GSM Global System for Mobiles

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TOPICS
• • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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TOPICS
• • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
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Telecom Basics • Communication – Voice and Data – Analog and Digital – Circuit Switched and Packet Switched – Media . Optical Fibre – Networks -PSTN. ISDN.Copper Wire. Air. PDN and Mobile Networks 4 . Co-axial cable.

Background to GSM • • • • 1G : Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) • Analog. Circuit Switched. FDD 2G : Global System for Mobile (GSM) • Digital. FDD 2G : Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) • Digital. FDD 2G : Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS) • Digital. SS. FDMA. FDMA. Circuit Switched. FDMA. FDD 5 . Circuit Switched. Circuit Switched. FDMA and TDMA.

GSM History 6 .

Development of the GSM Standard
1982: Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) created Description of GSM features 1993: 1985: List of recommendations settled 1995: The GSM-MoU has 62 signatories in 39 countries worldwide. Specifications of GSM phase 2 are frozen. GSM MoU joins 3GPP (UMTS) GPRS Trials begins 1992: Official commercial launch of GSM service in Europe. First Launch in Finland 1984:

1987:

Initial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) aside the drafting of technical specifications was signed by network operators of 13 countries: Validation and trials, of the radio interface. First system trials are demonstrated at the Telecom 91 exhibition.

1999:

1988:

2000:

480M GSM subscribers Worldwide First GPRS Networks roll out

1991:

End 2002: 792M GSM subscribers Worldwide 7

GSM Specifications
12 SERIES OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 11 SERIES EQUIPMENT AND TYPE APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS 01 SERIES GENERAL 02 SERIES SERVICE ASPECTS 03 SERIES NETWORK ASPECTS

10 SERIES SERVICE INTERWORKING

04 SERIES MS-BSS INTERFACE AND PROTOCOLS

09 SERIES NETWORK INTERWORKING

05 SERIES PHYSICAL LAYER ON THE RADIO PATH. 06 SERIES SPEECH CODING SPECIFICATIONS

08 SERIES BSS TO MSC INTERFACES

07 SERIES TERMINAL ADAPTERS FOR MOBILE STATIONS

Increasing GSM Data Rates
UMTS E/GPRS
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ISDN PSTN

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GSM
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10 sec

1 min

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Transmission Time

GPRS = General Packet Radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System

6 GPRS 1k Time frame 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 GPRS = General Packet Radio Service HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunication System 10 .4 9.Wireless Data Technology Options 2M 1M throughput kbps p 100 k t e k ac EDGE 64 k uit c r ci HSCSD UMTS 10 k 14.

Circuit-Switched or Packet-Switched Circuit mode Packet mode B C C A A →F A →F F D A C →G H F → C D A C D A →G →H → →G H F →G H F C →G G D D D →H E H 11 .

so that multiple users can be given access at the same time.Multiple Access Technique • Multiple Access – Achieved by dividing the available radio frequency spectrum. • FDMA .Time Division Multiple Access – ( eg: GSM each frequency channel is divided into 8 timeslots) • CDMA .Each User data is coded with a unique code) 12 .Frequency Division Multiple Access – ( eg: GSM each Frequency channel is 200KHz) • TDMA .Code Division Multiple Access – (eg: IS95.

Duplex Technique
• Duplex - How the up link and Down link of a user is separated • FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
– (eg:In GSM the up link and down link of a user is separated by 45MHz )

• TDD - Time Division Duplex
– (the up link and down link of a user will be at the same frequency but at different Time )

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GSM Concepts Cellular Structure
2 2 7 1 6 5 3 4 6 5 7 1 Cellular Networking technology that breaks geographic area into cells shaped like honey comb Cell is the radio coverage area of one base transceiver station
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What are the types in GSM Network?
• GSM-900 (Channels 125 operating band 900Mhz carrier spacing 200khz spacing 45Mhz) • GSM -1800 (Channels 374 spacing 95Mhz) • GSM -1900(Used in USA)

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2 488.2 869-894 935-960 925-960 921-925 1805-1880 1930-1990 2x25 2x35 2x04 2x75 2x60 2x25 10 10 45 45 45 41 95 80 35 35 124 124 174 40 374 299 Frequencies are in MHz Carrier frequency = ARFCN = Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number .8-496 2x7.GSM Band Allocations (MHz) GSM systems Uplink Downlink Band Duplex Spacing Duplex channels GSM 450 GSM 480 GSM 850 GSM 900 E-GSM (900) R-GSM (900) GSM 1800 GSM 1900 450.4-457.6 2x7.6 478.4-467.8-486 824-849 890-915 880-915 876-880 1710-1785 1850-1910 460.

GSM Family Radio Band Spectrum Uplink 450.8 496 869 894 MHz 915 915 890 915 P-GSM E-GSM GSM 1800 GSM 1900 1710 1785 1850 1910 R-GSM 921 925 935 960 960 960 1805 1880 1930 1990 Downlink MHz .6 478.6 488.4 457.4 467.8 486 824 849 GSM 450 GSM 480 GSM 850 Downlink Uplink 876 880 460.

..» Signaling « RING ! » riiiiing Network .Traffic/Signaling Traffic «bla bla bla.

MS

GSM - Network Structure
Um BTS BSC Abis A MSC B C GMSC E Abis A MSC E PSTN X.25 VLR X.25 OMC Server 19 F EIR H VLR HLR

MS BTS

AuC

BSC Um BTS

GSM System specifications
Frequency band Uplink Downlink Duplex Frequency Spacing Carrier separation Frequency Channels Time Slots /Frame(Full Rate) Voice Coder Bit Rate Modulation Air transmission rate Access method Speech Coder 890 - 915 MHz 935 - 960MHz 45MHz 200KHz 124 8 13Kbps GMSK 270.833333 Kbps FDMA/TDMA RPE-LTP-LPC
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Paired Radio Channels in GSM
Case of GSM 900
Uplink
890 MHz Frequency 915 MHz 935 MHz

Downlink
Frequency

BTS 960 MHz

0

channel #

124 Example: Channel 48

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channel #

124

Duplex spacing = 45 MHz Frequency band spectrum = 2 x 25 MHz Channel spacing = 200 kHz
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23 ms Physical channel # 2 = recurrence of time-slot # 2 .GSM Time Division Multiplex Frame and Physical Channels Time-slot TDMA frame TDMA frame TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (frames repeat continuously) Time 0 4.615 ms 9.

Physical Channel BTS With FH time BTS Without FH n+1 TDMAs n TS 0 n-1 MS2 7 MS1 MS3 1 FDMA 2 // 124 ARFCN .

Blah..... Source Decoding Channel Decoding Interleaving De-interleaving Ciphering Deciphering Burst Formatting Modulating Burst De-formatting Demodulating . Digitizing and Source Coding Channel Coding Blah… Blah… Blah.Radio Link Aspects • From Speech to RF Signal Blah.... Blah..

• Speech and user's data Idle mode • Signaling Functions of the Radio Interface Communication mode BTS BTS-1 BTS-2 .

Access Techniques Uplink 890 MHz to 915 MHz Down Link 935 MHz to 960 MHz 25 MHz divided into 125 channels of 200 KHz bandwidth UP 890.4 959.0 26 .4 914.2 935.0 890.8 960.0 DOWN 935.0 935.2 890.8 915.

577 milli secs.Access Techniques .616 ms .. Time Division Multiple Access Each carrier frequency subdivided in time domain into 8 time slots Each mobile transmits data in a frequency. in its particular time slot ..577 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27 4.577 * 8 = 4. Period is .616 milli secs 0.Burst period = 0. 8 time slots called a TDMA frame.

