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• Is the study

of food in
relation to
health
• Process by which
food is taken into
and used by the
body and it includes
digestion,
absorption,
transport and
• The study of
nutrition is
interrelated with
allied arts and
sciences, chemistry,
FUNCTION
OF

NUTRITION
• the recognition of
the role of
nutrition in
preventing
diseases or
• the concern for
adapting food patterns
of individuals to their
nutritional needs
within the framework
of their cultural,
economic and
psychological situation
• the awareness of
the need in specified
disease states to
modify nutritional
factors for
therapeutic purpose.
HISTORY
OF
NUTRITION
AS A
SCIENCE
NATURALISTIC ERA
(400 B.C-1750 A.D.)
• Hippocrates as “father of
medicine”, 1st to show interest
in nutrition.
• Effects of food and exercise to
one’s health
• Relation to chemistry,
medicine and physiology.
CHEMICAL-ANALYTICAL ERA
(1750A.D.-1900A.D.)
•LAVOISER known as the
“father of nutrition” ,
because of his respiration
and oxidation studies
discoveries of oxygen, carbon
dioxide, hydrogen and
nitrogen, different
substances needed by the
body, carbohydrate, fat
protein and mineral ash other
ANTOINE LAVOISIER-
FATHER OF NUTRITION

 
BIOLOGICAL ERA (1900-
1955)
• more discoveries of factors with
vitamin-like properties(essential
elements of the human diet and
others for various aspects of
animals)
• study of the
interrelationships existing
between nutrients and their
biological roles
• Determination of human
dietary requirements
• Nutrition education and its
application in the improvement
of nutritional status.
CELLULAR/MOLECULAR ERA(1955
TO PRESENT)
AGE OF HIGH
TECHNOLOGY AND
BIOTECHNOLOGY

•Production of insulin,
extraction of the hormone
from the stomach of larger
animals
•Effect of interferon on
certain virus
•Correcting genetic
defects in human
such as sickle cell
anemia
•Improvement of
livestock and crops
•HISTORICAL
HIGHLIGHTS OF
NUTRITION IN THE
PHILIPPINES
FIRST
PERIOD(1903-
•Studies1923):
done by
American and foreign
scientists aided by
Filipino workers.
•Studies on beri-beri and
proximate composition of
foods and worked on Filipino
and physiological standards.
•Other studies conducted
were:
1. analysis of various foods by
Gibbs and Agcaoili(1912)
. analysis on Philippine fruits by
Pratt(1913)
3. analysis on varieties of rice
by Wells (1923)
1914 -The UP College of
Agriculture published
studies made by their
investigators
• Gonzales on coconut
• Dacanay on Philippine
bananas
• Labayan on
sweet potatoes
Philippine Bananas
Potatoes
VEDDER AND R.R. WILLIAMS
-Cause of beri-beri –
large scale of manufacture of
tiki-tiki extracts(initiated by
Bureau of Sciences, one of the
first institutions established in
the country.)
-These extracts reduced infant
mortality rate among infants.
SECOND PERIOD
(1923-1943)
•Intensification of
research studies in our
country
•Research studies were
organized and more funds
and facilities were made
available to our Filipino
scientists.
Studies conducted and
published are the
Basal metabolic standards for
following:
Filipino students( Fleming O.
Santos 1923)
•Calcium content of local
foods(Adriano-1925)
•Height and weight Table-
Siasoco and Goco
• Food Processing-pioneered
by Orosa, followed by Acena,
Adriano and Sumulong
• Growth Standards
Determination-
•Concepcion, Icasiano and
Cruz
1932 - The National
Research Council(NRC) of
the Philippines was
established and on a section
on nutrition was created
under the Chairmanship of
F.O. Santos(Father of
Nutrition in the Phils.)
ACCOMPLISHMENT OF
THIS SECTION:

•Revision of RDA table


which included Niacin and
Riboflavin by Santos and
Concepcion in 1947.
THIRD PERIOD(FROM
WORLD WAR II TO
Highlighted1960)
by the creation of
nutrition agencies and councils
which worked on organized
activities in nutrition and food
research and the coordination
of the activities of the
government and private
agencies involved in nutrition
NUTRITION AGENCIES :

1. PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE OF
NUTRITION (PIN)-
•Researches 1947
on food and
nutritional biochemistry, basic
and applied nutrition and
1958-transferred to DOH
nutrition surveys. under
the National Science Development
Board (NSDB) through R.A.2067
and renamed Food and
Nutrition Research
MAJOR
ACCOMPLISHMENTS:
• completion of the ten regional
surveys throughout the
Philippines(1957-1968)
• assessment of the problems
and the extent of malnutrition
•revisions of the food
consumption table
2. FOOD COMMISSION-
created by President
Elpidio Quirino(1951)
established nutrition
services related to the
production, distribution and
consumption of food.
3. NUTRITION
FOUNDATION OF THE
A private agency organized
PHILIPPINES(NFP-1959)
by prominent men of science
with the objective of helping
improve the health of the
people through assistance
programs on foods and
nutrition designed to
complement and supplement
1947- series of experiments
on beri-beri was initiated by
Salcedo and co-workers
•it was found out that enriched
rice lowered mortality rate of
beri-beri
R.A. 832- “Rice Enrichment
Law” was passed.
FOURTH PERIOD(1960 UP
TO PRESENT)
Attempts of the government
and private sectors to
coordinate all activities
related to food, nutrition and
agriculture throughout the
Philippines to solve the
malnutrition of the country.
1960- The National
Coordinating Council on Foods
and Nutrition(NCCFN) was
organized by Dr. Conrado
Pascual. ( marked the formal
beginning of the coordination
of the applied
nutrition,nutrition research as
well as food research activities
July 1, 1960- The DOH
established the NNP now
National Nutrition Service,
and through its mothercraft
centers helped prevent
malnutrition among the
preschoolers.
1968- The Malnutrition
Ward was first
established by Dr. F.
Solon at Southern Island
Hospital in Cebu and is
now made a part of their
service in almost all
government hospitals.
January 21,1971 – Pres.
Marcos issued Executive
Order no. 285, authorizing
the Natl. Food and
Agricultural Council to
coordinate all food and
nutrition programs in the
country.
•The program was referred to
as the Philippine Food and
June 25,1974 – The National
Nutrition Council created under
•was charged with the task of
the office of the President by
formulating an integrated Nutrition
Presidential Decree 491 (Nutrition
nationwide.
Act)
• the act designated JULY as
Nutrition Month
JULY 2, 1974 – The Nutrition
Center of the Philippines by
Mrs. Imelda Marcos generate
interest and resources from
among private sectors and
international institutions.
•design specific projects and
activities towards erasing the
malnutrition problems in the
country
.
1977- PD 1286(The
Nutrition and Dietitics
Decree of 1977) regulates
the practice of nutrition
and dietitics.
-sets minimum
requirements for
nutritionist – dieticians for
hospitals and nutrition
agencies
1978- PD 1956
proclaimed to further
strengthened Nutrition
Program of the country.
-provides for the
Barangay Nutrition
Scholar(BNS) for every
Barangay
SCOPE OF NUTRITION AS A
SCIENCE
 1. Basic or
Fundamental Nutrition
 -a study of the
physiologic needs in
terms of specific
nutrients
2. NUTRITION IN GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OR CHILD AND MATERNAL
NUTRITION
 - A Study of Nutritional

Principles and
application throughout
the life cycle or it could
be concentrated on
infancy, childhood,
pregnancy and lactation
which are the most
3. Dietetics or
Therapeutic
Nutrition
 The adequacy of
nutrient and diet to
meet individual’s
needs under normal
or pathological
conditions.
4. Medical or Clinical
Nutrition

 A study of the
effects on the body
when nutritional
needs are not met
or when there is
excessive intake
5. Community or Public
Health
Nutrition
 Ways and means of
supplying adequate diets
in group of people
starting with the family
or a community
 Can be nationwide or
international
6. Comparative Nutrition

 A study of species
differences in their
nutritional needs
 Specialized fields under this
are:
 Human nutrition
 Animal
7. Other areas of
Specialization
 The study of Nutrition is
interrelated with allied
fields since nutrition is a
science as well as a art.
 Nutrition in Dentistry,
Geriatric nutrition, infant
or pediatric nutrition.
Definitions of
Terms
FOOD
 ARE ALSO CULTURALLY
ACCEPTABLE SUBSTANCES THAT
SUPPLY HEAT, AND ENERGY,BUILD
REPAIR BODY TISSUES AND
REGULATE BODY PROCESSES.
 INDIVIDUAL’S ATTITUDES
TOWARDS FOODS ARE
CONSTANTLY CHANGING IN
ACCORDANCE WITH HIS CURRENT
EMOTIONAL NEEDS
 CAN BE BOTH A REWARD OR A
QUALITIES OF GOOD
FOOD
1. NOURISHING OR NUTRITIOUS
 2. IT HAS SATIETY VALUE
 3. PREPARED UNDER SANITARY
CONDITIONS, AESTHETICALLY AND
SCIENTIFICALLY
 4. FREE FROM TOXIC AGENTS
 5. PALATABILITY SATISFIES THE
CONSUMERS
 OFFERS VARIETY AND PLANNED
WITHIN SOCIO-ECONOMIC
GOOD FOOD
NUTRIENTS
-are chemical substances
found in food performing
diverse roles in the body
namely, to provide heat
and energy, to build and
repair body tissues and to
regulate body processes .
NUTRIENTS CAN BE CLASSIFIED
ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING:
As to Function- Nutrients from
tissues in the body and body
building. These furnish heat and
energy such as fats, carbohydrates
and proteins.
 As to Chemical Properties-
organic or inorganic
As to Essentiality-this refers to
the significant contribution to the
body’s physiological functioning.
4. As to
Concentration
- Some nutrients
are needed in
large amounts
than others.
Six Major
Nutrients
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats-
-

