tm%modrf;tzGJ@wdk@bufrSm &yfwnfvkduf &m;rdk@pf
ygw,f? tJ'Dpcef;ESpfck[m Quezon  City twGif;u ta0;ajy; vrf;r}uD; EDSA &J@
wbufwcsufpDrSm&Sd+yD; vlxkawmfvSefa&; pwifaygufuGJwJhae&mjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; 1986  EDSA 
People Power Revolution vdk@ ac:=uwmygyJ?

vlxkpGrf;tm;jzifh t=urf;rzuf awmfvSefawmhrnf


a&G;aumufyJ+G yD;wkef;u tuDGEdk[m reDvmòr•awmfrSm
csDwufqENjyae=uwJh vlxkwoef;udk rdef@cGef;ajymygw,f? olru
tm%m&Sifudk t=urf;rzufqef@usifa&; tpDtpOf (7)ckudk &Sif;jyygw,f?
'DtpDtpOfrSm jynfolawG w&ufwmtvkyf&yfqdkif;=uzdk@/ rm;udk@pf xdef;csKyf
xm;wJh b%fawG/ pwdk;qdkifawGeJ@ owif;pmawGudk oydwfarSmufzdk@ qdkwJh
vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_awG yg0ifygw,f? vlxktaeeJ@ t=urf;rzufqeff@usifwmudk vufawG@prf;oyf=unfh=uzdk@vnf;
olru wdkufwGef;vdkufygw,f?
[Db&l; usrf;pmt& a&S;a&S;wkef;u zDvpfpwdkif; (Philistine ) ppfwyfeJ@ Saul  bk&if&J@
tpPa&;ppfwyfwdk@[m wbufeJ@wbufwdkufcdkufzdk@ &ifqdkifae=uayr,fh wu,fwrf;rSmawmh olaoudk,fao
qHkl;&–H;&rSm odaewJhtwGuf ESpfbufpvHk;urwdkufawmhyJ &yfaevdkuf=uygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm Goliath qdkou l
ppfwyfESpfck=umudk 0ifa&mufvm+yD; aphpyfjidrf;csrf;jzpfatmif vkyfay;&r,fhtpm; tpPa&; ppfol&Jaumif;
wOD;udk oleJ@wdkufcdkufzdk@ pdrfac:vdkufygw,f?ol&–H;&if zDvpfpwdkif; u Saul  bk&ifudk tnhHcH+yD; olEdkif&if
tpPa&;ppfwyfu tnHhcHzkd@ &ufaygif;(40)=umatmif pdrfac:aeygw,f? 'gayr,fh ol@udk b,folrS rwkef@jyefyJ
aevdkuf=uygw,f? 'Dtjzpftysufudk tuGDEdku udk;um;+yD; “ @ @ @ wu,fvdk@ Goliath u ESpfzufpvHk; tusKd;
jzpfxGef;apzdk@udpPudk jiif;qefaeOD;r,fqdk&if vlxktaeeJ@ t=urf;rzufvufeufudk toHk;csae&awmhrSmjzpf+yD;
vlxkt=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_udk t&Sdefjr‡ifhwifoGm;&ygvdrfhr,f”vdk@ a=unmvdkuf ygw,f?
'DaemufrSmawmh tm%m&Sifudk qef@usifr,fh t=urf;rzuf vlxkawmfvSefa&; pwifcJhyg+yD?

av;&ufwm vlxkwdkufyGJ (yxrae@) 22-2-1986 paeae@


1986 azazmf0g&D (22)&uf nae 6 em&D 45 rdepfrSm umuG,fa&;
0ef}uD; tef&Dav;eJ@ 'kppfOD;pD;csKyf &m;rdk@pfwdk@u owif;pm uGefz&ifhvkyf+yD;
rm;udk@pf[m a&G;aumufyJrG Sm rJuvdefuswJhtwGuf olwdk@taeeJ@ qufvuf
axmufcHrSmr[kwfawmhyJ udk&mZHtuGDEdkudkom a&G;aumufyGJrSm trSef
wu,f tEdkif&wJhorRwtjzpfeJ@ axmufcHw,fvdk@ wdkif;jynfudk a=unm
vdkufygw,f? 'DaemufrSmawmh pcef;ESpfckpvHk;udk rm;udk@pf opPmcHwyfawGu
wdkufcdkufrvmatmif tumt&HawGeJ@ wm;qD;ydwfqdk@ xm;vdkufygawmh
w,f? 'DtcsdefrSm pcef;ESpfckpvHk;aygif;rS ppftiftm;u &maygif;tenf;i,favmufyJ &Sdaeygw,f?
tJ'Dwkef;u zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm a&'D,dkeJ@ &kyfjrifoH=um;XmeawGudk
tpdk;&u xdef;csKyfxm;ygw,f? udk,fydkifa&'D,dkqdkvdk@ &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; wckwnf;om&Sd
ae+yD; Radio Veritas vdk@ac:ygw,f? uufovpf bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;&J@ bmoma&;
qdkif&mudpPawGrSm oHk;zdk@ygyJ? 'gayr,fh 'Da&'D,dk[m vlxkawmfvSefa&;twGuf
tawmfhudk wefzdk;&Sd&Sd toHk;csEdkifcJhygw,f? tm%m&Sifrm;udk@pfu a&G;aumufyGJ
rw&m;vkyfwmudk vlxkvdkyJ bmoma&; todkif;t0dkif;uvnf; vufrcHEdkif=uygbl;? tef&Dav;eJ@&m;rdk@pfwdk@
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJ ta=umif;udk bk&m;ausmif;a&'D,dkuae em&Dtenf;i,ftwGif;rSm xyfqifhv$ifhay;
vdkufvdk@ wEdkifiHvHk; tjzpfrSefawGudk jrefjrefqefqef od&SdoGm;=uygawmhw,f?
rm;udk@pfuvnf; owif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJvky+f yD; a&'D,dkeJ@ &kyfjrifoH=um;uae xkwfv$ifhjyo
ygw,f? RAM tzGJ@&J@ tm%modrf;wJhudpP ratmifjrifyJ jzpfoGm;w,fvdk@ rm;udk@pfu ajymqdkygw,f?
tef&Dav;eJ@ &m;rdk@pfwdk@ tnHhcH=uzdk@ wdkufwGef;vdkuf+yD; jyefvnfjyifqifa&;orm;awG&J@ epfemqHk;&–H;&wm
awGukd ppfaq;=unfhay;r,fvdk@vnf; uwday;vdkufygw,f?