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92μs x 8 = 4. Data burst = 156. …… 2 1 45 MHz UPLINK 200KHz Uplink (TDMA frame) 890.25 bit periods = 576. …… 2 1 TS: Time slot DOWNLINK 200KHz 935.8 MHz 124 123 …….Fundamentals 960 MHz 959.615 ms 29 . 2 3 4 5 6 7 915 MHz 914.e. The frequency bands are divided into 200 KHz wide channels called ARFCNs (Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Numbers) i. Each ARFCN supports 8 users with each user transmitting / receiving on a particular time Delay 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 slot (TS).2 Mhz 935 MHz 0 1 GSM utilizes two bands(TDMA of 25 MHz. 890-915 Downlink frame) = 8 TS MHz band is used for uplink while the 935960 MHz is used for downlink.8MHz 124 123 …….9μs there are 125 ARFCNs out of which only 124 are used.25 x 8 = 1250 bits and has a duration of 576.2 MHz 890 MHz The technology Therefore 1 TDMA frame = 156.

GSM Delays Uplink TDMA Frames BTS side The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time-slots TDMA Frame (4.615 ms) 0 R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 R 5 R 6 R 7 R Downlink TDMA BTS T T T Down link T T T T Up link T MSs side MS1 R T MS2 R T Fixed transmit delay of three time-slots .

Propagation Delay M2 d2 d1>>d2 M1 BTS Frame reference TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 Propagation Delay τp MSs transmit Bits Overlapping .Timing Advance 1 .

Without Timing Advance: Collision TX BTS RX BTS CAN W HAT GSM HOW TA CAN yes W HEN the WHAT ms-isdn RX MS1 TX MS1 RX MS2 TX MS2 RX MS3 TX MS3 RX MS4 TX MS4 RX MS5 TX MS5 RX MS6 TX MS6 RX MS7 TX MS7 RX MS8 TX MS8 +3TS W HAT GSM yes D HOW the D ms-isdn Propagation Delay W HEN WHAT 32 .Timing Advance 2 .

Timing Advance 3 .TA WHAT GSM yes D HOW the ms-isdn D Propagation Delay WHEN WHAT Timing Advance = 2 * Propagation Delay 33 .With Timing Advance: No Collision TX BTS RX BTS CAN WHAT GSM HOW yes WHEN the WHAT ms-isdn RX MS1 TX MS1 RX MS2 TX MS2 RX MS3 TX MS3 RX MS4 TX MS4 RX MS5 TX MS5 RX MS6 TX MS6 RX MS7 TX MS7 RX MS8 TX MS8 CAN +3TS .

• Features-CCS7 Signaling – SMS (Short Message Services) – Emergency Calls – CELL Broadcast 34 .GSM in comparison with other Standards • GSM gives mobility without any loss in Audio quality • Encryption techniques used gives high security in the air Interface and also use of SIM. • Variable Power (Power budgeting. • Bit Interleaving for high efficiency in Transmission.extend battery life) • Minimum Interference.

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 35 .

MS GSM .Network Structure Um BTS BSC Abis A MSC B C GMSC E Abis A MSC E PSTN X.25 OMC Server 36 F EIR H VLR HLR MS BTS AuC BSC Um BTS .25 VLR X.

GSM Network SS External PSTN & PDN N/W VLR AUC HLR MSC MS Mobile Station BTS Base transceiver System BSC Base Station Controller MSC Mobile Switching Center BSS BSC HLR Home Location Register VLR Visitor Location Register BTS EIR Equipment Identity Register AUC Authentication Center MS OMC Operation And Maintenance Center EIR OMC Switching System Base Station System 37 .

GSM Architecture GSM Air interface B S C Abis interface VMSC SMSC A interface HLR MSC VLR EIR AUC PSTN TRAU B S C BTS BTS BTS OMCS BTS BTS BTS Network and switching subsystem OMCR A interface SS7 / speech X.25 SS7 Mobile Station Base Station System 38 .

Mobile Equipment(ME) • • • • • • Frequency and Time Synchronization Voice encoding and transmission Voice encryption/decryption functions Power measurements of adjacent cells Display of short messages International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI) 39 .

RAM.128KB TO 256KB. billing information – Ability to store Short Messages received 40 .3KB to 8KB ) • Static Information – International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) – Personal Identification Number (PIN) – Authentication Key (Ki) • Dynamic Information – Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) – Location Area Identity (LAI) – Phone memories. EEPROM.SIM • Portable Smart Card with memory (ROM-6KB to 16KB-A3/A8 algorithm.

IMSI SIM-Card .SIM-Card and GSM Mobile Equipment = Global GSM Mobility Card The Smart Card to use + GSM Contains: .

PIN code. .Authentication parameter Ki.The SIM-Card Functions µ SIM-Card Credit Card Size Global GSM Mobility Card 15 mm 25 mm The Smart Card to use Permanent data: .Routing Area Identification (Packet mode) . GSM Microchip with stored user information Removable data: . . .Temporary Mobile Subscriber Number.Unique mobile subscriber identity through IMSI number and PIMSI for Packet Mode .Generating encryption key Kc algorithm A8.Authentication algorithm A3. .Location Area Identification .

.. Conformity with E164/E213 National Significant Mobile Number Format Meaning MCC Mobile Country Code MNC Mobile Network Code H1 H2 x x x . x x x MSIN CC NDC M1 M2 xx xx xx xx SN Mobile Subscriber Ident..ISDN Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network Nb Similar to ISDN. digits 3 2 max 10 1 to 3 2 to 4 total max 15 *This code does not identify a geographical area but an operator ..... Nb H1 H2 = Identity of HLR within the home PLMN Country National Mobile Subscriber Code (where Destination (national definition) subscription Code * M1 M2 = nbr of logical HLR has been made) Nb.Subscriber Identification IMSI Nature International Mobile Subscriber Identity Conformity with E212 Identify a PLMN worldwide Identify the subscriber of a PLMN MS ..

Description Stored in SIM Card MCC = 208 (France) 234 (G-B) 262 (Germany) 404.405(India) Mobile Country Code 3 digits MNC = 71(APBSNL) 72(TNBSNL) 20 (Bytel) Mobile Network Code 2 digits Global GSM Mobility Card The Smart Card to use IMSI = 15 digits max GSM Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN) H1 H2 X X X X X X 10 digits max NMSI LAI Mobile Country Code 3 digits Mobile Network Code 2 digits Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity 4 octets Location Area Code LAC Routing Area Code RAC RAI .

9880(Airtel) 9886(Hutch) = 660.Description Stored in the Network MS-ISDN (15 digits max) Country Code 3 digits max National Destination Code 2 or 3 digits Subscriber Number (SN) M1 M2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 10 digits max MSRN Roaming Number (RN) Must be dialed to make a call to mobile subscriber Country Code National Destination Code Is a PSTN-like number used to reach a roaming MS Country Code National Destination Code NDC = 9448(BSNL-karnataka) 9845. 618 (Bytel) HO-number Is a PSTN-like number to track the MS that hands over to another MSC during call-in-state CC = 33 (France) 091(India) 001(US) 45 . 661.

Descriptor Embodied in the Mobile Equipment IMEI enables the operator to check the Mobile Equipment Identity at call setup and make sure that no stolen or unauthorized MS is used in the GSM network PE VED Y T O PR P A TAC Type Approval Code FAC SNR Serial NumbeR SP (SPare) Final Assembly Code .

International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) PE VED Y T O PR P A TAC Type Approval Code FAC SNR Serial number SP (SPare) Final Assembly Code IMEI: #06# 351475 60 926514 4 * .

