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Framework The abstract, logical structure of meaning that guides the development of the study and enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge. Theoretical Framework Term used in a study based on a theory. Conceptual Framework Term used in a study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model.
Concept A term that abstractly describes and names an object or phenomenon, thus providing it with a separate identity or meaning. Theory Consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, existence statements, and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, and/or control that phenomenon.
Relational Statements Declares that a relationship of some kind exists between two or more concepts. Conceptual Model A set of highly abstract, related construct that broadly explains phenomena of interest, expresses assumptions, and reflects a philosophical stance. Conceptual Map Diagrams the interrelationships of the concepts and statements. Conceptual Derivation Conceptual definition derived from theories in other disciplines.
2. 3. 4. 5. BASIC NURSING CONCEPTS Person Environment Health Nursing
CONCEPTUAL MODELS I. Open System Models
> Imogene King (1981)
IV. Health Care Systems Model
> Betty Neuman (1989)
II. Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality
> Madeline Leininger(1991)
V. Health as Expanding Consciousness
> Margaret Newman (1994)
VI. Self-Care Model
> Dorothea Orem (1985)
III. Conservation Model
> Myra Levine (1973)
VII. Theory of Human Becoming
> Rosemarie Rizzo (1992, 1995)
IX. Adaptation Model
> Sr. Callista Ray (1984, 1991)
X. Theory of Caring
> Jean Watson (1999)
VIII. Science of Unitary Human Beings
> Martha Rogers (1970, 1986)
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEORY AND RESEARCH
• Reciprocal and mutual • Research plays a dual and continuing role in theory building and testing. • Theory guides and generates ideas for research. • Research assesses the worth of the theory and provides a foundation for new theories.
STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A STUDY FRAMEWORK 2. Selecting and defining concepts 3. Developing relational statements 4. Developing hierarchical statement sets 5. Constructing a conceptual map
I. Selecting and Defining Concepts
• Concepts are selected for a framework based on the relevance to the phenomenon of concern. Thus, the problem statement, which describes the phenomenon of concern, will be a rich source of concepts for the framework. Example: Fink (1991) stated the purpose of her study was to “examine the influence of family resources and demands on the well being of families providing care to an elderly parent and on the strains experienced by the family unit”. The concepts she selected were family systems well being. Two types of family system were included: Social support resources and internal system resources. Each concept included in the framework needs to be conceptually defined.
• Sources of conceptual definitions are the following: 1. Published concept analysis. 2. Literature associated with instrument development related to the concept. • When acceptable conceptual definitions are not available, concept synthesis of concept analysis needs to be performed in order to develop the definition.
Fink’s sample of Conceptual Definitions: Family support Internal family system resources Family demands Family strains Family well-being
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
II. Developing Relational Statements • Link all of the concepts through relational statements. • Relational statements need to be obtained from theoretical works and sources cited. • The researcher developing a framework may need to extract statements that are embedded in the literary text of an existing theory.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. • Select a portion of a theory discussing the relationships between or among two or three concepts. Write down a single sentence from the theory that seems to be a relational statement. Express it diagrammatically using the statement diagrams. Move to the next statement and express it diagrammatically. Continue until all the statements related to the selected concepts have been diagrammatically expressed. Examine the linkage among the diagrammatic statements you have developed. If statements relating the concepts of interest are not available in the literature, statement synthesis will be necessary. This means that the researcher will have to develop statements proposing specific relationships among the concepts being studied.
Steps of Extracting Statements
Fink’s Sample of Relational Statements I.
Family Social Supports Strains Internal Family System Resources Family Well-being
Family Social Supports Strains
Family System Resources
Family Demand Family life changes Care provided to elderly Appraisal of caregiving
III. Developing Hierarchical Statement Sets • Composed of a specific proposition and a hypothesis or research question. • If conceptual model is included, the set may also include a general proposition. • The proposition is listed first, with the hypothesis or research question immediately following.
IV. Constructing a Conceptual Map
• The following information must be available: 1. A clear problem and purpose statement. 2. The concept of interest, including conceptual definitions. 3. Results of an integrative review of the theoretical and empirical literature. 4. Relational statements linking the concepts, expressed literally and diagrammatically. 5. Identification and analysis of existing theories that address the relationships of interest. 6. Identification of existing conceptual models congruent with the developing framework. 7. Linking of proposed relationships with hypotheses, questions, or objectives (Hierarchical statement sets).
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Arrange the concepts in sequence of occurrence (or causal linkage) from left to right, with concept(s) reflecting the outcome(s) located on the far right. Concepts that are elements of a more abstract construct can be placed in a frame or box. Sets of closely interrelated concepts can be linked by enclosing them in a frame or circle. Using arrows, link the concepts in a way consistent with the diagrammatic statements you have previously developed. The path of relationships may diverge, in some cases, so that there are then two or more paths of concepts. The paths may again converge at a later point. Every concept should be linked to at least one other concept.
Steps of Developing a Map
Sample of Developing a Map
Nurses’ Role Change Nurse teaches Mother how to Render care to child Mother learns how to give Care to child Maternal Anxiety decreases Maternal care To child increases Decreased Maternal Role strain
Child anxiety decreased
Less Regressive behavior
Effects of Role Supplementation
Example of Fink’s Conceptual Map
2. 3. Family social support Family internal system resources
2. 3. 4.
Family changes/transitions Amount of help to elder Caregiver appraisal
Theory Generation: observations (concrete) and the translation (abstract) -examples
Observation: The early posttransplant time period is characterized by depersonalization of the transplanted organ, hypervigilance for signs of rejection, and an inability to plan for the future. Quality of life is compromised by a sense of tentativeness in terms of wellbeing. Translation: The initial period is one of detachment
Observation: Once the immediate threat of organ rejection has passed the transplant recipient is able to claim ownership of the organ. There is less worry about organ rejection and the resumption of the more normal lifestyle. The recipient is able to plan for the future. QOL improves. Translation: A perception of safety and security is necessary for attachment to the donated organ and an improved QOL.
“It” •Hypervigilance •Tentativeness •Inability to plan for the future •Low quality of life Organ acceptance •Physiologic •Cognitive •emotional
“mine” •Normal lifestyle •Permanence •Ability to plan for the future •Improved QOL
Guidelines: 3. Does the research describe an explicit theoretical or conceptual framework for the study? (If not, does the absence of an explicit framework detract from the usefulness of significance of the research?) 4. Does the report adequately describe the major features of the framework so that readers can understand the conceptual basis of the study? 5. Does the research problem and hypotheses naturally flow from the framework, or does the purported link between the problem and the framework seem contrived? 6. Are conceptual definitions of the concepts in the study provided – and are the definitions consistent with framework? 7. Does the researcher tie the findings of the study back to the framework at the end of the report? How do the findings support of undermine the framework?
Critiquing the Framework of a study
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