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Unlike accounts ledger, which is created on paper using pencil and calculator, the electronic spreadsheet is created by computer system, which consists of rows and columns of numerical data. With a few keystrokes user can quickly change, correct and update the data. M.S excel is an electronic ledger. In computer language it is known as spreadsheet. The main application of spreadsheet is similar to accounting books. We can store the information in properly and orderly manner in excel. Spreadsheet is also having an ability to perform the calculations from simple sums to the most complex financial and mathematical formulae. Excel is mostly used for accounting and auditing. It is also useful for making reports using information and charts.
The main application of spreadsheets is similar to account books. Calc is mostly used for accounting and auditing. Calc is also useful for making reports using information and charts. Spreadsheet is network of vertical and horizontal division. The vertical divisions are called columns and the horizontal divisions are known as rows. The rectangle that is formed by the intersection of rows and columns is called a cell. In excel a cell is described slightly differently. Rows have numbers from 1 onwards and columns are named alphabetically from A to Z and AA to IV so the cell in 4th row and 4th column would be referred to as D4. Like other windows in MS office the excel window also includes a title bar, tool bar, menu bar, workspace etc. Besides this a special bar called, as formula bar is also present in excel. On the right hand side of the formula bar in the long box information about the selected cell is displayed. Using default workbook template When a new blank excel workbook is opened it has predefined settings which are called as default settings. Thus this becomes default workbook template to create many worksheets.
To develop a workbook you need to follow four steps. A) Plan B) Enter and Edit C) Test D) Format. Plan Firstly you need to plan what content you are going to write, the outlook of it, the result expected, the design and if required formulae also. Enter & Edit One can enter a data either in text or numeric format, formulas, and also work sheet labels. If any errors are there you need to edit the same by revising the content. Test Testing can be done to find out results/ outputs are as per the exceptions. Format After of completion of data entry its appearance can be changed through format option to make it more attractive and presentable. It is very easy to enter any information in excel. To enter information in cell simply select the desired cell and double click on it. After double clicking you can enter the required information into the selected cell directly. In excel data can be entered either in cell or the formula bar. It is not necessary for this data to be only in numeric. Text, graphs and even images can be entered into these cells. It is also very easy to move from one cell to another .You can move to any cell by simply clicking on the desired cell with the mouse. You can also quite easily move from one cell to another using keyboard. Using Edit go to option and typing the cell address can also move the pointer to the correspondent cell. As in other windows program you can right click and get the options based on the positions where you have right clicked. If you take the mouse to different locations on screen and right click various menus corresponding to the location will appear. As in other windows program you can right click and get the options based on the positions where you have right clicked. If you take the mouse to different locations on screen and right click various menus corresponding to the location will appear. As soon as new character is entered previous entries erased.
After double clicking on required cell, the cursor changes to I-beam when positioned on the cell. This I-beam can be moved either at the end or beginning of the word for changing the text.
A text entry that is larger than the width of the cell will be fully displayed only if the cells to the right are blank. But if there is any text on the right hand side cells the text can be interrupted. However to adjust the cell width as per the size of the text you can do it in following three ways: Dragging the boundary line to the right of the column letter will increase the column width and to decrease it you can drag it to left. Another way of adjusting the cell width is Go to Format and select option column from the drop down menu and click on width a small pop up window will open where the present width of the cell is mentioned which can be changed by entering the size you want. 3)AutoFit is feature provided in excel where double clicking on column boundary line adjusts the column width automatically.