25 W 0.MS Classmark Power classes Classmark Revision level RF power Encryption algorithm Frequency Short message LoCation Services MS Positioning Method 8-PSK modulation Multi-slot class Multi-band * ** Typical value for car mounted Typical value for handheld For GMSK modulation GSM GSM GSM Class 400/850/900 1800 1900 1 1 W** 1 W** 8 W* 2 0.4 W 0.16 W 0.25 W 5W 3 4W 2W 2 W** 4 0.8 W 5 For 8-PSK modulation GSM GSM GSM Class 400/850/900 1800 1900 2W E1 1W 1W 0.4 W 0.5 W E2 0.2 W E3 0.16 W .

Base Transceiver Station (BTS) • Handles the radio interface to the mobile station. • Consists of one or more radio terminals for transmission and reception • Each Radio terminal represents an RF Channel • TRX and MS communicates over Um interface • Received data transcoding • Voice encryption/decryption • Signal processing functions of the radio interface • Uplink Radio channel power measurements 49 .

Base Station Controller (BSC) • Provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS • External Interfaces – ‘Abis’ interface towards the BTS – ‘A’ interface towards the MSC • Monitors and controls several BTSs • Management of channels on the radio interface • Alarm Handling from the external interfaces • Performs inter-cell Handover • Switching from ‘Abis’ link to the ‘A’ link • Interface to OMC for BSS Management 50 .

Mobile Switching Center (MSC) • • • • Performs call switching Interface of the cellular network to PSTN Routes calls between PLMN and PSTN Queries HLR when calls come from PSTN to mobile user • Inter-BSC Handover • Paging • Billing 51 .

Home Location Register (HLR) • Stores user data of all Subscribers related to the GMSC – International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) – Users telephone number (MS ISDN) – Subscription information and services – VLR address – Reference to Authentication center for key (Ki) • Referred when call comes from public land network 52 .

Visitor Location Register (VLR) • Database that contains Subscriber parameters and location information for all mobile subscribers currently located in the geographical area controlled by that VLR • Identity of Mobile Subscriber • Copy of subscriber data from HLR • Generates and allocates a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI) • Location Area Code • Provides necessary data when mobile originates call 53 .

Authentication Center (AuC) • Stores Subscriber authentication data called Ki. to the HLR on request. 54 .RAND. SRES & Kc. a copy of which is also stored in in the SIM card • Generates security related parameters to authorize a subscriber (SRES-Signed RESponse) • Generates unique data pattern called Cipher key (Kc) for user data encryption • Provides triplets .

EIR (Equipment Identity Register) • EIR is a database that contains a list of all valid mobile station equipment within the network.For all bad or stolen handsets – Grey list . where each mobile station is identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).good IMEI’s – Black list . – White list . • EIR has three databases.For handsets/IMEI’s that are on observation 55 ..For all known.

The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits. identifies a location area within a GSM PLMN network. identifies the country – MNC= Mobile Network Code(1-2 digits).. • It is transmitted in the BCCH.Location Area Identity • LAI identifies a location area which is a group of cells.enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in 56 one GSM PLMN. identifies the GSMPLMN – LAC= Location Area Code. . • LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC – MCC= Mobile Country Code(3 digits). • When the MS moves into another LA (detected by monitoring LAI transmitted on the BCCH) it must perform a LU.

Interfaces and Protocols Digital Networks ISUP TUP MAP Abis LAPD A BSSAP E Um LAPDm F MAP C D MAP B POTS G 57 .

GSM Entities and Signaling Architecture 58 .

BTS Management Part .BSS Application Part (BSC .Transaction Capabilities Application Part .Direct Transfer Application Part (MS .Message Transfer part of SS7 .Connection Management .Mobile Application Part .ISDN User Part 59 .MSC) .Signalling Connection Control Part of SS7 .GSM Protocols • • • • • • • • • • • • • CM MM RR LAPDm LAPD BTSM BSSAP DTAP MAP MTP SCCP TCAP ISUP .LAPD for mobile .Mobility Management .Link Access Procedure for D channel .MSC) .Radio resource .

Functional Plane of GSM MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR HLR GMSC CC MM RR Trans MS BTS BSC MSC/ VLR HLR GMSC 60 .

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTIFIERS USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 61 .

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 62 .

63 .Channels : differentiating between Physical and Logical channels Physical channels : The combination of an ARFCN and a time slot defines a physical channel. Logical channels : These are channels specified by GSM which are mapped on physical channels.

Depending on the kind of information transmitted we refer to different logical channels.These logical channels are mapped on physical channel.channel 0-7(timeslot 0-7) Logical channel: A great variety of information must be transmitted between BTS and the MS. 64 .Channel concept Physical channel: One timeslot of a TDMA-frame on one carrier is referred to as a physical channel. user data and control signaling.for e. There are 8 physical channels per carrier in GSM.g.

Logical Channels on Air interface LOGICAL CHANNELS COMMON CHANNELS DEDICATED CHANNELS BROADCAST CHANNELS COMMON CONTROL CHANNELS DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNELS TRAFFIC CHANNELS FCCH SCH BCCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH PCH RACH AGCH TCH/F TCH/H TCH/EFR 65 .

Logical channels Logical channels Control channels Traffic channels Half rate Full rate BCH CCCH DCCH FCCHSCH BCCH CBCH PCH AGCH RACH SDCCH SACCH FACCH 66 .

• Frequency correction channel-FCCH – To make sure this is the BCCH carrier.Broadcast channels BCH • Broadcast Channel-BCH – Alloted one ARFCN & is ON all the time in every cell. 67 – Repeats once in every 10 frames. • Synchronization Channel-SCH – This is used by the MS to synchronize to the TDMA frame structure within the particular cell. – Carries a 142 bit zero sequence and repeats once in every 10 frames on the BCH. Present in TS0 and other 7 TS used by TCH. . – Listening to the SCH the MS receives the TDMA frame number and also the BSIC ( in the coded part. – Allow the MS to synchronize to the frequency.39 bits).

Location Area Identity etc. – BCCH carriers for the neighboring cells. – This is transmitted Downlink point to multipoint. – BCCH occupies 4 frames (normal bursts) on BCH and repeats once every Multiframe.CBCH – Used for the Transmission of generally accessible information like Short Message Services(SMS) 68 . – This include the information of Max power allowed in the cell. This is BCCH.Broadcast channels BCH . • Cell Broadcast Channel .. – List of channels in use in the cell.. • BCCH – The last information the MS must receive in order to receive calls or make calls is some information concerning the cell.

69 .Common Control Channels CCCH • CCCH– Shares TS-0 with BCH on a Multiframe. – Initially MS doesn’t know the path delay (timing advance).25 bits). – It is transmitted in Uplink point to point. When the mobile realizes it is paged it answers by requesting a signaling channel (SDCCH) on RACH. RACH is also used by the MS if it wants to originate a call. • Random access channel-RACH: – Used by Mobile Station for requesting for a channel. – MS sends normal burst only after getting the timing advance info on the SACCH. hence uses a short burst (with a large guard period = 68.

• Paging Channel-PCH – The information on this channel is a paging message including the MS’s identity(IMSI/TMSI). AGCH is transmitted on the downlink point to point. point-to-multipoint. 70 .Common Control Channels CCCH .This is transmitted on Downlink.. • Access Grant Channel-AGCH – On request for a signaling channel by MS the network assigns a signaling channel(SDCCH) through AGCH.

ciphering information.The MS is informed about which frequency(ARFCN) & timeslot to use for traffic. • This is used both sides.Dedicated Control ChannelsDCCH • Stand alone dedicated control channel(SDCCH) • AGCH assigns SDCCH as signaling channel on request by MS. up and Downlink point-point. 71 . equipment validation and assignment of TCH. subscriber authentication. • Used for location update.