'gayr,fh tef&Dav;eJ@&m;rdk@pfwdk@uawmh rm;udk@pf&J@trdef@udk qef@usifcJh=uygw,f? rm;udk@pf&J@
xkwfjyefa=unmcsuf[m ppfwyfjyefvnfjyifqifa&;udpPr[kwfyJ w&m;0if tm%mcsKyfudkifEdkifzdk@twGufom
jzpfw,fvdk@ ajymqdkvdkufygw,f? 'ghtjyif rm;udk@pftaeeJ@ orRw&mxl;u tjidrf;pm;,lzdk@udkvnf; olwdk@
ESpfOD;u wdkufwGef;vdkufygw,f? olwdk@taeeJ@ avmavmq,f odr;f ydkufxm;wJh pcef;ESpfckudk ckcHumuG,zf dk@
jyifqifxm;wma=umifh rm;udk@pfu rwdkufcdkufzdk@vnf; owday;vdkufygao;w,f? 'gayr,fh rm;udk@pfu
*&krpdkufyJ tm%modrf;wJhudpPudk &Sif;vif;zdk@eJ@ tJ'Dpcef;ESpfckudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkufzdk@ ppfOD;pD;csKyf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;
Am;udk trdef@ay;vdkufygawmhw,f?
n (9)em&DrSm wEdkifiHvHk; wefcdk;t&Sdeft0g}uD;rm;wJh c&pf,efoif;tkyfq&mawmf *sdrf;
um'De,fpif; (Jaime  Cardinal  Sin)&J@ trSmpmudk udkf,fydkifa&'D,u dk ae toHv$ifhay;ygw,f? ta&;ygwJh
tajymif;tvJudk jzpfapwJh trSmpmvdk@ qdk&ygr,f? EDSA vrf;r}uD; wbufwcsufu pcef;ESpfckrSm&SdwJh
tm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; ppfonfawGudk oGm;a&mufulnD=uzdk@/ tpm;taomufeJ@ tjcm;vdktyfwmawGtjyif
udk,fcsif;pmpdwfeJ@ axmufcHtm;ay;=uzdk@ jynfolawGudk bkef;awmf}uD;u av;av;eufeuf wdkufwGef;xm;
wmjzpfygw,f? tay:,H=unfhvdkuf&ifawmh ppfom;awGudk jynfolawGu vdkufvHapmifha&Smufay;zdk@qdkwm
rjzpfEdkifp&myJvdk@xif&ayr,fh vufawG@rSmawmh jynfolawG[m EDSA vrf;r}uD;twdkif; ppfom;awGudk
umuG,fay;zdk@ csDwufoGm;ae=uyg+yD? bke;f }uD;awG/ oDv&Sif awGvnf; trsm;tjym; yg0ifaecJhygw,f?
av;&ufwm vlxkwdkufyGJ ('kwd,ae@) 23-2-1986 we*FaEGae@
reuftm&k%fwufavmufrSm tpdk;&ppfwyfu Radio Veritas
&J@ t"du toHv$ifhwJh ypPnf;ud&d,mawGudk vma&mufzsufqD;oGm;vdk@
tcsKd@jynfe,fawGudk toHv$ifhxkwfvdk@r&yJ jywfawmufoGm;cJh&ygw,f?
ta&;ay:oHk;zdk@xm;wJh toHv$ifhpufeJ@ qufvufv$ifhayr,fhvnf; c&D;
tuGmta0; tuef@towfeJ@jzpfaevdk@ xifoavmuf rxda&mufcJh
ygbl;? tpdk;&[m 'Dudk,fydkifa&'D,dk toHv$ifhXmeudk zsufqD;zdk@ ypfrSwf
xm;wmu rm;udk@pfqef@usifa&;ppfom;awGudk axmufcHr,fh jynfolawG
od&Sdatmif wefzdk;&Sd&Sd qufoG,fay;Edkifvdkufwmudk oabmaygufoGm;vdk@ygyJ? udk,fydkifa&'D,dkuae tpdk;&
wyfawG b,fa&mufae+yDvJqdkwmudk vlxkodatmif today;EdkifwJhtjyif tpdk;&udkqef@usifwJh ppfom;awG
twGuf pm;eyf&duQm/ aq;0g;eJ@ tjcm;ypPnf;awGaxmufyHzdk@ arwWm&yfcHwmawG tygt0if wefzdk;&SdwJhowif;
tcsuftvufawGudkyg xkwfv$ifhay;Edkifaevdk@ jzpfygw,f?
pcef;ESpfckwnf&Sd&m EDSA vrf;r}uD;udk vlawG ode;f eJ@csD+yD; a&mufvmae=uygw,f? olwdk@
rSm bk&m;&Sdckd;pmtkyfawGuvGJvdk@ vlaoapwJh bmvufeufrS ygrvm=uygbl;? vrf;r}uD;wav#mufvHk;[m
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rdom;pkwckvHk; ac:vmwmjzpfvdk@ uav;awGvnf; trsm;}uD;&Sdaeygw,f? vlxky&dowfudk azsmfajzay;aewJh
tEkynm&SifawG/ 0dkif;0ef;qkawmif;ay;ae=uwJh bkef;}uD;eJ@ oDv&SifawGudkvnf; awG@ae&ygw,f?
tcsKd@olawGu tpdk;&wyfawG 0ifrvmEdkifatmif oJtdwfawGudko,fydk@ um&Hae=uyg
w,f? tcsKd@u opfyifawGckwfjzwf vrf;ydwfqdk@ae=uygw,f? vlwdkif;vlwdkif; udk,fydkiftodpdwfeJ@ wwfEdkif&m
wm0efawGudk rarmEdkifryef;Edkif vkyfay;ae=uygawmhw,f? tcsKd@u a&'D,dkawGudk ,laqmifvm+yD; Radio 
Veritas u toHv$ifhay;aewmudk 0dkif;0ef;em;axmifaqG;aEG;wdkifyifae=uygw,f? owif;vufqifhurf;ay;
ae=uygw,f? trSefawmh 'Davmuf wae&mxJrSm odef;eJ@csD+yD; &SdaewJh vltkyf}uD;udk pnf;pepfususee xdxd
a&mufa&muf vrf;n$efay;Edkifzdk@qdkwm 'DvdkrsKd; a&'D,dktoHv$ifh tpDtpOf r&SdyJ rjzpfEdkifygbl;?
tcsKd@olawGuawmh tkyfpkvdkuf “'g wdk@ajy 'g wdk@ajr” qdkwJhoDcsif;(Bayan 
Ko)udk oDqdkae=uygw,f? 'DoDcsif;[m 1980 avmufuwnf;u tm%m&Sif qef@usifol
awG&J@ rsKd;cspfpdwf v_H@aqmfa&; oDcsif;wyk'fyg? vlawGudk =unfhvdkuf&if wOD;eJ@wOD; odod
rodod L oauFwtrSwftom;udkjy+yD; pnf;vHk; nDnGwfr_udk azmfjyae=uygw,f?
ae@vnfxrif;pm;csdefavmufrSmawmh tef&Dav;eJ@
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tm;aumif;vkyfzdk@ qHk;jzwfvdkuf=uygw,f? 'Daemuf
umuG,fa&;0ef}uD;tef&Dav;[m ol&J@pcef;uae EDSA
vrf;r}uD;udkjzwf+yD; 'kppfOD;csKyf&Sd&m pcef;udk oGm;wJhtcg
vlxk}uD;u 0rf;omtm;& vufckyf=obmay;=uygw,f?
aemufxyftcsdefeJeJt=umavmufrSm Radio 
tef&Dav; (tv,f) [dkemqef (nm) Veritas uae ta&;}uD;wJhowif;wyk'fudk xyfqifhv$ifh
xkwfay;ygw,f? owif;uawmh pcef;awG&J@ ta&S@bufrSm rm;udk@pfopPmcH r&def;wyfom;awG pk&Hk;ae=u+yD;
awmifbufeJ@ajrmufbufqDudk wifhum;awG OD;wnf vmae+yDqdkwJhta=umif;yg?
t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ t=urf;rzuf v_yf&Sm;r_ xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifwdk;
wifhum;awG/ oHcsyfumum;awGygwJhwyfudk OD;aqmif
vmoluawmh Adkvfr–;csKyfwm'D,m (Artemio Tadiar)yg? 'gayr,fh
ol@wyf[m atmfwD*ghpfvrf;qHk (Ortigas  Avenue)rSm a&S@quf
rwdk;EdkifawmhyJ &yfoGm;&ygawmhw,f? 'Dae&m[m pcef;ESpfckeJ@ (2)
uDvdkrDwmavmufyJ a0;ygawmhw,f? bmvdk@&yfoGm;&ovJqdkawmh
wifhum;awG&J@a&S@rSm vlxku aomif;eJ@csD+yD; ydwfqdk@ay;xm;vdk@ygyJ?
oDv&SifawGu bk&m;pmtkyfawGudkif+yD; wifhum;awG&J@a&S@rSm
'l;axmuf arwWm&yfcHae=uygw,f? trsKd;om;trsKd;orD;tm;vHk;u atmfwD*ghpf vrf;qHk
vnf; wOD;eJ@wOD;vufarmif;csif;csdwf+yD; aemufrqkwfwrf; =uHh=uHHhcH
&yfae=uygw,f?
