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Published by: slv_prasaad on May 16, 2013
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Machine Design II

Prof. K.Gopinath & Prof. M.M.Mayuram


A spring is a resilient member capable of providing large elastic deformation. A spring is basically defined as an elastic body whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed. Mechanical springs are used in machines and other applications mainly • • • to exert force, to provide flexibility to store or absorb energy.

In general, springs may be classified as either wire springs, flat springs, or special-shaped springs, and there are variations within these divisions. Wire springs include helical springs of round or square wire that are cylindrical or conical in shape and are made to resist tensile, compressive, or torsional loads. Figure 4.1

Torsion springs. Twist round or rectangular wire

Figure 4.3

Figure 4.2

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

4 MASTER LEAF TWO EXTRA FULL LENGTH LEAVES GRADUATE LEAVES U.7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . springs.Machine Design II Prof.M.BOLT CENTER CLIP 2P Semi-elliptic leaf spring Figure 4.6 Figure 4.Mayuram Under flat springs are included the cantilever and elliptical type (leaf) springs.5 Belleville Figure 4. the wound motor-or clock type power springs and the flat spring washers. P 2L P EYE usually called Belleville Figure 4. M. K.Gopinath & Prof.

Mayuram COIL SPRINGS Among the various springs helical or coil compression springs are the widely used ones and hence discussions will be confined to the helical The springs (coil) basic are compression nomenclature springs of this illustrated below.M.9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Machine Design II Prof. Figure 4. M. K.8 Nomenclature A Material constant C Spring index=D/d d Wire diameter D Mean coil diameter f Natural frequency of the spring F Force/Load G Shear Modulus (of Rigidity) d y Deflection γ Density τ Shear stress in spring number of coils=N t J Polar Moment of Inertia k Spring rate or spring stiffness K Stress correction factor L Length N Number of coils T Torsional Moment U Strain energy Helix angle p Di Lf D D0 Figure 4.Gopinath & Prof.

Mayuram Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Machine Design II Prof.Gopinath & Prof.M. M. K.

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