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Artur Ryb a 2005

Artur Ryb a 2005

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Sections

  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Dewatering Technology
  • 2.1 Theory of hydrates
  • 2.2 Technologies used for dehydration
  • 2.3 Dehydration by absorption
  • 2.4 Dehydration by adsorption
  • 2.5 Dehydration by permeation
  • 2.6 Dehydration by refrigeration
  • 3. Maćkowice Facilities
  • 4. Hysys Simulation Package
  • 5. Water Content of Natural Gas
  • 5.1 Water content measurement
  • 5.2 Water content from GPSA diagram
  • 5.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual
  • 5.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations
  • 5.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program
  • 5.6 Water content results comparison
  • 5.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process
  • 5.8 Dew point values comparison
  • 6. Glycol solutions
  • 6.1 Use of glycol solutions
  • 6.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration
  • 6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility
  • 7. Hysys simulations
  • 8. Discussion
  • 9. Conclusions
  • References
  • Tables
  • Figures
  • Appendices
  • Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil
  • Appendix B - Water content according to manual [g/Nm3]
  • Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3]
  • Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3
  • Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas
  • Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation
  • Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS AND ENERGY USE
AT MAĆKOWICE NATURAL GAS
DEHYDRATION FACILITY

Artur Ryba





Diploma Thesis
Faculty of Drilling, Oil and Gas
AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow

Trondheim
June 2005
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii
Abstract

An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in
Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and
charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state
simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and
mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and
experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were
obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical
equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to
Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural
gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values
obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum
TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were
made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature
work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction.
A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

iii

Acknowledgements

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my supervisor Professor Jon Steinar
Gudmundsson. I am very grateful for the advice, support, guidance, assistance, patience and
enthusiasm.

I wish to thank Dr Hab. Inż. Stanisław Nagy, my supervisor from AGH University of Science
and Technology in Cracow, Poland for his support, propositions, help and understanding.

I am grateful to all my teachers who, giving me a small part of their wide knowledge, got me
to the stage when I am writing this thesis.

Special thanks to all contributors that make my Erasmus Link Scholarship possible. I would
like to especially mention here Dr Czesława Ropa, Professor Danuta Bielewicz, and Professor
Jan Falkus.

Special thanks to Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnow) for the
necessary materials, support and technical knowledge.

Last but not least thanks to my family, friends and colleagues who supported me in the time
spent on creating the thesis, and much longer than that. You are always there when I need you
and I appreciate that.







OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

iv

List of Contents

Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... ii
Acknowledgements.................................................................................................................. iii
List of Contents........................................................................................................................ iv
List of Tables............................................................................................................................ vi
List of Figures ........................................................................................................................ viii
Abbreviations............................................................................................................................ x
1. Introduction...................................................................................................................... 1
2. Dewatering Technology ................................................................................................... 6
2.1 Theory of hydrates ........................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Technologies used for dehydration .................................................................................. 9
2.3 Dehydration by absorption............................................................................................. 11
2.4 Dehydration by adsorption............................................................................................. 18
2.5 Dehydration by permeation............................................................................................ 20
2.6 Dehydration by refrigeration.......................................................................................... 21
3. Maćkowice Facilities ...................................................................................................... 23
4. Hysys Simulation Package............................................................................................. 26
5. Water Content of Natural Gas...................................................................................... 31
5.1 Water content measurement ........................................................................................... 31
5.2 Water content from GPSA diagram............................................................................... 32
5.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual .............................. 33
5.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations .................................................... 35
5.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program............................................ 37
5.6 Water content results comparison .................................................................................. 40
5.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process............................................... 42
5.8 Dew point values comparison ........................................................................................ 44
6. Glycol solutions............................................................................................................... 45
6.1 Use of glycol solutions................................................................................................... 45
6.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration ............................................................................. 47
6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility...................................................... 50
7. Hysys simulations ........................................................................................................... 51
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

v
8. Discussion........................................................................................................................ 57
9. Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 60
References ............................................................................................................................... 62
Tables....................................................................................................................................... 66
Figures ..................................................................................................................................... 94
Appendices ............................................................................................................................ 117
Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil...................................................... 117
Appendix B - Water content according to manual [g/Nm3] .............................................. 118
Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3] ............................................... 120
Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3.............................................. 121
Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas ................. 122
Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation........................ 124
Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content ......... 126
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

vi
List of Tables

Table 2. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner,
1985)......................................................................................................................................... 66
Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004) ........................................................... 67
Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4).................. 68
Table 5. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [g
H2O
/Sm
3
].............................................. 72
Table 5. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [g
H2O
/Nm
3
]............................................. 72
Table 5. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys)........................................ 73
Table 5. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows
based solution (after Hysys)..................................................................................................... 73
Table 5. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from
manual and Hysys package ...................................................................................................... 74
Table 5. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from
manual and article according to P. Gandhidasan ..................................................................... 75
Table 5. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ....................................................... 76
Table 5. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
] .................................................... 77
Table 5. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ....................................................... 78
Table 5. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]....................................................... 79
Table 5. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ................................... 80
Table 5. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]................................... 81
Table 5. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ................................... 82
Table 5. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]................................... 83
Table 5. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ................................... 84
Table 5. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]................................... 85
Table 5. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ................................... 86
Table 5. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]................................... 87
Table 5. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
] ................................... 88
Table 5. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]................................... 89
Table 5. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of
Hysys package.......................................................................................................................... 90
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

vii
Table 5. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice
dehydration facility operation manual...................................................................................... 91
Table 5. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of
empirical equations .................................................................................................................. 92
Table 6. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions……………… 93
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

viii
List of Figures

Figure 2. 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey, 1965 – figure reproduced
from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics)......................... 94
Figure 2. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. Small and large cavities (Behlar et al., 1994) . 94
Figure 2. 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Figure reproduced from the Journal of
Chemical Physics) .................................................................................................................... 95
Figure 2. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG, 1988).................................... 96
Figure 2. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from GPSA
Engineering Data Book, 11
th
edition)....................................................................................... 96
Figure 2. 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson, 1991) ........................... 97
Figure 2. 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al, Natural Gas
Production Processing Transport, 1997) .................................................................................. 97
Figure 3. 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski,
2003, reproduced)..................................................................................................................... 98
Figure 3. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP,
2005)......................................................................................................................................... 99
Figure 3. 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP, 2005).......................... 100
Figure 3. 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys, 2005) ............................. 101
Figure 3. 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas, 2004) .................... 102
Figure 5. 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG, 1990) .......................................................... 103
Figure 5. 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al, 1959) ..................... 104
Figure 5. 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA .................................................... 105
Figure 5. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to manual................................. 106
Figure 5. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to manual................................. 106
Figure 5. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to manual................................. 107
Figure 5. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to equations ............................. 107
Figure 5. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to equations ............................. 108
Figure 5. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to equations ............................. 108
Figure 5. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys ............................................... 109
Figure 5. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to Hysys ................................ 109
Figure 5. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to Hysys ................................ 110
Figure 5. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to Hysys ................................ 110
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ix
Figure 5. 14 Water content comparison at 10
o
C ................................................................... 111
Figure 5. 15 Water content comparison at 15
o
C ................................................................... 111
Figure 5. 16 Water content comparison at 20
o
C ................................................................... 112
Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison....................................................................................... 113
Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG.... 114
Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18
o
C and -29
o
C ..................................................................................................................... 115
Figure 6. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18
o
C and -19
o
C ..................................................................................................................... 116
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

x

Abbreviations

ATG - Association Technique de l’Industrie du Gaz en France
BMP - Best Management Practice
CH4 - Methane
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
DEG - Diethylene Glycol
EG - Ethylene Glycol
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
GPSA - Gas Processors Suppliers Assn
h - hour
H2O - Water
H2S - Hydrogen Sulphide
LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LTX - Low-Temperature Extraction
MEG - Monoethylene Glycol
Nm3 - Normal Cubic Meter
NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
PHA - Process Hazards Analysis
PRO-OP - Process Optimization Review
PROs - Partner Reported Opportunities
sI - Structure I (hydrate structure)
sII - Structure II (hydrate structure)
sH - Structure H (hydrate structure)
Sm3 - Standard Cubic Meter
TEG - Triethylene Glycol
TREG - Tetraethylene Glycol
VLE - Vapor Liquid Equilibrium
Xe - Xenon
yr - Year
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

1

1. Introduction

In this paper the author is studying the possibilities of reducing energy use and triethylen
glycol losses during natural gas dehydration process. This is done on the example of
Mackowice Treatment Facility, Poland.

Gas demand increases in Poland, likewise in other countries. Huge part of gas used in Poland
is imported from Russia, through Ukraine. As it is usually off-spec when it arrives, before
getting to the final receiver it has to be processed in order to meet the required conditions
specified in Polish norms. Therefore every year larger quantities of natural gas need to
undergo different processes (ROP, 2005).

One of the specifications of natural gas is the amount of water in gas for sale specified as dew
point temperature of natural gas. The presence of water raises a number of problems for the
production operations depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in an installation.
If the natural gas is transported by pipeline, the processing installation must be designed to
meet transport or final specifications.

If the gas is to be transported, the main requirement is to prevent the formation of a liquid
phase. If, during transport, the minimum temperature of the gas is for example 0
o
C under
7 MPa pressure (typical conditions appearing in high pressure gas pipelines during the winter
season in temperate climate), the dew point must not exceed this temperature at the same
pressure. However, the pressure generally varies considerably in the pipe, as a result of
pressure drop. To avoid possible liquid-phase formation, one condition frequently imposed is
to set the dew point temperature at a value not exceeding the minimum temperature during
transport. Therefore one of the processes in natural gas production, processing and
transportation is natural gas dewatering process (Rojey et al., 1994).

With the increase of amount of gas to be processed and from the other side in order to be able
to endure in the competition between natural gas companies there is a growing necessity of
optimization of processes, dehydration process among them, not only in the stage of designing
and building facilities, but also in the exploitation stage.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

2

The problem of optimization has been known for many years now and recently becomes more
and more important. The importance of optimization is significant. Optimization of processes
brings savings in materials, energy and labor. Optimization can be seen from the
environmental point of view as a tool for environment conservation. It may encompass safety.
It is also considered from economical viewpoint. And the last reason usually is the standpoint
from which the decisions about granting money for optimization research are made.

Nowadays the competition in petroleum and natural gas market is extremely tough and
therefore every corporation in order to compete with others has to minimize the costs
maximizing profits, which is a primary purpose of senior management. Summing up the
crucial part of manager’s job is to make decisions around capital allocation that will improve
the performance of the corporation.

The oil and gas production, gas processing and petroleum refining industries are faced with
the need to optimize the design of processes and achieve more reliable and stable operations,
The process industries must identify optimum designs quickly with minimum risk of rework
while they remain competitive and maximize the business performance. Process engineers are
challenged with making timely business decisions while meeting the business objectives of
designing and operating efficient, safer and profitable process plants (Aspen Tech, 2004).

Optimization of processes is necessary. As mentioned, nowadays on every stage of projecting,
building and exploiting of any facility optimization has a big part. As presented by Aspen
Tech (2004) there are different approaches towards optimization and the model chosen
depends on the base of optimization. The most powerful technology that enables managers
and engineers link critical business objectives to process design is process modeling. The
major business benefits of process modeling include (Aspen Tech, 2004):

a) usage of “what-if” scenarios and sensitivity analyses to identify the optimal design
based on operating and business targets.
b) ensuring that process equipment is properly specified to deliver desired product
throughput and specifications.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

3
c) evaluation of the effect of feed changes, upsets, and equipment downtime on process
safety, reliability, and profitability.
d) monitoring of equipment performance against expectations.
e) assessment of equipment deficiencies such as heat exchanger fouling and column
flooding by evaluating the equipment employed in different services or evaluating the
consequences of a design basis change.

According to Pontiff (2005) a typical example of widely used optimization method is called
Process Optimization Review (PRO-OP). PRO-OP is a systematic approach used in
production operations to identify opportunities to increase profitability while reducing
greenhouse gases. It is a systematic approach to assess processes at new and existing facilities
with an emphasis on energy efficiency, natural resource conservation and waste minimization.
This methodology can be used in conjunction with a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) for new
facilities and prior to modification of en existing facility.

Justifying and obtaining approval of optimization projects from management often requires
that the projects are cost effective and have a net increase in profits. The PRO-OP technique
divides the oil and gas business into phases: drilling, completion/stimulation, production, and
workover operations. Unlike other optimization techniques, where the focus is typically on
like devices across a whole operation, the PRO-OP technique is a systematic approach
whereby processes and components (separators, heater treaters, compressors, venting/flaring
practices) are evaluated for cost effective natural gas reduction opportunities from the start of
the process to the end. This PRO-OP technique gives the user a structure to the process of
optimization (Pontiff, 2005).

There are many technologies and methods to reduce vent gas emissions that are readily
available to operators. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural
Gas STAR Program supplies valuable optimization tools and resources to guide the oil and
gas industry. The Natural Gas STAR Program is a flexible and voluntary program focused on
helping the oil and gas industry to voluntarily and cost-effectively reduce methane emissions,
a potent greenhouse gas. The Natural Gas STAR Program promotes the use of these emission
reduction technologies and practices through the program’s Best Management Practices
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

4
(BMPs) and Partner Reported Opportunities (PROs) and in-depth Lessons Learned documents
(Pontiff, 2005; US EPA, 2005).

