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- English full -V e r o n a meeting version a p r i l 15, 2011-
Wireless electricity & longitudinal electric waves L.M.D . L.M.D.
p p rr e es se en n tt e ed d b by y
Dr. Eng. Roberto Handwerker
®DELTA DELTA Ingegneria Ingegneria® - Milan, Milan, Italy Italy -- 2011 2011 All All rights rights reserved reserved
® of engineer Roberto Handwerker, DELTA Ingegneria® a consulting professional in advanced electrotechnics, thermodynamics & energetics, also technical advisor to italian Judges
Disclaimer : Disclaimer:
• The following experiments make use of electrical energy: please don’t try to replicate them unless You are trained trained and and wellwellexperienced in electrotechnics: the presence of high voltages and currents could cause You serious injuring and may even be fatal ! Replication of presented experiments or circuits at Your own risk ! • However, the the shown experiments are are verifiable verifiable and and replicable replicable by by someone someone who who has has the the right right means means and and know-how know-how.. • • The The term “Cold electricity” is is arbitrary, arbitrary, meaning meaning only only that that the the here here presented presented current current effects effects are are different different from from usual usual AC AC current current ones. ones.
First some quotes … quotes…
“Each one sees what he carries in his heart.” - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) “Every Truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. And third, it is accepted as self evident”. - Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) “Be silent, if you choose; but when it is necessary, speak - and speak in such a way that people will remember it.” - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) “The present is theirs; the future, for which I have really worked, is mine.” - Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) “Don’t care about them, just watch and pass by” - Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
and ψ φ • Experiments were realised by use of low-budget equipment.com 5 . . magnetic (φ) fields • All construction and particular design of presented Tesla®. small power laboratory apparatus..and a few general notes .... • Electric field: field this term includes both dielectric (ψ) and . partially using scrap parts. experiments apparatus by DELTA Ingegneria® deltaavalon.
great scientist.S. inventor and phylanthroper “invented” the XX Century with his • • • • • AC polyphase system AC induction motor Tesla turbine Radio apparatus More than 700 patents issued deltaavalon. emigrant and later U.Brief introduction to Dr. citizen.Tesla “ master of lightning ” “master lightning” • Nikola Tesla (1856-1943): forgotten serbian genius.com 6 .
wire neon ? motor deltaavalon.com 7 .: can an electrical device work by only one wire • Question Question: or even without wires as stated by Nikola Tesla more than a century ago ? el.
com 8 .Some analogies in Nature ( from physics ): (from physics): Ocean waves:: pressure waves (tsunami) ETEM TEM water tsunami v ELMD LMD transverse waves B E x(t) oscillation c longitudinal waves E x(t) oscillation v v(t) propagation v(t) propagation oscillation perpendicular oscillation parallel to propagation to propagation deltaavalon.
tang.or “shear” P: longitudinal waves .modulus. these travel faster than type “S” waves. tang. norm.modulus.mod. elast.mod.Seismic waves: primary waves (P) and secondary waves (S) S v2 2 v1 1 P earth (slice) S P S: transverse waves . norm. δ δ: : elast. Vs = √ (δ/ρ) s where where k: k: elast.com 9 . that is: VP =√ ((k + 4/3δ)/ρ) P . elast.or ”compression” Propagation through core is only for type “P” waves possible (similar to sound waves). ρ ρ: : density density of of means means deltaavalon.
com 10 . in gases: VL =√ (γRT/M) (γRT/M gas const.) where: u(x. VT =0 L a L T 2 ∂2 2 u/∂t2 2= 1/v2 2 2u (wave eq.: SOME TESLA EXPERIMENTS WERE ALWAYS CONSIDERED AS IMPOSSIBLE TO REPLICATE. deltaavalon.Tesla In solids: VL =√ (E/ρ) L .Sound waves: pressure waves in fluids or in solids air Sound speed in different elements at 20°C in [m/s]: air: 343 water: 1480 v glass: 5300 ether(*): c  (*) according to N. VT = √ (G/ρ) T with E > G (always) In fluids: VL =√ (Ea /ρ).B.). v = √ (k/ρ) N.t) scalar.