– Average signal strengths(RXLev) and quality of service (RXQual) of the serving base station and of the neighboring cells is sent on SACCH (on uplink). It is associated with TCH or SDCCH • Fast associated control channel-FACCH – Used for Hand over commands and during call setup and release. FACCH data is sent over TCH with stealing flag set 72 . – Mobile receives information like what TX power it has to transmit and the timing advance. power control etc.Dedicated Control ChannelsDCCH • Slow associated control channel-SACCH – Transmission of radio link signal measurement.

• Full rate traffic channel occupies one physical channel(one TS on a carrier) and carries voice data at 13kbps • Two half rate (6. • One TCH is allocated for every active call. 73 . • Two blocks of 57 bits contain voice data in the normal burst.5kbps) TCHs can share one physical channel.Traffic Channels-TCH • TCH carries the voice data.

GSM Channels GSM Channels Traffic Channels (TCHs) Broadcast Channels (BCHs) Full rate Half rate Control Channels Common Control Channels (CCCHs) Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs) (down uplink) Fast Slow Downlink Downlink Uplink TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH CBCH RACH SDCCH FACCH SACCH Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing 74 .

S. 6 + SMS Traffic (speech data) Associated Signaling FACCH MS FCCH SCH BCCH RACH PCH AGCH FCCH CBCH SDCCH SACCH SACCH SDCCH TCH FACCH Traffic (speech-data) Associated Signaling Radio Measurement + SMS Dedicated Signaling Broadcast info CBCH SCH BCCH RACH PCH M.The Logical Channels on Radio Interface TS 0123456 7 BTS Frequency correction Synchronization Broadcast control Access request Subscriber paging Answer to Access request Broadcast info Dedicated Signaling Sys InFo 5. Pre-synchronization Access request Subscriber paging Answer to Access request TCH AGCH 75 .

Measures: Logical Channel Description SACCH MESSAGES TCH MESSAGES (1/2) • Speech • Data • Handover Access message (uplink) .level on the beacon frequency of the neighboring cells • Timing Advance • Power Control • SMS FACCH MESSAGES • Connection establishment from SDCCH to TCH SDCCH MESSAGES • Request for a SDCCH assignment • Request for the end of channel • End validation of a SDCCH-TCH commutation • Characteristics of the future used BS assignment • Order of commutation from SDCCH to after handover • Connection establishment to BS after TCH • SMS handover • Validation of an handover 76 .quality level of the communication .power level of the communication .

• Specific information (weather. 8 (idle mode) RACH MESSAGES • Service request: PCH MESSAGES • messages containing a mobile identity for a call.answer to an incoming call .inscription 77 . 2bis.Timing Advance (1st estimation) .call re-establishment .MS identification BCCH MESSAGES • System Information type 1.frequency hopping description .• no message is sent (all bits 0) Logical Channel Description FCCH MESSAGES AGCH MESSAGES (2/2) SCH MESSAGES CBCH MESSAGES • For dedicated channel assignment: • Frame Number • Base Station Identity Code (BSIC) .slot number . a short message or an authentication . 3.outgoing call . 4. road information 2ter.emergency call . 2.frequency number .short message . 7.

GPRS Channels DL PBCCH PPCH PAGCH PNCH PDTCH PACCH PTCCH UL PDTCH PACCH PTCCH BSC PCUSN GPRS CORE NETWORK PRACH Packet Common Control CHannels Packet Traffic CHannels PBCCH 78 PDCH = Packet Data CHannel .

Traffic and Control Multiframing Traffic channel Frame 4.648 frames= 3h 28 min.12 s 22 46 47 23 48 24 49 50 25 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 46 47 48 49 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 1 Hyperframe = 2.615 ms TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Control channel 26 traffic frames = 120 ms 0 1326 frames 0 0 1 1 2 3 2 4 3 51 x 26 traffic frames = 6.715. 53 s 760 ms 79 .12 s 26 x 51 control frames = 6.

80 .

81 .

Traffic Channel Combination Full Rate .Logical Channel Mapping T 1 . i A : SACCH Ai : SACCH sub-channel no.Downlink & Uplink 26 frames = 120 ms T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 A0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 T1 T0 A1 time T : TCH Ti : TCH sub-channel no.Downlink & Uplink 26 frames = 120 ms T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T time Half Rate . i : IDLE 82 .

Dedicated Signaling Channel Combination A A A Downlink 51 frames = 235 ms D0 D0 D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5 D6 D6 D7 D7 A0 A4 A1 A5 A2 A6 A3 A7 time Uplink 51 frames = 235 ms A5 A1 A6 A2 A7 A3 A : SACCH D0 D0 D1 D1 D2 D2 D3 D3 D4 D4 D5 D5 : IDLE D6 D6 D7 D7 A0 A4 time D : SDCCH 83 .Logical Channel Mapping A 2 .

38 ms Multiframe m+1 C FS B FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS B time Frames repeat continuously PCH/AGCH SCH BCCH BTS Uplink Physical Channel ARFCN (n) TS (s) MS FCCH 51 frames = 235.Common Channel Combination Downlink C Multiframe m 51 frames = 235.38 ms R R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RR R R RRR R R R R RR R R RR R R RR RR RR R R R : PCH / C AGCH time F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH R : RACH : IDLE 84 .Logical Channel Mapping Multiframe m-1 3 .

4 Common Channel Combination Downlink 51 frames = 235 ms Logical Channel Mapping B B C C FS FS C C C C FS FS D0 D0 D1 D1 FS FS FS FS D2 D2 D3 D3 FS FS A0 A2 A1 A3 time Uplink 51 frames = 235 ms D3 D3 RR RR A2 A0 A3 A1 RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D0 D1 D1 RR RR D2 D2 time F : FCCH S : SCH B : BCCH C /PCH : AGCH R : RACH A : SACCH D : SDCCH : IDLE 85 .

86 .

Why 26 and 51 per Multiframe? Frames 0 1 10 20 30 40 50 0 1 FS B C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS C C FS TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT 01 12 TTTTTTTTTTTTATTTTTTTTTTTT 12 25 25 0 1 Downlink message Uplink message Mobile activity Neighboring BTS (downlink) Measurement Windows 87 Rx (n) Rx Tx Rx Rx (n) Tx Rx (n) Rx Tx .

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 88 .

From Speech to Radio Transmission Step 1 Digitizing and source coding Channel coding Speech Source decoding Channel decoding Step 2 Interleaving De-interleaving Step 3 Burst formatting Burst deformatting Step 4 Ciphering Deciphering Step 5 Modulation Demodulation equalization Step 6 Transmission Diversity 89 .

8 kbps (456 bits per 20ms) 90 .GSM Radio Link • Speech Coding -Done at Transcoder of BSC and MS – The Linear Predictive Coder uses RPE-LTP(Regular Pulse Excitation.Long Term Prediction) – Converts 64kbps voice to 13kbps(260 bits every 20ms) • Channel Coding .Done at BTS and MS – Uses Convolution Coding and CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) – Converts 13 kbps to 22.

which is generated by applying A5 Algorithm to the Ciphering Key(Kc) • Multiplexing .GSM Radio Link • Bit Interleaving .Done at BTS and MS – EX OR data with cipher block.Done at BTS • Modulation .Done at BTS and MS • Encryption .Done at BTS and MS – GMSK(Gaussian filtered Minimum Shift Keying) – Phase change of +90 for 0 and -90 for 1 91 .

Why Digitizing and Coding the Speech? SPEECH TRANSMISSION MS BETWEEN MOBILE AND NETWORK BSS SPEECH MUST BE DIGITIZED AND CODED Better Quality Lower Rate 64 kbit/s .

