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NPSH - Net Positive Suction Head
A definition and an introduction to Net Positive Suction Head - NPSH
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Low pressure at the suction side of a pump can encounter the fluid to start boiling with reduced efficiency cavitation damage of the pump as a result. Boiling starts when the pressure in the liquid is reduced to the vapor pressure of the fluid at the actual temperature.
Free Industry Magazines Machinery Lubrication
To characterize the potential for boiling and cavitation, the difference between the total head on the suction side of the pump - close to the impeller, and the liquid vapor pressure at the actual temperature, can be used.
Based on the Energy Equation - the suction head in the fluid close to the impeller can be expressed as the sum of the static and the velocity head: hs = ps / γ + vs2 / 2 g where (1)
m km in ft yards miles nautical miles
hs = suction head close to the impeller ps = static pressure in the fluid close to the impeller γ = specific weight of the fluid v s = velocity of fluid g = acceleration of gravity
Liquids Vapor Head
m3 liters in3 ft3
The liquids vapor head at the actual temperature can be expressed as: hv = pv / γ (2)
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Water.pv / γ (3b) Available NPSH .hv (3) Pressure Pa (N/m2) bar mm H2O kg/cm2 psi inches H2O or. The head before the impeller can be expressed as: hs = ps / γ + vs2 / 2 g + he (4c) Engineering Standards where he = elevation from surface to pump . our most common fluid..engineeringtoolbox. At an absolute pressure of 101. starts boiling at 20 C if the absolute pressure in the fluid is 2.Net Positive Suction Head http://www.5 kN/m 2. The NPSHa can be determined during design and construction. by combining (1) and (2) NPSH = ps / γ + vs2 / 2 g .NPSH ..hl .positive if pump is above the tank.3 kN/m2. the energy or head at the surface of the tank is the same as the energy or head before the pump impeller and can be expressed as: E&P (Hart's E&P) h 0 = hs + hl where h0 = head at surface hs = head before the impeller Machinery Lubrication hl = head loss from the surface to impeller .he . the water starts boiling at 80 oC. or determined experimentally from the actual physical system.3 kN/m 2 (normal atmosphere). negative if the pump is below the tank Transforming (4) with (4b) and (4c): patm / γ = ps / γ + vs2 / 2 g + he + hl (4d) The head available before the impeller can be expressed as: ps / γ + vs2 / 2 g = patm / γ .where the pump lifts a fluid from an open tank at one level to an other.can be expressed as the difference between the Suction Head and the Liquids Vapor Head and expressed like NPSH = hs . For a common application . o Net Positive Suction Head .com/npsh-net-positive-suction-head-d_634.NPSH .the Pump is above the Tank (4e) (4f) 2 of 5 11/5/2013 7:05 AM . us gal where hv = vapor head Velocity pv = vapor pressure m/s km/h ft/min ft/s mph knots Note! The vapor pressure in fluids depends on temperature. Flow m3/s m3/h US gpm cfm Free Industry Magazines Chemical Engineering The available NPSHa can be calculated with the Energy Equation.NPSH The Net Positive Suction Head .NPSHa or NPSHA The Net Positive Suction Head made available the suction system for the pump is often named NPSHa.hl or as the available NPSHa: NPSHa = patm / γ . the boiling starts at 100 oC.major and minor loss in the suction pipe In an open tank the head at surface can be expressed as: h0 = p0 / γ = patm / γ (4b) (4) For a closed pressurized tank the absolute static pressure inside the tank must be used.he .pv / γ Available NPSHa . For an absolute pressure of 47.