The PRO-OP approach is analogous to a Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) review. In a PHA
review of an oil and gas production facility, the components and processes of the facility are
evaluated for identifiable hazards. These hazards are then mitigated through elimination,
controls, or other safe guards. The PRO-OP process employs the same thought
process. During the PRO-OP review, each component and process in the facility flow scheme
is evaluated for vent gas (i.e., methane) emission reduction opportunities (Pontiff, 2005; US
EPA, 2005).

Once the optimization opportunities are identified, the reviewer determines the mitigation
techniques that can be used and then determines whether the mitigation can be implemented
cost effectively. The reviewer should ask such questions as, “Can I cost-effectively eliminate
the source, or capture for sales, or destroy (e.g., burn in a flare) the vent gas emissions?" Then
the reviewer can perform a cost analysis to determine the effectiveness and profitability of
optimization, which in this example is done through reducing emissions (Pontiff, 2005; US
EPA, 2005).

Mackowice Dehydration Facility was opened on 21
st
January 2005. The bilding was begun in
April 2004. The necessity of building this facility was caused by high water content in the
imported gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. The imported gas hardly ever met dew
point specifications required by Polish norms.

The author is trying to solve the problem of setting the arrangement of equipment used in gas
dehydration facility based on glycol solution in such a way that brings most profits and
minimizes the loss in energy and glycol solvent. In order to do so he compares the data
provided in operating manuals of natural gas dewatering facility Maćkowice, Poland with
analytical equation-based solution and numerical calculation made with use of petroleum
engineering program Hysys. Having the required results he is comparing them looking for the
possibilities of energy and solvent savings. The author is also taking a general look at
different economical aspects in the final part of this thesis.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

5
The author shows his approach towards creating an optimization strategy for natural gas
dehydration unit Maćkowice, Poland. The optimization is to made on the basis of energy
saving and glycol absorbent waste. Operating manuals of devices, and charts showing parts of
dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a simulation of dewatering process
under petroleum engineering program Hysys. Analytical and mathematical calculations were
made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable
results.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

6

2. Dewatering Technology

2.1 Theory of hydrates

Good reviews on hydrate theory were provided by Sloan, 1997, Rojey et al., 1994, Rosman
1973, Gandhidasan, 2002, Carroll, 2003.

Since the beginning of the century the production of natural gas has encountered difficulties
connected with the plugging of piping by the deposition of crystals, first thought to be ice
crystals. These crystals are in fact hydrates of natural gas. In the mid-1930’s Hammerschmidt
studied the 1927 hydrate review of Schroeder, to determine that natural gas hydrates were
blocking gas transmission lines frequently at temperatures above the ice point. This discovery
was pivotal in causing a more pragmatic interest in the gas hydrates, and shortly thereafter led
to the regulation of the water content in natural gas pipelines. This led to limitation of
appearance of hydrates which are inclusion compounds which result from the combination of
water with some of the components of natural gas and primarily methane (Rojey et al.,
1994,Gandhidasan, 2002, Carrll, 2003).

In the presence of light gas, water molecules can form a regular crystalline structure
containing cavities, in which gas molecules are trapped. Owing to this cage structure, the
hydrates belong to the category of inclusion compounds called clathrates. The crystal lattice is
due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. It is stabilized by gas molecules, which
are themselves held in the cavities by van der Waals forces (Sloan, 1997).

Only molecules having a certain range of diameters can form inclusions. This is because the
diameter of the molecule must be smaller than that of the cavity (or close to it) for the
molecule to enter the cavity, and sufficiently large for the crystal lattice to be stable (Sloan,
1997; Rojey et al., 1994).

In the late 1940’a and early 1950’s von Stackelberg and co-workers summarized two decades
of X-ray hydrate crystal diffraction experiments at the University of Bonn. The interpretation
of these early diffraction experiments by von Stackelberg and co-workers, Claussen, and
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

7
Pauling and Marsh led to determination of two hydrate structures (sI and sII). Within the last
decade structure H (sH), a third hydrate with a unit cell was discovered by Ripmeester (Sloan,
1997).

In these structures, the water molecules form polyhedra. The pentagonal dodecahedron,
designed by the notation 5
12
, is a basic building block of hydrate structures. It is not possible
to fill space entirely with dodecahedra. Because of to this restriction dodecahedra are
necessarily associated with other types of polyhedron to form the structure of the hydrates
(Sloan,1997; Rojey et al., 1994).

Structure I is composed of two small cavities formed by a dodecahedron and six large cavities
formed by a tetradecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and two hexagonal faces
referenced as 5
12
6
2
(Figure 2.1).

Structure II is composed of sixteen small cavities (5
12
) and eight large cavities, formed by a
hexadecahedron with twelve pentagonal faces and four hexagonal faces, referenced as 5
12
6
4

(Figure 2.2).

Each of these polyhedra forms a cavity which can contain a molecule of natural gas
components with which it forms a hydrate. Methane fits into the small cavities (5
12
) of
structures I and II, and in the large cavities (5
12
6
2
) of structure I. Nitrogen, propane and
isobutene form structure-II hydrates (Sloan, 1997).

In the pure state, methane, ethane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide form structure-I
hydrates. However, since propane and isobutene molecules can enter only the large cavities of
structure II, a natural gas containing propane and isobutane generally forms structure-II
hydrates. Normal butane does not form hydrates as a pure component. Hydrate formation can
occur when normal butane is mixed with other components (Rojey et al., 1994; Sloan, 1997).

The structure H was determined through diffraction and NMR studies. In this structure, the
5
12
dodecahedra coexist with 4
3
5
6
6
3
dodecahedra as well as 5
12
6
8
polyhedra, with twelve
pentagonal faces and eight hexagonal faces, forming large cavities. The small cavities are
stabilized by molecules like Xe, H
2
S and CH
4
, and the large cavities by hydrocarbons with
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

8
much higher molecular weights such as adamantine and methylcyclohexane (Figure 2.3)
(Sloan, 1997).

The role that structure-H hydrates may play in natural gas production is still unclear.
However, it has been proven that hydrocarbon molecules commonly found in condensates or
oils, together with methane, can form this new hydrate structure, under pressure and
temperature conditions easily encountered in production and transport facilities (Sloan 1997).
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

9
2.2 Technologies used for dehydration

It is necessary to prevent the condensation of liquid water and hydrocarbons to ensure trouble-
free operation of a natural gas transmission system. Apart from the risk of hydrate formation,
the liquids can reduce the volumetric capacity of the system and interfere with the operation
of pressure regulators and filters. Condensed liquids accumulated in pipelines, which caused
an increase in operating pressures and potential damage to equipment due to liquid carryover.
Many transmission companies impose restrictions on the quality of natural gas acceptable for
transporting, such as water and hydrocarbon dew point limits, in order to reduce operational
problems (Rosman, 1973, Gandhidasan, 2002).

To prevent pipe plugging, production and transport installations must be protected from the
risks of hydrate formation. One way to achieve this is to dry the natural gas. If this is not
feasible, temperature and pressure conditions must be created to prevent formation of
hydrates. Operating outside the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation can be
achieved either by raising temperature at a given pressure, or by lowering the pressure at a
given temperature. In both instances inhibitor must be introduced. They are generally selected
from solvents miscible in the aqueous phase, which, by altering the fugacity of the water,
lower the hydrate formation temperature (Rosman, 1973, Gandhidasan, 2002).

Dehydration of natural gas is the removal of water that is associated with natural gas in vapor
form. It is necessary to prevent the corrosion and erosion problems in pipelines and equipment
particularly when CO
2
and H
2
S are present in the gas. Water is removed from the gas to meet
water dew point requirements of a sales pipeline condition. For these reasons one specifies
upper limits for both the water and hydrocarbon dew points of natural gas. Onshore the
natural gas conditioning process employs a dehydration process for control of the water dew
point, and a refrigeration plant is used for control of the hydrocarbon dew point (Carroll,
2003).

The water present in natural gas may, depending on the temperature and pressure prevailing in
an installation, condense and cause the formation of hydrates, solidify, or favor corrosion if
the gas contains acid components. To avoid such situations, natural gas must be dehydrated.
Four types of processes are used (Rojey at al., 1997):
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

10

a) absorption
b) adsorption
c) gas permeation
d) refrigeration

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

11
2.3 Dehydration by absorption

The most common method for dehydration in the natural gas industry is the use of a liquid
desiccant contactor-regeneration process. In this process, the wet gas is contacted with a lean
solvent (containing only a small amount of water). The water in the gas is absorbed in the lean
solvent, producing a rich solvent stream (one containing more water) and a dry gas
(Campbell, 1992; ATG, 1990; Arnold and Steward, 1989; ATG, 1988; Kumar, 1987;,
Maddox and Erbar, 1982; Ikoku, 1980; C.R. Sivalls,1976; Tannehill at al, 1994; Trent, R.E.,
2001).

In case of absorption based natural gas dehydration processes the gas is dried by
countercurrent scrubbing with a solvent that has a strong affinity for water. The solvent is
usually a glycol, although other liquid desiccants are met which are calcium chloride, lithium
chloride, zinc chloride, etc. The dehydrated gas leaves at the top of the column. The glycol
leaving the bottom is regenerated by distillation and recycled (Carroll, 2002; Rojey et al.,
1994).

Several liquids possess the ability to absorb water from a gas stream. Few liquids, however,
meet the criteria for a suitable commercial application. A suitable solvent should have the
following properties (Carroll, 2002; Rojey et al., 1994, Campbell, 1992):

a) strong affinity to water (the absorbing liquid should be highly hygroscopic)
b) low cost
c) noncorrosive to the selected metallurgy of the hydrocarbon equipment, especially the
reboiler vapor space, the stripping column of the regenerator, and the bottom of the
contactor
d) low affinity for hydrocarbons and acid gases
e) thermal stability, particularly in the high temperature ranges found in the reboiler
f) easy regeneration to higher concentration for reuse, usually by the application of heat,
which drives off the absorbed water
g) low viscosity
h) low vapor pressure at the contact temperature to reduce the amount of solvent losses
due to vaporization
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

12
i) low solubility in hydrocarbons (low solubility in the solvent minimizes the loss of
desired product and reduces hydrocarbon emissions)
j) low tendency to foam and emulsify, nor to chemical reactions with any of the natural
gas constituents, including carbon dioxide and sulfur compounds

The organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the
commercial application criteria. Glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low
vapor pressure. Glycols will, however, decompose at elevated temperatures. The
decomposition temperature limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates,
particularly in the reboiler. Several glycols have been found suitable for commercial
application (Rejoy, 1997, Carroll, 2002).

The most common glycols for dehydration applications are (Rojey et al., 1994):

a) Monoethylene glycol (MEG) which is commonly known as simply ethylene glycol
(EG)
b) diethylene glycol (DEG)
c) triethylene glycol (TEG)
d) tetraethylene glycol (TREG)

Table 2.1 lists the main physical properties of commercial glycols. They can be obtained in
the pure state by fractionation by vacuum distillation.

The heaviest glycols are most hygroscopic. Triethylene glycol (TEG) offers the best
cost/benefit compromise, and is the most widely used. It exhibits most of the desirable
characteristics listed earlier and has other advantages compared to other glycols (Rojey et al.,
1994; Carroll, 2002).

By comparison, DEG is marginally lower in cost than TEG, however because DEG has a
larger vapor pressure, it has larger losses. TEG has less affinity to water and thus has less dew
point depression. Tetraethylene glycol is higher in cost and is more viscous than TEG. High
viscosity translates into higher pumping costs. On the other hand TREG has a lower vapor
pressure, which reduces losses (Gandhidasan, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

13

Before undergoing the actual dehydration process any free liquids in the natural gas stream
are removed. A separator should be included upstream of the contactor to separate any
hydrocarbon liquids and free water. The separator could be a two-phase or three-phase
separator depending on the amount of free water expected. The inlet separator can be free
standing with interconnecting piping to the contactor or it can be an integral part of the
contactor, usually at the base of the contactor with a chimney tray between the contactor
bottom and the separator vessel. The separator should be equipped with a high-efficiency wire
mesh mist extractor in the top part to remove any liquid entrainment and particulates from the
gas stream before entering the absorber section. Integral separators are usually outfitted with a
heating coil to prevent water from freezing. Hot solvent from the accumulator is circulated
through this heating coil to provide the required heat. When the stream is devoid of free
liquids and mist the actual dehydration process starts (Rojey et al., 1994; Carroll, 2002;
Gandhidasan, 2003).

Figures 2.4 and 2.5 show the flow schemes of a typical glycol units. The descriptions of these
figures are provided by John Carroll, 2003 and Alexandre Rojey et al., 1994. Basically, the
liquid desiccant process is a two-step process. In the first step, the water is absorbed from the
gas in the staged tower. The solvent is regenerated in a second column. The solvent is then
returned to the first column to remove water from more feed gas. The absorption step is
carried out in a plate or packed column. The actual stages could be either trays like bubble
caps, valve trays, or sieve trays, or a suitable packing material. The number of plates is
usually between 6 and 8. For small diameters, packings are generally used, while the larger
columns are equipped with the bubble-cap or valve trays. For very large diameters, the use of
structured packing is currently spreading, finding more acceptance in glycol contactors
(Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The temperature at which the absorption step is carried is usually limited to 38
o
C to avoid
excessive glycol losses. A lower temperature helps to reduce the losses as well as the water
content in the processed gas. However, due to the higher viscosity of the glycol, temperature
of about 10
o
C is considered as a lower limit (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

14
The contactor (also called an absorber) is the workhorse of the dehydration unit. The gas and
liquid are mixed in the contactor, and the actual water removal takes place there. The
contactor is a typical absorber tower properly sized for the process objective(Carroll, 2003;
Rojey et al., 1994).

