You are on page 1of 34

Genetics

Cell Division (Eukaryotes) 2 types - mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis - separation of chromosomes in the nucleus into 2 identical sets Followed by cytokinesis - division of nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles & cell membrane into equal parts

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Division (Eukaryotes) Mitosis & cytokinesis are the Mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle - division of mother cell into 2 genetically identical daughter cells

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - overview fast a number of stages (i) prophase (ii) prometaphase (iii) metaphase (iv) anaphase (v) telophase pairs of chromatids condense (get squished) one from each pair gets pulled to opposite side of cell cell divides
Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - overview

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - overview Goal - transfer of parent cell genome to 2 daughter cells daughter cells should be identical to each other and be an exact replica of the parent genome Genome made from a number of chromosomes Chromosomes are tightly coiled strands of DNA Chromosomes contain genetic information needed to run the cell

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - overview

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - overview Chromosomes must be copied before mitosis (see interphase in cell cycle) Copies are now called sister chromatids

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis chromosomes (sister chromatids) condense and become visible nuclear membrane dissolves sister chromatids line up across the cell microtubules pull sister chromatids apart to opposite ends of the cell new nuclear membrane & cell membrane form around each set of sister chromatids sister chromatids now called chromosomes in their new cells

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle - G0 phase Some cells become quiescent (stop dividing) e.g. neurons. Some cells become senescent (stop dividing) because they are damaged.

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle - Interphase Cell takes in nutrients in preparation for cell division. Interphase has 3 stages G1 - growth phase; millions of proteins and enzymes produced from amino acids S - start of DNA replication; all chromosomes are copied to form 2 sister chromatids. During this stage cell can easily be damaged by drugs or other mutagens G2 - DNA checked for errors Mitosis again!
Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle Questions 1 1. What are the 2 types of cell division in eukaryotic cells? [2] 2. Which type of cell division only involves the sex cells (sperm and ovum)? [1] 3. What are the 4 main steps in the cell cycle? [4] 4. What does a cell do during the G0 phase? [1] 5. What type of cell will naturally enter the G0 phase? [1] 6. What other cells may enter the G0 phase? [1] 7. What are the 2 components of the mitotic phase? [2] Total marks [12]
Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - detailed cell separates chromosomes in nucleus into 2 identical sets in 2 separate nuclei usually followed immediately by cytokinesis cytokinesis - nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles, cell membrane divide into 2 new cells

Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic phase of the cell cycle - division of mother cell into 2 daughter cells Daughter cells genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - detailed Mitosis only 10% of cell cycle Mitosis only takes place in eukaryotic cells Mitosis has 5 stages prophase prometaphase metaphase anaphase telophase

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - prophase genetic material in a loosely bundled coil, called chromatin (chromosomes + special proteins) at start of prophase chromatin bres condense into separate chromosomes - note: as chromosomes already duplicated during S phase of cell cycle there are actually 2 sister chromatids tied together at the centromere chromosomes visible with a light microscope centrioles grow microtubules (like ropes) and move to opposite ends of the cell, spindle starts to form

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - prophase genetic material in a loosely bundled coil, called chromatin (chromosomes + special proteins) at start of prophase chromatin bres condense into separate chromosomes - note: as chromosomes already duplicated during S phase of cell cycle there are actually 2 sister chromatids tied together at the centromere chromosomes visible with a light microscope centrioles grow microtubules (like ropes) and move to opposite ends of the cell, spindle (rod from one side of the cell to the other) starts to form
Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - prophase
chromatids centromere

centrioles

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - prometaphase nuclear membrane disintegrates spindle keeps growing

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - prometaphase
THIS diagram

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - metaphase microtubules attach to centromeres centrioles start pulling chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - metaphase
THIS diagram

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - anaphase sister chromatids separate to become individual chromosomes microtubules pull chromosomes by centromere forming V-shape when chromosomes at opposite ends of cell microtubules break down

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - anaphase
THIS diagram

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - telophase new nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes chromosomes start to condense back to chromatin cell squeezes in the middle and cytokinesis begins cytokinesis ends when 2 daughter cells are formed

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Mitosis - telophase

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle Questions 2 1. During mitosis a mother cell will divide to form 2 of these. [1] 2. Approximately how much of the cell cycle is taken up by the mitotic phase? [1] 3. What is chromatin made of? [2] 4. At what stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes duplicated? [1] 5. In which stage of mitosis do chromosomes condense? [1] 6. After duplication the 2 joined pieces of chromosomes are called what? [1]

Wednesday, May 15, 13

Genetics
Cell Cycle Questions 2 7. What does the centromere do? [1] 8. What pulls chromosomes to opposite ends of the cell? [1] 9. At what stage of mitosis are the chromosomes at opposite ends of the cell? [1] 10.During which stage of mitosis do the new nuclear membranes form? [1] Total marks [11]

Wednesday, May 15, 13