Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010

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ELE3103 – English for Language Teachers Topic 1: Language and Communication Definition of Language  The way chosen for communicates with others such that the meaning / thinking can be delivered to others.  Pearson Education Limited (2000) - "System of communication by written or spoken word, which is used by the people of a particular country or area."  Sets of rules in language: o Phonology – study of sound system o Morphology – study of morpheme & allomorph o Syntax – study on how he word combined o Semantics – study of meaning o Lexicon – study of set of words and idiom Language and Culture  Culture factor that affects the language: o Religion o Social traits o Geography boundary o Different activities of people o Borrowed words (e.g.: Candy – from Sanskrit) Function of Language  Informative – essentially, the communication of information o Affirms or denies propositions (facts) o To describe or reason about something o Have truth value  Expressive – reports feeling or attitudes o Related to poetry & literature o Two main aspects – evoking certain feeling & expressing feelings  Directive – the purposes of causing (or preventing) o Found in command & requests o Not considered as true or false o E.g.: “Close the windows.” Uses of the Language  Ceremonial – not simply mix expressive & directive language function because perfomative aspects are included  Performative Utterance – language which performs the action it reports (e.g.: “I do”)  Phatic language – street-corner conversations (e.g.: “Hi”) Form of Language (Types of Sentences) Sentence Types Assertion / Declarative Usual / Function Informative The room is cool. Expressive I had a nice time Directive I would like some coffee.

Question / But isn’t this Isn’t that Don’t you want Interrogative Gymnasium? great? to help me? Command / Read the Have a nice Shut the Imperative notes for test. day. windows. Exclamation / The universe I’m really It’s late! Exclamatory is bounded! glad! Non-verbal Communication  Includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions & positioning within groups.  Categories & features (G.W. Porter): o Physical – personal type of communication (e.g.: facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of touch, sense of smell & body motion) o Aesthetics – types of communication through creative expression (e.g.: play instrumental music, dancing, painting & sculpting) o Signs – mechanical types of communication (e.g.: signal flags, sirens, horns) o Symbolic – types of communication that make uses of religious, status or ego-building symbols Static Features (by Argyle) Dynamic  Static Features o Distance – standing (sign of attraction to other people) o Orientation – present ourselves to others (face-to-face, side-to-side or back-to-back) o Posture – convey the degree of formality or relaxation o Physical contact – shaking hand, touching, holding, embracing, pushing or patting on the back. It reflect intimacy or feeling  Dynamic Features o Facial expressions – smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn & sneer. It continually changes during interaction & monitored constantly by audience. o Gestures – hand and body part movement o Looking – major feature in communication. It convey emotion signal when to talk or finish or aversion.  Tortoriello, Blott & DeWine defined non-verbal communication as: “… the exchange of messages primarily through non-linguistics means, including: kinaesthetic, facial expressions and eye contact, tactile communication, space and territory, environment, paralanguage (vocal but non-linguistics cues), the use of silence & time…” o Kinaesthetic  Forward & backward

o Handwriting. o Written form: Put it in writing.  A written work. especially:  Meaningful letters or characters that constitute readable matter. English Language in Malaysia  Malaysian English (MyE). “ To equip pupils with the basic skills and knowledge of the English language so as to enable them to communicate.  Features of Writing o It has the character of objects o Written text is made up of discrete symbols o Organized in certain regular spatial patterns (according to syntactic rules) o Lacks an immediate context – reader must properly understand a written text o Acquisition of the ability to read and write is quite different from learning to speak and understand speech. in and out of the school.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010)  Vertical movement  Side-to-side movement o Facial expression o Eye contact o Tactile communication o Personal Space o Environment o Paralanguage o Silence & Time Speech and Writing  Definition of Speech o The faculty or act of speaking o The faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts. it proceeds continuously. o Something written. an utterance o Vocal communication. penmanship. formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE) o Form of English used and spoken in Malaysia as a second language  Features: o Malaysian English is generally non-rhotic English o Originates from British English (Colonial era) o Post-colonial – influence by American English  There are 3 level of categories of English in Malaysia o Acrolect – near natives o Mesolect – used daily in interaction (mostly used by professionals ) o Basilect – street language  English Language Teaching Policy in Primary Schools. conversation o A talk or public address: "The best impromptu speeches are the ones written well in advance" (Ruth Gordon) o A printed copy of such an address o One's habitual manner or style of speaking o The language or dialect of a nation or region: American speech  Features of Speech o Speech is a dynamic. o It has many features of continuous movements o Whole interaction between speaker and listener is dependent on the situation (context) o Speech is a resource available for all normally equipped human beings across different social groups and cultures  Definition of Writing o The act of one who writes. or perceptions by the articulation of words o Something spoken.” o Aims:  Listen to and understand simple spoken English in certain given contexts  Speak and respond clearly and appropriately in familiar situations using simple language  Read and understand different kinds of texts for enjoyment and information  Write for different purposes and in different forms using simple language . ephemeral behavior distributed in time. especially a literary composition. feelings. o The occupation or style of a writer. both orally and in writing.