The feed gas flow rate is the most significant factor in determining the diameter of the
contactor. The outlet gas water content specification is the key to determining the contactor
height, although other factors contribute as well. The contactor consists of several equilibrium
stages, enough to ensure mass transfer from the gas phase to the liquid so that the outlet gas is
at the desired water specification (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The flow of streams is countercurrent. Feed gas enters the bottom of the contactor and flows
upward. Lean solvent enters the top of the contactor and flows downward. The solvent
absorbs water as it travels downward through the column and the gas transfers the water to the
solvent as it travels upward. The contactor pressure is set by the feed gas pressure, which is
normally in the range of 4000 to 8500 kPa. The contactor is essentially isothermal (the
temperature profile is essentially uniform throughout the contactor) (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et
al., 1994).

After the absorption step, the glycol solution is sent to a three-phase separator in which the
stripped hydrocarbon liquids and the dissolved gas are separated, followed by a cartridge filter
to trap solid particles, and finally an activated-charcoal filter to retain the chemical impurities
(Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

In some cases this process is divided in parts (Figure 2.5). The rich glycol is withdrawn from
the bottom of the contactor, usually on level control. Typically, the lean glycol is preheated,
often by passing it through tubes in the overhead condenser at the top of the still column.
Then it is flashed at low pressure in a flash tank, where most of the volatile components
(entrained and soluble) are vaporized. Flash tank pressures are typically in the range of
300 kPa to 700 kPa (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The glycol leaves the flash tank, again usually on level control, then passes through a filter.
Then the rich glycol enters the lean-rich heat exchanger, whose basic purpose is to conserve
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

15
energy. In the lean-rich exchanger, hot, lean glycol from regeneration is cooled with rich
glycol from the contactor. The lean glycol entering the contactor should be cool, and rich
glycol to regeneration should be warm (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The solvent is regenerated by reboiling. The still column, usually filled with packing, is
cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol solution. The reflux thus generated
helps to reduce glycol losses. A basic regeneration unit consists of a combination of a fired
boiler, located at the lower section of a horizontal vessel with a vapor space above the tube
bundle, a distillation column (still column) connected vertically to the vapor space of the
reboiler vessel, and a surge tank located below the reboiler. Also included in the regeneration
unit is a condensing coil added to the top of a still column to provide reflux to improve
solvent/water separation. This coil often performs the dual purpose of preheating the rich
glycol ahead of the flash tank (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The size of the regenerator is determined by a balance between the solvent circulation rate,
the amount of water vapor in the gas stream and the reboiler temperature. The standard TEG
dehydration unit operates effectively at the reboiler temperature around 175
o
C, or about
20
o
C below the decomposition temperature of TEG. Trays are sometimes used in very large
units (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994, Gandhidasan, 2003).

In the regenerator, separation of water from glycol takes place by fractionation. Water and
glycol have widely varying boiling points (100
o
C for water, 288
o
C for TEG). Furthermore
the two substances can be easily separated by fractional distillation. This is accomplished in
the still column mounted directly on the top of the reconcentration vessel (Rojey et al., 1994).

Within the column, water-rich vapor rises in intimate contact with descending glycol-rich
liquid. Between the two phases, a continuous exchange of material and heat takes place. The
temperature difference causes the glycol vapor (heavy component) to condense and liquid
water (light component) to vaporize. At the top of the column the vapor is virtually pure water
whereas there is very little water in the glycol in the bottom. A small portion of the vapor
mixture(mainly water) at the top condenses at the overhead condenser to provide sufficient
reflux that will aid in the process of fractionation (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

16
Stripping gas is used to increase the lean glycol concentrations. This is deeply dried natural
gas taken usually from the main stream of dehydrated gas. With the use of stripping gas the
glycol solvents can have the concentrations up to 99,6 %. The stripping gas is sparged directly
into the reboiler. The typical example of a TEG regenerator is Stahl column, called also a gas-
striping column (Figure 2.6) (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994, Manning and Thompson,
1991).

The main purpose of the still column is to effect final separation between the absorbed water
and the absorbing TEG, to vent the separated water to the atmosphere, and to recover the
glycol vaporized by the reboiler. The glycol-rich liquid, now becoming lean glycol, leaves the
bottom of the packed still column and enters the reboiler vessel. Heat is applied in the reboiler
to raise the temperature and cause partial vaporization. In a normal TEG dehydration unit, this
temperature level has been found to cause no noticeable thermal decomposition of the TEG
(Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The hot, lean glycol leaves the reboiler vessel and overflows by gravity to the surge tank, a
vessel normally located below the reboiler vessel. The hot lean glycol passes to the lean rich
exchanger, where it is cooled. Ultimately it is returned to the contactor and the cycle is
complete (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The TEG natural gas dehydration unit operates, as noted before, at relatively high pressure on
the contactor side and low pressure on the regeneration side. The high-pressure side consists
of the glycol contactor and the inlet separator.

Intensive dehydration of natural gas demands high purity of the recycled solvent. This purity
is improved by lowering the pressure and raising the temperature during the regeneration step.
Thus the low-pressure side consists of the regenerator, the flash tank and associated
equipment.

In addition to water, the solvent selectively absorbs H
2
S and aromatic compounds such as
benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes present in the natural gas. These components are
removed with the water on completion of the regeneration step. They are frequently released
directly to the atmosphere, but, as they are toxic, this incurs risks for the operating personnel .
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

17
The installation of a condenser improves the situation, but is generally not sufficient to
eliminate the problem of aromatics releases completely. Complete elimination requires the
incineration of the nonocondensable flare gas in the reboiler fire tube. Difficulties in burning
noncondensable vapors in low-pressure burners were reported (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al.,
1994).

To prevent any air from entering, the pressure must be kept slightly above atmospheric. The
regeneration temperature must also remain below an acceptable limit for glycol
decomposition. This temperature is 177
o
C for diethylene glycol, 204
o
C for thiethylene glycol
and 224
o
C for tetraethylene glycol (Rojey et al., 1994).

These regeneration conditions lead to a water content of about 35 g/1000 Sm
3
in the processed
gas. By increasing solvent circulation, the purity of the processed gas can be further improved
to reach water contents in the range of 20 g / 1000 Sm
3
. To drop to even lower contents in the
range of a few parts per million the purity of the recycled solvent must be even further
increased. Two techniques are available for this (Gandhidasan, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994):

a) the already dehydrated gas is sent to the reboiler, to lower the water partial pressure by
stripping with natural gas. As an example the injection of 45 Sm
3
of gas per m
3
of
triethylene glycol helps to purify the solvent to 99,0 or 99,4 %, according to whether
the gas is simply injected into the reboiler or introduced into an additional stripping
section after the reboiler
b) a hydrocarbon (toluene, octane) is injected into the reboiler, forming a heteroazeotrope
with water. This heteroazeotrope rises to the top of the column and, after condensation
of the vapor phase, the hydrocarbon is separated by simple settling and recycled. The
triethylene glycol is thus obtained with a purity that may be higher than 99,9 %,
without any consumption of carrier gas. This method is called Drizo process
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

18

2.4 Dehydration by adsorption

Separation processes by adsorption uses a solid phase with large surface area, which
selectively retains the components to be separated. The adsorbents are generally characterized
by a microporous structure which affords a very large specific surface (Campbell, 1992; ATG,
1990; Arnold and Stewart, 1989; ATG, 1988; Kumar, 1987; Maddox and Erbar, 1982; Sivalls,
C.R., 1976; Tannehill, C.C., 1994, Trent, R.E., 2001).

Adsorption processes are generally applied when a high purity is required for the processed
gas. Adsorbents are naturally unsuitable for continuous circulation, owing to mechanical
problems and also due to the risks of attrition (erosion of adsorbent particles due to friction
and collisions during movement). This is why adsorbents are normally used in fixed beds with
periodic sequencing (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The flow scheme of a dehydration operation by adsorption in a fixed bed is shown in
Figure 2.7. The process is conducted alternately and periodically, with each bed going
through successive steps of adsorption and desorption (Rojey et al., 1994).

During the adsorption step, the gas to be processed is sent on the adsorbent bed which
selectively retains the water. When the bed is saturated, hot natural gas is sent to regenerate
the adsorbent (Rojey et al., 1994).

After regeneration and before the adsorption step, the bed must be cooled. This is achieved by
passing through cold natural gas. After heating, the same gas can be used for regeneration. In
these conditions, four beds are needed in practice, two beds operating simultaneously in
adsorption, one bed in cooling and one bed in regeneration (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The desorption step is carried by different methods (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994):

a) lowering the pressure, sometimes even under vacuum
b) sweeping by an inert natural gas to lower the partial pressure of the component to be
desorbed
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

19
c) sweeping by a displacement agent, which, by being adsorbed, allows more effective
desorption than with a simple elution gas
d) heating, in which the temperature rises facilities desorption: in a fixed-bed operation, a
significant variation in temperature between the adsorption and desorption steps is
practical only if the cycle time is relatively long, because of the thermal inertia of the
adsorbent bed.

An adsorbent must have the following properties (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994):

a) high adsorption capacity at equilibrium
b) reversible adsorption allowing regeneration of the adsorbent
c) fast adsorption kinetics
d) low pressure drop
e) attrition resistance
f) chemical inertness
g) no significant volume change with temperature and saturation

The most widely used adsorbents today are the following (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994):

a) activated alumina – a low residual-water content of about 1 ppm vol can be achieved
by using activated alumina. The heavy hydrocarbons are adsorbed but cannot then be
desorbed during regeneration. Therefore if such heavy hydrocarbons are present in the
gas, they have to be removed before the adsorption step
b) silica gel – the water content of the gas processed by adsorption on silica gel is about
10 ppm vol. Silica gel is easily regenerated at a temperature between 120 and 200
o
C.
It adsorbs water from the hydrocarbons, which are then desorbed during regeneration.
It can be used therefore to separate simultaneously the water and the condensate
fraction of the gas processed, provided a number of precautions are observed
c) molecular sieves (zeolites) used for gas processing are silicoaluminates, in which the
crystal structure forms cavities making up a microporous network on a molecular
scale. This structure has cations that play the role of charge compensation. Depending
on the type of zeolite, the size of the access cavities varies
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

20

2.5 Dehydration by permeation

In the process of dehydration by permeation, the dried natural gas is going through a
membrane leaving particles of water and impurities on its surface. Industrial applications of
dehydration by gas permeation are currently very limited. However, many investigations have
demonstrated the potential value of such a process which, in comparison with a glycol
dehydration unit, could prove to be more economical and more compact, which is extremely
important for offshore production (Fournie and Agostini, 1984). These advantages only
appear clearly in the case of single-stage operation without recycle or recompression of the
permeate (Carroll, 2003; Rojey et al., 1994, Deschamps et al. 1981).

For the separation to be effective, the membrane must be very permeable with respect to the
contaminant to be separated, which passes through the membrane driven by pressure
difference, and it must be relatively impermeable to methane. The permeability of methane
must be accepted to avoid an excessively large membrane area nevertheless means a
significant loss of methane in the permeate (Deschamps et al, 1981).

Membrane separation processes require large membrane areas, which are generally expressed
in thousands of square meters. The membrane surface is dependent on the amount of gas
permeating through it. Compact permeation modules with a high membrane area are therefore
needed. The most widely used industrial modules belong to two types (Rojey et al., 1994):

a) modules with plane membranes wound spirally around a collector tube
b) modules with a bundle of hollow fibers

For a gas-permeation unit processing 1·10
7
Nm
3
/d of gas at 7 MPa and required to reduce the
water content from 1040 to 170 ppm vol, the loss of gas in the permeate is estimated at 4,2 %
and the membrane area is estimated 1430 m
2
(Deschamps et al., 1989).

Under these conditions, to make this process economically viable, it is either necessary to find
an application compatible with the production of gas low pressure, or to reduce the gas loss
substantially, by improving membrane performance (Deschamps et al., 1989).
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

21

2.6 Dehydration by refrigeration

If a natural gas contains a relatively large fraction of hydrocarbons other than methane
(condensate gas or associated gas), it may be necessary to separate of at least part of these
hydrocarbons to avoid the formation of a liquid phase during transport (Rojey et al., 1997).

This separation is usually performed by lowering the temperature with the formation of a
liquid phase. It can also be achieved by adsorption or absorption.

The following liquid fractions can be obtained in succession by lowering the temperature
(Rojey et al., 1994):

a) natural gasoline or condensate which is a light gasoline representing the C
5+
fraction
b) the LPG fraction which includes propane and butanes (normal butane and isobutene);
the mixture of natural gasoline and LPG (which also contains ethane) obtained by
lowering the temperature of the natural gas up to the LPG liquefaction point but
without separation between natural gasoline and LPG, is called natural gas liquids
c) by lowering the temperature to about -160
o
C, it becomes possible to liquefy the
methane: the natural gas can thus be transported at atmospheric pressure in the form of
liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is mainly formed of methane, and generally
contains ethane; it may include an LPG fraction if this fraction has not been separated
in the liquefaction plant.

In most cases refrigeration is used for cases of a previously dehydrated gas to avoid hydrate
formation during refrigeration. Examples are: process of liquids recovery by refrigeration,
refrigeration by isenthalpic expansion and expansion through a turbine which is similar to
isenthalpic expansion but much more effective, as the process operates at low temperature
thorough dehydration and carbon dioxide removal is needed to prevent formation of crystals
though (Rojey et al., 1994).

If the gas is not dehydrated before the refrigeration step the injection of an inhibitor is often
the simplest and most economical solution. In this way, refrigeration simultaneously yields a
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

22
condensate and an aqueous phase consisting of the mixture of water and inhibitor(Carroll,
2003; Rojey et al., 1994).

