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70132541 the Diversification of Higher Education in the Comparative Perspective

70132541 the Diversification of Higher Education in the Comparative Perspective

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The Diversification of Higher Education in the Comparative Perspective

1st Global Convention of UNESCO Chairs in Higher Education Dubrovnik​, Croatia, 14-15 October 2011

Futao HUANG, Professor & PhD.
Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University, Japan futao@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Major research questions
• What is higher education diversification? • What are major patterns of higher education diversification ? • What is the rationale for the diversification of higher education?


a description was made in the OECD document in a broad sense:   “… the existence of distinct forms of post-secondary education. of institutions or groups of institutions in a state or nation that have different and distinctive missions. are organized and funded differently. for example. educate and train for different lives and careers. and operate under different laws and relationships to government.” (OECD. 1998) 3 . have different styles of instruction.What is diversity in higher education • Various definitions were attributed to the terminology.

focused on types of higher education institutions and levels of educational programs. the US.Two approaches to discussing about higher education diversification Two approaches will be made to address the issues concerning the diversification of higher education systems in Europe. •Diversification in higher education functions or specialization of function. and Asia as follows: •Diversification in higher education structure. 4 .

Nonuniversity sectors Fachhochschul en IUTs Polytechnics Grandes écoles Traditional university Land-grant college Graduate Ed.S 5 CHINA JAPAN . community college Post-secondary & tertiary education Russia Germany France England U.Diversification in higher education systems The Medieval Universities Medieval Oxbridge Research University Modern Nonuniversity sectors 20th C.

Non-university-type Ed. FURTHER EDUCATION Adult Ed. Postsecondary Institutions Postsecondary Education System 6 .From higher education system to postsecondary education system HIGHER EDUCATION University-type Ed.

A conceptual description of the postsecondary education system in the US ( Formal & informal learning opportunities Specialized colleges Non-accredited institutions University-type Source: The National Commission on the Financing of Postsecondary Education. 1973. 7 .

esp. Switzerland. Blurring the binary division: Germany.Diversification of HE systems in Europe during the Bologna process Levels of programs loosely-structured systems in each nation (more diversified) Research or comprehensive universities   AND Higher professional & vocational institutions Clear division of labors between two sectors Convergent and compatiable three-cycled system at a European dimension (more integrated) I II Types of institutions Maintaining the dual system: Norway and the Netherlands. Austria. Diversifying ranks and profiles of individual institutions. a division between different universities. Function 8 . Portugal . Finland.

esp. at a junior and four-year colleges.Diversification of HE systems in the US Levels of programs Several levels of educational programs at a system level Research and comprehensive universities   AND Junior and four-year colleges Clear functional differentiation according to relevant institutions Growingly diversified levels of educational programs. 9 Types of institutions Function . No radical changes in classic research universities in comparison to a more diversifying non-university colleges and especially diversification within institutions No distinguished changes in specialization of function among existing institutions.

Since 1990s Individual countries Developed & emerging countries Internationalization North America UK. -1945 th Colonized & non-colonized countries Socialist countries Westernization Major European countries: Germany. U. France Former Soviet models US models Soviet Union 1945 -1980s Market-oriented countries U. Australia & some European countries Asia West world 10 .K..The impact of Western models on the formation of Asian higher education system Late 19 C.A.S.

Diversification of HE systems in Asia since 1990s Levels of programs An emphasis on undergraduate studies More universities and junior colleges (Japan & Korea). esp. Master-level and Doctoral programs at a national level Creating world-class research universities and expanding lifelong education Creating research universities. emphasizing research function of universities 11 . less non-university sector Integrated structure of Bachelor. but more higher vocational institutions (China & Vietnam) Increasing functional differentiation among various sectors. expanding non-governmental vocationoriented institutions and transnational institutions Types Less universities & colleges.

education and law.Quantitative growth in China Type Largest and fastest growth of enrollment in regular fouryear universities. Particularly a rapid increase in numbers of students in ‘Independent Colleges ’. 12 . agriculture and medicine and rise in economics. literature. Sector Educational Largest and fastest increase of enrollment at undergraduate level level Field of study Undergraduate: drop in engineering. They are often regarded as non-government sector. which were initially attached to national or public institutions being operated with private mechanisms. Short-cycle programs: drop in literature and engineering and rise in economics.