'DtcgrSm Adkvfr–;csKyf wm'D,mu vlxk}uD;udk ypfcwf
r,fqdk+yD; jcdrf;ajcmufvdkufygw,f? t=urf;zufv_yf&Sm;r_eJ@ t=urf;
rzufv_yf&Sm;r_ xdyfwdkuf&ifqdkifwdk;ae=uyg+yD? odef;aomif;ru &Sd
aewJhvlxkudk ypfr,fqdk&if ypfEdkifavmufwJh vlowfvufeufawG
wifhum;rsm; a&S@wufrvmEdkifatmif
ppfwyfbufrSmtqifoifhygyJ? trdef@wckudkay;vdkuf&HkeJ@ vl@touf
vufcsnf;oufouf wGef;ae=uonfh
aygif;rsm;pGmqHk;&–H;+yD; tm%m&Sifpepf qufvuf &yfwnfoGm;Edkif jynfolvlxk
p&m&Sdygw,f? udpPtm;vHk; jywfoGm;EdkifwJhudpPyg? tm%m&SifwOD;&J@
trdef@eJ@ vlxktusKd;pD;yGm; vGefqGJaewJh tcdkuftwef@jzpfygw,f? touf&SLrSm;avmufwJh wu,fh
tjzpftysuf ygyJ?
'gayr,fh vlxk}uD;ueJeJrSra&G@yJ/ vHk;0t=urf;zufjcif;
r&SdyJ qufvufawmifhcHaecJhygw,f? bkef;}uD;/ oDv&Sif/ vlwef;pm;
tv$mtoD;oD;u jynfolawG&J@ arwWm&yfcHoHwdk@udkom twdkif;om;
=um;ae&ygw,f? tcsKd@u ppfom;awG pm;aomufzdk@ vufurf;ay;
ae=uygw,f? vlxk}uD;w&yfvHk;[m wnDwnmwnf; olwdk@&J@ touf
awGudk paw;vdkuf=uyg+yD? tHhtm;oifhzdk@ aumif;avmufatmif ppfom;
awGu vlxkudk aoewfwcsufrSrypfcwfyJ &Sdaeygw,f? wifhum;awGxJuxGuf=unfh=uwJh ppfom;awG[m
vlxkudk=unfh&if; rsuf&nfawG pD;usvmae=uygw,f? olwdk@[m ypfrdef@udk vGefqefvdkuf=uyg+yD? aemufqHk;
rSmawmh wifhum;wef;}uD;[m aemufjyefqkwfoGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f? ppfwyfa&m vlxkyg t=urf;rzufwJh
vlxk pGrf;tm;udk vufawG@oabmaygufoGm;cJhyg+yD? ESpfbufpvHk;u yg0ifcJholawGudk csD;usL;*k%fðyp&myg?
naeapmif;rSmawmh Radio  Veritas &J@ ta&;ay:oHk;wJh toHv$ifhpuf
uvnf; xkwfv$ifhvdk@r&awmhyJ jzpfoGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f? 'gayr,fh a&'D,dkorm;awGu
vufrav#mhcJh=uygbl;? oef;acgifausmfausmfav;rSm v#Kd@0SufwJhwae&muae jyefvnf
toHv$ifhay;EdkifcJhjyefygw,f? owif;a=unmzwf=um;ay;olu *sLef udwfovD (June 
Keithley) yg? olr[m tJ'Dae@ wnvHk;eJ@ aemufae@awGrSmyg wav#mufvHk; toHv$ifh
ay;oGm;cJhygw,f? aemufydkif; EDSA  vlxkpGrf;tm;awmfvSefa&;&J@ ol&Jaumif;tjzpf
*sLefudwfovD rSwfwrf;wifcH&ygw,f?
av;&ufwm vlxkwdkufyGJ (wwd,ae@) 24-2-1986 wevFmae@
rdk;rvif;wvif; tarSmifxkudk tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; rm;udk@pf
opPmcHwyfawG[m pcef;ta&S@bufqDudk csDwufvm&if; vltkyf}uD;eJ@awG@wJh
tcgrSm rsuf&nf,dkAHk;awGeJ@ ypfygawmhw,f? qENjyvltkyf}uD;[m rsuf&nf,dk
AHk;'%fudkrcHEdkifawmhyJ csufcsif;yJvpl u
k JGoGm;&ygw,f? 'DawmhrS r&def;wyfom;
(3000)avmuf[m tuDGem'dk pcef;&J@ta&S@bufuae 0ifa&mufEdkif+yD; wyfpGJ
aeygawmhw,f? 'gayr,fh pcef;xJu ppfom;awGeJ@ ypfcwfwdkufcdkufwmawG
awmh r&SdcJhygbl;?
'grsKd;eJ@ qef@usifbufjzpf&yfuawmh &[wf,mOfwyfzGJ@u vlxkbufudk yl;aygif;vmwmyJ
jzpfygw,f? olwdk@tkyfpk[m ava=umif;wdkufcdkufa&; wyfzJ@G (15) jzpf+yD; Adkvfr–;csKyf qdkwJvkd (Antonio 
Sotelo)u acgif;aqmifvmwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'D &[wf,mOfwyfzGJ@u c&drf;pcef;udkwdkufcdkuf+yD; wyfpGJaezdk@
trdef@eJ@ xGufvmwmjzpfayr,fh wu,fwrf;rSmawmh olwdk@[m bufajymif;cdkv_Hvdkuf=uygw,f? vlxk}uD;
[m 0rf;omtm;&jzpfvGef;vdk@ olwdk@udk ayG@zufóuqdk csD;usL;=obmay;=uygw,f? tjcm;ppfonfawGudk
vnf; vmaygif;=uzdk@ zdwfac:aewJh tef&Dav;eJ@&m;rdk@pfwdk@twGuf pdwf"gwfa&;&m tm;aq;aumif; wcGuf
jzpfcJh&ygw,f?
tJ'DtcsdefrSmyJ v#Kd@0Sufwae&mu toHv$ifhay;aewJh
*sLef udwfovDu rm;udk@pf[m orRweef;awmfuae xGufcGmoGm;w,f
qdkwJhowif;&vdk@ vlxk}uD;udk csufcsif;a=unmay;aeygw,f? =um;vdkuf
&wJh vlxk}uD;[m atmifyGJcH=uygawmhw,f? tef&Dav;eJ@ &m;rdk@pfwdk@
ESpfa,mufvnf; c&drf;pcef;uae tjyifxGufvm+yD; vlxkeJ@ awG@qHkcJh=u
ygw,f? 'gayr,fh watmifhavmuft=umrSm vlxkatmifyGJcHaewm
csufcsif; &yfqdkif;oGm;&ygw,f?
bma=umifhvJqdkawmh tpdk;&xdef;csKyfxm;wJh csefe,f (4) (Channel  4) &kkyfjrifoH=um;
ay:rSm rm;udk@pfrsufEmS udk awG@vdkuf&vdk@ygyJ? rm;udk@pfu ol &mxl;u E_wfxGufay;rSmr[kwfwJhta=umif;
a=unmaewm jzpfygw,f? 'DawmhrS Radio  Veritas  toHv$ifh owif;[m aemufxyf ppfom;awG
bufajymif;cdkv_HvmEdkifatmif pdwf"gwfa&;&m ppfqifr_jzpfw,fvdk@ wcsKd@u uref;uwrf; oHk;oyf=uygw,f?