The use of glycol as inhibitor allows relatively easy regeneration by distillation. This
regeneration may, however, become very costly if the water content is high, especially in the
presence of free water. Methanol is also used, but is generally not recycled. Refrigeration in
the presence of methanol helps to control water and heavy-hydrocarbon contents
simultaneously, and the solution of water and methanol is regenerated without a distillation
step (Rojey et al., 1997).

One of main ways of natural gas dehydration through refrigeration is carried through
expansion refrigeration. This process is also known as low-temperature extraction (LTX). It
employs Joule-Thompson expansion (isothermal expansion) to dry the gas and recover
condensate. Joule-Thompson expansion requires large pressure drops. Because of large
pressure drops, LTX is used only when the prime objective is condensate recovery (Manning
and Thompson, 1991). This method is used at Lollsnes, Norway to remove water from natural
gas. Kollsnes is one of the largest systems in the world. Kollsnes receives the gas from Troll
A, the largest gas field in Norway.

Cool gas holds less water than hot gas. Therefore the process of refrigeration removes also
water. The cold temperatures in a refrigeration process result in water removal. In order to
prevent the formation of ice and hydrates, the cold gas is mixed with a polar solvent, usually
ethylene glycol. A typical refrigeration process can easily reduce the water content of a gas
stream down to 1,60*10
-5
kg/m
3
level (Carroll, 2003).
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

23

3. Maćkowice Facilities

The gas drying unit Maćkowice, Poland is located 25 km from the Ukrainian Border, about 10
km from Przemyśl (Figure 3.1). It is located in the neighborhood of compressor unit used for
compressing gas imported from Ukraine. It is owned and operated by Regional Department of
Gas Transport (ROP), Tarnow. It is used for drying natural gas flowing from Ukraine. The
gas may be previously compressed in neighboring compressor unit.

The dehydrating facility was built in this location deliberately. The main reasons were
(Stosur, 2005):

a) the possibility of drying two times larger amount of gas under higher pressure thanks
to the neighboring gas compressor unit, in comparison to the drying capability under
lower pressure range
b) possibility of drying not only imported, but also polish gas,
c) closeness to power plant solves the problem of energy delivery
d) pressure loss up to 0,2 MPa acceptable due to proximity of compressor unit.

The facility was opened on 21
st
January 2005. The building was begun in April 2004. The
necessity of building a dehydration facility was caused by high water content in the imported
gas and hydrate problems deriving from it. The imported gas hardly ever met dew point
specification required by Polish norms (Figure 3.2)

The system of gas pipelines in the region of Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on
Figure 3.3. The natural gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is metered and
compressed in Hermanowice compressor station. Some of the gas is then sent to Strachocin.
Subsequently part of the main gas stream from the direction of Ukrainian border, or whole the
amount of gas imported is carried through dehydration process in Maćkowice dewatering unit.
After dehydration the gas is sent to Jaroslaw compressor and metering station where the
stream is split and sent to receivers. The internal diameters of gas pipelines are given on the
figure.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

24
The process of dehydration is led with use of TEG absorption in typical way described in
previous chapter (see Chapter 2.3). The facility contains two independent drying units. The
gas coming from the direction of Ukrainian border is split equally between them and,
depending on the strategy chosen, there may be a third gas stream led directly to the transport
pipelines. The dehydration process scheme for Maćkowice dehydration facility is shown on
Figure 3.4.

The first step of dehydration process is removing any free liquids from the natural gas stream.
Separators are placed upstream of the absorption columns. The separators are free standing,
vertical two-phase separators. The internal diameter is 1500 mm. They are equipped with a
high-efficiency wire mesh mist extractor to remove any free liquids and mist.

After separating the free water the gas stream is directed through an oil propelled heater to
absorbtion column where the actual dehydration takes place.The oil used for heater propelling
is Aviaterm 6 (see Appendix A). The heater should keep the gas temperature between 10
o
C
and 38
o
C depending on chosen strategy. The gas enters the bottom part of the absorber and
flowing upward meets countercurrent flow of lean TEG stream. The column is filled with
Mellapak structured packing provided by Sulzer company.

The pressure and temperature range for the dehydration facility is suggested by the Nafta-Gaz
Company – the designer of Maćkowice facility. The pressure of gas can be in the range from
2700 kPa to 4000 kPa for gas coming directly from Ukraine, and in the range from 4700 kPa
to 5500 kPa for gas going through compressor unit. Under different pressures, natural gas of
different range of temperatures can be dryed (Figure 3.5). Depending on the selected pressure
75 000 [Nm
3
/h] to 280 000 [Nm
3
/h] per one contactor can be dehydrated.

After leaving the absorber the natural gas stream goes through heat exchanger cooling down
the TEG stream going into the dehydration column. Finally about 20 [Nm
3
/h] of the dry gas is
directed to glycol regenerator as stripping gas and the remaining part, as the sales gas, flows
to system pipelines. The stripping gas is heated to the temperature of 104
o
C and
depressurized to the regenerator pressure.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

25
The rich glycol leaves the contactor under the contactor pressure (depending of gas inlet
pressure) and goes through valve decreasing the pressure to 400 kPa, which allows TEG to
lose most of the entrained and soluble volatile components while in the flash tank. Then the
TEG stream flows through a heat exchanger in which it is heated before getting to the
regeneration column. In the regenerator it is further heated to the temperature of 180
o
C to
200
o
C. The separation of water from TEG takes place by fractional distillation. The still
column is filled with packing and cooled at the top by a coil in which circulates the glycol
solution (condenser part). This helps to reduce the glycol losses. A fired boiler and surge tank
are located at the lower section of the vessel. Aforementioned stripping gas is put in the upper
part of the column in order to regenerate the glycol solution to concentration of 99,5 % TEG
mole fraction.

After leaving the regenerator, TEG stream is directed through heat exchanger where it warms
up rich TEG flowing towards the regenerator. Then the lean TEG is mixed with TEG makeup
stream in order to compensate the glycol losses. Subsequently it goes through a pump where
the pressure is increased in order to surpass the pressure in absorber tower. After compression
the lean TEG stream goes through a heat exchanger where it is cooled down by the dry gas
going out of absorber.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

26

4. Hysys Simulation Package

Aspen Hysys 3.2 is a process modeling tool for steady state simulation, design, performance
monitoring, optimization and business planning for oil and gas production, gas processing and
petroleum refining industries. The program is built upon proven technologies, with more than
25 years experience supplying process simulation tools to the oil, gas and refining industries.
It proves an interactive process modeling solution that enables engineers to create steady state
models of plant design, performance monitoring, troubleshooting, operational improvement,
business planning and asset management. Hysys helps process industries improve
productivity and profitability throughout the plant lifecycle. The powerful simulation and
analysis tools, real-time applications and the integrated approach to the engineering solutions
enable the user to improve designs, optimize production and enhance decision-making (Aspen
Tech, 2004).

Hysys offers a high degree of flexibility because there are multiple ways to accomplish
specific tasks. This flexibility combined with consistent and logical approach to how these
capabilities are delivered makes Hysys a versatile process simulation tool (Aspen Tech,
2004).

Another Hysys feature is that modular operations are combined with non-sequential solution
algorithm, so not only is information processed as it is supplied, but the results of any
calculation are automatically produced throughout the flowsheet, both forwards and
backwards. The modular structure of the operation means they can be calculated in either
direction, using information in an outlet stream to calculate inlet conditions (Aspen Tech,
2004).

In Hysys, all necessary information pertaining to pure component flash and physical property
calculations is contained within the Fluid Package, therefore choosing the right Fluid Package
for given compounds is substantial. For the given composition of natural gas flowing through
Maćkowice dehydration unit different Fluid Packages were checked, but finally the Peng-
Robinson equation of state was chosen, as an ideal model for VLE calculations as well as
calculating liquid densities for hydrocarbon systems. In the used property package several
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

27
enhancements to the original Peng-Robinson model were made by the creators of Hysys
program in order to extend the range of applicability and to improve its predictions in some
non-ideal systems. The results achieved with use of Peng-Robinson equation of state were
found to be most similar to empirical calculations of all used Fluid Packages. The values were
also compared to analytical results and only insignificantly differed (Aspen Tech, 2003).

Once the Fluid Package for given compounds was chosen, the author prepared a detailed
scheme of Maćkowice dehydration facility along with surrounding pipelines in order to be
able to simulate dehydration and glycol regeneration processes. The process was
reconstructed in as much detail as it was possible (Operating Manual of Maćkowice
Dehydration Facility, 2004). All the known dimensions were inserted, likewise gas and glycol
temperatures and pressures. The author tried to avoid using simplified and non-physical units
but failed by little as balance units for stripping gas getting into regenerators had to be used
(Figure 3.4). This does not yet influence the simulation results as the amount of energy
necessary to heat up the stripping gas stream is known.

Hysys offers an assortment of utilities which can be attached to process streams and unit
operations. These tools interact with the process and provide additional information. The unit
operations are used to assemble flow sheets. By connecting the proper unit operations and
streams the user can model a wide variety of oil, gas, petrochemical and chemical processes
(Aspen Tech, 2004).

Included in the available operations are those which are governed by thermodynamics and
mass/energy balances, such as heat exchangers, separators, compressor, and the logical
operations like adjust, set, and recycle (Aspen Tech, 2004).

All unit operations and utilities are connected by material and energy streams. Multiple
properties pages are connected with every streams. Examples are conditions and composition
pages. The properties pages display the property correlations of the inlet and outlet streams of
the unit operations (Aspen Tech, 2004).

Material streams are used to simulate the material traveling in and out of the simulation
boundaries and passing between unit operations. For the material stream the user has to define
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

28
their main properties and composition so Hysys can solve the stream. The parameters
necessary are the temperature, pressure, flow based for example on molar flow, and
composition (Aspen Tech, 2003).

Energy streams are used to simulate the energy traveling in and out of the simulation
boundaries and passing between unit operations. The energy stream property view contains of
fields allowing user to define stream parameters, view objects to which the stream is attached
and specify dynamic information. The main parameter for energy streams is heat flow (Aspen
Tech, 2003).

In the next part of this chapter units used for building Maćkowice dehydration facility will be
briefly described. The sequence in which the description are provided reflects the sequence of
TEG solution and natural gas flow.

Separator is an unit with one or multiple feeds, one vapor and one liquid product stream. The
separator divides the vessel contents into its constituent vapor and liquid phases. Every
separator may be provided with some common features like for example the geometry of the
vessel and heat loss model which accounts for the convective and conductive heat transfer
that occurs across the vessel wall. The user can choose between various heater types, which
determine the way in which heat is transferred to the vessel operation (Aspen Tech, 2003).

The heater operations are one-sided heat exchangers. The inlet stream is heated to the required
outlet conditions, and energy stream provides the enthalpy difference between the two
streams. These operations provide information on how much energy is required to heat a
process stream with a utility (Aspen Tech, 2003).

The column is a special type of sub-flow sheet in Hysys. A sub-flow sheet contains equipment
and streams, and exchanges information with the parent flow sheet through the connected
internal and external streams. In general the column appears as multi-feed multi-product unit.
Depending on demands the user can choose one of the predefined columns, or build his own
column along with side equipment such as pump arounds, side strippers and side rectifiers
(Aspen Tech, 2003).

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

29
The column used by the author for separating water from natural gas is a typical absorber
column with two inlet and two exit streams. One of the inlet streams is natural gas saturated
with water in given conditions, the other is lean TEG glycol. The column is designed in such a
way that it should allows to dry the gas to the content of water in gas below 0,050 [g/Nm
3
]
which determines the dew point of -18
o
C under the pressure of 3900 kPa (Aspen Tech,
2003).

A valve is used to decrease the pressure of dry natural gas exiting from the TEG contactor to
the value of 400 kPa. Hysys performs a material and energy balance on the inlet and exit
streams of the valve. The calculations are based on equal material and enthalpy between the
two streams. It is assumed that the valve operation is isenthalpic. The variable specified by the
user is outlet pressure. The rest of variables necessary for solving the valve operation is taken
from the stream flowing out of the contactor (Aspen Tech, 2003).

The separator used for removing vapor part from the rich TEG stream under lower pressure is
similar to the one separating free water from rich gas stream. The entering stream contains
particles of vapor and liquid. On the exit the vapor which is composed of volatile gases and a
small quantity of water is taken out at the top part of the separator, and the liquid part
composed of glycol and water is carried to the heat exchanger (Aspen Tech, 2003).

Heat exchanger performs two-sided energy and material balance calculations. The heat
exchangers calculations are based on energy balances for the hot and cold fluids on the basis
of temperatures of inlet and outlet streams. In the considered case the TEG stream is heated
up to the temperature of approximately 100
o
C by lean TEG stream exiting regenerator
(Aspen Tech, 2003).

The regenerator is an example of distillation column with two inlet and two exit streams.
Warm rich glycol flows into the regenerator where it is heated up and losses water. In order to
dry the absorbent to higher concentration stripping gas in the quantity of 20 Nm
3
/h is injected
into the regenerator. Fully refluxed condenser is built at the top of the column, and a reboiler
in the lower part of the column is added for heating up bottom liquid to the temperature range
of 180
o
C to 200
o
C (Aspen Tech, 2003).

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

30
The lean glycol flowing out of the regenerator is mixed with stream of additional TEG in the
makeup mixer. The additional TEG is put into the circulation in order to make up glycol
losses due to solution in natural gas and vaporization. The mixer combines the two streams to
produce a single outlet stream, which subsequently gets to the TEG pump. The properties of
both streams entering the mixer are known, just as the amount of lean TEG from the
regenerator and amount of TEG going out of the pump. On this ground Hysys calculates the
amount of glycol necessary to compensate the TEG losses and the properties of absorbent
entering the pump.