To make efforts to improve the quality of over 300 key disciplines in different institutions. Since 2000. together with other Central ministries and local authorities has kept on growing.and qualitative enhancement in China since mid. By 2010 they amounted to 39. the number of universities that have been funded by the MOE. By September 2010. Project 985 of 1998 Initially.1990s The first step to improve research quality of some key universities A second step to establish some world-class universities Project 211 of 1995 To finance Peking University and Tsinghua University intensively with the purpose of enabling the two universities to reach or approach a higher level in the world. only Peking University and Tsinghua University. To enhance the quality of 25 other leading universities through provision of additional public revenue. over 100 universities had been selected and given special financial support by both central government and local authorities. were selected to be funded intensively by the central government. 13 . the two top universities in China.

) • A center for providing regional lifelong learning opportunities • Making contributions to society (regional contribution.) (The Central Council for Education.Policy on facilitating seven functional differentiations among HE institutions in Japan since 2005 • A center for research and education at a international level • The production of highly specialized professionals • The production of graduates with wide vocational knowledge and skills • A comprehensive liberal or general education • Education and research focused in specific fields (art. 14 . 2008). etc. academic-industry collaboration. etc. physical education. and international exchange.

educational programs. -Knowledge-based society Demanding higher education institutions to produce graduates with creativity and competencies and to establish a closer linkage to industry and be more responsive to social needs -Globalization & internationalization Asking higher education institutions to be more competitive at a global level and internationalized at a regional. campus. personal mobility. national and institutional levels in educational values & beliefs. 15 . and medis of instruction . the US and Asia -Massification of higher education A call for higher education system and individual institutions to be more diversified and responsive to the diverse body of students and their needs.Similar rationale for diversifying higher education systems in Europe.

An increasing diversification within institutions. esp.Particular drivers for diversifying higher education systems in Europe. an expansion in shorter and more vocationallyoriented institutions and a closer linkage between two. Diversifying HE systems by expanding private sector and incorporation of public sector. remarkable diversities still exist among national systems.Existence of national identity and traditions   • The US Responsive to various stakeholders . and building up world-class universities.A near universal access to higher education - While a integrated degree-programs structure is being pursued. 16 • Asia -Massification -Marketization -National strategy . the US and Asia respectively • Europe .and four-year colleges .

there has emerged not only new types of institutions and new levels of programs. there has appeared a tendency of homogeneity among various institutions. in China. However.Open for discussion • Differing from the increasing tendency of diversification within institutions in the US. though an convergent trend in the unity of European higher education system at a supernational dimension could be found . 17 . there exists a considerable diversity in higher education system at a national level. while in Japan a hierarchical differentiation has occurred. In many Asian countries. but also trends of diversifying national higher education systems through specialization of function.

• The diversification of the US higher education is stimulated more by market forces and the responsiveness by each institution to the needs of students.Open for discussion (continued I) • The expansion of student enrollments has significantly led to a increasing diversification of higher education structure by creating new teaching-centered sectors or types and new levels of programs. In contrast. however. 18 . the US or Asia. industry. in Japan. the government has assumed leadership in guiding the direction. employers in particular. no clear evidence shows that it has also caused a dramatic functional differentiation of higher education systems in Europe. content and even the level of the diversification of higher education. China. and most European countries.

Open for discussion (continued II) • Apparently. drivers such as massification. internationalization. government. and even national policy have greatly contributed to the diversification of both higher education structure and its functional differentiation. general citizenry (as well as to parents and students). 19 . it is likely to see that responsiveness of national higher education systems to needs and interests of community. as is exemplified in the US case study. marketization. may lead to a more diversified higher education structure or system. business. globalization.

The Central Council for Education (2008).References • • OECD (1998). (2004). pp. 6. Paris. Hiroshima University. Daigaku no Kino Betsu Bunka to Daigaku Kan Nettowaku ni Tsuite (Sanko Shiryo) (The Functional Differentiation of Universities and Networks between Universities (reference material). Japan. Washingtong D. Paris. UNESCO Forum Occasional Serials No. RIHE (2011). Teichler. Changing structures of the Higher Education Systems: The Increasing Complexity Underlying Forces. Redefining Tertiary Education. Diversifying Higher Education Systems in the International and Comparative Perspectives (Report on the International Workshop on University Reform. U.( http://www. Financing Postsecondary Education in the United States.go. The National Commission on the Financing of Postsecondary Education (1973). Research Institute for Higher Education. pp-3-16.C. 2010).pdf ) 20 • • • .jp/b_menu/shingi/chukyo/chukyo4/gijiroku/08121111/001. 40-41. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).mext.

Thank you! 21 .

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