Attention necessary.8 3. Moderate effort.25 4. No meaning understood with feasible effort. 93 . no appreciable effort.2 13 8 13 8 Listening Effort Required Complete relaxation possible.Speech Quality – Source Coding Codec Type Mean Opinion Score (MOS) 4. Considerable effort.4 Rate (kb/s) PCM A law GSM EFR CDMA 13 D-AMPS GSM FR CDMA 8 Quality Excellent Good Fair Poor Bad MOS 5 4 3 2 1 64 12.2 4. no effort.2 4 3.

And previous sequences 3.12. Find out the correlation between the present seq.8 kbps 57 x 8 = 456 78 1A = Filter Coeff block ampl.16…40 3. LTP params 1B = RPE pointers & pulses 2 = RPE pulse & filter params CHANNEL DECODING LP D/A SPEECH DECODER 94 . Generates 160 filter coeff 2.11…39/8. Previous sequences stored in memory 2.…37 / 2. Reduces data rate = 26 kbps/2 = 13 kbps ie 260 bits in 20ms 378 coded bits 456 bits in 20 ms = 22.6. Selects the sequence with most energy So data rate = 104/4 = 26 kbps Long term prediction analysis 1.10----38/ 3. These blocks sorted in 4 sequence 1.9. Select the highest correlation sequence 4.4 kHZ A/D Every 125μ s value is sampled from analog signal and quantised by 13 bit word Data rate = 13/125*10 -6 = 104 kbps SPEECH ENCODER CHANNEL CODING To modulator Every 20ms 160 samples taken Data rate = 160 * 13/20ms = 104 kbps 3 crc bits 1A 1B 2 50 132 78 Four 0 bits for codec 50 3 132 4 Conv coding rate = 1/2 delay = 4 Linear Predictive Coding & Regular Pulse Excitation Analysis 1.Speech Coding BP BAND PASS 300 Hz 3.7.5. Find a value representing the difference between the two sequences.

Channel Processing in GSM Overview for Full Rate 20 ms Speech blocks 20 ms 20 ms A Codec dependent B Codec dependent C Codec dependent Source coding Channel coding A 456 bits B 456 bits C 8 Sub blocks of 57 bits 456 bits A A A A 5 6 7 8 Interleaving B B B B B B B B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C C C C 1 2 3 4 8 Bursts Normal burst A5 B1 A6 B2 A7 B3 A8 B4 B5 C1 B6 C2 B7 C3 B8 C4 3 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 Tail Information CRL Training CRL Information Tail 95 .

96 .

Channel Processing in GSM Overview for Half Rate 20 ms Speech blocks 20 ms 20 ms A Codec dependent B Codec dependent C Codec dependent Source coding Channel coding A 228 bits B 228 bits C 4 Sub blocks of 57 bits 228 bits A A A A 1 2 3 4 Interleaving B B B B 1 2 3 4 C C C C 1 2 3 4 4 Bursts Normal burst A3 B1 A4 B2 B3 C1 B4 C2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 97 .

. 452 453 454 455 456 coded bits Divide 456 bits in 8 sub-blocks 0 8 • • • 448 1 9 • • • 449 2 10 • • • 450 3 11 • • • 451 4 12 • • • 452 5 13 • • • 453 6 14 • • • 454 7 15 • • • 455 57 Rows reordering & partitioning out 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 diagonal interleaving bit interleaving burst b0 b1 b56 b0 b1 b56 98 .... .Interleaving: TCH Full Rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .

577 ms) 99 .25 Guard 156.Burst Formatting Normal Burst 0 1 2 1 frame: 4.25 bits duration (0.615 ms 3 4 5 6 7 DATA 3 57 S 1 Training sequence 26 Burst 148 bits S 1 DATA 57 3 Guard Band 8.

577 ms) Tail 3 bits Guard Period 8.577 ms) Data 39 bits Tail 3 bits 39 encrypted bits Guard Period 3 bits 8.25 bits duration (0.25 bits Synchronization Burst (SCH) Tail Data Extended Training Sequence 64 synchronization bits 156.25 bits duration (0.Burst Formats Frequency Correction Burst (FCCH) Tail 3 bits Data 142 fixed bits (0) 156.25 bits 100 .

25 bits (0.25 bits 156.25 bits 41 synch bits 36 encrypted bits 3 bits 156.577 ms) 101 .25 bits 156.25 bits (0.577 ms) Dummy Burst Tail Dummy Sequence 3 bits 58 mixed bits Training Sequence 26 midamble bits Dummy Sequence Tail 58 mixed bits Guard Period 3 bits 8.577 ms) Tail 8 bits Training Sequence Access Burst Data Tail Guard Period 68.25 bits (0.Burst Formats Normal Burst Tail Data 1 Training Sequence 26 bits 1 Data 57 encrypted bits Tail Guard Period 3 bits 57 encrypted bits 3 bits 8.

Received burst Data S Training S sequence Data 102 ....Ciphering Burst to be transmitted Data S S Data Plain data: Ciphering sequence: XOR: Ciphered data (transmitted): Ciphered sequence: XOR: Recovered data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0... 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0... 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0. 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.............. 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.

Rectangular Interleaving 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Even bits Odd bits Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1 Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3 Tb 3 Coded Data 57 F Training Sequence F 1 26 1 Coded Data 57 Tb 3 Gp 8.25 103 .Diagonal Interleaving 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 57 Even bits Odd bits Bn-4 Bn-3 Bn-2 Bn-1 Bn Bn+1 Bn+2 Bn+3 Encoded control channel blocks .Interleaving Encoded speech blocks .

• Different Types of Bursts – – – – Normal Burst Random Access Burst Frequency Correction Burst Synchronization Burst 104 .Burst • The information format transmitted during one timeslot in the TDMA frame is called a burst.

577 ms T 3 Coded Data 57 S 1 T. 26 S 1 Coded Data 57 T 3 GP 8. :This is a fixed bit sequence known both to the BTS & the MS. 105 . Seq.25 bits 0.Normal Burst 156.This takes care of the signal deterioration. :Used as Guard Time :It is the Data part associated with the burst :This indicates whether the burst is carrying Signaling data (FACCH) or user info (TCH).25 Tail Bit(T) Coded Data Stealing Flag Training Seq.

25 T 3 GP 8.577 ms T 3 Fixed Bit Sequence 142 Freq.25 Coded Data 36 T 3 GP 68.156.25 bits 0.577 ms T 3 Coded Data 39 Training Sequence 64 Coded Data 39 T 3 GP 8. Correc.577 ms T 3 Training Sequence 41 Random Access Burst 156.25 bits 0. Burst 156.25 Synchronization Burst 106 .25 bits 0.

577 m seconds (148 Bits) • 8 timeslots(8 x 0.Transmission on the radio channels • A timeslot has a duration of . called bursting • The start on the uplink is delayed from downlink by 3 TS periods • One TS = duration of 156. and its physical contents is • called a burst Downlink 0 BTS > MS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Uplink MS > BTS 0 Offset 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 107 .62 ms) form a TDMA frame • If a mobile is assigned one TS it transmits only in this time slot • and stays idle for the other 7 with its transmitter off.577 = 4.25 bits.

Timing Advance MS1 0 near MS2 0 far 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 MS1 0 near MS2 0 far 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 At BTS 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 At BTS 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 108 .