The pump operation is used to increase the pressure of an inlet liquid stream. The outlet
pressure, the inlet pressure and the pump efficiency are known. The heat flow necessary for
compression is calculated by Hysys. The dynamics pump operation is similar to the
compressor operation in that it increases the pressure of its inlet stream. The pump operation
assumes that the inlet fluid is incompressible though (Aspen Tech, 2003).

After compression the lean TEG stream goes through another heat exchanger where it gives
some of its energy to dry gas stream flowing out of TEG contactor. The glycol is cooled down
while the dry gas is warmed up.

Before getting to the contactor lean TEG stream goes through recycle operation. The recycle
operation is a theoretical block in process stream. This block gives Hysys the ability to back-
calculate through many operations in a non-sequential manner. All material recycles, where
downstream material mixes with upstream material, require a recycle operation. Hysys uses
the assumed values and solves the flowsheet around the recycle, then it compares the assumed
values in the attached streams to the calculated values in the opposite stream. Based on the
difference between the assumed and calculated values Hysys generates new values to
overwrite the previous assumed values. The calculation process repeats until the calculated
values match the assumed values within specified tolerances. The given values are the amount
of TEG going into the contactor given with relative tolerance, and internal absolute tolerances
(Aspen Tech, 2003).
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

31

5. Water Content of Natural Gas

5.1 Water content measurement

The water content of a natural gas at saturation conditions depends essentially on the
temperature and pressure. Corrections can be made for the sake of the composition of gas and
the salinity of the water. The Figure 5.1 shows the water content at saturation point of
nitrogen-free natural gases as a function of pressure and temperature. Dissolved salts reduce
the partial pressure of water in the vapor phase, and the water content of the gas is
accordingly decreased. The Figure 5.2 helps to correct the water contents given by the
Figure 5.1, as a function of salinity of the aqueous phase (after Katz, 1962).

The water content of natural gas can be measured by three different methods (Rojey et al.,
1994):
a) by observation of the dew point
b) by water retention on an adsorbent
c) by absorption in liquid.

Alexandre Rojey et al., 1994 provides a short description of these methods. In the dew point
method, a cooler mirror is used to observe the water condensation temperature. The water
dew point is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the hydrocarbon dew point. The water
content can also be measured by adsorption on magnesium perchlorate. The quantity of water
adsorbed is determined by gravimetric method. In the widely used absorption based Karl-
Fischer method, the water is absorbed in a solution, and the water content is measured from
the amount of gas required to neutralize the reagent (solution of iodine, pyridine and sulfur
dioxide in methanol, called the Karl-Fischer reagent).

If the variation of temperature and pressure in an installation is known, the water dew point
curve of the natural gas can be used to determine the zone where water may condense. The
amount of condensed water released from gas can be then calculated from the difference
between the water content in gas at saturation point at the inlet and outlet respectively.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

32

5.2 Water content from GPSA diagram

Natural gases containing significant quantities of acid gas are encountered frequently in the
world. Estimates of the water content of these sour gases are required for the design of plant
and pipelines facilities. Three methods are currently available for estimating the water content
of sour natural gases.

The most commonly used procedure is prepared by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association
(GPSA). In the procedure outlined by GPSA, the estimated water content of a sour gas is a
molar average of the solubility of water in the hydrocarbons, hydrogen, sulfide, and carbon
dioxide. The water content curves for H2S and CO2 are based on experimental data for the
binary mixtures H2O-H2S and H2O-CO2, respectively. Both these binaries display liquid-
liquid equilibria at temperatures and pressures common in processing applications, and the
water content read for the acid gas components often corresponds to the solubility of water in
nonaqueous liquid phase rather than in vapor phase. In general, the predicted water content of
sour natural gas is high when based on these experimental curves (Robinson et al., 1977).

A chart was prepared containing aheadmentioned curves for temperatures from -50
o
C to
140
o
C under pressures of 100 kPa, 250 kPa, 500 kPa, 750 kPa, 1000 kPa, 1500 kPa,
2000 kPa, 3000 kPa, 4000 kPa, 5000 kPa, 8000 kPa, 20 000 kPa, 30 000 kPa, 40 000 kPa,
50 000 kPa, and 60 000 kPa (Figure 5.3). The figure shows the amounts of water saturating
natural gas in given temperature and pressure along with charts for correction for gas relative
density and for salinity.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

33

5.3 Water content values obtained from Maćkowice operation manual

The designer of Maćkowice natural gas dehydration facility provided an operating manual.
An attachment to the manual shows water content of natural gas within the range of pressures
for which the facility was designed (Figure 3.5, Appendix B). The table in Appendix B shows
water content in natural gas in [g/Nm
3
] within the range of pressures between 2700 kPa and
5500 kPa, for the temperatures between 10
o
C and 40
o
C with stress to points within the
temperature and pressure range for which the facility should be used.

The temperature range includes temperatures encountered in Polish gas pipelines. Only water
dew point temperatures below -18
o
C are considered as work points. This assumption is made
because of the investor’s demand to keep the amount of water in dried gas below the dew
point temperature of -18
o
C.

The part of the table pertaining to the pressures encountered when the gas is put into the
dehydration facility under the import pipeline pressure, without using the compressor station
is shown in Table 5.1. Dew point temperatures exceeding -18
o
C were omitted.

Original layout given by the designer (Nafta – Gaz) was used. This layout may not be
transparent as it repeats the same results many times for different gas temperatures. This
layout is useful though to calculations of the amount of water necessary to remove from
natural gas under given conditions in order to dry gas to the point where it meets the required
standards (see Chapter 5.6). Therefore it was kept this way deliberately.

Graphic analysis of the results was prepared for the temperatures of 10
o
C (Figure 5.4), 15
o
C
(Figure 5.5), and 20
o
C (Figure 5.6).

The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in
different conditions. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating,
although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.
The dew points for the gas temperature of 10
o
C vary from -27
o
C with the water content of
0,018 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -33,8
o
C for water content of 0,009 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

34
Similarly the dew points for the gas temperature of 15
o
C vary from -22,9
o
C for the water
amount of 0,025 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -30,1
o
C for water amount of 0,013 kg/Nm
3
at
5500 kPa. For the gas temperature of 20
o
C the dew points vary from -18,8
o
C for the water
amount of 0,036 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -26,4
o
C for water amount of 0,019 kg/Nm
3
at
5500 kPa. The comparison of these results with the values obtained with other methods is
done in Chapter 5.6.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

35
5.4 Water content calculations from empirical equations

On the ground of empirical equations the author calculated the amount of water present in
natural gas leaving the absorber column.

The author’s approach was based on calculations with use of equilibrium dew point equation
for gases according to P. Gandhidasan, 2002. The dew point acquired depends on amount of
water leaving the dehydration facility and gas pressure, and is given by the formula:

) 001685 , 0 ln( 228 , 18
81462 , 0
, g out eq dew
P w T ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = .
(1)

Since the gas and TEG are not in contact for a long enough time to reach equilibrium, the
actual water dew point is always higher than the equilibrium dew point. A well designed and
properly operated unit will have an actual water dew point 5
o
C to 8
o
C higher than the
equilibrium dew point. In present study, an 10
o
C approach to the equilibrium dew point at the
top of the dehydrator was assumed, as the height of absorption column is not known and
therefore the additional 2
o
C was used. This is:

C T T
o
eq dew act dew
10
, ,
− = .
(2)

When the pressure and dew point temperature of natural gas are known, from the equations
(1) and (2) the water content in outlet gas may be obtained:

) ln 001685 , 0 ln
228 , 18
10
exp(
81462 , 0 ,
g
o
eq dew
out
P
C T
w − −
+
= .


(3)
The values obtained are given in kilograms of water per million standard cubic meters. The
values format was converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron
equation (see Appendix F).

The assumed water dew point temperature is known. The natural gas is getting in the absorber
under a known pressure, which only insignificantly changes inside the absorber. Therefore
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

36
without noticeable mistake one can recognize the inlet pressure as the actual pressure. The
calculations were made for the pressure range recommended by Nafta – Gaz Company – the
designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. Typical gas temperatures encountered in Poland
were taken into account. The results were put together and shown in a table (Appendix C).
The values shown were chosen to correspond with results obtained from Maćkowice facility
operating manual. The pressure values and the dew points were kept unchanged. The table
was prepared for the same gas temperatures as the one reproduced from Maćkowice
dehydration facility manual. Diagrams were made to show graphically the water content in
dehydrated natural gas in the work pressure range in the temperatures of 10
o
C (Figure 5.7),
15
o
C (Figure 5.8), and 20
o
C (Figure 5.9)

The figures show the amount of water that is left in natural gas after dehydration process in
different conditions. The figures do not show the dew point obtained with dehydrating,
although the differences in water amount in natural gas come out of dew point differences.
The dew points were kept same as in the Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual
(Appendix B), and the amounts of water for different dew points under the considered
pressure range were calculated with the given formula (3). The dew points in the gas
temperature of 10
o
C vary from -27
o
C for the water amount of 0,016 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -
33,8
o
C for water amount of 0,011 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa. Similarly the dew points in the gas
temperature of 15
o
C vary from -22,9
o
C for the water amount of 0,020 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -
30,1
o
C for water amount of 0,013 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa. For the temperature of 20
o
C the dew
points vary from -18,8
o
C for the water amount of 0,025 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -26,4
o
C for
water amount of 0,017 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa. The comparison of these results with the values
obtained with other methods is done in Chapter 5.6.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

37
5.5 Water content in natural gas according to Hysys program

A simple flow sheet was made with the use of Hysys program. The flow sheet shows a stream
of dry gas with no water content going in a mixer operation along with pure water stream. The
amount of water is high enough to saturate the gas, and to be still present as liquid in the pipe
(Figure 5.10). Therefore a stream of saturated gas with significant amount of free water above
the saturation point is created in the mixer and flows to a two-phase separator. In the separator
operation the water content above the saturation level is taken away as liquid from the bottom
part of the separator. The rich gas is taken from the top part of the separator as vapor. The
temperature and pressure of saturated gas are inserted by the user and on this basis Hysys
calculates the water content of saturated natural gas. By this means the water saturation points
under given conditions can be checked.

Hysys application does not provide the possibility of checking the amount of water per
standard cubic meter directly. In order to achieve this result the author had to prepare a sheet
containing values of molecular weight of natural gas, water, and gas-water mixture, mole
fraction of gas and water, Z factor of the mixture in given conditions and mass density of gas
in given conditions. Subsequently the values were exported to Microsoft Excel application,
where the calculation of amount of water in natural gas was made.

The computation had following course:

a) the number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m
3
expressed in kmol was
calculated on the basis of multiplication the density of gas-water mixture by 1 m
3
and
dividing the result by molecular weight of the mixture
b) mass of water accumulated in 1 m
3
water-gas mixture was calculated through
multiplication of the number of moles of gas per 1 m
3
by the mole fraction of water
and by the molecular weight of pure water
c) calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means
of the real gas law equation called Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) was done
d) the mass of water per 1 Sm
3
was achieved by dividing the mass of water accumulated
in 1 m
3
by the standard volume of water-gas mixture.

The computation course for exemplary conditions are shown in Appendix E.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

38
The computation was first made generally for wide range of temperatures and pressures. The
temperature range started with -40
o
C and reached the temperature of 140
o
C with 20
o
C step.
The pressure range started with 100 kPa and reached 60 000 kPa. The values for which the
calculation took place were 100 kPa, 250 kPa, 500 kPa, 750 kPa, 1000 kPa, 1500 kPa,
2000 kPa, 3000 kPa, 4000 kPa, 5000 kPa, 8000 kPa, 20 000 kPa, 30 000 kPa, 40 000 kPa,
50 000 kPa, and 60 000 kPa (Table 5.2a, 5.2b, 5.2c, 5.2d). These values were chosen
deliberately in order to compare the results achieved with the chart provided by GPSA
(Figure 5.3) – see Chapter 5.2.

The results’ format was converted from mass of water per standard cubic meter to mass of
water per normal cubic meter with use of the real gas law equation (see Appendix F). The
results obtained were put in tables. Table 5.3 shows the number of grams of water per
standard cubic meter of natural gas. Table 5.4 shows the number of grams of water per normal
cubic meter of natural gas.

Second method of calculating the amount of water in standard cubic meter was discovered.
This method is based on reading the value of standard gas flow per hour [Sm
3
/h] and dividing
it by mass flow of water as one of the stream component. The value of standard gas flow per
hour can be calculated by Hysys as one of gas stream properties. Hysys application can
calculate mass and mole flows of every component of a given stream, for example water.
The outcome for the temperature range from -40
o
C to 140
o
C under the pressure of
60 000 kPa is shown in Table 5.5 .

Comparison of results achieved with the Clapeyron equation was made with the method based
on flow values obtained with Hysys application. The values achieved with both methods are
almost identical. The outcomes differ by less than 0,02 % in every case. The results’
comparison is shown in Table 5.6.

The range of conditions taken under consideration was narrowed. In Tables 5.2a, 5.2b, 5.2c,
5.2d the range of conditions is very wide. The conditions encountered in Maćkowice gas
dehydration facility vary only within the pressure range from 2700 kPa to 5500 kPa and the
temperature range between 10
o
C and 30
o
C. Therefore the author made a detailed study of the
interest range.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

39
The outcome unit was transformed. The Hysys application results unit was given in grams of
water per standard cubic meter of gas mixture. In order to make the comparison with other
results possible the Hysys obtained values were transformed into grams of water per normal
cubic meter. As the difference between standard and normal condition is limited to
temperature difference (15
o
C for standard conditions, 0
o
C for normal conditions) the real gas
law equation was used for transformation (see Appendix F).