6 0. It's always possible to increase the NPSHa by lowering the pump (as long as the major and minor head loss due to a longer pipe don't increase it more).he . and the vapor pressure of the fluid .Pumping Water from an Open Tank When increasing the the elevation for a pump located above a tank. the fluid will start to evaporate at a maximum level for the actual temperature. Example .he . Available NPSHa . The available NPSHa of the system should always exceeded the required NPSHr of the pump to avoid vaporization and cavitation of the impellers eye.pv / γ = 0 For optimal theoretical conditions we neglect the major and minor head loss.80 kN/m 3) .which in general can be regarded as constant. The elevation head can then be expressed as: he = patm / γ . the elevation . At some level the NPSHa will be reduced to zero and the fluid starts to evaporate.NPSHr or NPSHR The NPSHr.. The maximum theoretical elevation of a pump above an open water tank at different temperatures can be found from the table below. especially for water.2 (ft) 33.which in general vary with temperature. The maximum elevation can therefore be expressed by (4f): NPSHa = patm / γ .1 m Due to the head loss in the suction pipe and the local conditions inside the pump .80 kN/m3) = 10.is negative and the NPSHa increases when the elevation of the pump decreases (lowering the pump).3 kN/m 2.engineeringtoolbox. This is important and it is common to lower the pump when pumping fluids close to evaporation temperature.the Pump is below the Tank If the pump is positioned below the tank.3 10. Suction Head as Affected by Temperature Temperature (oC) 0 5 (oF) 32 41 Vapor Pressure (kN/m 2) 0.9 Max. local velocity accelerations and pressure decreases. called as the Net Suction Head as required by the pump in order to prevent cavitation for safe and reliable operation of the pump. Note that the required NPSHr increases with the square capacity. The required NPSHr for a particular pump is in general determined experimentally by the pump manufacturer and a part of the documentation of the pump.is positive and the NPSHa decreases when the elevation of the pump increases. The maximum theoretical elevation height is therefore: he = (101.com/npsh-net-positive-suction-head-d_634..33 kN/m 2) / (9. start boiling the fluid on the impeller surface. Pumps with double-suction impellers has lower NPSHr than pumps with single-suction impellers.NPSH . If the pump is positioned above the tank.3 kN/m2) / (9. elevation (m) 10.hl . The absolute vapor pressure of water at temperature 20 oC is 2. The available NPSHa should in general be significant higher than the required NPSHr to avoid that head loss in the suction pipe and in the pump casing.8 33.Net Positive Suction Head http://www. the elevation . A pump with a double-suction impeller is considered hydraulically balanced but is susceptible to an uneven flow on both sides with improper pipe-work.(2.pv / γ (5) The maximum elevation or suction head for an open tank depends on the atmospheric pressure .he . Required NPSH .the theoretical maximum elevation is significantly decreased.5 3 of 5 11/5/2013 7:05 AM . At the maximum elevation NPSHa is zero.
engineeringtoolbox.4 10.5 9.High temperatures and danger of impeller cavitation is the major challenge of condensate pumping Equation of Mechanical Energy . head or power consumption in centrifugal pumps when changing speed .3 7.3 3.com From 1M+ Global Exporters.The equation of mechanical energy in terms of Energy per Unit Mass.1 10. power consumption and more Related Documents Centrifugal Pumps .Selecting between Centrifugal Pumps and Positive Displacement Pumps Condensate Pumping .5 57.Specific Suction Speed .An introduction to Centrifugal Pumps Classifications of Pumps .6 47. elevation (m) 10.7 8.4 3.5 27.5 32. Sponsored Links Centrifugal Pump www.8 29.alibaba.5 15.9 9. displacement pumps .1 32..rpm .2 30.1 38.2 22.7 2.5 33. Temperature ( C) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 o Vapor Pressure (kN/m ) 1.Piping systems and pumps .9 58. Top Deals! Search the Engineering ToolBox Custom Search Related Topics Pumps .9 Fluid Ethanol Methyl Acetate Note that the head developed by a pump is independent of the liquid.6 7.Specific Suction Speed may be used to determine what general pump design to use for maximum efficiency Static Pressure and Pressure Head in Fluids .SketchUp Edition .4 9.5 101. and that the performance curves for water from the manufacturer can be used for Newtonian liquids like gasoline.4 5.33 2 Max. Contact Trusted Suppliers Now.7 0.7 20 25 32. viscosity.8 7.8 70 84.5 33.3 21 18 14.Online 3D modeling! 4 of 5 11/5/2013 7:05 AM .NPSH .centrifugal pumps. For hydrocarbons these values must be lowered to account for the vapor release properties of complex organic liquids..6 12.6 0 ( F) 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 185 194 203 212 o Pumping Hydrocarbons Be aware that the NPSH specification provided by the manufacturer in general is for use with cold water.8 9.2 4.8 32.9 28.cavitation.0 9.2 1. Temperature (oC) 20 65 20 55 Vapor Pressure (kPa abs) 5.Static pressure and pressure head Engineering ToolBox .2 1. head and pressure.0 (ft) 33.5 4.1 8.8 93. Energy per Unit Volume and Energy per Unit Weight involving head Pump Affinity Laws .com/npsh-net-positive-suction-head-d_634.7 9.Net Positive Suction Head http://www.6 23.2 10.Turbo machines affinity laws are used to calculate volume capacity.1 6. Be aware that required power depends on liquid density and must be adjusted.2 10.5 5.3 5.2 31. diesel or similar.or wheel diameters Pumps .2 25.
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