62 ms(8 * 0. CCCH) – 235. SACCH.62ms) 109 . SCH.577ms) • 26-TDMA Multiframe – 26 TDMA Frames (24 TCH. Idle) – 120 ms (26 * 4.62ms) • 51-TDMA Multiframe – 26 TDMA Frames (FCCH. SDCCH.Frames Types On Um Interface • TDMA Frame – 8 Time slots (Burst Period) – Length is 4. BCCH.6 ms (51 * 4.

53 Secs and 760 ms 110 .Frames Types On Um Interface • Super Frame – 51* 26 TDMA Frames – 6.12 S • Hyper Frame – 2048 * 51* 26 TDMA Frames – 3 Hours. 28 Minutes.

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 111 .

Mobility Management
• • • • Mobility Management (MM) Location updating- normal,periodic, IMSI attach Paging Security Management
– Preventing unauthorized users- authentication – Maintaining Privacy of users- ciphering

• Providing roaming facility • MM functionality mainly handled by MS, HLR, MSC/VLR.
112

Network Attachment
• Cell Identification
• MS scans complete GSM frequency band for highest power • Tunes to highest powered frequency and looks for FCCH. Synchronizes in frequency domain • Get training sequence from SCH which follows FCCH. Synchronizes in time domain. • Accesses BCCH for network id, location area and frequencies of the neighboring cells. • Stores a list of 30 BCCH channels

113

Network Attachment…..
• PLMN Selection
• Get the operator information from SIM.

• Cell Selection
• Selected cell should be a cell of the selected PLMN • Signal strength should be above the threshold. • Cell should not be barred

• Location Update
• Register with the network by means of location updation procedures.

114

MS BTS MS Location Update (registration) BSC (G)MSC VLR HLR Channel Request (RACH) Channel Assignment (AGCH) Location Update Request (SDCCH) Authentication Request (SDCCH) Authentication Response (SDCCH) Comparison of Authentication param Accept LUP and allocTMSI (SDCCH) Ack of LUP and TMSI (SDCCH) Entry of new area and identity into VLR and HLR Channel Release (SDCCH) 115 Action TMSI + old LAI .

Authentication MS Ki RAND A3 SRES MS BTS AuC RAND SRES SRES Auth Result Authentication center provides RAND to Mobile AuC generates SRES using Ki of subscriber and RAND Mobile generates SRES using Ki and RAND Mobile transmits SRES to BTS BTS compares received SRES with one generated by AuC 116 .Security .

Security .Ciphering MS Ki RAND A8 Kc MS Kc Data Um interface Network Kc Ciphered Data Data A5 A5 Data sent on air interface ciphered for security A5 and A8 algorithms used to cipher data Ciphering Key is never transmitted on air 117 .

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 118 .

e. Choice of transmission segments linking users • Point to Point Short message services 119 .Communication Management (CM) • Setup of calls between users on request • Routing function i.

GSM Actors NSS BSS BSC BTS MSC Public Switched Telephone Network VLR HLR AUC Mobile subscriber Fixed subscriber .

PLMN Selection Yes Is there an up to date found PLMNs list? Yes No Creation of a found PLMN list manual mode The user selects a PLMN from the displayed PLMNs automatic mode The MS selects the first PLMN from the preferred PLMNs list (if it is not in the forbidden PLMNs list) Cell Selection succeed? Yes End of PLMN selection No (automatic) Selection of the next preferred possible PLMN No (manual) .

PLMN Selection • Constitution of the "Found PLMN list" Listen to all the frequencies of the GSM spectrum: power level measurement and average on these measurements (124 channels in GSM 900. 374 in GSM 1800 and 299 in GSM 1900 Select the best frequencies according to the power level Memorize the beacon frequencies in the precedent selection (30 in GSM 900 and 40 in GSM 1800) => Create the Found PLMN list .

cell of the selected PLMN .cell not barred .Initial Cell Selection List of the frequencies of the selected PLMN Selection of another PLMN Eligible cell? Yes Suitable cell: Eligible cell No C1 Computation for eligible cells .C1 > 0 Suitable cell? No Yes Look for the cell with the best C1 in the suitable cells list IMSI Attach End of Cell Selection Rejected? No Yes PLMN set in the forbidden PLMN list .

1 BTS-5 1 1 BTS-4 1 1 H FCC 2 3 4 BTS-1 BTS-3 5 SCH CH BC BTS-2 This cell .Cell Selection Purpose: get synchronization with the GSM network prior establishing any communication.

OR 6 SDCCH or TCH . REQU. IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND 5 Immediate Assignment IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT AGCH 5 6 CM SERVICE REQUEST SDCCH or TCH LOCATION UPDAT.Immediate Assignment MS 1 BTS CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED CHANNEL ACTIVATION 4 BSC MSC RACH 2 3 CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK.

Registration: the Very First Location Update 1 2 IMSI 4 TMSI Release 6 5 BTS BSC BSS 2 4 TMSI 6 MSC 5 2 4 TMSI 5 LAI HLR IMSI VLR id 3 VLR IMSI TMSI LAI .

Intra – VLR Location Update 1 2 TMSI + old LAI new TMSI BSC 3 4 BTS BSS 2 3 4 2 TMSI New TMSI 3 MSC New LAI VLR IMSI TMSI LAI IMSI not Required .

4 Kc New VLR 3 IMSI. SRES.Inter – VLR Location Update 1 2 TMSI + old LAI newTMSI 5 7 BTS BSS 2 BSC 5 7 2 TMSI New TMSI 5 MSC New LAI Old VLR IMSI. SRES. Kc 6 IMSI not Required HLR 6 new VLR id subscriber data 128 .TMSI LAI RAND. TMSI Old LAI RAND.

IMSI Attach 1 CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT BSS 2 BSC BTS 3 4 3 LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST (IMSI Attach) Authentication 4 Procedure MSC LOCATION UPDATING 5 ACCEPT (LAC. TMSI) 5 4 VLR 6 129 .

IMSI Detach 1 CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT BSS 2 BSC BTS 4 3 IMSI DETach INDication MSC 3 IMSI DETach INDication CHANNEL RELEASE VLR 130 .

Outgoing Call Great Britain France Telephone network Germany BSS BSC BTS Terminating MSC Gateway MSC VLR HLR FT 131 .

Mobile Originating Call MS Dialing 1 CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 2 2 2 BSS MSC VLR PSTN CM SERVICE REQUEST 3 3 CM SERVICE REQUEST Authentication procedure Ciphering procedure 4 Sending Number 4 SETUP (basic) or EMERGENCY CALL PROCEEDING 7 7 SETUP 5 7 6 CALL PROCEEDING IAM Ring Ringing Assignment procedure ALERTING 9 CONNECT 11 ACM ANM 8 10 Ringing Path Established 11 CONNECT ACKnowledge ACM = Address Complete Message ANM = ANswer Message IAM = Initial Address Message 132 .

Paging Principle LA1 6 BTS11 BSC1 5 4 3 1 BTS12 6 BTS21 5 MSC/ VLR GMSC PSTN BSC2 2 BTS22 LA2 HLR BSC3 BTS23 BTS31 133 .Mobile Terminating Call 1 .

Mobile Terminating Call 2 .Detailed Procedure Visitor PLMN VLR International SS7 Provide Roaming Number (IMSI) Home PLMN HLR 4 5 9 PAGING REQUEST (TMSI) PAGE (TMSI + LA) Send info to I/C (MSRN) Roaming Number (MSRN) 6 Routing Information (MSRN) Send Routing Information (MSISDN) 1 MSISDN 8 PAGING REQUEST 10 (TMSI + LA) IAM (MSRN) 3 7 11 BSS VMSC PN GMSC IAM 2 (MSISDN) ISDN IAM MSISDN MSRN : Initial Address Message : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital network Number : Mobile Station Roaming Number IMSI GMSC VMSC TMSI : : : : International Mobile Subscriber Identity Gateway MSC Visitor MSC Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity 134 .