. o The local language (Malay) terms. wat? (OK what?) . intonations. over-simplifying the grammar to express the words. Malaysian British / American Handphone (often abbreviated to HP) Slippers Mobile phone or Cell phone Flip-flop (not to be confused with slip-on night-time footwear) Means both 'at work out of town' or less frequently 'at work overseas / abroad' Sick note Noodles Topic 2: Introduction to Phonology Speech Organs  Speech organ produce the many sounds needed for language (articulators)  The organs of speech: Outstation  The articulator and the sound produced: MC (medical certificate) Mee  Malaysian Colloquial English which is famously known as MANGLISH or Street English o Using mixing grammar and words that don't belong together can be done quite spontaneously and be quite amusing. . intonation. o Malaysia English also create their own words which come from a variety of influences. o Introduced the teaching and learning mathematics and science in English (2005) and will be drop on 2012.K.is it? English Did that happen? or Do you have it? Are you sure? I cannot accept it this way or in this condition Isn't this good enough? or This should be acceptable.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) Level Lower primary ( Year 1 – 3) Upper primary ( Year 4 – 6) Secondary school (Form 1 – 5) Form 6 (MUET) Matriculation Time Period 330 minutes / week 120 minutes / week (National-type Chinese and Tamil) 300 minutes / week 120 minutes / week (national-type Chinese and Tamil) 280 minutes/ week Manglish Got or not? Sure ah? Like dat cannot la! O. isn't it? Is this/that correct? or Is the statement true? 400 minutes / week 6 hours / week  English Language in School (Issues) o Focused on the literary skills (writing and reading) o Lack of exposed on the orally skills (listening and speaking) o Exam orientated o Not enough English teachers. exclamations and grammar are fused with English o The changing the pronunciation.

) Hard (adj. or tongue. /n/. /m/.  It is always voiced (VD Front Seat /iy/ High Sit /I/ Say /ey/ Mid Met /e/ Low Cat /ae/ My /ay/ Ball Now /aw/ Up /Λ/ Book /U/ No /ow/ Central Back Do /uw/ g h j k l m n p q r s t v w x y z) 25 Consonant Sound /b/ as in bib /g/ as in dig /k/ as in king /n/ as in pen /s/ as in sent /w/ as in window /ch/ as in chip /ð/ as in the /θ/ as in thing /d/ as in pond /h/ as in hop /l/ as in hall /p/ as in pop /t/ as in tent /y/ as in yell /sh/ as in sheep /ng/ as in ring /f/ as in laugh /j/ as in jam /m/ as in thumb /r/ as in car /v/ as in hive /z/ as in zip /zh/ as in Asia /hw/ wheat Diphthong Sound  A vowel sound that starts near the articulatory position for one vowel and moves toward the position for another.g. /w/) o Labiodental – upper teeth & inner lower lip (/f/. a union of two vowels in the same syllable. /d ʒ/.  Types of inflectional morpheme: .g.  It is produced by not blocking the breath with the lips. /ð/) o Alveolar – tongue tip near / on tooth ridge (/t/. /r/. eo in people Consonant Sound  Produce sounds more consistent and easier to identify than vowels  Can be voiceless (VL) or voiced (VD)  Work should be done on identifying beginning consonant sounds (e. /s/.: t-t-t tulip)  After that.) Harder (adv. activities can focus on identifying final consonant sounds (e. ou in out. /y/) o Velar – tongue body near / on soft palate / velum (/g/.  It is the shape of your mouth that decides which vowel sound comes out. oi in noise o Improper diphthong – vowel digraph.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) o Bilabial – with two lips (/b/. /k/.) Inflectional Morpheme  The morpheme that can only be suffix and create a change in the function of word. as (oi) in boil or (ī) in fine o Proper diphthong – coalition or union of two vowel sounds pronounced in one syllable. as. teeth. /ŋ/) o Glottal – by air passing windpipe through vocal cord (/h/) Vowel Sound  It is an open sound. only one of them being sounded.) Un + able Im + possible Full + ly Hard + er Unable Impossible Fully (adv. /v/) o Dental – tongue near / on inner surface of upper teeth (/θ/. /z/. /ʒ /. Root Word + Derivational Root Word Affixes Morpheme Able Possible Full (adj. /l/) o Palatal – tongue blade or body near tooth ridge (/ʃ/. /p/. ai in rain. /d/. as.: cat ends with the t-t-t sound)  Sound produced by stopping the air flowing freely through the mouth. a letter representing a sound thus defined (b c d f Topic 3: Morphology Morpheme  The smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language o –s (affix to show plural) o And o –ed (affix to show past tense)  Types of morpheme: o Bound morphemes : morpheme cannot appear on their own (dependent) o Free morphemes : morpheme can appear on their own (independent) want – free morpheme wanted -ed – bound morpheme Derivational Morpheme  The morpheme that added with affixes such that it change the meaning of words or the part of speech or both. /t ʃ /.