A detailed study of water amount in gas under work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility
was made. The input data included temperature range encountered in polish gas pipelines
under the pressure range for which the Maćkowice gas dehydration facility was designed. The
obtained results were put in a table (Appendix D). The layout of the table has changed in
comparison with Tables 5.2a, 5.2b, 5.2c, 5.2d. The values shown were chosen to correspond
with results obtained from Maćkowice facility operating manual and empirical calculations.
The pressure range, gas temperatures and dew points were left unchanged. The water content
results obtained with Hysys are delivered. Graphical analysis was prepared for temperatures
of 10
o
C (Figure 5.11), 15
o
C (Figure 5.12), and 20
o
C (Figure 5.13).

Similar values to those achieved from the Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (Chapter
5.3) and with the use of empirical equations (Chapter 5.4) were achieved. The dew points in
the temperature of 10
o
C vary from -27
o
C for the water amount of 0,023 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa
to -33,8
o
C for water amount of 0,009 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa. Similarly the dew points in the
temperature of 15
o
C vary from -22,9
o
C for the water amount of 0,032 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to
-30,1
o
C for water amount of 0,010 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa. For the temperature of 20
o
C the
dew points vary from -18,8
o
C for the water amount of 0,046 g/Nm
3
at 2700 kPa to -26,4
o
C
for water amount of 0,015 kg/Nm
3
at 5500 kPa.


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

40
5.6 Water content results comparison

Comparison was made between the amount of water calculated from Hysys results (Tables
5.2a, 5.2b, 5.2c, 5.2d) and the amount of water results achieved with use of GPSA chart (see
Figure 5.3, see Chapter 5.2). For ten randomly chosen pressure and temperature values the
amount of water was read from the GPSA chart. In every case the error was smaller than 20
mg H
2
O per standard cubic meter. Hence, as the GPSA chart is well recognized as accurate
for predicting the amount of water in natural gas under given conditions (Robinson,1977), the
author considers the values obtained with use of Hysys application as unquestionable.

The values of water amount in natural gas according to Maćkowice dehydration facility
manual, empirical equation, and Hysys application were compared. The comparison results
are shown in graphic mode. The diagrams for temperatures 10
o
C (Figure 5.14), 15
o
C (Figure
5.15), and 20
o
C (Figure 5.16) are provided. The water saturation calculated with the use of
empirical equations for given gas temperature is shown along with the water content for
selected dew points according to Maćkowice dehydration facility manual (see Appendix B)
and Hysys package.

Comparison of the results obtained with empirical equations, Hysys computation and manual
based data was made. The values obtained with different methods stay in reasonable
conformity. The percent differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration
facility operating manual and Hysys application are shown in Table 5.7. The percent
differences between values obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual
and solution based on empirical equations according to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 are shown in
Table 5.8. Only values pertaining to work-points were included in tables.

Average error was calculated from the values obtained. In case of the comparison between
manual data and Hysys calculated values the average mistake was 5,58 % for the gas
temperature of 10
o
C, 14,94 % for gas temperature of 15
o
C, 15,15 % for gas temperature of
20
o
C and 16,57 % for gas temperature of 25
o
C. Similarly in comparison between manual
data and equation based calculations the average mistake was 7,77 % for the gas temperature
of 10
o
C, 13,01 % for gas temperature of 15
o
C, 27,79 % for gas temperature of 20
o
C and
34,87 % for gas temperature of 25
o
C. The difference was considerably lower for comparison
between Maćkowice dehydration facility operation manual and Hysys package.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

41

The author concludes from the results that both Hysys and manual based data stay in good
conformity. Empirical equations used provide results close to the ones computed with use of
Hysys application and delivered from Maćkowice dehydration facility manual.

Therefore the author decides to use the Hysys results as correct and not burdened with error
that would substantially influence subsequent deliberations over optimum energy and glycol
strategy.

Moreover the author notices that the results obtained with empirical calculations used are
burdened with noticeable error in comparison to manual and Hysys based outcome. The
reason of this unconformity may be the generality of used equation in which the results are
not dependent on natural gas composition. These general empirical equations were used
instead of more complex ones as the main goal of this part of author’s work was to check the
harmony between empirical solution and computer program based calculation. This is gained
as the inaccuracy was small and the obtained values show the same tendency in each case.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

42
5.7 Amount of water to remove during dehydration process

Calculation of water content under dew point temperatures in Maćkowice dehydration facility
work pressure range was made. The range of temperatures taken into account corresponds
with the dew points possible to achieve during gas dehydration. For the pressure range from
2700 kPa to 3990 kPa and 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa the amount of water in natural gas was
calculated with use of Hysys application. For every pressure chosen the dew points in the
range of -31
o
C to -18
o
C with 1
o
C step were counted the same way as for water content in
given gas temperature and pressure (see Chapter 5.5). In the range of temperatures between
-19
o
C and -18
o
C the step was decreased to 0,1
o
C, as this range of dew point temperatures is
usually sufficient. The results showing the amount of water in natural gas expressed in grams
of water per standard cubic meter were put in Table 5.9. The results were recalculated with
use of Clapeyron equation (see Appendix F) to values expressed in grams of water per normal
cubic meter. The values in changed units are shown in Table 5.10.

The amounts of water under the temperature range encountered in Polish gas pipelines and
Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area pressure range were calculated. The values for gas
temperatures of 10
o
C, 15
o
C, 20
o
C, and 25
o
C under pressure range from 2700 kPa to
3990 kPa and from 4720 kPa to 5500 kPa are provided in Table 5.11. The values in
mentioned table were given in grams of water per standard cubic meter. The results were then
converted to grams of water per normal cubic meter with use of Clapeyron equation (see
Appendix F). The results for normal conditions are provided in Table 5.12

The results pertaining to water content in natural gas under dew point temperatures in the
pressure range between 2700 kPa and 5500 kPa (Table 5.9) were compared with the amounts
of water in typical gas temperatures encountered in polish gas pipelines (Table 5.11).The
amount of water left in natural gas under dew point temperature was subtracted from the
water content of natural gas in typical temperatures encountered in gas pipelines. This led to
specifying the amount of water to be removed in order to achieve a required dew point
temperature under given pressure for a known medium temperature.

The results were put in tables. Gas temperatures of 10
o
C, 15
o
C, 20
o
C, 25
o
C and 30
o
C in
this part of pressure range which is in Maćkowice dehydration facility work-area (Figure 3.5)
were considered. Table 5.13 shows the amount of water to be removed in grams of water per
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

43
standard cubic meter when the natural gas temperature equals 10
o
C. Table 5.14 shows the
amount of water to be removed when the natural gas temperature equals 10
o
C. The value is
given in grams of water per normal cubic meter. Table 5.15 shows the water amount to be
removed for 15
o
C warm natural gas expressed in grams of water per standard cubic meter of
gas. Table 5.16 provides the same data transformed to normal conditions. Table 5.17 shows
the amount of water to remove from gas under the temperature of 20
o
C in grams of water per
standard cubic meter. Table 5.18 shows data pertaining to the same gas temperature, but
expressed in grams of water to remove per normal cubic meter. Table 5.19 provides results of
water amount to remove under gas temperature of 25
o
C expressed in grams of water per
standard cubic meter. Table 5.20 shows the same data expressed in grams of water per normal
cubic meter. Finally Table 5.21 shows the amount of water to remove from 30
o
C warm gas in
grams per standard cubic meter, and Table 5.22 transforms the unit to grams of water to
remove from gas per normal meter of medium.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

44

5.8 Dew point values comparison

Comparison of dew points for given water content between empirical calculation, Hysys
computation and manual data was made. For preset values of water content in natural gas the
dew point values were calculated and put in tables. The points were not selected for a given
pressure, but within the whole range of pressure encountered in Maćkowice dehydration
facility. Table 5.23 shows the values of dew point for given water content obtained with use
of Hysys package, Table 5.24 contains the values achieved from Maćkowice dehydration
facility operating manual, and Table 5.25 brings up values calculated with use of empirical
equations. The data was prepared for the range of water content encountered after dewatering
in Maćkowice dehydration facility in gas temperature of 10
o
C, which is between
0,009 g/Nm
3
and 0,018 g/Nm
3
.

Achieved values show good correlation between results obtained with use of computation and
manual data. The results of empirical calculation differ insignificantly from the ones
mentioned above . The graphical comparison is shown in the Figure 5.17.

The difference between dew points computed with use of Hysys package and Maćkowice
dehydration facility operating manual data hardly ever exceeds the value of 1
o
C. This is
satisfying result. The calculation is aimed at checking the compatibility of Hysys computation
and manual data. Alike in the survey of water content saturating the natural gas in given
conditions, Hysys obtained results stay in good conformity with manual obtained data.
Therefore there are no contraindications against using Hysys outcome as reliable.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

45

6. Glycol solutions

6.1 Use of glycol solutions

Glycols are by far most commonly used solvents in natural gas dehydration. The crucial
properties of glycol solvents suitable for dewatering were given before (see Chapter 2.3). The
organic compounds known as glycols approximate the properties that meet the commercial
application criteria. According to Manning and Thompson (1991) the advantages of glycol
over solid desiccants are:

a) lower installed costs by 50 % less at 3,277 Sm
3
/s, and 33 % at 16,387 Sm
3
/s (Kohl
and Riesenfeld, 1979)
b) lower pressure drop (34,47 kPa – 68,95 kPa vs. 68,95 kPa - 344,7 kPa for dry
desiccants)
c) glycol dehydration is continuous rather than batch
d) glycol makeup is easily accomplished
e) glycol units require less regeneration heat per pound of water removed
f) glycol units can typically dehydrate natural gas to 0,008 g/Sm
3


The disadvantages of glycol over solid desiccants are

a) water dew points below -4
o
C require stripping gas and Stahl column for TEG
regeneration
b) glycol is susceptible to contamination
c) glycol is corrosive when contaminated or decomposed

The glycols that are most common for dehydration applications are monoethylene glycol
(MEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), and tetraethylene glycol (TREG).
All of mentioned glycols have a higher boiling point than water and a low vapor pressure.
Glycols will, however, decompose at elevated temperatures. The decomposition temperature
limits the maximum temperature at which the process operates, particularly in the reboiler.
This is one of the most important features upon which a specific glycol absorbent is chosen.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

46
Triethylene glycol offers the best cost/benefit compromise, and is the most widely used
(Manning and Wood, 1993). It shows most of the properties mentioned and in comparison to
the other absorbents it is most economically right. It is marginally more expensive than DEG,
but brings much less losses due to lower vapor pressure. It also has less affinity for water and
therefore less dew point depression. In comparison to TREG it is less viscious, which
translates into lower pumping costs, not mentioning higher costs of TREG purchase, which
are not entirely compensated by lower vapor pressure (Carroll, 2003). Moreover TEG is more
easily regenerated, has a higher decomposition temperature of 277
o
C in comparison to DEG
(245
o
C) and is not too viscous above 4
o
C (Manning and Thompson, 1991)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

47

6.2 Minimum strong TEG concentration

The drying ability of the TEG is limited by the vapor-liquid equilibrium of water between the
gas phase and the liquid TEG phase. Therefore it is necessary to estimate the minimum
concentration of TEG in the strong solution entering the top of the dehydrator to meet the exit
gas water content specification.

Vapor Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) data for TEG–water system commonly are represented as
charts of water dew point lines as a function of contactor temperature and liquid TEG
concentrations. The water dew point is the dew point of the gas, T
d
, which would be obtained
if the gas was brought to equilibrium with the TEG solution at the contactor temperature, T
(Chorng et al., 2004).

A method of calculating the equilibrium between the gas phase and a TEG solution was
presented by Rosman (1973). The strong affinity between glycols and water is attributed to
hydrogen bonds. More complete data can be obtained by referring to the to the manual
published by the GPA (1980). The distribution of water between the two phases at
equilibrium is determined by introducing a partition coefficient assumed to be constant
throughout the absorption column (Rojey et al., 1994).

Figure 6.1 shows the dew point obtained for a gas in equilibrium with a solution of triethylene
glycol at different concentrations after ATG, 1988 (Rojey et al., 1994). According to ATG the
dew point temperature possible to achieve differs with glycol concentration and solution
contact temperature. In the Figure 6.1 glycol concentration is given in weight percent of TEG
in solution. Concentrations of TEG between 95 and 99,97 % are taken into account. Solution
contact temperatures shown vary between 0
o
C and 80
o
C.

Calculation of the minimum strong TEG concentration required at the inlet to the dehydrator
in order to dewater natural gas to given dew point temperature was made. The calculation was
carried out on the basis of equation provided by P. Gandhidasan (2002):

036313 , 0
, min ,
) 00173 , 0 exp( 629 , 84
g act dew in
T T ⋅ ⋅ − ⋅ = ξ .
(4)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

48

The minimum strong TEG concentration is dependent on the dew point temperature required
and natural gas temperature. The calculation was made for dew point temperature range from
-18
o
C to -31
o
C, which are dew points encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility. The
solution contact temperature which equals gas temperature between 1
o
C and 25
o
C is
considered. The results achieved are shown in Table 6.1.