deltaavalon.com 11 .Dielectric waves: charge density variation waves Some experimental results : results: electric wire (fragmentation stripes) i x longitudinal waves  by longitudinal Test made on electric conductors’ fragmentation electrodynamic forces: wires showed peculiar stress/break patterns (parallel (parallel stripes) stripes) rather rather than than heat/fusion heat/fusion patterns. x In physics HYDRODYNAMIC ANALOGY ” between physics exists exists the the “ “HYDRODYNAMIC ANALOGY” electrotechnics and . and hydraulics hydraulics.
com 12 .  Tesla’s 1893 original circuit  deltaavalon. according to Tesla and also called “Tesla currents”.Let us begin with the experiments : experiments: 1) Tesla ’s “ stout bars circuit ” Tesla’s “stout circuit” • This experiment shows curious electricity phenomena. The validity of v = R. i “Ohm’s law” to this case should be closely investigated by the “Academic World”.
preferring the lamp filament (greater Ω).• The shunted lamps in the circuit light up at full brightness even “ Cold electricity “: “Cold electricity“: 12V 230V 1200V by a heavy copper bar: • current evidently doesn’t follow the bar path (smaller Ω) as normal.com with circuit shorted (*) The Neon tube lights up without usual “starter” circuit 13 . • Lamps rated for different voltages work at full brightness at the same time (*) deltaavalon.
where Z: impedance) • It should be v1 1= 0 and so even v2 2= 0 but it is evidently v2 ≠ 0 because lamps are lit v2 ≠ 0 v1 1 v2 2 deltaavalon.com 14 . i .The “ possibile” short -circuit “possibile” short-circuit • Ohm’s Law : v = R. i (v = Z.
lamp (*) some lamp types lit even with broken filament. the right bars one blueish. the same lamp type (left) is working by ordinary AC household mains (230V/50Hz. the emitted household mains Tesla current light colours are different: the left light is reddish.Halogen lamp lit immersed in water ®: A SPECIAL FEATURE by DELTA Ingegneria® • A striking effect is observed by shunting a lamp to the circuit (right) and immersing it in water : the 230V / 100W rated lamp lits at its full brightness (*).com 15 .1~). water deltaavalon.
2) “ Flat spiral Tesla Coil ” “Flat Coil” • A good Tesla’s flat spiral  Coil (“pancake coil”) shows striking features: bulb lamp emits light and repels the human hand. GND deltaavalon.com Generator 16 . but attracts a suspended metal strip: • The hand “feels” a kind of “pressure” coming from the lamp.
com 17 . emitted . energy”.• The original Tesla 1900 patent n. devoid of magnetic component.about about 1890 1890 Dielectric longitudinal waves. Tesla pancake coil A A Tesla Tesla lecture lecture . from from a a spherical antenna have have been yet observed in past deltaavalon.649621 for “ Trasmitting electrical “Trasmitting energy ”.
com 18 . lamps motors  are lit and electric motors run lamps deltaavalon.Transmission of energy with T. “ Art of transmitting “Art energy in the medium ” medium” by only one wire and even without wires: neon WIRELESS.C.
and T. mA) with (mV. Qualitative : LED resonance Qualitative measures measures: resonance detector indicates presence of dielectric field whereas compass indicator stands still .: T.C. mA B=0 B=0 Quantitative voltage voltage and and current current measures ( mV.E.: E≠0 spherical antenna E≠0 E mV.D.M.C . dielectric field “ E” is “E” prevailing over magnetic field “ B”. deltaavalon. which is “B”. with photomultiplier photomultiplier and and iron iron cored coil : coil: around the T.M. nil. still.L.C. practically practically nil.com 19 . fields of a T.
com 20 .Original Tesla’s 1901 patent n.685957 for “receiving ENERGY” from a metal plate Tesla stout bars circuit Tesla’s Tesla’s lecture lecture before before AIEE AIEE .1891 1891 deltaavalon.
not only a weak signal) plate RADIANT ENERGY from T. neon GND deltaavalon. it transceives POWER.com 21 .e.C.3) Utilizing electrical energy • Apparatus for utilizing WIRELESS energy by an insulated plate and a series-connected-toearth neon lamp (i.