/t ʃ/ . Past Participle (-en . -ed ) Awaken Talked 4. /r/. cups. /l/. carts. /w/. beaches  noun ends in a non-strident voiceless consonant /p/. /f/.  The admissible arrangement of sounds in words. fishes. mazes. /d/. Possessive Form (‘s and ‘) Used for Singular / plural nouns not ending in ‘-s’ Nouns ending with ‘-s’ Compound noun The second name if two names are joined by ‘and’ Plural nouns ending in ‘-s’ Example John ’s coat Women’s club Francis’s tools Fisherman ’s catch Ahmad and Muhammad’s father The girls’ shoes The birds’ nest Example Shape A is biggest Comparative Hardest Earliest Suffix -est Suffix -est -est Big Adverb ‘s Hard ‘s Early ‘s ’ o Verb inflectional morpheme 1. /ʃ/. 3. /m/. Present Participle Walking -ing -en -ed -ed -ed Suffix -s -es Allomorph  A unit of meaning that can vary in sound (phonologically) without changing meaning o Past tense allomorph  Walk  walked  Want  wanted  Weep  wept  Shake  shook o Plural allomorph  noun ends in an alveolar / alveo-palatal sibilant /s/.g. rooms. bards. -ies. is an important building block in our understanding of our language. -en) Singular Apple Bus Tomato Cherry Child Mother-in-law Plural Apples Buses Tomatoes Cherries Children Mothers -in-law Suffix -s -es -es -ies -en -s 1. Comparative (-er) A Adjective Big B C Example Suffix -er Suffix -er -er Shape A is bigger than shape B Comparative Harder Earlier Adverb Hard Early Suffix ‘s 2. leeks.g. badges. Plural Noun (-s. /θ/ e. e. -es) Example He walks to school She washes her skirt. -es. /k/. laughs. keys. /g/.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) o Noun inflectional morpheme 1. /z/. moths  /-z/ elsewhere (all vowels and /b/. o Adjective and adverb inflectional morpheme .lances. /t/. /j/). mugs. the elements of which it is made. shoes Word Structure  The way in which a word is constructed. 2. /n/. Present Tense (-s. Past Tense (-ed) He walked to school She washed her skirt. Superlative Adjective 2.

g. Words Combination o pancreat is the root (pancreas) o itis is the suffix Since itis begins with a vowel. off away.: unable Infix – an affix that is added to the middle of a word (in some languages) Suffix– an affix that is added to the end of a word e. apart decomposition disable Example AdSense circumference o Compounding  Process that forms new words from two or more independent words. logy is the suffix (study of). about with.g. out not in. we do not need to add a combining vowel. encephal is the second root which does start with a vowel (so we KEEP the combining vowel). e.  Process consists of a combination of morphemes that are rule-governed (a new word is formed).bye  Partial reduplicating: e.)  10 common suffixes: Suffix -able / -ible -ance / -ence -ate -ful -ity -less -ly -ment -ness -tion / -ion / -sion Meaning Capable of being The act of Making / applying Full of The state of being Without In a certain way The result of being The state of being The act of / the state of being Powerful Complexity Wireless Fully Statement Awareness Promotion Example Changeable Compatible Endurance Conference pancreatitis pneumoence phalography  Combining Forms o Made up of a root plus the combining vowel. pneum is the root (lung).g.: fully inintermispostresubtransun- internet misconception post-graduate restart subtopic transnational unknown  Combining Vowels o Link the root to the suffix or the root to another root.  Major Word Formation Process: o Affixation  Forming words by adding affixes to morphemes  15 common prefixes: Prefix adcircumcomdedisMeaning to. hemat is the root (blood).: bye .g. together away from.  Total reduplicating: e.g.: hunny-bunny .Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) Affixes exin- from. graphy is the suffix (test. into between wrong after back beneath. o is the combining vowel. the combining form is hemat /o hematology Word Formation Process  Processes for creating new words in a language. toward around. under across not exclude include Prefix– an affix that is added to the begin of a word e. o is the combining vowel.: girl + friend = girlfriend o Reduplicating  Process of forming new words either by doubling an entire word (total reduplication) or part of a word (partial reduplication). o is the second combining vowel.