Figures showing minimum strong TEG concentration in mass percent required to achieve a
given dew point temperature were made on this ground. Figure 6.2 shows minimum TEG
concentration for dew point temperature range between -18
o
C and -29
o
C. Figure 6.3 shows a
more detailed study on a more narrow range of dew point temperatures (-18
o
C to -19
o
C) with
0,1
o
C step. The range between -18
o
C and -19
o
C, is the most commonly obtained.

Comparison of results after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1) and after P. Gandhidasan, 2002
(Figure 6.2) was made. For chosen points in range of operation area of Mackiwice
dehydration facility results were compared. The points were chosen on basis of minimum
strong TEG concentration table (Table 6.1). Points of TEG concentration equal to 95 %,
96 %, 97 %, 98 %, and 99 % were used.

The dew point chart after ATG is commonly used for determination of minimum TEG
concentration necessary in many dehydration facilities and bring good conformity with reality
(Rojey et al., 1994). Therefore the results obtained with it are unquestionable. The results
based on empirical solution shown by P. Gandhidasan, 2002 turned out to be burdened with a
few percent error in case of water content in natural gas and dew point temperature
calculations. Hence the author expects a similar distortion in results pertaining to the
minimum concentration of strong TEG stream.

According to P. Gandhidasan, 2002 the minimum TEG absorbent concentration necessary to
dewater 10
o
C warm natural gas to dew point temperature of -18,5
o
C is 95 % (Table 6.1). The
outcome was checked with dew point chart after ATG, 1988 (Figure 6.1). According to it the
minimum strong TEG concentration cannot be lower than 96 %.

After P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG concentration enabling to dewater natural gas to
-21
o
C in gas temperature 12
o
C is 96 %. The value of approximately 97 % TEG concentration
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

49
is read from dew point temperature of gas with solutions of triethylene glycol chart after
ATG, 1988.

Similar comparison was made for the gas temperature of 16
o
C reaching the dew point
temperature of -21
o
C. In this case according to P. Gondhidasan the minimum TEG
concentration is 97 %. Which is by about 1 % less than the result achieved with the use of
Figure 6.1 (minimally less than 98 %).

The value of 98 % strong TEG concentration was calculated as minimum for dehydration of
24
o
C warm gas to dew point temperature of -18
o
C according to P. Gondhidasan. The value
obtained with use of the chart after ATG, 1988 equals approximately 98,5 %.

For TEG concentration of 99 % and gas temperature 25
o
C the dew point temperature of
-23
o
C is encountered with use of P. Gandhidasan proposed method. After ATG the value
equals approximately 98,5 %.

Aforementioned examples, alike Table 6.1 and Figures 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 show clearly that the lean
TEG concentrations encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility are high enough to dry
the stream of natural gas to dew point below -18
o
C in typical temperatures met in Polish gas
pipelines. The dew point temperature of -18
o
C or lower is the demand from gas transport
company.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

50

6.3 TEG circulation in Maćkowice dehydration facility

According to Maćkowice dehydration facility operating manual the TEG concentration varies
between 99,5 mass % on the inlet to absorber column, and not less than 95 % on the outlet
from the absorber. Tables are provided in the operating manual showing the minimum amount
of TEG necessary to dehydrate natural gas containing a known amount of water (Appendix
G). These are the minimum TEG amounts sufficient to keep the TEG concentration within the
desired range.

Calculation was made of the amount of water possible to remove with use of 1 cubic meter of
triethylene glycol. According to the installation requirements the concentration of TEG
solution cannot drop below the point of 95 mass percent. Therefore not more than 5 mass
precent can be filled by water taken out from dehydrated natural gas. Omitting other chemical
compounds dissolving in TEG and assuming the TEG density as 1122 kg/m
3
the value of
approximately 56 kg of water per 1 cubic meter of TEG solution was calculated.

It stands to reason that the circulation of TEG depends on the amount of water present in
natural gas. This, in sequence, is dependent on the temperature and pressure of natural gas
flowing into the absorber column (Table 5.3). The amount of water saturating natural gas is
increasing with temperature, and decreasing with pressure.

For the instances where the amount of water flowing in natural gas can be decreased before
the actual dehydration process it should be done. Therefore gas should be deprived of any free
water before getting to absorber. Also increasing the inlet pressure can bring noticeable
effects while separating free water from natural gas before the actual dehydration process.

The gas temperature should be kept low. The gas should not be warmed up before entering the
absorber more than necessary. The gas entering the absorber should be always warmer than
10
o
C though (see Chapter 2.3).

Some part of TEG is wasted through evaporation ans is carried over from absorber with
particles of natural gas. The amount of TEG lost depends on TEG vapor pressure in given
temperature.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

51

7. Hysys simulations

The author puts attention to the direct after-effect of evaporation of TEG which is TEG loss,
and tries to minimize it, alike energy consumption. Hysys application was used in search for
the optimum solution for minimizing TEG waste and energy use. Optimization was made by
adjusting factors like temperature and pressure of gas entering the installations, TEG
circulation, and dew point temperature of the outgoing gas.

The water content of incoming gas was set at the level of 0,2 g/Nm
3
, which is the point very
seldom exceeded in recent two years for the natural gas imported from Ukraine (Figure 3.2).
This water content suits the dew point temperature of -2
o
C for the pressure of 2700 kPa, and
8
o
C for the pressure of 5500 kPa. Natural gas temperature of 10
o
C was chosen.

The installation was set to the lowest work pressure. According to Maćkowice dehydration
facility operation manual this is the pressure of 2700 kPa, and under this pressure only
75 000 Nm
3
of natural gas per one processing line can be dehydrated. Therefore to dehydrate
the whole amount of gas coming from Ukraine (550 000 Nm
3
per hour) to the water content
below 0,050 g/Nm
3
, which is the investor’s demand, the dehydration of the part of natural gas
undergoing the dehydration must be very deep. The author will check the possibility of
meeting the demand.

The main gas stream was split in three parts. Two of them, 75 000 Nm
3
/h each, were directed
to the dehydrators, the remaining part (400 000 Nm
3
/h) was put directly to the gas pipeline.
Even through decreasing the water content in natural gas undergoing the dehydration process
to the level of 13 mg/Nm
3
, after mixing with the not dehydrated gas the total water content
was still way too high (145 mg/Nm
3
). This instance shows that the pressure chosen should be
adjusted with consideration for the water content of gas at the inlet to the absorber.

Even though the above this solution cannot be chosen, calculation of TEG losses was made.
TEG is being wasted through:
a) evaporating and escape with dried natural gas stream from TEG Contactor and TEG
Contactor-2 (Figure 3.4),
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

52
b) evaporating with natural gas taken from Gas From TEG Sep and Gas From TEG
Sep-2 separators (Figure 3.4),
c) through getting into equilibrium with water during TEG regeneration in Regenerator
and Regenerator-2 (Figure 3.4).

The greatest loss was observed in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams (Figure 3.4). The
amount of TEG equal to 1,7946 kg is wasted every hour through each of these streams. In
Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 streams the amount of TEG equals two times 0,0184 kg/h. No
TEG losses were noticed in Gas From TEG and Gas From TEG-2 streams. The losses
mentioned are made up by New TEG and New TEG-2 streams (Figure 3.4). The amount of
TEG necessary to fill the leaks is 3,6261 kg/h which gives the amount of 31764 kilograms of
TEG per year. This makes up the loss of 28 m
3
of TEG annually.

The installation was set to the maximum gas pressure without compression in compressor
unit. This is 3990 kPa. Under this pressure the maximum amount of 150 000 Nm
3
per one
processing line can be dehydrated. In this case the absorber was able to dehydrate the streams
of natural gas to water content of 25 mg/Nm
3
which is 0,000035 mass percent of water in
natural gas. In the Outlet GAS stream (Figure 3.4) the total water amount left is 57 kg, which
makes up 104 mg/Nm
3
. The TEG circulation was set according to the operating manual tips to
0,620 m
3
per 100 000Nm
3
of natural gas (Appendix G). Total annual TEG losses in this case
would be approximately 28,7 m
3
. This setting cannot be used for natural gas containing
assumed water content though, as the water content in outlet stream is greater than
50 mg/Nm
3
.

The pressure of 4720 kPa was assumed. This pressure requires the main imported gas stream
to undergo compression before entering the dehydration facility. The maximum amount of
approximately 180 000 Nm
3
of natural gas can be dehydrated with every processing line
(Mackowice Dehydration Facility Operation Manual, 2004). For this amount of gas
dehydrated the water content of outlet gas equals 75 mg/Nm
3
.

The same examination was used for the gas pressure of 5500 kPa and the whole main gas
stream undergoing the drying process. The temperature of gas entering dehydrator was 10
o
C
and did not differ from the gas temperature in the pipelines (little energy use in Pre Column
Heater and Pre Column Heater-2, see Figure 3.4). The TEG circulation was set to the level of
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

53
1,9 m
3
/h. The gas stream was dehydrated to the level of 6,3 mg/Nm
3
. The amount of TEG lost
is 3,352 · 10
-3
m
3
/h, which gives the amount of 29,4 m
3
/yr.

The same approach was used for different TEG circulations. For TEG inlet of 1 m
3
per one
absorption column the gas can be dehydrated to the amount of water in natural gas equal
13 mg/Nm
3
. The TEG loss equals then 29,2 m
3
/yr, which is inconsiderably lower than in case
of following operating manual hints. For TEG inlet of 3 m
3
per one absorption column the
outgoing gas contained only 5 mg of water per Nm
3
of natural gas. The TEG loss equaled
29,5 m
3
/yr.

The amount of gas dehydrated under the pressure of 5500 kPa was decreased to the level
where the amount of water in the outlet gas stays close to the level of 50 mg/Nm
3
. The
imported gas was split to three streams. The two of them that are undergoing the dehydration
operation put through 212800 Nm
3
/h each. The water content of the outgoing gas stream of
48 mg/Nm
3
was achieved this way. The amount of 1,4 m
3
of TEG per hour is flowing into the
absorber column. The annual TEG loss achieved is 28,6 m
3
. The energy streams necessary to
perform the drying operations (Figure 3.4) are the Condenser En and Condenser En-2 (6,5 kW
each), Reboiler En and Reboiler En-2 (135,3 kW each), Pump Q and Pump Q-2 (3,7 kW
each), En To Heater and En To Heater-2 (0,13 kW each). The total energy use equals 292 kW.

The gas was preheated to 25
o
C. The minimum share of gas undergoing the dehydration
process has in order to meet the maximum 50 mg of water per Nm
3

of gas demand increased
to 237000 Nm
3
per one processing line. The TEG loss in this case was encountered through
Gas To Sale and Gas To Sale-2 (0,16 kg/h each), and Remnants and Remnants-2 (1,8 kg/h
each). Total TEG waste amounts to 3,5 · 10
-3
m
3
/h, which makes up the quantity of 30,6
m
3
/yr. The energy use is high in comparison to previous instances, as the En To Heater and
En To Heater-2 heat flows equal 1801 kW each. Hence the total energy us encountered is
3900 kW.

For the same gas stream (5500 kPa, 10
o
C, 0,2 g of water per Nm
3

of natural gas) an approach
of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 35
o
C was used. In this temperature the
imported gas cannot fulfill the investor’s demands.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

54
Similar technique by a process of trial and error was used for water content in gas of
0,1 g/Nm
3
. As one can see in Figure 3.2 this is the amount of water that is not much above the
minimum dew point temperature in winter conditions. The temperature of gas was set to the
minimum temperature encountered in gas flowing through Maćkowice dehydration facility,
which is 2
o
C. This temperature is met only sometimes during the winter , and applies only to
the gas that did not undergo compression process in the neighboring compressor unit. As the
dehydration process cannot be completed with sufficient results under the lower variety of
pressures from the range of non-compressed gas pressures (as the amounts of gas that can
undergo the dewatering process for lower pressures are to low), the dehydration unit was set
for the pressure of 4000 kPa, and gas temperature of 2
o
C. In these conditions the amount of
gas undergoing the dehydration process is set to 150 000 Nm
3
/h per processing line. Water
content of outlet gas equals 46 mg/Nm
3
. The TEG loss is amount to 28 m
3
/yr. Total energy
use equals 260 kW. By the energy use the author understands the heat flows of Condenser En,
Condenser En-2, Reboiler En, Reboiler En-2, Pump Q, Pump-2, En To Heater, and En To
Heater-2. Although this is the most energy and absorbent saving setup the dehydration
process should be carried out in higher temperatures to prevent precipitation of hydrates.
Therefore in case of preheating the natural gas to the temperature of 10
o
C the outlet gas water
content changes insignificantly, alike TEG loss. The energy consumption amounts to 1500
kW .

Calculation for 10
o
C warm gas was made. The water content is left at the level of
0,1 g
H2O
/Nm
3
GAS
. The initial pressure was set to 4000 kPa. The gas is not preheated before
entering the contactor. For the instance of dehydrating 150 000 Nm
3
of gas in each absorber
the water content of outlet stream is 46 mg
H2O
/Nm
3
GAS
. The TEG loss equals 28 m
3
TEG
/yr, the
heat flow amounts to 260 kW.