Assignment.Mobile Terminating Call 3 . Cell ID) IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT 6 (SDCCH or TCH) 7 CM SERVICE REQUEST (Paging Response) 8 9 7 PAGING RESPONSE (TMSI or IMSI. Alerting CONNECT 11 12 Ringing 10 12 Address Complete Message ANswer Message Path Established 135 . LA) VMSC IAM (MSRN) GMSC 2 PSTN IAM 1 (MSISDN) Dialing PAGING REQUEST 5 4 3 CHANNEL REQUEST (LAC. LA) Authentication procedure Ciphering procedure Setup.End to End Procedure MS BSS PAGING REQUEST (TMSI or IMSI.

Call Release 1 .Mobile Initiated MS 1 2 BSS Call in progress 2 MSC PSTN DISCONNECT DISCONNECT RELEASE RELEASE 4 3 3 RELEASE COMPLETE 5 CHANNEL RELEASE 6 7 Release RELEASE INDICATION RF Channel Release procedure 8 9 Release tone 136 .

On hook 137 .Call Release 2 .PSTN Initiated 1 3 4 5 BTS BSC 4 5 BSS 1 3 1 MSC REL 6 RLC 2 PSTN 2 1 Purpose: informs the mobile then releases radio and network resources.

Mobile Originated Call • • • • • • • Request for Service Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handovers Call Release 138 .

Mobile Terminated Call • • • • • • • Paging Authentication Ciphering Equipment Validation Call Setup Handovers Call Release 139 .

REQ Paging TMSI the area (+TMSI) Route to MSC Alerting Network MSC BSC AuC PSTN BTS Land to Mobile call (MSISDN) Authentication and Ciphering procedure done as seen in Location Updation 140 .to trunk GMSC frees SDCCH Query VLR Page Page RES Assgn CMP for LAC and Assign. * Assgn CMP over AGCH ( TMSI + LAI) over RACH BTS * Phone rings Connect traffic Ch.Mobile Terminated Call MS Paging Assignment CMD (=TCH) on SDCCH BTSTMSI Paged on PCH BSC HLR VLR Query for VLR info Reply (MSRN) EIR *RESP MS tunes Allocate SDCCH Page on SDCCH REQ MS Ch.

TOPICS • • • • • • • • GSM CONCEPTS GSM SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE IDENTITIES USED IN GSM GSM CHANNELS GSM RADIO LINK MOBILITY MANAGEMENT CALL MANAGEMENT RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 141 .

Radio Resource Management • Establish maintain and release stable connections between MS and MSC • Manage Limited Radio and Terrestrial resources • Handover process is the sole responsibility of the RR Layer • Functions of RR layer are performed by MS and BSC and partly by MSC 142 .

Radio Resource Management • • • • Power Control Hand over Control Discontinuous Transmission Frequency Hopping 143 .

Reduce interference .Power Control BTS commands MS at different distances to use different power levels so that the power arriving at the BTS’s Rx is approximately the same for each TS .Longer battery life 144 .

Handover Means to continue a call even a mobile crosses the border of one cell to another Procedure which made the mobile station really roam Handover causes RxLev (Signal strength . uplink or downlink) RxQual (BER on data) O & M intervention Timing Advance Traffic or Load balancing 145 .

inter cell • External Handover (Inter-BSS) – Within same MSC -intra MSC – Between different MSCs .inter-MSC 146 .intra cell – Between different base stations .Handover Types • Internal Handover (Intra-BSS) – Within same base station .

Handover Types MSC BSC GMSC BSC C-3 BSC MSC C-4 C-1 C-2 BSC 147 .

Channel avail in new BTS BTS 2 Periodic Measurement Reports (SACCH) MS tunes into new frequency and TS and sends HO message to new BTS (facch) Periodic Measurement Reports Receives new BTS data(FACCH) HO cmd with HoRef# Release TCH Cell 2 Periodic Measurement Reports (SACCH) BTS 1 Cell 1 148 . Check for HO passed 2.Intra BSC handover HO required Activate TCH(facch) with HoRef# HO performed BSC Acknowledges and alloctes TCH (facch) if 1.

…. F S ….Frequency plan and importance of BCCH B5 B6 B4 B3 B1 B2 B12 B9 B10 B11 F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F10 F11 F50 MS ( monitoring the broadcast radio B1 in ‘idle mode’ ) Sectored antennas BPL frequency plan: Broadcast frequencies : 15 Broadcast channels = 48-62 15 Hopping channels = 32-46 B8 B7 F S B B B B ….B exist in time slot 0 of each frame 149 .. I •F..S..

What information does Broadcast Control channel (BCCH) contain? z z z z z z Serves as a Beacon for the Cell Country Code (CC) and the Network Code (NC) Location Area Identity (LAI) List of neighboring cells which should be monitored by MS List of frequencies used in the cell Cell identity Back 150 .

Location Update on a handover: This occurs if during a handover the MS is moved into a new Location Area Code (LAC). 151 . If the MS does not perform this update the MSC marks the MS as ‘Detached’ on the VLR.Location Updates Location Updates can be classified into two: Periodic Location Updates: This occurs as per the timer set by the network operator.

2. the MS starts monitoring the BCCH again. 3.1. After the completion of call. the MS requests a ‘Location Update’ through SDCCH. The MS is monitoring the BCCH and has all the decoded information stored on the SIM ( including the LAC) As soon as the mobile is on a TCH it sends the signal strength indication on the corresponding SACCH The BSC monitors the signal strengths and on analysis sends a ‘handoff request’ on FACCH. The handoff process is completed on the FACCH. 4. Back 152 . On finding the LAC (stored on SIM) and that decoded from the BCCH to be different .

• A Silence Indicator Block is transmitted at 500bps. which generates a comfort noise • Down Link interference is decreased. • Up link battery is saved 153 .Discontinuous Transmission • Discontinuous Transmission(DTX) allows the radio transmitter to be switched off most of the time during speech pauses.

User will be connected to different Transceivers depending on hop sequence. which is transmitting at the hop frequency. • Decreases the probability of interference • Suppresses the effect of Rayleigh fading 154 . • Synthesis Hopping – At the BTS transceiver changes the frequencies used.Frequency Hopping • Frequency Hopping permits the dynamic switching of radio links from one carrier frequency to another. • Base Band Hopping – At the BTS each the timeslot is shifted to another transceiver. The user will be connected to only one transceiver.

• Innovative Service Architecture : VHE Concept . Internet • Wideband bearers 2GHz band ( 5 MHz per carrier). • Transmission error detection and retransmission. -max. • Power control the same feelmodulation of its personalized independent of • look Usesand 8-PSK instead services of GMSK. 15.8 kbps (ECSD) on :every User Data Rate:14. Surf the Internet while on the move SGSN: GPRS mobility network and terminal. hence max rate = 115.6 kbps 21.same TDMA frame structure. 2Mbps • EDGE helps GSM-Only operators to compete with UMTS.6kbps UMTS Needs a duplexor in MS for • Buffering of the information One time slot over the air interface Max user data rate : 21.4 kbps simultaneous Tx and Rx Dynamic rate adaptation to suit the radio conditions at EDGE EDGE that time ( 9. • Radio channel access control and management Universal Mobile Telecommunication Standards • Based on the current GSM technology . channel Useradio multiple timeslots (max=8).4 kbps. Telecom/Datacom. Packet Segmentation/re-assembly and scheduling • EDGE is an enhancement of GPRS and CSD technologies. • Requires goodSwitched propagation conditions. High Speed Circuit Data • Encryption • Global Convergence Fixed/Mobile.2kbps.5kbps W@P Gateway • Charging • Mobile Multimedia driven market.4 kbps) Data Application Wireless Data GPRS GPRS HSCSD HSCSD SIM SIM Toolkit Toolkit WAP WAP Circuit Switched technology Packet Switched technology GSM GSM DATA DATA F o n e W @ P Mobile Network 98 Internet 99 2000 Technology for Applications W@P Gateway W@P Service Time 155 2001 .05 kbps. • Adaptation of the information to the mobile SMS 160 α-numeric characters GGSN : Data: Interface to the PDN.providing the us same bandwidth (200 kHz). • Compression of theUMTS data User Data Rate : 9. 13. public/private • Allows upto:48 kbps (EGPRS) and upto 28.Add-on to GSM network : rate for GSM Evolution Enhanced Data PCU.