'gayr,fh rm;udk@pf a=unmaewm r+yD;ao;cifrSmyJ
csefe,f(4) toHv$ifhwm &kwfw&uf&yfqdkif;oGm;cJhygw,f? ta=umif;&if;
uawmh csefe,f(4) &kyfjrifoH=um;Xme todrf;cHvdkuf&vdk@ygyJ? odrf;ydkuf
vdkufolu ppfwyfjyefvnfjyifqifa&;(RAM)tzGJ@0ifjzpfwJh Adkvfr–;}uD;
qefwD,m*dk (Mariano  Santiago) acgif;aqmifwJhwyfzJG@ jzpfygw,f?
olwdk@[m csefe,f(4)udk 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkuf+yD; rm;udk@pf a=unmaewJh csefe,f (4)udk jyefodrf;&ef
óuwif &kyfoHoGif; AD'D,dkudk &yfqdkif;ypfvdkufvdk@ygyJ? rm;udk@pf opPmcHwyf óu;yrf;aeonfh rm;udk@pfwyfrsm;
awGu jyefodrf;ydkufzdk@óu;yrf;cJhayr,fhvnf; ratmifjrifcJhygbl;?
rGef;wnfhcsdef pGef;pGef;av;
rSmawmh csefe,f(4) &kyfjrifoH=um; jyef
aumif;oGm;+yD;“csefe,fzdk;rS jynfolvlxk
twGuf jyefvnftoHv$ihf jyoaeyg+yD”vd@k
a=unmay;aewm awG@&ygw,f? 'Dtcsdef
avmufrSm EDSA vrf;r}uD;wav#muf
vlxkta&twGuf[m woef;ausmf ESpfoef;avmuf &Sdvmatmif w&Sdefxdk; wdk;yGm;aeygw,f? yg0ifqEN
jycsifwJh b,folrqdk 'Dae&mudkyJ OD;wnf+yD; vma&mufpka0; tiftm;jyae=uyg+yD? vlxkpGrf;tm;
b,favmuf}uD;rm;ovJ qdkwmvnf; rsuf0g;xifxif awG@jrifae&yg+yD?

rGef;vGJydkif;rSmawmh vlxkbufu &yfwnfaewJh &[wf,mOfwyfzGJ@[m ADvmrdk; (Villamor)


avwyfpcef;udk 0ifypfvdk@ orRw pD;eif;wJhum;awG ysufpD;oGm;ygw,f? &[wf,mOfwpD;u orRw
eef;awmfudk 'Hk;usnfwpif;eJ@ypfcwfvdk@ enf;enf;yg;yg; ysufpD;oGm;cJhygw,f? tJ'DaemufrSmawmh ppfwuUodkvf
(PMA‐  Philippine  Military  Academy) ausmif;qif;t&m&Sdtrsm;pku jynfolawGbufudk bufajymif;
cdkv_HvmcJh=uygw,f?
rm;udk@pfudk qef@usifqENjyolawG tuDGEdkukd axmufcHqeNjyolawG[m vrf;r}uD;ay:rSm
wdk;+yD;&if;wdk;vmaeygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm tpdk;&ydkif usefaewJh &kyfjrifoH=um;XmeawGu rm;udk@pfeJ@ ppfOD;pD;csKyf
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am; wdk@ESpfa,muf tjyeftvSefajymae=uwmudk xkwfv$ifhjyoaeygw,f? 'g[m rm;udk@pf&J@
taumif;qHk; EdkifiHa&;vkyfaqmifcsufjzpfw,fvdk@ oHk;oyf=uolawGvnf;&Sdovdk tjcm;wzufrSmvnf;
rm;udk@pf[m ol@&J@usqif;aewJhoduQmudk jyefq,fcsifvdk@ rD'D,m tjrifaumif;atmif/ vlxktjrif
ajymif;atmif vkyfwmyJjzpfw,fqdk+yD; a0zefolawGvnf; &Sdygw,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;- olwdk@vufxJa&mufaewJh [,fvDaumhywmawGudk rysHoef;Edkifvkyfzdk@vdkaeygw,f? tck
avmavmq,frSm tJ'D[,fvDaumhywmawGudk tcsdefra&G;ypfcsEdkifwJh wdkufav,mOf
ESpfpD;ydk ysHoef;cdkif;xm;ygw,fcifAsm?
rm;udk@pf- olwdk@udk rwdkufcdkufzdk@ ig trdef@ay;w,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;- olwdk@u t&yfom;awGudk usaemfwdk@wyfawGem;rSm pk&Hk;cdkif;xm;ygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemf
wdk@ aemufjyefqkwfvdk@r&yJ jzpfaeygw,f? orRwu rae@u usaemfhudk aemufqkwfay;zdk@
ajymwm @ @ @ @ @ @
rm;udk@pf- (pum;jzwfI) olwdk@udk rypfcwfyJ vlpkuGJatmifvkyfzdk@ ig trdef@ay;w,f?
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;- usaemfwdk@ wcsdefvHk; aemufqkwfray;Ekdifygbl;?
rm;udk@pf- 'Dvdkr[kwfbl;? awmifhxm;? olwdk@udk rypfcwfyJ vlpkuJaG tmif rif;vkyf&r,f? rif;
óuufwJhvufeuf oHk;vdk@&w,f?

tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u AdkvfcsKyf}uD;Am;[m rm;udk@pfudk r=umcifrSm tEW&m,f &SdvmEdkifwJh


ta=umif; owday;aecJhygw,f? rm;udk@pf opPmcHwifhum;awGuawmh EDSA vrf;r}uD;twdkif; armif;ESif
ae+yD jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh Am;u ypfrdef@awmif;aewmygyJ? rm;udk@pf[m ododomom usef;rma&; usqif;
aeygw,f? yifyef;EGrf;e,faewmudkvnf; awG@ae&ygw,f? ol[m Am; awmif;aewJhypfrdef@udk ,wdjywf
jiif;y,fvdkufygw,f? Am;udk olu tav;ðyvdkuf+yD; jyefxGufoGm;cdkif;vdkufygw,f? 'Dtxdu &kyfjrifoH=um;
rSm xkwfv$ifhjyooGm;wmyg?
rm;udk@pftaeeJ@ t&ifwkef;u tajctaet& b,fvdkyJ trdef@ay;cJhwmawG &Sdcsif&SdaeEdkif
ayr,fh tckvdk tcdkuftwef@rSmawmh vlxkudk ypfzdk@trdef@udk trSefyJ ol jiif;y,fcJhygw,f? &kyfjrifoH=um;
uae xkwfv$ifhrjywJh aemufqufwGJtydkif;rSmawmh bufajymif;cdkv_HoGm;wJh [,fvDaumhywmawGudk
wdkufcdkufzsufqD;zdk@twGuf rm;udk@pfu Am;udk av,mOfypf vufeufoHk;cdkif;wm &Sdao;w,fvdk@ qdkygw,f?