major organic nutrients which are


broken down to supply energy.

- Vitamins, Mineral and Water-


taken in the body without being
broken down, essential
participants in the chemical
reactions to maintain life.
FOOD FOR SURVIVAL

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES


1.According to Function
b.Body-building- structural component of the
body, form tissues
c.Furnish energy- yield energy
d.Regulate body processes
2. According to chemical nature/properties
f.Organic- carbon containing compounds except
carbonate and cyanide
g.Inorganic- non carbon containing compounds-
mineral and water
3. According to Essentiality-physiological role in
the body
a. Dietary essentials- essential or indispensable
nutrients, should be supplied in the diet, the body
Continuation
b. Semi-essentials- reduces the need for a
particular nutrient or partially spares it.
c. Non-Dietary essentials-non-essential also called
dispensable nutrients
-it can be synthesized by the body as long as the
materials in the body are adequate.
4. According to Concentration- termed as
macronutrients or micronutrients
e.Macronutrients-present in relatively large amounts
in the body(example: water, protein, fats,
carbohydrates)
f.Micronutrients- vitamins and trace minerals
NUTRIENTS AND THEIR
FUNCTION

CARBOHYDRATES-big group
of organic compound prominent in the
plant kingdom which contain the
element of carbon, hydrogen and
oxygen.
FUNCTIONS
1. Chief source of energy-glucose and its intermediate
products; major fuel used by muscles. It supplies 4
calories / gram.
2. Cheap and main energy source-low cost and widely
distributed in the world.
3. Protein sparer-
4. Regulator of fat metabolism
5. Sole energy source for the brain and nerve tissue
6. Storage form of energy as glycogen- glycogen is
very important for the heart muscle as immediate
source of contractile energy.
7. Regulator of intestinal peristalsis and provider of
bulk- Cellulose, an important polysaccharide acts
as a broom and regulates intestinal peristalsis,
daily bowel movement thus constipation is
SPECIFIC CARBOHYDRATES AND
THEIR FUNCTIONS
1. Galactose and Glucose
2. Lactose- sugar found in milk;
helps absorb calcium
3. Glucoronic acid- has detoxifying
effect
4. Glucosides-important in drug
therapy; digitalis derivatives are
needed for certain heart conditions
5. Ribose and Dioxyribose-
important component of
nucleic acid.
Carbohydrates-provide the
major source of energy or as
much as 80 t0 100% of
calories.
CLASSIFICATION OF CHO
A. Monosaccharides orsimple
sugars- sweet and since they
require no digestion they can
absorb directly into the blood
stream from the small
- Principal form in which
carbohydrates is used by the
body: blood sugar, sbundant
in fruits, sweet corn, corn
syrup.
- fuels work of the body’s
cells
- only glucose can provide
energy for the brain, other
nerve cells and developing
2. Fructose(levulose)- the
sweetest of simple sugars. It
is found in honey, most fruits,
some vegetables. It is
converted to glucose in the
body.
3. Galactose- not found free
in foods, produced from
lactose by digestion and is
converted to glucose in the
B. Disaccharides or Double
-sugars
Must be changed to simple
sugars by hydrolysis before they
can be absorbed.
2.Sucrose- table sugar; processed
from cane and beet sugar;
composed of glucose and fructose
3.Lactose(milk sugar)- found in
milk and milk product except
cheese; remains in the intestine
Continuation
- longer than other sugars and
encourages the growth of
certain useful bacteria.
-forms 40% of milk solids
3. Maltose is not found in free
foods; produced by hydrolysis of
starch and is converted to
glucose in digestion; occurs in
malt products and in
germinating cereals; found in
certain infant formulas, beer and
C. Polysaccharides known as
complex sugars
1. Starch – the most
significant
polysaccharide in human
nutrition.
- Major food sources include
cereals grains, potatoes
and other foot
vegetables, legumes.
-converted directly to
glucose upon digestion and
are more complex than
sugars and longer time to
digest.
2. Dextrins- not found in free
foods; are formed as
intermediate products in the
breakdown of starch.