Moe Rahnema. • The GSM System for Mobile CommunicationsMichel Mouly & Marie-Bernadette Pautet • Overview of the GSM Comm.John Scourias.Garg and Wilkes • Overview of the GSM System and Protocol Architecture. IEEE Comm.References • Wireless and Personal Communication Systems.K. 156 . Magazine. Vijay.

Coverage or Traffic Limitations TRAFFICLIMITED AREA (10000 subscribers per km2) COVERAGELIMITED AREA (-75 dBm at cell edge) COVERAGELIMITED AREA (-70 dBm at cell edge) 157 .

158 .

159 . the peak hour). more than 1 user may request the same resource simultaneously. there is a queuing system.Erlang Concept Erlang is the unit of statistical resource use Average number of busy channels during the period of observation (usually. Erlang C When more than 1 user request at the same time. instead of rejecting the extra calls. Erlang B At any time. The use of such a resource is associated with a blocking rate.

CONCENTRIC-CELL: macro cell with system coverage limitation inside another macro MACRO-CELL: antenna radiating ‘above’ roofs ---> Wide Coverage (≤ 35 km) • High sensitivity to interference • Requires "secured" Frequency reuse pattern PICO-CELL: Antenna inside building ---> Very small coverage MICRO-CELL: Antenna ‘below’ the roofs ---> small coverage • High isolation from interferences • A few Frequencies intensively reused 160 ..Different Types of Cells EXTENDED-CELL: macro cell with system coverage extension (≤ 120 km) for coasts..

Cell Patterns 161 .

Cell Sectorization TRI OMNI BI .

Omnidirectional Site Antennas .

Bi and Trisectorial Site Antennas .

). This calculation considers: • • • • • RF parameters of MS and BS. physical installation parameters (antenna height). Based on the path loss calculation between the MS and the BS in both ways.Link Budgeting Calculation of the maximum coverage range of each cell in a specific environment. . propagation parameters (shadowing). environment classification. Definition of planning tools parameters. system parameters (diversity gains...

What is the maximum EIRP? .What are the body losses? EIRP:Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power .What is the maximum equivalent output power? .Is frequency hopping used? .Beyond which distance the communication will cut off? ..What are the losses in transmission and reception? .Is diversity used? .What is the minimum equivalent sensitivity? .Is indoor coverage guaranteed? .

Environment Design Parameters: Overlapping margin Common cable Losses Rx Sensitivity Radio Link Specific Tx Cable Losses Combiner losses Tx PA Output Power Antenna Gain Rx Sensitivity Tx PA Output Power Rx Diversity Gain MS Base Station Duplexer Combiner Power Amplifier DLNA:Diversity Low Noise Amplifier Other factors for MS Body Losses Common cable losses .• Overview Link Budget Parameters Standard conf. 1800. 1900 MHz . Indoor penetration factors .Incar. DLNA conf. Antenna Gain Rx Sensitivity Propagation Parameters: .Antenna Height .Frequency 900.

• BTS TX Power Amplifier Link Budget Parameters 2.5W PA GSM 900 S2000L 25W PA 35W PA 20W PA 30W PA S8000 Indoor S8000 Outdoor S4000 Indoor S8000 Indoor S8000 Outdoor S2000E S4000 Indoor S4000 Indoor S2000H S4000 Outdoor S2000E S2000H S4000 Outdoor S2000E S2000H S4000 Indoor S4000 Outdoor DCS 1800 S2000L S4000 Indoor PCS 1900 S2000L S8000 Outdoor .

9 4.5 4.5dB dBLoss Loss D Hy/2 4.9dB dBLoss Loss C C C C TX TX TX TX TX TX 2-Way 2-WayHybrid HybridCombiner Combinerwith withDuplexer Duplexer allows Synthesized Frequency Hopping 4-Way 4-WayCavity CavityCombiner Combinerwith with Duplexer Duplexer allows Baseband Frequency Hopping .• Combiners Link Budget Parameters H2D D 4.

• 1 dB (1800 MHz). Jumpers (up and down the feeder) • 0.• Cable Losses Link Budget Parameters At the BS.5 dB (1800 MHz).5 dB (900 MHz) and 3. • Common cable losses for 40 meters: 2. • 6 dB/100 m (1800 MHz). for a 7/8” foam dielectric coaxial cable: • 4 dB/100 m (900 MHz). .5 dB (800 MHz).

• BTS Antenna Gain Link Budget Parameters Omnidirectional antenna Default 6.5° V with 18 dBi gain .5° V with 11 dBi gain Directional antenna for trisectorial site Default 65° H / 6.

• Mobile Station Parameters Link Budget Parameters 900 MHz TX PA Output Power RX Sensitivity 1800/1900 MHz 33 dBm (2W) -102 dBm 30 dBm (1W) -100 dBm Antenna Gain Common Cable Loss Body Loss -2 dBi for Handheld 2 dBi for Car Kit 0 dB for Handheld 2 dB for Car Kit 3 dB for Handheld 0 dB for Car Kit .

8 dBm Base Station -100 dBm Options Rx Diversity Gain: 5 dB Overlapping Margin: 0 dB Mobile 173 .5 dB Feeder Loss 3 dB Sensitivity -110 dBm Coupling system Tx loss 4.5 m Urban Outdoor Minimum Field 95%: -80 dBm Coverage Range 95%: 810 m Cable Loss 0 dB RX TX RXm RXd Output Power 30 dBm Sensitivity Max TX Output Power 44.0 m 1.Link Budget Presentation Parameters Antenna Gain (65 °) 18 dBi Jumper Loss 0.5 dB Frequency Base Height Mobile Height Environment Penetration Factor 15 dB Body Loss 3 dB Antenna Gain -2 dB 1800 MHz 40.

0 dB 0.0 dBm None BODY LOSSES OVERLAPPING MARGIN INDOOR PENETRATION FACTOR 3.0 dB -110.0 dB -2.0 dBm Link Budget Calculation MS 1.00 W (30.Exercise 1: S8000 INDOOR: OPERATING FREQUENCY 1800 MHz BTS TX OUTPUT POWER COMBINER LOSSES RX SENSITIVITY RX SENSITIVITY + DIVERSITY COMMON CABLE LOSSES ANTENNA GAIN 30.00 W (44.0 dBm 0.0 dBm) None -102.0 dB 18.0 dB 18.0 dBm 174 .0 dBm -115.0 dB 3.8 dBm) 5.

Fading Example of Field Strength Variation for GSM 1800 -10 -20 -30 Measurement Free Space Zoom on Short Term Fading ≅ λ/2 ±2m Field Strength (dBm) -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 0 -100 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Long Term Fading Distance (m) .

Clutters .

177 .

Mobile Station (MS) • Hand portable unit • Contains Mobile Equipment(ME) and Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) 178 .

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