College of Nursing

Silliman University

Nursing Research

FLO RENDA F. CABATI T R N M A Course Facilitator

Dimensions of Data Collection Approaches 2. Structure 3. Quantifiability 4. Researcher Obtrusiveness 5. Objectivity

include a fixed set of questions that are

generally answered in a specified sequence and with pre designated response options Example: agree or disagree in structured methods, there is little opportunity for participants to qualify their answers or to explain the underlying meaning of their responses

data that are considerably more difficult to analyze. Example: Structured: During the past week, would you say you felt stressed? rarely or non of the time some or a little of the time occasionally or a moderate amount of time most or all of the time Example: Unstructured How stressed or anxious have you been this past week? Tell me about the kind of tension
 yield

Major Types of Data Collection
Self Reports Observation Biophysiologic Measures

Developing a Data Collection Plan in a Quantitative Study
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Identifying data needs. Selecting types of measure Selecting and developing instruments Pretesting the data collection package Developing data collection forms and procedures

Identifying Data Needs: Quantitative Study
Decisions for Data Requirements may be made to accomplish the following:
2.Testing hypotheses or addressing the research

questions. 3.Describing sample characteristics 4.Controlling extraneous variables. 5.Analyzing potential biases 6.Understanding subgroup effects 7.Interpreting results 8.Checking the manipulation 9.Obtaining administrative information.

Selecting and Developing Instruments
Criteria that may affect researcher’s decisions: 2. Conceptual relevance 3. Data quality 4. Resources 5. Availability and familiarity 6. Norms and comparability 7. Population appropriateness 8. Reputation

Pretesting the Data Collection Package
Purposes of a pretest: 2. Identify parts of the instrument that are difficult for pretest subjects to read or understand or that may have been misinterpreted by them 3. Identify any instruments or questions that participants find objectionable or offensive 4. Determine whether the sequencing of instruments is sensible. 5. Determine needs for training data collection staff 6. Determine if the measures yield data with sufficient variability.

Developing data collection forms and procedures: some administrative tasks
Forms to develop

informed consent - forms for screening potential participants - forms for recording actual data - contact information sheet - administration logs for recording the receipt of data - records of attempted contacts with participants - data collection protocols - forms for data management

Implementing Data Collection Plan in a quantitative study
Selecting research personnel - experience - congruity with sample characteristics - unremarkable appearance - personality - availability 2. Training data collectors

Quantitative Self-Report Instruments
A researcher collecting structured selfreport data for a quantitative study almost always uses a formal, written, instrument: Interview Schedule – the instrument used is an interview schedule when the questions are asked orally in either face-to-face or telephone interviews. Questionnaire or SAQ – this is the

Questionnaire Checklist: Positive Characteristics
• Clarity: Can the question be interpreted in more than one way? • Brevity: Can the question be shortened and still retain its meaning? • Simplicity: Is the vocabulary at a simple level (such that of a newspaper) which is appropriate to the study sample? • Applicability: Can the respondents in the study sample be reasonably expected to answer accurately?

Quantitative Self-Report Instruments: Questionnaires vs. Interviews
Questionnaires Self-administered questionnaires can

be distributed in person, by mail, or over the internet Advantages: less costly and require less time and energy to administer, offer the possibility of complete anonymity, and absence of interviewer ensures no interviewer bias Interviews Advantages outweigh those of

Using and Preparing Structured SelfReport Instruments
Examples of Closed-ended Questions
3. Dichotomous questions

Require respondents to make a choice between alternatives. 4. Multiple-choice questions This offer more than two response alternatives. 5. Cafeteria questions These are a special type of multiple question that asks respondents to select a response that most corresponds to their view. 6. Rank-order questions These questions ask respondents to rank target concepts along a continuum, such as the most to least important.

Examples of Closedended Questions contd.
1. Forced-choice questions Require respondents to choose between two statements that represent polar positions or characteristics. 2. Rating questions Ask respondents to evaluate something along an ordered dimension. 3. Checklists Encompass several questions that have the same response format. 4. Visual analogue scales These are used to measure subjective experiences, such as pain.

Example of a Likert Scale to Measure Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill
Direction of Scoring + + + Item


SCORE Person 1 (/) 4 5 Person 2 (X) 1 3


1. People who have had a mental illness can become normal productive citizens after treatment. 2. People who have been patients in mental hospitals should not be allowed to have children. 3. The best way to handle patients in mental hospitals is to restrict their activity as much as possible. 4. Many patients in mental hospitals develop normal, healthy relationships with staff members. 5. There should be an expanded effort to get the mentally ill out of institutional settings and back to their communities. 6. Because the mentally ill cannot be trusted, they should be kept under constant guard.

X /

/ X X

4 3 5

2 2 1

/ / X 5 2




A scale provides a numeric score to place respondents on a continuum with respect to an attribute being measured. LIKERT SCALES/ SUMMATED RATING SCALES Most widely used scaling technique Made of several declarative items that express a viewpoint on a topic The summation feature makes it possible to make fine discriminations among people with different points of view.



 Another technique for measuring psychosocial traits  Respondents are asked to rate a concept on a series

of bipolar adjectives 2 Considerations to Guide Selection: Adjective pairs should be appropriated for

the concept being used and for the information being sought. The extent to which the adjective measure the same dimension of the concept.

Refers to the tendency of respondents to distort their responses

Self report Response sets Extreme response Acquiescence response set

Development of structured self report instrument
1. 2.


4. 5.


Once data needs have been identified, cluster into separate modules or areas of questioning Sequence modules to an order that is psychologically meaningful and encourages candor and cooperation The schedule should begin with questions that are interesting, motivating and not too sensitive Arrangement of instrument in such ways to prevent bias Before questioning you must read the introductory comments to the respondents (often incorporated into an informed consent form) Introduction should be carefully constructed since it is the first contact with the potential participants

Tips for Developing Structured SelfReport Instruments
TIPS: 1. State the question in the affirmative 2. Avoid long sentences or phrases, and avoid technical terms 3. Avoid “double-barreled” question that contain two distinct ideas. 4. Do not assume that respondents will be aware of, or informed about, issues or questions in which you are interested. 5. Avoid leading questions that suggest a particular kind of answer

Tips for Developing Structured Self-Report Instruments

1. State a range of alternatives within the

question itself when possible 2. For questions that deal with controversial opinion or socially unacceptable behavior close-ended question may be preferred. 3. Impersonal wording of a question is sometimes useful in minimizing embarrassment and encouraging honesty. 4. Cognitive questioning

Administering Structured Self-Report Instruments
Collecting Interview Data

4 Primary Tasks of Interviewers
Interviewers put respondents at ease Interviewers should always be punctual,

courteous and friendly Interviewers should strive to appear unbiased and to create a permissive atmosphere that encourages candor All opinions of respondents should be accepted as natural: Interviewers should not express surprise, disapproval, or even approval

Administering Structured SelfReport Instruments contd.

In structured interview schedule, Interviewers should follow questions wording precisely Interviewers should not offer spontaneous explanations of what questions mean Interviewers should not read questions mechanically Closed-ended items are recorded by checking or circling appropriate alternative but responses to open-ended question must be recorded in full Probe is used to elicit more useful information than respondents volunteered during their initial reply

Administering Structured Self-Report Instruments Collecting Questionnaire Data Personal presentation of questionnaire Mailed questionnaire Internet

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