# X & R Charts

Measurement :

9A-2

Example of Constructing a p-Chart: Required Data
Given:
Sample

No. of

No.

Samples
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Number of
T o ta l N u m b e r o f D e fe c tiv e s
defects
p=
T o ta l N u m b e r o f O b s e rv a tio n s
found in
each sample
4
2
5
3
6
4
3
7
1
2
3
2
2
8
3

sp =

p (1- p)
n

Compute control limits:

UCL = p + z sp
LCL = p - z sp

9A-3

Example of Constructing a p-chart: Step 1

1. Calculate the sample
proportions, p (these
are what can be plotted
on the p-chart) for each
sample

Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

n Defectives
100
4
100
2
100
5
100
3
100
6
100
4
100
3
100
7
100
1
100
2
100
3
100
2
100
2
100
8
100
3

p
0.04
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.06
0.04
0.03
0.07
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.08
0.03

9A-4

Example of Constructing a p-chart: Steps 2&3

2. Calculate the average of the sample proportions

55
p =
= 0.036
1500
3. Calculate the standard deviation of the sample
proportion

sp =

p (1 - p)
=
n

.036(1- .036)
= .0188
100

9A-5

Example of Constructing a p-chart: Step 4

4. Calculate the control limits

UCL = p + z sp
LCL = p - z sp

.036  3(.0188)

UCL = 0.0924
LCL = -0.0204 (or 0)

9A-6

Example of Constructing a p-Chart:
Step 5

5. Plot the individual sample proportions, the average
of the proportions, and the control limits
0.16
0.14
0.12

UCL

0.1
p 0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

LCL
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

O b servation

10

11

12

13

14

15

Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

9A-7

Example of x-bar and R Charts:
Required Data
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Obs 1
10.68
10.79
10.78
10.59
10.69
10.75
10.79
10.74
10.77
10.72
10.79
10.62
10.66
10.81
10.66

Obs 2
10.689
10.86
10.667
10.727
10.708
10.714
10.713
10.779
10.773
10.671
10.821
10.802
10.822
10.749
10.681

Obs 3
10.776
10.601
10.838
10.812
10.79
10.738
10.689
10.11
10.641
10.708
10.764
10.818
10.893
10.859
10.644

Obs 4
10.798
10.746
10.785
10.775
10.758
10.719
10.877
10.737
10.644
10.85
10.658
10.872
10.544
10.801
10.747

Obs 5
10.714
10.779
10.723
10.73
10.671
10.606
10.603
10.75
10.725
10.712
10.708
10.727
10.75
10.701
10.728

9A-8

Example of x-bar and R charts: Step 1. Calculate sample means, sample ranges,
mean of means, and mean of ranges.
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Obs 1
10.68
10.79
10.78
10.59
10.69
10.75
10.79
10.74
10.77
10.72
10.79
10.62
10.66
10.81
10.66

Obs 2
10.689
10.86
10.667
10.727
10.708
10.714
10.713
10.779
10.773
10.671
10.821
10.802
10.822
10.749
10.681

Obs 3
10.776
10.601
10.838
10.812
10.79
10.738
10.689
10.11
10.641
10.708
10.764
10.818
10.893
10.859
10.644

Obs 4
10.798
10.746
10.785
10.775
10.758
10.719
10.877
10.737
10.644
10.85
10.658
10.872
10.544
10.801
10.747

Obs 5
10.714
10.779
10.723
10.73
10.671
10.606
10.603
10.75
10.725
10.712
10.708
10.727
10.75
10.701
10.728
Averages

Avg
10.732
10.755
10.759
10.727
10.724
10.705
10.735
10.624
10.710
10.732
10.748
10.768
10.733
10.783
10.692

Range
0.116
0.259
0.171
0.221
0.119
0.143
0.274
0.669
0.132
0.179
0.163
0.250
0.349
0.158
0.103

10.728 0.220400

9A-9

Example of x-bar and R charts: Step 2. Determine Control Limit Formulas and
Necessary Tabled Values

From Exhibit TN8.7

x Chart Control Limits
UCL = x + A 2 R
LCL = x - A 2 R
R Chart Control Limits
UCL = D 4 R
LCL = D 3 R

n
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

A2
1.88
1.02
0.73
0.58
0.48
0.42
0.37
0.34
0.31
0.29

D3
0
0
0
0
0
0.08
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.26

D4
3.27
2.57
2.28
2.11
2.00
1.92
1.86
1.82
1.78
1.74

9A-10

Example of x-bar and R charts: Steps 3&4. Calculate x-bar Chart and Plot Values

UCL = x + A 2 R  10.728 - .58(0.2204 ) = 10.856
LCL = x - A 2 R  10.728 - .58(0.2204 ) = 10.601
1 0 .9 0 0

UCL

1 0 .8 5 0

M ea n s

1 0 .8 0 0
1 0 .7 5 0
1 0 .7 0 0
1 0 .6 5 0
1 0 .6 0 0

LCL

1 0 .5 5 0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

S am p le

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

9A-11

Example of x-bar and R charts: Steps 5&6. Calculate R-chart and Plot Values

UCL = D 4 R  ( 2.11)( 0.2204 )  0.46504
LCL = D 3 R  (0)( 0.2204 )  0
0 .8 0 0
0 .7 0 0
0 .6 0 0
0 .5 0 0
R

UCL

0 .4 0 0
0 .3 0 0
0 .2 0 0
0 .1 0 0

LCL

0 .0 0 0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8
S a m p le

9

10

11

12

13

14

15