Many a times we want to use the same numbers or figures in the cell, and instead of writing it every time in every cell the content can be quickly copied from one cell to another. Like wise the same information can be moved anywhere within a worksheet or other worksheet as well. Copy and Paste For copying the content you have to select the cells in the source containing the data. The short cut for copying the cells is Ctrl C. the moving border indicates that selected cells have been copied. Fill Handle The content can be copied by dragging the Fill Handle, the box which appears in the lower right corner of the selection. It fills the same value in the cells to the right of the
source. Inserting copied cells Rows can be inserted between the worksheet data. For this the cell pointer should be moved to the upper left cell of the area where you want the selected insertion. Moving the Cell You could remove the content from one cell or row and put it at other location or other worksheet. For this select the entry to be moved, go to the "Edit" menu and select "Cut" option. Go to the new location and from the shortcut menu select "Paste" option. Other alternative way is to use the options available on "Edit" menu. Working with formula Formula is used to perform calculation on the data contained in document. In excel also formula helps in performing calculations on the data in desired cells. A formula is entered in a cell where you want to display the desired calculated value. Enter the formula in the cell where you want the output, referring to cells on which calculations to be performed. The formula will start with the “equal sign (=)”. It will use all the mathematical operators and will follow all the mathematical rules. Working with Functions Now as you know how to use the Formula in Excel, let us see how to use the Functions. Functions are nothing but the predefined formulas. Function also begins with "Equal sign (=)". The argument of the function is nothing but the data. Spreadsheets are made up of Columns, Rows and Cells. In each cell there may be the following types of data: 1. Text (labels) 2. Number data (constants) 3. Functions (mathematical equations that do all the work)
Using a default workbook template (continued): This is called the default settings, is generally the most commonly used settings and are stored as a workbook template.
One of the most useful reasons for using the Calc spreadsheet program is to have it calculate mathematical functions automatically based on raw data placed in the cells. To do this we must place a function, or a simple math problem, into a cell on the spreadsheet and refer it to other cells that contain the data that we wish to compute.
Add a Function to the Spreadsheet: The example function will be SUM. This is the function to add the data in two cells and display the total. First select the cell on the spreadsheet that you wish to display the SUM function in. Often this will be in a cell below two other cells with data like in the example ahead. Add a Function to the Spreadsheet (Continued): Now enter the function into the cell function window at the top of the spreadsheet. The Syntax for a function is: =SUM (first value, second value) Add a Function to the Spreadsheet (Continued): In our example below we enter =SUM (B1:B2) to get the total of cells B1 and B2. Once you have finished entering the function you will see the numerical total of the function displayed in the cell on the spreadsheet and the function syntax displayed in the function window at the top of the spreadsheet. This is shown in the example below. Referencing Functions: To reference other mathematical functions that you can use in the Calc spread sheet use the built in help file. To do this click on the Help menu and select "Contents." In the left hand window select "Help about OpenOffice.org Calc." Referencing Functions (Continued): Then select "Categories and Functions." Select "Mathematical Functions" and you will have a reference of useful mathematical functions displayed in the right hand window with the appropriate syntax for the Calc program.
To insert an image to your calc worksheet, choose "Graphics --> From File" from the Insert Option on the Menu bar. Insert Graphics: Next, browse to find the directory containing the graphic you want to add. Once you find the graphic you want, you can click the "Preview" check box on the bottom of the window to preview the graphic. Insert Graphics (Continued): Once you have previewed the graphic and are satisfied with the one you have chosen, click the "Open" button to insert the graphic to your workbook. Resizing the Graphic: To change the size of the graphic, hold down the "Shift" key and click and drag a corner of the graphic until the outline reaches your desired size, then release. Enter the current date in cell in the format mm/dd/yy (for example, 10/10/03). Dates, like other numeric entries, can be formatted to display in many different ways. Use Format/Cells. In the "Cell Attributes" dialog box select "Number" tab and "Date" form the Category list box to left side to change the date format.
Page Preview: To print a page, you may first want to view the page to see how it will look. Do this by page previewing. To page preview, choose "Page Preview" from the File menu. Page Format: Once you are previewing the page, you may notice that you want to change the page format. To do so, simply click the button to the left of the depressed "Page Preview" button on the top toolbar (show below).
Charts Chart is a visual data representation. It is very easy to create charts in Microsoft Excel. For the various types of purposes data can be represented in the form of charts. In Microsoft excel various types of charts such as area charts, bar charts, column charts, pie charts, bubble charts etc are available. Different charts provided by Excel are shown in the table.