av;&ufwm ordkif;0if vlxkwdkufyGJ (aemufqHk;ae@) 25-2-1986 t*Fgae@
reuf(7)em&DavmufrSm rm;udk@pfopPmcHwyfom;awGeJ@ jyefvnf
jyifqifa&;wyfzJ@G t=um; typftcwfenf;enf;&SdcJhygw,f? vltaotaysmuf
r&Sdygbl;? csefe,f(4)&kyfjrifoH=um;XmeteD;rSm&SdwJh tpdk;&ydkif csefe,f(9) ar#mfpif
ay:uae rm;udk@pfopPmcH wyfom;awGu ta0;=unfhrSefajymif;wyf aoewf
(Sniper) eJ@ vSrf;ypfvdk@ tjyeftvSef ypfcwfukef=uwmjzpfygw,f?
reufcif;ydkif;rSm udk&mZH udk&D tuGDEdku
zdvpfydkiforRwtjzpf usrf;opPm usdefqdkygw,f? c&drf; pcef;
e@J wuDvdkrDwmavmufyJ a0;wJhae&mrSm &dk;&dk;&Sif;&Sif;yJ vkyf
oGm;wmjzpfygw,f? avmf&,fu 'korRwtjzpf usrf;opPm
usdefqdkygw,f? udk&mZHtuDGEdk&J@a,muQrjzpfolu usrf;udkif
ay;ygw,f? tef&Dav;eJ@ &m;rdk@pfwdk@tjyif EdkifiHa&;orm;awG
vnf; tcrf;tem;udk wufa&mufvm=uygw,f? tcrf;
tem;t+yD;rSm tuDGEdku &m;rdk@pfudk AdkvfcsKyf}uD;tjzpf &mxl;wdk;ay;vdkuf ygw,f?
tjyifbufrSmawmh EDSA vrf;r}uD;qDudk qufoG,fxm;wJh
vrf;wav#muf &maygif;rsm;pGm&SdwJh jynfolawGu orRweJ@ 'korRwwdk@udk
aumif;csD;axmyem ðy=uygw,f? *k%fðyatmifyJaG wG usif;y=uygw,f? trsK;dom;oDcsif;vdkyJ a&yef;pm;aewJh
“'g wdk@ajy 'gwdk@ajr”oDcsif;udk 0dkif;qdk=uygw,f? vltrsm;pk[m tuDGEdk a&G;aumufyGJ ta&mifjzpfwJh
t0ga&mifudk 0wfpm;qif,ifxm;=uygw,f?
wem&Davmuft=umrSm rm;udk@pfuvnf; orRweef;awmfrSm
orRwusrf;opPmusdefqdkyGJ oD;jcm;ðyvkyfygw,f? rm;udk@pfudk opPmapmihfodolawG
trsm;tjym;wufa&muf+yD; “rm;udk@pf quftkyfcsKyfyg”vdk@ aºu;a=umf=uygw,f?
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;udkawmif awmif;qdk=uolawG &Sdygw,f? tpdk;&ydkif usefaewJh &kyfjrif
oH=um;XmeawGeJ@ csefe,f(7)u tcrf;tem;udk xkwfv$ifhjyoygw,f? zdwfac:
xm;wJh EdkifiHjcm;oHwrefawG[m vHkðcHa&;ta=umif;jycsufeJ@ wOD;rS rwufa&muf
cJh=uygbl;? &k&Sm; wEdkifiHwnf;uyJ *k%fðyo0%fv$mwapmif ay;ydk@wmyJ &SdcJhygw,f?
rm;udk@pfeJ@ ol@todkif;t0dkif;[m tcrf;tem;+yD;+yD;csif;yJ eef;awmfuae cyfokwfokwf xGufcGmoGm;cJh=u
ygw,f?
jyefvnfjyifqifa&; (RAM) ppfwyfawGu tpdk;&ydkif &kyfjrifoH=um;XmeawGudk odrf;ydkufEdkif
vdkufvdk@ rm;udk@pf orRw usrf;opPmusefqdkyGJ jyaewmawG &yfqdkif;cH&ygw,f? 'DtcsdefavmufrSmyJ orRw
eef;awmfqDoGm;wJh ref'Dtdkvm (Mendiola)vrf;ay:rSm jynfolawG axmifeJ@csD+yD; pk&Hk;a&muf&Sdae=uygw,f?
eef;awmfeJ@qdk&if rDwm(100)avmufyJ a0;ygawmhw,f? oHql;óu; twm;tqD;awGeJ@ rm;udk@pfopPmcH
ppfom;awGu eef;awmfudk vlxk}uD;r0ifEdkifatmif wm;qD;xm;vdk@ qENjyolawG a&S@qufwdk;vdk@r&ygb;l ?
pdwfqdk;ae=uwJhvlxk}uD;udk bkef;awmf}uD;awGu t=urf;rzuf=uzdk@ ajzmif;zsae=u&ygw,f?
'DtcsdefawGavmufrSmyJ rm;udk@pf[m tar&duef txufv$wfawmftrwf vJhcfZwf (Paul 
Laxalt)udk csOf;uyf+yD; tar&duef tpdk;&&J@t=uHOm%fudk awmif;cHaecJhygw,f? vJhcfZwfuawmh rm;udk@pfudk
tukefvHk; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; vkyfay;zdk@udkomyJ t=uHay;ay;ygw,f? rm;udk@pfu odyfoabmrawG@vSayr,fh
ae@vnfcif;a&mufawmh ,wdjywf qHk;jzwfvdkufygw,f? 'Daemuf ol[m tef&Dav;qDudk zkef;quf+yD;
oleJ@ol@rdom;pk twGuf pdwfcsvHkðcH&wJh xGufaygufay;zdk@ ajymvdkufygw,f? n(9)em&DrSmawmh rm;udk@pf[m
ol@rdom;pktjyif AdkvfcsKyfAm;eJ@twl &[wf,mOf (4)pD;eJ@ zdvpfydkifrSm&SdwJh
uvmhcfavwyf tajcpdkufpcef;uae *ltrf (Guam) rSm wqifhem;+yD;
[m0dkiftDudk xGufcGmoGm;ygawmhw,f?
tJ'Daemufawmh rm;udk@pf wdkif;jynfu xGufajy;oGm;+yDqdkwJh
owif;[m vlxk=um;rSm jyef@ESH@oGm;cJhygw,f? jynfolawG[m aysmf&$if
jrL;wl;pGm uckefae=uygawmhw,f? ref'Dtdkvmvrf;ay:rSm&SdwJh jynfol
awG[m aemufqHk;rSmawmh crf;em;xnf0gvGef;vSwJh orRweef;awmfxJudk
0ifa&mufEdkifcJh=uygw,f? ypPnf;vkolawGvnf; &SdcJh=uygw,f? trsm;pk
uawmh eef;awmfxJ vSnfhvnf=unfh&_=uygw,f? jynfolawG qif;&JEGrf;yg;
aecsdefrSm rm;udk@pfeJ@ rdom;pkwdk@ b,fvdkrsm; pnf;pdrfcH oHk;ðzef;aeovJ
qdkwm odcsif=uvdk@ygyJ? tjyifrSm olwdk@=um;ae&wJh aumv[vtwdkif;
jzpfaewmudk udk,fwdkifawG@cJh=u&ygw,f? Oyrmqdk&if orRwuawmf 26-2-86 ae@xkwf
tDr,fvf'g pkaqmif;xm;wJh zdeyfawGygyJ? tHhtm;oifhzdk@aumif;avmuf Philippine Daily Inquirer 
atmif zdeyft&H &maygif;rsm;pGm &Sdae+yD; tm;vHk; wefzdk;}uD;awGygyJ? ydjyk ;D rsufESmzHk;owif;
vlajymrsm;p&mjzpfvmwmuawmh zdeyfawG[m wcgrSrpD;&ao;wJh topfcsyfc|wfawG jzpfaevdk@ygyJ?