• Variant of apparatus for utilizing WIRELESS energy by a spherical antenna sferica and an electric motor grounded (only one wire): receives POWER plate sphere (lamp bulb) current RADIANT ENERGY from T.com 22 . motor GND deltaavalon.C.
M.• Conversion of WIRELESS energy L.com 23 rectifier i i + motor 0 motor current .M.waves E sphere GND L.D.D. waves energy is converted in the rectifier to electrical current for the motor deltaavalon.
4) “ Vacuum tube Tesla Coil ” “Vacuum Coil” • A special feature from ®: DELTA Ingegneria® flat spiral Tesla coil energized by vacuum tube with an additional drive coil added to the primary.com 24 . instead of the spark-gap. additional drive coil vacuum tube deltaavalon.
not only signal MAGNETODIELECTRIC: is the “dual of ELECTROMAGNETIC” deltaavalon.com 25 .C. that is small power coil WIRELESS: transmission of ENERGY. • Tesla Coil’s energy field lights up a neon tube to power its full brightness without transmission wires.The energy field of a T.
5) Mutual effects between T.s are communicating ! deltaavalon.com 26 .C.Coils • Mutual effects of XMTR and RCVR: a neon tube near each Tesla coil shows that if RCVR coil is first switched on and then off the corresponding neon tube turns first ON and then OFF whereas the neon of the XMTR turns OFF and then ON. The two T.
Tesla Coil resonance frequencies • There are two different main resonance frequencies f0 0 and f1 1.141…) Frequencies relationship expressed by wave lenghts λ : proportional proportional as as circle circle radius radius to arc π/2 1 deltaavalon. for instance f0 0 = 1 MHz and f1 1 = 1. π / 2 (π = 3. where f1 1 = 1.57 MHz.com 27 .57. the relationship is therefore: f1 = f0 . f0 0 .
T.Light effects with a T. like brushes and streamers. • The apparatus produces curious beautiful light effects. in the lamp bulb at top terminal of secondary coil showing different .C .C.com 28 . colours  sun lamp deltaavalon.
white electric streams appear instead of blue or violet ones as by usual HV air discharges. which are not felt by hand despite voltage rises to hundreds of kiloVolts.com 29 . not visible by daylight but present and visible in the dark: “brushes” and “streamers”.Tesla “ discharge coil ” “discharge coil”  coil • A peculiar Tesla produces curious light effects. and are felt only if the terminals are directly touched. between the terminals. generator deltaavalon.
so: -> results are not the same and so the involved equations deltaavalon.j i.j= . zero.Vectors however have commutative property: i. in in other other words words q1 q1+ +q2 q2=2a =2a but but v1 v1+ +v2 v2=0 =0 as an example.i .The The sum sum of of quaternions quaternions q1=a+b =a+bii+c +cjj+d +dk k and and q2 q2=a-b =a-bii-c -cjj-d -dk k gives gives q q= =q1 q1+ +q2 q2=2a =2a which which is but a scalar scalar not not equal equal to to zero zero .i .j= = j.j.com 30 • Calculation rules are not the same in the two systems.The The sum sum of of vectors vectors v1 v1=a =aii+b +bjj+c +ck k and and v2 v2=-a =-aii-b -bjj-c -ck k gives gives v v= =v1 v1+ +v2 v2=0 =0 that that is zero.A few words about Maxwell ’s equations Maxwell’s • The The original original quaternion quaternion Maxwell’s Maxwell’s electromagnetism equations were later modified modified and and simplified simplified with with the the introduction introduction of of vectors vectors by by Heaviside Heaviside and and Gibbs”. for . Gibbs”.i j. • • Quaternions have 4 terms: • Vectors have have only only 3 terms: q = a+bi+cj+dk v = ai+bj+ck (by Hamilton) (cartesian space) instance: .Quaternions have anti-commutative property: i.