Select the data and click on chart wizard from standard tool bar. Chart wizard dialog box will appear on which various types of charts are displayed. Select the required type of chart and click on the next button. Here we can add titles, scales to X and Y axis. Click on the next butto Chart will be displayed on the spreadsheet.
Calc produce standard types of graphs and charts, with many different sub-types for each standard type. The basic chart types and how they represent data are described in this and next figure. The types of data represented by the basic chart types are continued in this figure.
reating charts based on information in OpenOffice Calc tables is very easy task. Select the entire cell based on information on which the chart has to be created. Choose "Chart" from the Insert option on the Menu Bar. Choose Chart Type: In the next window, you will have the option to choose which type of chart you want to create. After selecting the type, click the "Next" button. Choose Variant: In the next window, choose the variant you want to use and then click the "Next" button. Choosing the Labels In this window, you will be able to add or change the titles of the chart and the x and y axis. When done, click the "Create" button and your chart will be automatically created.
Spell check The spell-checking feature locates misspelled words, duplicate words, and capitalization irregularities in the active worksheet and proposes the correct spelling. Select "Spelling" option from the "Tools" menu or you can directly starts spelling check by pressing F7 key shortcut. The spelling checker immediately begins checking the worksheet for spelling and grammar cell by cell. Misspelled words are shown one by one in Spelling dialog box. Suggestions for misspelled words are shown in suggestion box. Make appropriate changes to misspelled words. Now the text in the worksheet is correctly spelled. Absolute References In a spreadsheet a formula is used, reference cell and formula associated with it are interdependent.
Copying between the sheets. In Excel can exchange the data from one worksheet to another worksheet. Select the required data to be copied from worksheet 1. Click on the Edit menu and select the copy option. Now click on the worksheet number 2. Go to edit menu. Now select Paste command.
Freezing panes: When the data of the table does not fit on the screen, we have to scroll up & down or left & right to view the entire data. Usually all the rows and columns in the table have headings. After the scrolling sometimes the heading are not visible on the screen and it becomes difficult to understand which data pertains to which heading. Select "Freeze panes" option from window menu you can keep these headings constant on the screen. To keep the first row and column constant, Select the B2 cell and click on the Freeze panes option from the window menu. To unfreeze panes, click on the unfreeze Panes option from the window menu. Auto fill Auto fill is a special utility in Microsoft Excel. Usually the logic of the user using excel and programming logic of excel is same. How ever sometimes this logic can be different. In such a case user has to fill the data in the individual cells manually. Now lets see this in simple terms. In one cell enter 1st week. Now select the cell containing the information and take the mouse to the top handle at the bottom top handle of the cell. Click on the handle and drag the mouse horizontally on cell. If you do this excel enters 2nd week will be automatically. To use the auto fill for mathematically operations, Information must be entered in more than one cell. This helps excel to understand the logic properly and do the right calculations to give the correct results. For example if you entered 5, 10 and 15 in adjacent cells order. Now select these three cells and drag the handle. And you will get 20, 25 and so on incrementally in subsequent cells. Custom list Just as default auto fill tool recognized the extended set of predetermined data in the list. It is also possible to use it for custom list created by the user For example frequently used list in factory can be used again after making required changes. Even if the list do not work on specific it is possible to enter the first item in the list and get the entire list. The procedure to create such list is as follows: Select the list from cells in the sheet. Choose the “Options” option on the tools menu. From the options menu submenu choose Customs list tab. In the box that opens click on the import button. Now click on “OK” button. Now type the First entry from the list on Worksheet and drag
the mouse. To scale up or scale down the view, select the percentage from the zooming level option in standard tool bar. Splitting Window When the worksheet is too large to view different parts of the sheet at the same time splitting window utility is used. At the top of the vertical scroll bar or at the right end of the horizontal scroll bar, point to the split box is provided. When the pointer changes to a split pointer, drag the split box down or to the left to the position you want. Select “Split” option from window menu to quickly create a four-way split at the active cell.
