A workpiece, just like any free solid body, have twelve degrees of freedom, the six axial degrees
of freedom and six radial degrees of freedom. To accurately locate a workpiece in a jigs and fixtures, movements must be restricted. This is done with locators so they must be strong enough to maintain the position of the workpiece and to resist the cutting forces. During a setup it is necessary for the motion of workpiece to restrict in all these motions positively. You must be able to accurately locate each workpiece regardless of how it is made. To do this, you must know the locating method and the type of locators. There are three methods for locating of workpiece: • Locating from external surface • Locating from internal surface • Locating from an external profile
Locating from external surface
Locating from a flat surface of workpiece is common locating from external surface and it is a form of plane location. You can use supports for this purpose. Before choosing a support, you must consider the shape and surface of the workpiece and the type of clamping device for selecting the type of support, because its must be strong enough to resist both the clamping pressure and the cutting forces. There is three type of support: • Solid • Adjustable • Equalizing The other way to locate a workpiece from external surface is the 3-2-1, or six-point, location method. This way is most commonly employed. With this method, six individual locators reference and restrict the workpiece. For achieving greatest stability (based on the geometry principle that three points are needed to fully define a plane) the primary, locating surface is positioned on three points should be as far apart as possible or as large as possible. For larger cast workpieces, the 4-2-1 locating principle is frequently used.