E = ρ /ε0 0 2 c2 Dielectric flux theorem Magnetic flux theorem Faraday’s law Ampére’s law E = dielectric field. B = magnetic field.Maxwell’s equations in today’s differential form are: . A + 1/c2 arbitrarily fixed fixed as: as: So So the the equations equations of of scalar scalar potential potential φ and and vectorial vectorial potential potential A are: are: 2 ∂2 2φ/ ∂t2 21/c2 2 ∂2 2A/ ∂t2 21/c2 2 2 φ = ρ /ε 0 0 2 2A = μ J 0 0 where: deltaavalon. ∂/∂t = 0 and “Lorenz gauge” would then arbitrarily .∂/∂t B x B = j/ε0 0 + ∂/∂t E . ε0 = dielectric constant in vacuum.. j = current density.B=0 x E = .com 31 . 0 ∂/∂t = time partial derivative. 2. ρ = charge density.
It is observed that. by the so-called “gauge freedom” in in choosing choosing vectorial potential A e scalar φ . the “instantaneous ” Coulomb potential associated to  as the variation of charge density.t)” (x. The results results obtained obtained by by two two “gauges” are therefore different.com 32 .. would but violate the “causality”  such potential would imply everywhere an instantaneous charge variation. it is therefore possible to choose. variation. by introducing a “scalar gauge function function ψ ψ(x.ρ /ε0 0 “Poisson’s equation” whose solution. instead of former “Lorenz gauge” gauge”.∂/∂t ψ it descends that E and B vectorial fields are unvaried. A A= =0 0 And And so so to to obtain obtain for for the the scalar scalar potential: potential: 2 2φ = . deltaavalon. the the “Coulomb “Coulomb gauge” gauge” (in (in vacuum) vacuum) that that is: is: .t)” and the following potentials potentials A Ae eφ A=A+ ψ and φ = φ ..
simplify complicated manual  .aerospace navigation q = a+bi+cj+dk Use of quaternions could be made in Maxwell’s equations • Moreover.∂/∂t A dielectric scalar potential φ and dielectric vector potential A curiously were often considered to be only mere mathematical abstractions rather than having physical meaning. by use of informatics.com 33 . for example in: q . two well known expressions of Maxwell’s equations (where B and E are respectively magnetic and dielectric vectorial fields) are: B= xA and E=φ . deltaavalon.computer graphics  calculation and allow up to 55% memory space saving.Quaternions.
A ) where: where: 2 2Ã = μ0 J 0 . besides besides transverse transverse electromagnetic electromagnetic waves waves (T.M.).M. J = ( icρ .Application of quaternions in Maxwell’s equations:  it According According to to some some physics physics it would would be be possible possible to to derive derive Maxwell’s Maxwell’s equations equations from from a a single single vector vector potential potential quaternion. existence.M. (L.E.M.). that that is: is: Ã = ( i φ/c .E.D.). J ) by by respect respect of of “Lorenz “Lorenz gauge” gauge” it it descends descends an an extension extension of of Maxwell’s Maxwell’s equations: equations: this this implies implies the the existence.com 34 . also also of of longitudinal longitudinal dielectric dielectric waves waves (L. whose whose scalar scalar potential potential φ φ is is related related to to its its own own dielectric dielectric field field E E by by the the following following equation: equation: E= φ deltaavalon.D. quaternion. (T.).