Goal seek Goal Seek Forecasting values Forecasting values is a what-if analysis technique used to evaluate effects of changing selected factors in a worksheet. This is much similar to common accounting function. By substituting print values in cells are referred by formulae. When you know the output of a formula but you do not know the input to be provided to get the required the output Goal Seek can be used to get he input value.
Microsoft Excel shows the value of the selected cell till the required output is obtained in the cell that contains the formula. The Goal Seek cell is shown in the box. The references of the cell containing the formulae and whose value has to be changed must be provided in the set cell box in the Goal seek dialog box. To change Sahil’s salary click on to value in the dialog box. The reference set box of the cell whose value has to be changed is displayed the box on the screen. The references of the cell containing the formulae and whose value has to be changed must be provided in the set cell box in the Goal seek dialog box. To change sahils salary click on to value in the dialog box. The reference set box of the cell whose value has to be changed is displayed the box on the screen. In the "To value" box on the screen enter the final value that is required. Enter fifty thousand in this box.
Provide the reference of the cell in which the value should be changed in the by Cell changing box in the dialog box. To do this click on the basic salary cell. Now click on the "OK" button. The Goal Seek status window is now displayed on the screen. In this window the target value and the current value status is displayed. Click on the OK button in this window. The changed values are displayed on the screen.
Customizing print settings Many times you will want to change the print and layout settings to improve the appearance of the output. Customizing the print settings by changing the orientation of the page, centering the worksheet on the page, hiding gridlines, and adding custom header and footer information are just a few of the ways you can make your printed output look more professional. Changing the page orientation Select all the sheets and right click sheet tab. Click print preview. Click on the setup, select Landscape. Select "fit to" Click "OK". Adding Headers and Footers. Like other MS Office programs Headers and Footers can be added to worksheet. Select Header and Footer option form the view menu. Page Setup dialog box appears There are different tabs on the dialog box. You can select the predefined header and footer. You can also insert custom header and footer. Click on the "OK" button. There are different tabs on the dialog box. You can select the predefined header and footer. You can also insert custom header and footer. Click on the "OK" button. Print selected sheets For printing the selected sheet right click on the sheet tab and choose the "Ungroup sheets" option. If necessary make the required sheet active. Hold down Ctrl (control) key and print the selected sheets. Now click on the print option.
To check the spelling, just click on the "Spellcheck" button on the main toolbar. Or go to Tools/Spellcheck/Check. By pressing "F7" will also spell the check. This is how absolute reference is given. See in the example, move to F5 then click on the reference to E8 in the formula bar to enter Edit mode and select the reference. Press Enter or. Copy the revised formula to cells F6 through F7. Absolute reference: An absolute reference is a cell or range reference in a formula whose location dose not change when the formula is copied. They are used when a calculation refers to one specific cell in your sheet which contains a percent value. Copying between sheets: Copying between sheets is the same as copying within a sheet, except that you switch to the new sheet to specify the destination. Select a worksheet range click Copy button on the toolbar. Click on sheet 2 tab. And finally click paste button on the toolbar. You can also use "Copy” / “Move sheet" to move or copy a sheet into a new sheet in the workbook. Renaming sheets: To rename an existing worksheet first left-click on the worksheet tab for the worksheet that you wish to rename. This will make it the current worksheet displayed on the workspace. Next, right-click on the worksheet tab and select "Rename." Now simply enter the new worksheet name into the box that will appear on the screen and click "OK." Moving sheet: Right Click on the sheet tab, the popup window will be displayed. Click on the Move - Copy option. Select the "Move to end position" from the option and click "OK" button. This is how the sheet is moved. There is another way to move is to drag the sheet tab to the left end. Now that the workbook is much larger you are finding that it takes a lot of time to scroll to different areas within and between sheets. To make managing large sheets easier, you can zoom a sheet, split the workbook window, and freeze panes.
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