rm;udk@pf[m urBmay:rSm tqdk;0g;qHk; tm%m&SifwOD;taeeJ@ wdkif;jynfudk ESpfaygif; (20)
vHk;vHk; pdwfwdkif;us tkyfcsKyfaecJh+yD; ol@tm%m[m b,fawmhrS vufv$wfqHk;&–H;zdk@ r&SdEdkifbl;vdk@ vGefcJhwJh
&uftenf;i,favmuftxd tydkifwGufxm;cJholygyJ? bkef;rD;aevawmufatmif tm%m&SdcJhayr,fh uswJh
tcgrSmawmh qdkif;rqifhAHkrqifh (bmtcrf;tem;rSr&SdawmhyJ) wdkif;jynfxJuae acG;ajy;0ufajy; xGufajy;
&w,f qdk&rwwf tusemcJh&w,fvdk@ urBmhowif;rD'D,mawGrSm a&;om;=uygw,f? 'Dvkd xGufrajy;rDrSm
tm%mudkzufwG,fvdk@ &vdk&jim; aemufqkH;taeeJ@ tqiftjcifrJh óu;yrf;=unfhvdkufygao;w,f? ol@udk
*k%fxl;aqmif (&kyfjy)orRwtjzpfeJ@ qufxm;ay;zdk@/ 'grSr[kwfvnf; tenf;qHk;taeeJ@ zdvpfydkifrSm oD;oef@
EdkifiHom;wOD;tjzpf aecGifhay;zdk@ zdvpfydkifEdkifiHom; *k%foduQm&Sd yk*~dKvfawGqDudk zkef;quf arwWm&yfcHcJhygao;
w,f? wcgwkef;u olvuf!dk;n$e&f m a&jzpfatmif vkyfay;&wJholawGqDrSm tck ol jyef'l;axmufae&yg+yD?
'gayr,fh ESpfaygif;(20)eJ@ (2)veD;yg; tm%mudk zufwG,fEdkifatmif wdkif;jynfeJ@ EdkifiHom;awGtay:rSm
udk,fusKd;&Sm;tjrwfxkwfcJhwJh rm;udk@pfudk b,folrS cGifhray;=uawmhygbl;?
awmfvSefa&;}uD; +yD;qHk;cJhyg+yD? t=urf;zufr_r&SdoavmufeJ@ }uD;rm;wJh EdkifiHa&;tajymif;tvJudk
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awmfvSefa&; [kwfr[kwf
tm%m&Sif rm;udk@pfudk vlxkpGrf;tm;eJ@ ðzwfcswmudk awmfvSefa&; (Revolution) [kwfygh
rvm;vdk@ tcsKd@olawGrSm oHo, &Sd=uygw,f? trsm;pk ,Hk=unf=uwmuawmh awmfvSefa&;qdkwm tkyfpdk;
aeqJ tpdk;&udk t=urf;enf;eJ@ z,f&Sm;wmjzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fh awmfvSefa&;&J@ a,bl,st"dy`m,fu
xl;jcm;wJhenf;vrf;awGeJ@ t&iftpdk;&ae&mrSm aemufqHk;vuf&Sdtpdk;&eJ@ tpm;xdk;vdkufwmyJ jzpfygw,f?
'DvdkrsKd; tpdk;&tkyfcsKyfa&; tajymif;tvJr[kwyf J tawG;atc: oabmw&m;/ "avhp&dkufeJ@ ,Ofaus;r_awG
rSm xl;jcm;wJhenf;vrf;eJ@ toGifajymif;vJwmudkvnf; awmfvSefa&;vdk@ ac:wwfygw,f?
zdvpfydkifjynfolawG&J@ pGrf;tm;a=umifh jzpfay:vmcJhwJh 1986 EDSA awmfvSefa&;[m
tawmfudk xl;jcm; cJhwJhtjyif aemifudkvnf;yJ qufvufxl;jcm;aeOD;r,fh awmfvSefa&; jzpfaeygw,f?
zdvpfydkift+yD; aemufydkif;ESpfawGrSm vlxkróuufwJh tm%m&Siftpdk;&awGudk z,f&Sm;=uwJh t=urf;rzuf
awmfvSefa&;}uD;awG urBmtESH@ ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f?
Oyrm- ta&S@*smreDu qdkAD,uf vufatmufrS vGwfajrmufzdk@ óu;yrf;wJh awmfvSefa&;/
csufudkpvdkAufuD;,m;u uwWDyg awmfvSefa&; (Velvet  Revolution)eJ@ ,lu&def;u vdarRmfa&mif
awmfvSefa&;(Orange  Revolution) wdk@jzpfygw,f? 'DtcgrSm t&ifht&if awmfvSefa&; o&kyfouefawGudk
jyefvnfqef;ppf twk,l toHk;cs=uwmjzpfvdk@ zdvpfydkif&J@ vlxkpGrf;tm;awmfvSefa&;[m 1986rSm
jzpfcJhwmxufawmifydk+yD; yDjyifxif&Sm; erlem,lp&m jzpfvmaecJh&ygw,f?

oHk;oyfcsuf (2)
jA[Rpdk&fw&m; xGef;um;vm
bmyJjzpfjzpf zdvpfydkifrSm tJ'DawmfvSefa&;+yD;uwnf;u 'Drdkua&pDqdkwm wjznf;jznf;
tajccdkifvmcJhygw,f? tjyeftvSeftm;jzifhvnf; vl@tcGifhta&;udk umuG,fjr‡ifhwifvmEdkifcJhygw,f? +yD;awmh
vlxkvufcHwJh tajccHOya'udk ydkrdkav;pm;vdkufemvmEdkifcJh=uygw,f? 'DtcgrSm EdkifiHom;awG&J@ tusKd;pD;yGm;/
wdkif;jynftusKd;pD;yGm;udk ydkrdk OD;pm;ay;vmEdkifcJhygawmhw,f? 'Dav;csuf[m wdkif;jynfeJ@ EdkifiHom;wOD;csif;
twGuf ta&;}uD;qHk;jzpf+yD; wdk;wufvmwJhtwGuf tm%m&Sifudk z,f&Sm;&usKd; eyfw,fvdk@ qdkEdkifygw,f?
wenf;tm;jzifhqdk&if 'gawG[m jynfolvlxkawG&J@b0awGudk tmrcHcsuf&Sdapygw,f?