 Past participle e.: RAM = Random Access Memory o Blending  Process of creating a new word by combining the parts of two different words.  Types of transformation: o Declarative – Interrogative o Active – Passive o Aux-movement .g. Topic 4: Syntax Definition of Syntax  From Greek word meaning order or arrangement  Study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages.g. e.: Jogging thrice a week can maintain the healthy.: am vs was  Minor Word Formation Process: o Acronym  Words that are formed from the initials of several words. e.: Frightened by the strange noises.: camera + recorder = camcorder o Clipping  Process of creating new words by shortening parts of a longer word.: doctor  doc o Can be constructed using:  Present participle e.g. Patricia woke her mother up.  Adverbial Phrase o Adverbial phrase of manner  Answer the question “how?” e.: He opens the door to let his father enter. e. or deleting elements. the singer was booed off the stage. o Adverbial phrase of reason  Answer the question “why?” e. e.: Singing out of tones.g.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) o Suppletion  Relationship between forms of a word wherein one form cannot be phonologically or morphologically derived from the other (this process is rare).  As object of a verb e.: Ahmad.g.g.g.g. Phrase Structure Rule (Tree Diagram)  A way to describe a given language's syntax. as by reordering. inserting.  Prepositional Phrase o Group of words that begins with a preposition and does not have verb. Ali’ cousins will come to visit Terengganu  As subject e.g. usually the beginning of one word and the end of another.: The prince loved her with all his heart.: Hairi bought a new motorcycle. Types of Phrases  Noun Phrase o Can be used:  In opposition to a noun e.g. e.: I put the books on the table.g. e.:  Verb Phrase Transformational Rule (Operations)  Relates two phrase markers in the course of a derivation from the deep to the surface syntactic representation of a sentence.g.g.

: The baby cried because he was hungry.g. Its meaning is independent clause very clear. e. ‘in order that’.g.: Are you married?  Wh. I do not know 4.  Adverbial clause of purpose – begin with ‘so that’.g. I know 2. ‘until’  Adverbial clause of manner – begin with ‘as’. ‘for’ e.: Although my friend invited me to a party.g.g.  Adverbial clause of result – begin with ‘so that’. . when it rains. ‘in case’ e. ‘since’.: You are not going funfair with us? o Interrogative sentence  Yes / No Interrogative – need Yes or No answer e. but which is usually only part of a sentence. It is cold Cannot stand alone.g. e.g. ‘where’. ‘as if’. ‘as’.g.: Ahmad can’t run as fast as Borhan.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) o -wh-movement o There sentences o PP preposition  Examples of Transformation Rule o Declarative – Interrogative  Object of the verb e.  Commands & question. It depends on the main clause for its full meaning. why he went out.g.g.: It was so hot that the chocolate melted. if you want to learn. o Complex sentence  contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause e.g. e. ‘just like’ e. ‘just as’. Main clause or Can stand alone.: I bought along an umbrella in case it rained.: What I do is for your own good.: You look as if you had seen a spirit.g.: I might not be able to meet you now.: The ice melts quickly o Compound sentence  Create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information e.  Types of dependent clause: o Noun Clause (NC) – begin with ‘that’. what he wants.g. I do not want to go  Types of Sentences o Declarative sentence  Express possibility. a probability or impossibility.g.g. Subordinate clause or Dependent Clause what he wants.Interrogative – Wh-question o -wh-movement Clause Types  Clause – group of words that contain a subject and a verb.: I want like to eat strawberry cake but I prefer to eat chocolate cake today. You must read 3.g.  Adverbial clause of reason – begin with ‘because’.: Is there any login in what he just saying? o Adjective Clause (AdjC) o Adverb Clause (AdvC) – begins with ‘when’. ‘than’ e. I know.  Adverbial clause of comparison – begin with ‘as’. ‘as though’. ‘what’  Subject of a verb e. ‘who’. ‘that’. ‘so’ e. ‘while’.: She asks Saiful why she was fuming  Object of preposition e. ‘before’. e. Subordinate clause or dependent clause Main Clause or Independent Clause 1. Sentence Patterns  Structure of Sentences o Simple sentence  Contains only one clause e.

