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B Pht Quang

Vai tr ca b pht quang l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang v a v a tn hiu quang ny vo si quang truyn ti pha thu. Linh kin chnh trong b pht quang l ngun pht quang. Trong h thng thng tin quang cc ngun quang c s dng l it pht quang ( LED) v laser bn dn ( Laser Diode_LD). Chng c nhiu u im nh: Kch thc nh, hiu sut chuyn i quang in rt cao, c vng bc sng pht quang thch hp vi si quang v c th iu bin trc tip bng dng bm vi tn s kh cao. 1. it pht quang. LED (Light Emitted Diode) l mt loi ngun pht quang ph hp cho cc h thng thng tin quang c tc bt khng qu 200Mb/s s dng si dn quang a mode. Tuy nhin hin nay trong phng th nghim ngi ta c th s dng c tc bt ti 556 Mb/s do c s ci tin cng ngh cao. A. Cu trc LED C hai loi cu trc LED c s dng rng ri l cu trc tip gip thun nht v cu trc tip gip d th. Trong qu trnh nghin cu v thc nghim, cu trc d th kp mang li hiu qu hn v c ng dng nhiu hn. c im ca cu trc d th kp l c hai lp bn dn khc nhau mi bn ca vng bn dn tch cc, y cng chnh l cu trc khai trin nghin cu LASER . Vi cu trc d th ta c, hai loi l cu trc pht x mt v pht x cnh. a. Cu trc LED pht x mt LED pht x mt c mt phng ca vng pht ra nh sng vung gc vi trc ca si dn quang (hnh 3.6a). Vng tch cc thng c dng phin trn, ng knh khong 50m v dy khong 25m. Mu pht ch yu l ng hng vi rng chm pht khong 120 o . Mu pht ng hng ny gi l mu Lambertian. Khi quan st t bt k hng no th rng ngun pht cng ngang bng nhau nhng cng sut li gim theo hm cos vi l gc hp gia hng quan st vi php tuyn ca b mt. Cng sut gim 50% so vi nh khi =60. b. Cu trc LED pht x cnh

LED pht x cnh c cu trc gm mt vng tip gip tch cc c vai tr l ngun pht nh sng khng kt hp, v hai lp dn u c chit sut thp hn ch s chit sut ca vng tch cc nhng li cao hn chit sut ca cc vng vt liu bao quanh (hnh 3.6b). Cu trc ny hnh thnh mt knh dn sng hng s pht x v pha li si. tng hp c vi li si dn quang c ng knh nh ( c 50- 100m), cc di tip xc i vi LED pht x cnh phi rng t 50m n 70m. di ca cc vng tch cc thng l t 100m n 150m. Mu pht x cnh c nh hng tt hn so vi LED pht x mt. B. Nguyn l hot ng ca LED Nguyn l lm vic ca LED da vo hiu ng pht sng khi c hin tng ti hp cc in t v l trng vng tip gip p-n. Do vy, LED s pht sng nu c phn cc thun. Khi c phn cc thun cc ht mang a s s khuch tn t qua tip gip p-n : in t khuch tn t pha n sang pha p v ngc li, l trng khuch tn t pha p sang pha n, chng gp nhau v ti hp pht sinh nh sng. Vi cu trc d th kp, c hai loi ht dn v trng nh sng c giam gi ti trung tm ca lp tch cc (hnh 3.7). S khc nhau v rng vng cm ca cc lp k cn giam gi cc ht in tch bn trong lp tch cc. ng thi, s khc nhau v chit sut ca cc lp k cn ny giam gi trng quang v cc ht dn ny lm tng bc x v hiu sut cao.

Ging khc hnh trn

Si quang Vt liu bao ph


in cc

Cc lp tip gip SiO2 Phin chu nhit SiO2

Cht nn

Hnh 3.6a Cu trc LED pht x mt


Gii tip xc
Lp dn nh sng
Cht nn

Lp cu trc d th kp

Min hot tnh


SiO2

Kim loi

Ta nhit

nh sng pht ra

Hnh 3.6b Cu trc LED pht x cnh

mt cht bn dn pht sng th s cn bng nhit phi b ph v. Tc ti hp trong qa trnh ti hp c bc x t l vi nng in t trong

phn bn dn p v nng l trng trong bn dn n. y l cc ht dn thiu s trong cht bn dn. tng tc ti hp tc l tng s photon bc x ra th cn phi gia tng nng ht dn thiu s trong cc phn bn dn. Nng ht dn thiu s c bm vo cc phn bn dn t l vi cng dng in ca LED, do cng pht quang ca LED t l vi cng dng in qua it.
Dng in t a) Ti hp in t v l trng hf Dng l trng

Nng lng in t

Eg

b)

Ch s chit sut

Vng tch cc

Vng dn sng

Hnh 3.7 Cu trc d th kp hiu sut pht x cao nh chnh lch: a) rng vng cm v b) chnh lch chit sut C. ng dng ca LED

Thng th nh sng pht x ca LED l nh sng khng kt hp v l nh sng t pht. Do cng sut pht x ca LED thp, rng ph rng v hiu ng lng t thp. N thng ch c p dng cho cc mng c khong cch ngn nh mng LAN. Tuy nhin do cng sut u ra ca n t ph thuc vo nhit v c ch to n gin, n nh cao, LED vn c s dng rng ri trong cc h thng truyn tc thp. 2. Ngun pht laser (Light Amplication By Stimulate Emission of Radiation ) - C rng ph hp - Bc song n nh

- c s dng vi si n mode - Cho php s dng vi h truyn dn tc cao v c ly di. Nguyn l hot ng L kt qu ca 3 qu trnh : hp th proton , bc x t pht v bc x kch thch. - Hp thu: khi proton c nng lng ln hn E2 E1 c th b hp th bi cc in t ti mc nn v chuyn ti mc kch thch.

- Bc x t pht: in t trng thi kch thch c th b chuyn v trng thi nn v pht ra proton c nng lng hv= E2 - E1

- Bc x kch thch: nu proton c nng lng hv tc ng vo h thng trong khi in t ang trng tri kch thch th in t s b ri xung trng thi nn v pht ra proton c hng cng hng ca proton ti.