'gawG wnfjrJaeoa&G@ jynfolvlxk[m tmrcHcsuf&SdwJh b0awGudk ydkifqdkifaewma=umifh 'Dvdkjzpfatmif
vkyfay;EdkifpGrf;&SdwJh b,ftpdk;&udkrqdk vlxkeJ@ EdkifiHwumu oabmusaxmufcHaerSmyJ jzpfygw,f? tusKd;
qufuawmh wefzdk;jzwfvdk@r&wJh jidrf;csrf;a&; jzpfay:vmwmygyJ?
vlwOD;csif;&J@ pdwfaepdwfxm;eJ@ trltusifhwdk@[m 'Drdkua&pD/ vl@tcGifhta&;/ tajccH
Oya'/ tusKd;pD;yGm;qdkwJh tcsufawGay:rlwnf+yD; tvdkuftxdkuf ajymif;vJwwfygw,f? vl&J@t&nftcsif;
qdkwmvnf; ywf0ef;usif wdk;wufajymif;vJr_ay:rlwnf+yD; tedrfhtjrifh&Sdvm&ygw,f? acwfumvawG
ajymif;vJ wdk;wufaecsdefrSm pdwf"gwf/ trltusifheJ@ t&nftcsif;wdk@[m xm0pOf worwfwnf; rajymif;
rvJyJ &Sdae&r,fvdk@ wxpfcs r,lqoifhawmhygbl;? t&ifu ppfwdkufzdk@ukdom 0goemxHkoljzpfayr,fhvnf;
tem*wfwcsdefcsdef EdkifiHa&;avmuxJ 0ifa&mufvmwJhtcg atmifjrifcJh&olawG urBmay:rSm vufcsKd;a&
wGufvdk@ r&Edkifawmhavmufatmif wdk;yGm;aewmudk=unfh&if odEdkifygw,f?
zdvpfydkif vlxkpGrf;tm; awmfvSefa&;udk 'Drdkua&pD &&Sda&;twGuf tvGefpHxm;xdkufwJh
erlemtjzpf tjynfjynfqdkif&m EdkifiHeJ@tzGJ@tpnf;trsm;pku todtrSwf ðy=uygw,f? 'Derlemudk ta=umif;
ðy+yD; 'Drdkua&pD EdkifiHrsm;pGm xGef;um;vmcJhygw,f? ppfat;acwfEdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ vlr_a&;pepfawG
trsm;}uD;wdk;wufvmaecJhygw,f? urBmhjidrf;csrf;a&;udk ododomom taxmuftul ðyaeEdkifcJhygw,f?

ypfypfcgcg a0zefoHk;oyf=uolawGvnf;&Sd
zdvpfydkif&J@ 1986 EDSA awmfvSefa&;[m tm%modrf;w,fqdkwmxuf eJeJydkomwmyJ
&Sdw,fvdk@ tcsKd@u oHk;oyfygw,f? rausreyfjzpfaewJh ppfAdkvfwpku vlxk róuufwJh rm;udk@pfudk z,f&Sm;+yD;
vlxkóuufwJh tuDGEdkudk [efjyorRwtjzpfeJ@ wifajr‡mufxm;wmom jzpfw,fvdk@ olwdk@u axmufjy=uyg
w,f? ppfwyfuom tm%mudk wu,fwrf;xdef;csKyfxm;wmjzpf+yD; tef&Dav;[m ppftpdk;&&J@ acgif;aqmif
jzpfw,fvdk@ a0zefoHk;oyfoltcsKd@u ,lqxm;=uygw,f?
zdvpfydkifrSm 'Drdkua&pD tpdk;&wufvmayr,fh 'Drdkua&pD aumif;usKd; tawmfrsm;rsm;udk
trSefwu,f vufawG@usus rvkyfaqmifEkdifao;bl;vdk@ tcsKd@ EdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm&SifeJ@ vlr_a&;ynm&SifawGu
a0zef=uygw,f? ywf0ef;usifu ta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHawGeJ@ E_dif;,SOf&if pD;yGm;a&;rSm odyfrwdk;wufyJ
jzpfaewmudk olwdk@u axmufjy=uygw,f? +yD;awmhvnf; ta&;}uD;wJh EdkifiHa&;tajctaeu t&ifvdkyJ
&Sdaew,fvdk@ qdkygw,f? jynfolawG&J@ pm;0wfaea&;[m a,bl,stm;jzifh qdk;0g;aeqJjzpf+yD; txl;ojzifh
qif;&JEGrf;yg;r_udk rwdkufzsufEdkifao;yJ &Sdw,fvdk@vnf; ynm&Sif&_axmifhu oHk;oyf=uygw,f?
'Drdkua&pD pepfatmufuae EdkifiHh,EW&m;udk vnfywfwJhtcgrSm rm;udk@pfvufxufwkef;u
t&ifvlwcsKd@udk vkyfydkifcGifhtm%mjyefay;wmeJ@ ywfouf+yD; a0zefajymqdkolawG/ tef*sDtdkawG &SdcJh=uygw,f?
rlrajymif;yJ vl (orRw)om ajymif;oGm;wmygqdk+yD; apm'uwufolawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? rdrdtodkif;t0dkif;
aumif;pm;a&;qdkwJhrludkawmh t&ifvdkyJ ae&mwumrSm usifhoHk;aewkef;vdk@ a0zefaecJh=uygw,f? EdkifiHa&;
=oZmaumif;&ifaumif;oavmuf rdrdtodkif;t0dkif;xJuolawGudk OD;pm;ay; vkyfudkifapw,fvdk@ qdkygw,f?
rm;udk@pf vufxufwkef;u jcpm;aewJh EdkifiHa&;orm;awGuvnf; jcHckef+yD; aumif;pm;aejyefw,fvdk@vnf;
ajymolawG &SdaecJhygw,f? vlxkpGrf;tm;awmfvSefa&;uae xGufay:vmwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;topfawGuvnf;
rm;udk@pfacwfu raumif;wmawGudk zdajym&if; 1987 ckESpfrSmvkyfr,fh a&G;aumufyJGtwGuf tcGifhtvrf;
aumif;awG zefwD;aew,fvdk@ pGyfpJ=G uwmvnf; trsm;tjym;&SdaecJhygw,f?
awmfvSefa&;aemufydkif; zdvpfydkif[m tnHhqHk; 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawGxJrSm yg0ifaew,fvdk@
tcsKd@EdkifiHa&;ody`Hynm&SifawGu ypfypfcgcg a0zef=uygw,f? zdvpfydkif[m ppfrSefwJh'Drdkua&pDudkvufcHzdk@
tqifoifhrjzpfao;bl;vdk@awmif a0zefolawG &Sd=uygw,f? zdvpfydkif EdkifiHom;tcsKd@u 'Dvdk 'Drdkua&pDrsKd;[m
vltrsm;uusifhoHk;wJh wzufoyftm%m&SifqefwJh 'Drdkua&pD jzpfw,f/ trsm;pku tenf;pkudk tEdkifusifhwJh
'Drdkua&pD jzpfw,fvdk@ pGyfpGJ=uygw,f?
rm;udk@pfacwfu EdkifiHa&;orm;a[mif;}uD;awG tjidrf;r,lao;yJ EdkifiHa&;avmurSm
usifvnf usufpm;aewkef;jzpfovdk pmay/ &kyf&Sif/ *DweJ@ &kyfjrifoH=um;avmuom;awG/ tjcm;emrnf}uD;
awGuvnf; EdkifiHa&; wwfwwf rwwfwwf EdkifiHa&;avmuxJ 0ifygvm=u+yDjzpfvdk@ 'Drdkua&pDudk bef;jy
vkyfpm;ae=uwmyJvdk@ jyif;jyif;xefxef &H_@csolawmif &SdvmcJhygw,f? 'gawGudk tðyoabmaqmifwJh
a0zefcsufvdk@yJ taumif;bufuae oabmxm;&zdk@ &SdEdkifygw,f?

toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv oifcef;pmaumif;
jzpfapcsifwJhqENtwdkif; jzpfvmEdkifzdk@qdkwm tajctaeaumif;awGtm;vHk; pkðyHzefwD;
xm;csdefrSm wcsufwnf;eJ@ vkyfvdk@&csif&ygvdrfhr,f? 'gayr,fh tJ'Dtcsdefwkef;u zdvpfydkif[m tm%m&Sif
rm;udk@pfvufatmufu vGwfajrmufcgpyJ &Sdaeygao;w,f? ygvDrefacwfeJ@ tm%m&Sifacwftygt0if
rm;udk@pf&J@ tm%m&oufwrf; ESpfaygif;(20)rSm wdkif;jynf&J@ vlr_-pD;yGm;eJ@ EdkifiHa&;tajccH[m rm;udk@pf
pdwfóuuf txdkuftavsmuf tenfxdkifaecJhwmudk jiif;vdk@ r&Edkifygbl;? txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;eJ@ owif;
rD'D,mwdk@udk rm;udk@pfeJ@ eD;pyf&m todkif;t0dkif;u vHk;0vuf0g;}uD;tkyf xdef;csKyfxm;wmudkvnf; &kwfw&uf
jyefvnfjyifqifzdk@ cufcJaecJh&ygw,f?
toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvjzpfvdk@ z&dkz&Jjzpfusef&pfcJhwJh wdkif;jynfudk jyefvnfwnfaqmuf
=u&mrSm vla[mif; vlopfcGJae&if vlom;t&if;tjrpfawG/ wwfodynmeJ@ tawG@t=uHKaumif;awG epfem
qHk;&–H;&rSmu wdkif;jynfomjzpfygw,f? 'DvdktcsdefrskKd;rSm tajymxuf tvkyfu ydk+yD;jrefjrefqefqef aumif;usKd;
awG jzpfapygw,f? a,bl,stm;jzifh jynfoltrsm;pktwGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;apr,fh toGiful;ajymif;a&;
umv EdkifiHa&;ay:vpDawGudk wdwdusus vdkufemEdkifolrSefor# 'Drdkua&pD wnfaqmufa&;rSm yg0ifvmEdkifzdk@
tm;ay;&rSm jzpfygw,f? wjznf;jznf;eJ@ qefumwifusef&pfoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f?
EdkifiHa&;pepfa[mif;uae EdkifiHa&;pepfopfudk ajymif;vJoGm;wm[m &kwfw&ufjzpfayr,fh
pepfopf&J@ &nfrSef;csuftwdkif; &mE_ef;jynfh tH0if*Gifusjzpfatmif ajymif;vJay;Edkifzdk@ ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm =umcsif
=umoGm;Edkifygw,f? bma=umifhvJqdkawmh pepfudk taumiftxnfazmfay;&wmu vl jzpfaevdk@ygyJ?
'Drdkua&pDpepfudk taumiftxnfazmfwJhol&J@ t&nftcsif;wckwnf;omru ðypkysKd;axmif ykHoGif;cH&ol&J@
vufcHEdkifpGrf;ay:rlwnf+yD; nifompGm ajymif;vJay;&wJhudpP jzpfygw,f?
wu,fvdk@ tm%m&Sifpepfudk taumiftxnfazmfr,fqdk&ifawmif ppftkyfcsKyfa&;Oya'
jyXmef;+yD; tkyfpdk;oltvdkus rjzpfjzpfatmif tcsdefawmfawmf=um twif;t"rR =urf;=urf;wrf;wrf;
yHkoGif;,l&w,f qdkwmudk rm;udk@pfu oufaojycJh+yD; jzpfygw,f?
wenf;tm;jzifhqdk&if wm0eft&SdqHk;vl[m 'Drdkua&pDtoGif ul;ajymif;a&;umvrSm
twwfEdkifqHk; nifompGm ajymif;vJay;&wmjzpfygw,f? =urf;wrf;cufxefwJh ppftkyfcsKyfa&;yHkpHeJ@ 'Drdkua&pD
toGifajymif;vJay;zdk@ tm;xkwfaewmuawmh 'Drdkua&pD&J@ tajccHoabmudkawmif em;rvnfao;wmyJ
vdk@ ,lqEdkifovdk tjcm;udk,fusKd;pD;yGm; zefwD;csifkvdk@ vSnfhpm;aewmvnf; jzpfEdkifp&m &Sdygvdrfhr,f?
ta&;}uD;qHk;u &mE_ef;jynfh 'Drdkua&pDpepf jzpfvmzdk@ toGiful;ajymif;aecsdefrSm pGrf;aqmif
Edkifr_t& acgif;aqmiftajymif;tvJudk acsmacsmarG@arG@ zefwD;ae&rSmjzpfygw,f? usefaewmawG tm;vHk;
udkawmh rajymif;rvJ vufqifhurf; wnfaqmufoGm;Edkifzdk@yJ jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD twGuf ueOD;vdktyfwJh
t&nftcsif;awGudk ydkifqdkifvm+yD;rS wjznf;jznf; t&Sdefjr‡ifhwifoGm;Edkifzdk@yJ jzpfygw,f?
zdvpfydkifEdkifiHrSm toGiful;ajymif;a&;umv acsmarG@cJhygw,f? t"dutcsufawGuawmh
1/ trsKd;om;jyefvnfoihfjrwfa&;udk tvsiftjref wnfaqmufEdkifcJhwm/
2/ jynfoltrsm;pku tuDGEdkufk wcJeufaxmufcH=uwm/
3/ 0efxrf;trsm;pkudk jyefvnfwm0efxrf;aqmifapcJhwm/
4/ rm;udk@pf pdwfóuufzJ@G pnf;xm;wJh ygvDrefudk zsufodrf;EdkifcJhwm/
5/ rm;udk@pf pdwfóuuf tajccHOya'udk zsufodrf;EdkifcJhwm/
6/ toGiful;ajymif;a&;umvtwGif;rSm tajccHOya'rl=urf;udk tuDGEdkcef@xm;wJholaawGu a&;qGJ+yD; vlxk
qENudk cH,l&mrSm jynfolawGu wcJeufaxmufcHwmawGa=umifhjzpfygw,f?
wcsdefwnf;rSmyJ vmbfpm;azmufjyefr_eJ@ qif;&JEGrf;yg;r_udk wdkufzsuf&mrSm ratmifjrifEdkifyJ
&SdaecJh&ygw,f? jzpfEdkifp&m t"dutcsuf (2)csuf&Sdygw,f? yxrtcsufu rm;udk@pfvufxufrSm vmbfpm;
azmufjyefaewJh 0efxrf;awGudk jyefcef@xm;cJhayr,fh olwdk@&J@tusifha[mif;udk jyefjyifEdkifatmif xdef;csKyf&mrSm
tm;enf;cJh&ygw,f? 'kwd,tcsufuawmh vuf0g;}uD;tkyf t&if;&Sifpepfu ydkrkdtm;aumif;vmaewmudk
rxdef;csKyfEdkifcJhygbl;?
tm%m&Sifpepfuae 'Drdkua&pDudk &kwfw&uf toGiful;ajymif;wJhtcgrSm a&ajrobm0
tvdkuf csifhcsdefajymif;vJ toHk;cszdk@ vdktyfr,fh oifcef;pmaumif;awGygyJ?

zdvpfydkif vlxkpGrf;tm; v_yf&Sm;r_ (+yD;)

vGiaf tmifpdk;
(rSwfcsuf? qufvufazmfjy&ef &SdEkdifygonf?)
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