: Go straight.g.g. o Subject + Intransitive Linking Verb + Subject Complement e.: You had better stop crying.g.  Offers e. e.  Direction e.g.g.g.g.  Knowing which words or what sort of sentence – type to use when initiating a conversation or responding to something someone has said. o Pragmatics skills  Knowing that you have to answer when a question has been asked.  Advice e.  Being able to participate in a conversation by taking it in turn with other speakers. o Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object e.: Barack Obama offered Joe Biden the vice presidency o Subject + transitive verb + direct object + object complement e.: Cut the orange.g.:The English professor is a man who wants to help his students.:The students listened to the professor discuss the five sentence patterns.: Go into the room now.g..: Barack Obama picked Joe Biden for his vice president.g.g.g.: In November of 2008.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) e.: How awful its look! o Imperative sentence  Express commands e.  Awareness that you have to introduce a topic conversation in order for listener to fully understand.: My father is the driver Words Semantics My (i) pronouns (ii) human (iii) those who say (i) human (ii) Men (iii) Adult (iv) the father of child (i) human (ii) to bring vehicle father driver  Pragmatic o Area of language function that embraces the use of language in social context.  Sentences Patterns o Subject + Intransitive Verb e.: Have some watermelon.: No littering.  Prohibitions e. the American people elected Barack Obama president Topic 5: Semantics Definition of Semantics & Pragmatics  Semantics o The study of language which focuses on meaning.  Warning e. Denotative & Connotative Meaning  Denotative meaning o The meaning of a symbol that is shared by a group of people and work for communication o Lateral meaning (direct meaning)  Connotative meaning o The meaning of a symbol that is personal to an individual and not shared o Not lateral meaning (indirect direct) .: What are you doing? o Exclamatory sentence  Express strong & sudden feeling e. o Subject + transitive verb + direct object e.  Instruction e.: Do not wonder too far away.  The ability to maintain a topic.g.g.  The ability to maintain appropriate eye – contact (not too much staring and not too much looking away) during a conversation.  The ability to notice and respond to the non-verbal aspects of language.  The ability to distinguish how to talk and behave towards different communicative partners.g.

Compiled by. o Metaphor . o Allegory .g. and act naturally o Personification .g. jumbo shrimp. o Allusion – A reference to a famous person or event in life or literature. o Simile .figure of speech involving a comparison between unlike things using like.g.: The burning wood crackled and hissed. a residence Rose a red rose with a green stem Sense & References  Polysemy (or polysemia) o An intimidating compound noun for a basic language feature. comfort.the use of words to imitate the sounds they describe. noble reserve and admirable self sufficiency a place of security.: Tall vs short  taller.A comparison in which one thing is said to be another. increasing the risk of misunderstandings. Mohd Ridzuan bin Mohd Taib PISMP Mathematics Semester 5. o Alliteration . shorter o Ungradable antonymy e.is giving human qualities to animals or objects. ‘more dead than alive’.Cg Mohd Ridzuan al-Kindy (PISMP-MT IPG KDRI 2010) Word Mother Cat Denotative Meaning a female parent a carnivorous mammal.the repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence. e. Morning glory – hyponym of flower  Antonymy o Word opposite in meaning to another. e.a symbolic representation e. e. which results in humor.g.g.a figure of speech involving exaggeration.g. 2010 .the repetition of the initial consonant.: The cat's eyes were jewels. ‘quite pregnant’ Figurative Expressions  Make communication a bit more hazardous.g. e.: Rose. and family passion and love o Foreshadowing . affectionate playfulness.g.A word is used which has two meanings at the same time. domesticated as a rat catcher or pet Home a place where one lives.: paper comes from Greek papyrus  Synonymy o Word or phrase meaning same the same as another in the same language.: married vs not married  taller. e.putting two contradictory words together. e.g.g.: The daffodils nodded their yellow heads. or as though. o Gradable antonymy e.g. o Pun . o Assonance .: Postpone means Put off  Hyponymy o Inclusive relationship where some lexemes are co-hyponyms of another that includes them. o Onomatopoeia . as. e. Connotative Meaning love and security graceful motion.: She is as pretty as the Mona Lisa.: half dead’. gleaming in the darkness.hints of what is to come in the action of a play or a story o Hyperbole . There should be at least two repetitions in a row.: The blindfolded figure with scales is an allegory of justice.: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. o Oxymoron .g. e. 2010 Credit: The notes from friends PISMP Mathematics Semester 5.g. e. Hibiscus. shorter e. ‘barely alive’.: bittersweet.

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