com 35 .J + ∂ρ/∂t ) deltaavalon. Maxwell’s equations can therefore be reduced to the only two following: 2 2 2 ∂2 2E/∂t2 22E = -1/ ε ( 2 ∂J/∂t ) 1/c2 ρ + 1/c 0 0 2 2 ∂2 2B/∂t2 22B = μ ( 1/c2 xJ) 0 0 Introducing generic scalar field Σ .By employ employ of of quaternions quaternions and and adoption adoption of “Lorenz gauge”. current intensity is: J= Σ Σ be considered following “gauge” transformation: 2 ∂Σ/∂t ρ’ = ρ + 1/c2 and J’ = J - be it noted that scalar Σ satisfies following wave equation which : propagates with speed “c” in ether 2 ∂2 2 Σ/∂t2 21/c2 2 2 Σ = -( .
such as in the case of opposed capacitor’s plates. this would also explain the working principle of the electric electric capacitor capacitor by by also keeping in mind the theories of .This implies that distribution of a scalar wave Σ induces a charge density ρ and current intensity J (having speed “c”): 2 ∂Σ/∂t and ρ = . deltaavalon.com 36 . but it is distributed in the space between them.Steinmetz whom dielectric field between two conductors wouldn’t only be confined to its surfaces.P.1/c2 J= E Σ capacitor even if charge ρ and current J are not present in a particular zone. according to J.
if not utterly impossible.com 37 .deltaavalon.. 1902.Simon Newcomb. visit website: www. last but not least a quote: “The flight of machines heavier than air is not practicable and is insignificant.com Videos on YouTube: “Wireless power 1 & 2” etc.” . God’s vast: discovered.God ’s creation is vast : a lot has to be discovered . user: HorizonDelta deltaavalon.
Everyday science and mechanics .1931  Dr.2009 deltaavalon. Eng. Nikola Tesla: “The true wireless”. lecture delivered at Franklin Institute. may 1919  Hugo Gernsback: “Faster than light !”.Omdurman Univ. waves etc.2 n. & Satti Z. Milan. Roberto Handwerker et al. Philadelphia.: ”Rotazione di solidi mediante quaternioni” for Elements of informatics. Electrical Experimenter. Charles P.12. 1990 (in italian)  Arbab I. Steinmetz: “Electric discharges.. nov.”.A. “On the the generalized Maxwell equations & their prediction of electroscalar…”..com 38 . 1914  Dr.1893  Dr. Milan Polytechnic. Faculty of Engineering.Bibliography and references  Dr. Nikola Tesla: “On light and other HF phenomena”.A.vol. Nikola Tesla: “Experiments with AC of VHF and their application to methods of artificial illumination”. feb. 1891  Dr. Italy.
Tesla.Y. N. Mendeleev: “An attempt towards a chemical conception of the ether” (trans.1904  Dr.Y. Roberto Handwerker: ”Longitudinal dielectric waves in a Tesla coil and quaternionic Maxwell’s equations”. D. Milan. Kamensky (Imperial Mint.1929. Eng.F.Y.Bibliography and references  J. N.com 39 . St. 2011  G. N.A. Petersburg). 1961 1961 (in (in polnish) polnish)  Dr. Nova Science. Nikola Tesla: “Nikola Tesla tells of new radio theories”. revised and enlarged edition. Hauppage. Herald Tribune. Przeglad Elektrotechniczny..1999  Prof. Elektrotechniczny. Longmans. Nasilowski: “Phenomena connected with the disintegration of conductors…”.. Ignatiev & V. Green & Co. interview with N. 22 Sept. Leus: “Instantaneous action at a distance in modern physics: pro and contra”. * * * deltaavalon. from Russian by G.
com 40 .Also from the Author (in English): “ LONGITUDINAL DIELECTRIC WAVES IN A TESLA COIL “LONGITUDINAL AND QUATERNIONIC MAXWELL ’S EQUATIONS ” MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS” deltaavalon.
Thank you for your kind attention ! Dr. deltaavalon. “Wireless power-”. “Wonderful lighting”.deltaavalon. Eng.com www. among which: “Tesla and cold electricity”.com On website articles of Author.2011 All rights reserved info: info@deltaavalon. Italy .Milan. Roberto Handwerker DELTA Ingegneria® .com 41 .
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