The same values were checked for higher pressures. For the pressure of 4700 kPa, which is
the lowest pressure value for compressed gas, the amount of water in outlet stream has
decreased to the value of 45 mg
H2O
/Nm
3
GAS
. The TEG loss is 28 m
3
TEG
/yr. Heat flow equals
260 kW. For the pressure of 5500 kPa, the highest pressure in work range of Maćkowice
dehydration facility, the outlet water content amounts to 46 mg
H2O
/Nm
3
GAS
, and the power
supply necessary equals 260 kW.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

55
Tests were made of adjusting the TEG Regenerator in different manners. The main TEG loss
is encountered in the Remnants and Remnants-2 streams leaving Regenerator. Therefore it
might be of purpose to try to change the setup of this unit in order to get smaller TEG waste.
The temperature of the stream leaving the condenser was changed in range from 60
o
C to
140
o
C. The change in TEG loss was imperceptible. The Reboiler En was changed in order to
achieve different reboiler temperature. Similarly the results did not bring any change to the
amount of TEG carried out with Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. The temperatures of
Regen Feed and Regen Feed-2 streams were increased. The outlet TEG concentration
increased insignificantly, but no change in the amount of TEG in Remnants and Remnants-2
streams was noticed. The author did not have access to sufficient data pertaining to the
regenerator. Hysys application chooses the remaining dimentions and other values necessary
depending on the conditions. The process is repeated every time the conditions change. That
was probably the reason why the author did not obtain any differences in the outcoming
stream. Therefore with the data the author possessed only changes in TEG loss of
approximately 3 m
3
per year are possible, which still makes up 10 % of whole TEG annual
use.

An approach was made to calculate the energy consumption and TEG loss differences
between using two processing lines, and one processing line in order to achieve the same
amount of water in outgoing gas. At first the possibility of dehydration to the water content
required by the investor was checked. The water content of inlet gas was set to the value of
0,1 g/Nm
3
. Inlet pressure equals 5500 kPa. Gas temperature is 10
o
C. One processing line was
used with the throughput of 280 000 Nm
3
/h. This was sufficient for achieving the water
content of 49,7 mg/Nm
3
. The energy consumption is now encountered through Reboiler En,
Pump Q and En To Heater streams. Reboiler En is the amount of energy necessary necessary
for warming up TEG undergoing regeneration. Pump Q is heat flow necessary for
compressing lean TEG stream from the pressure of 0,4 MPa to the pressure of 6,2 MPa. En
To Heater stream is the total amount of energy necessary to get the required gas temperature.
In the considered case total energy loss encountered amounts to 132 kW. The regenerator’s
reboiler requires 127,2 kW, TEG Pump consumes 3,7 kW and the Pre Column Heater uses
0,2 kW (as the gas is not preheated). Total TEG consumption amounts to 1,616·10
-3
m
3
/h
which gives the value of 14,2 m
3
/yr.
In case of running dehydration with use of two processing lines gas pressure can be lowered.
The two streams entering TEG contactors are 140 000 Nm
3
/h each. The water content in
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

56
natural gas achieved equals 49,5 ng/Nm
3
, therefore the water amount is similar to the case of
using single processing line. Total energy consumption encountered is 254 kW, which is
almost twice higher than in the previous example. TEG consumption amounts to
3,215·10
-3
m
3
/h which equals 28,2 m
3
/yr.

Dehydration of natural gas to the water content of 50 mg/Nm
3
is not necessary, especially for
summer conditions. Polish norm characterizes the dew point temperature for summer and
winter time. For the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm
3
, which corresponds with dew
point temperature of 5
o
C in pressure of 4 MPa (dew point requirement in summer
conditions) the dehydration process for most time can be omissed. For the amount of water in
natural gas of 75 mg/Nm
3
for most cases use of single processing line is sufficient. For the
pressure of 5500 kPa, 280 000 Nm
3
/h of natural gas can be dehydrated. This allows using
single processing line for achieving the water content of natural gas below 50 mg/Nm
3
for all
cases of water content lower than 100 mg/Nm
3
. If the amount of water in natural gas was
supposed not to exceed the value of 75 mn/Nm
3
, this would enable to dehydrate natural gas of
water content at the inlet to the separator of approximately 170 mg/Nm
3
. For fulfilling the
demand for dew point temperature in summer season according to Polish norm which
corresponds with the water content in dehydrated natural gas of 220 mg/Nm
3
, the incoming
natural gas can contain up to 440 mg/Nm
3
. This high values were not encountered in the
imported natural gas for over four years now.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

57

8. Discussion

There is a constant necessity of dehydration the gas stream coming from Ukraine. The natural
gas coming from Ukraine hardly ever meets the dew point temperature demand (Figure 3.2).
The maximum water content for transport of gas in pipelines is specified by Polish norm. The
contemporary dew point temperature demand is determined by the Decree of the Minister of
Administration issued on 24
th
of August 2000. This decree changed the values of dew point
temperature at the pressure of 4 MPa to 5
o
C in the period from 1
st
of April until 30
th
of
September, and -10
o
C from 1
st
of October to 31
st
of March. Previously the values for summer
time were slightly higher, while the water content of natural gas during winter period was
lower.

Mackowice dehydration facility is the only drying unit connected with Polish gas
transportation system. Other gas treatment facilities are usually parts of gas storage facilities.
The dehydration process in Mackowice is carried with use of TEG based absorption method.
The total amount of gas imported from Ukraine amounts to 550 000 Nm
3
/h, which makes up
153 Nm
3
/s. The dehydration process chosen is absorption. Triethylene glycol was chosen for
the absorbent by the designer of Maćkowice dehydration facility. According to experimental
data, for this amount of natural gas, dehydration with use of TEG solution is the most
economically justified way (see Chapter 6.1). Therefore this decision seems to be correct from
the economical point of view.

The dehydration facility consists of two processing lines. Depending on gas inlet pressure
each of them can dry up to 280 000 Nm
3
/h. This enables the whole amount of imported gas to
undergo the dehydration process. The water content possible to achieve in this case is far
below the water content of natural gas requirement and equals approximately 6 mg/Nm
3
(see
Chapter 7). The two drying equipment sets make renovation, conservation, and maintenance
operations possible without necessity of turning off whole the dehydration facility. As shown,
one processing line may sometimes not be sufficient for dehydration of the imported gas
stream to the water content demand of the investor which is 50 mg per normal meter of
natural gas. Therefore any maintenance operations should be carried out during summer
season, while there is small probability of hydrate precipitation in gas pipelines.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

58
During seasons of natural gas surplus the vent gas is burnt in flare. This causes emission of
carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, but is justified from economical point of view, as
recompression of the gas stream and putting it back to system would be costly, and storing it
is impossible. It might be advisable to calculate the costs and profits that could result from
using the gas streams outgoing from Gas From TEG Sep, Gas From TEG Sep-2, and the
streams outgoing from regenerator containing the stripping gas - Remnants and Remnants-2
(Figure 3.4) as fuel for energy source for operating Maćkowice dehydration facility, or
neighbouring comressors unit. Besides economical aspect, this step would make the
dehydration facility more independent from external energy source.

The calculations of amount of water to remove from natural gas to reach required dew point
temperature were made. The figures show clearly, that the amount of water to be removed
decreases considerably with pressure increase (Table 5.13). The results obtained with use of
Hysys application stay with good conformity with experimental data provided by ATG
(Figure 5.1) and by GPSA (Figure 5.3). Even in the temperature and pressure range
encountered in Maćkowice dehydration facility the tendency is clear.

Energy consumption simulation was made. According to Hysys application computation the
most energy demand occurs in Pre Column Heater and Pre Column Heater-2. From the values
obtained with Hysys application it is noticeable that processing the gas dehydration under
lower temperatures brings better effects (see Chapter 7). Therefore the natural gas
temperature should be kept low. Preheating of the natural gas stream should be carried out
only when the gas temperature is lower than 10
o
C for the reasons explained in Chapter 2.3.
Good results in energy saving can be brought by exploiting only one processing line at a time
when it is enough to reach the water content of natural gas below the level of
50 mg
H2O
/Nm
3
GAS
.

TEG loss simulation was made. According to Hysys computations the biggest TEG waste is
encountered in Remnants and Remnants-2 streams outgoing from Regenerator and
Regenerator-2 (Figure 3.4). An survey for ways of lowering the amount of TEG in these
streams was done. The results show insignificant changes in the amount of TEG lost in the
Remnants and Remnants-2 streams. The main difference in the amount of TEG lost comes out
of the amount of water in natural gas. For gas containing the same amount of water saving of
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

59
approximately 2 m
3
TEG
per year can be achieved by carrying out the dehydration process
under pressures close to the value of 5500 kPa.

Lowering the water content in natural gas to the level of 50 mg/Nm
3
is not necessary.
According to the Polish Norm the dew point temperature of 5
o
C under the pressure of 4 MPa
which amounts to the water content in natural gas of 220 mg/Nm
3
(Figure 5.1) is sufficient
during summer season. In the winter period the dew point temperature of -10
o
C under the
pressure of 4 MPa which equals the water content in natural gas of 75 mg/Nm
3
(Figure 5.1) or
lower is necessary. Therefore there is no need to dehydrate the natural gas stream to the level
of 50 mg
H2O
/Nm
3
.

Keeping the dew point temperature minimally below the dew point demand will in multiple
cases bring savings in energy and TEG loss. Until the process of dehydration can be lead with
use of one processing line the energy demand equals half the demand calculated (see
Chapter 7). The TEG absorbent waste can also be noticeably lowered this way.

Dehydrating natural gas under high pressures enables drying bigger quantities of natural gas.
In order to increase the gas pressure neighboring compressor unit is used. When the pressure
equals 5500 kPa, 280 000 Nm
3
per one processing line can be dehydrated. Until the water
content is low enough, the demand for dew point temperature can be fulfilled with using only
one processing line. This brings rational savings in TEG loss and energy consumption.


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

60

9. Conclusions

Calculations of water content in natural gas under different temperatures and pressures were
made. The results obtained by the author with Hysys application were coherent with
published results (Figure 5.1, Figure 5.3, Table 5.12), which leads to the conclusion that
results obtained with use of Hysys are reliable. The results show clearly that the amount of
water in natural gas increases rapidly with temperature rise, and decreases with pressure
increase (Table 5.3). By comparison of these results with water content in natural gas under
dew point temperatures in range between -31
o
C and -18
o
C (Table 5.09) the amount of water
to remove during dehydration process were determined (Table 5.13, Table 5.15, Table 5.17,
Table 5.19, Table 5.21). The author concludes, that in case of saturated gas flow, by
increasing work pressure, some part of water can be removed from natural gas as liquid
before the actual dehydration process. In this case less water would have to be removed from
gas in the dehydration process to achieve a desired dew point under given gas temperature.

The author suggests using the compressor unit neighbouring with Maćkowice dehydration
facility for natural gas compression before undergoing the dewatering process. In winter
season increase in gas temperature caused by the compression may be advisable. From the
study made the author concludes that working in high pressure range brings savings in energy
consumption and reduces TEG consumption by approximately 2-3 m
3
per year, which makes
up around 10 % of annual TEG loss. Moreover, as gas compression is necessary anyway, this
approach prevents the necessity of compressing the gas after undergoing the dehydration
process.

Only one processing line should be used at a time until it is able to dehydrate the outlet stream
below the required dew point temperature. This approach brings savings in amount of TEG
lost and energy consumption. It also extends the period between maintenance operations and
decreases the threat of malfunctions.

The work temperature should be kept low. The most energy consumption is encountered
during heating of gas stream flowing in the absorber column. The incoming gas stream should
not be warmed up, unless its temperature is lower than 10
o
C, as due to the higher viscosity of
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

61
the glycol, temperature of about 10
o
C is considered as a lower limit of the dehydration
temperature range.

More in-depth study over an algorithm of choosing whether to run one or two processing lines
depending on the gas temperature, water content in gas, gas pressure and dew point
temperature demand should be carried out and checked with the data achieved during the
exploitation of Maćkowice dehydration facility, Poland. Unfortunately the author did not have
enough data to carry out this investigation.
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

62
References

Annual Reporting and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Partner Update, Spring 2005,
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),
Gandhidasan, P., Parametric Analysis of Natural Gas Dahydration by a Triethylene Glycol
Solution, 2002

Arnold, K., Stewart. M., Surface Production Operations. Design of Gas-Handling Systems
and Facilities, Gulf Publishing Co., Book Division, Houston, Tex, ch. 7-9, p.141-234, 1989

ATG, L’Aide-memoire de l’Industrie du Gas, 4
th
edition, Association Technique de
l’Industrie du Gaz en France, Paris, 1990

ATG, Le Traitment du Gaz Naturel sur Gisement, Association Technique de l’Industrie du
Gaz en France – Commision de Production et de Traitement, Paris, 1988

ATG, Natural Gas in the World Gas. Outlook to 2000, Association Technique de l’Industrie
du Gaz en France, Editions Technip, Paris, FRA, 1989

Behar, E., Delion, A.S., Thomas, M., Hydrate control in multiphase flow, 1995

Campbell, J.M., Gas Conditioning and Processing, John M. Campbell and Company,
Campbell Petroleum Series, 1984

Carroll, J., Natural Gas Hydrates, A Guide for Engineers, Gulf Professional Publishing an
imprint of Elsevier Science, Burlington, MA, 2003
www.elsevier.com

Chorng H. Twu, Vince Tassone, Wayne D. Sim and Suphat Watanasiri, Advanced equation of
state method for modeling TEG–water for glycol gas dehydration, 2004; Aspen Technology,
Inc.,

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

63
Daubert, T.E., Danner, R.P.,1985, Data Compilation Tables of Properties of Pure Compounds,
Design Institute for Physical Property Data – Americal Institute of Chemical Engineers
(DIPPER-AIChE), New Your, N.Y.5

Fournie, F., Agostini, J.P., Permeation: a new competitive process in offshore gas
dehydration, Proc. – 16
th
Annual Offshore Technological Conference, Houston, 1984

General Information About Hysys, Aspen Technology Inc, 2004,
www.aspentech.com,

Hicks, R. L., Senules, E. A. New gas-water-TEG equilibria. Hydrocarbon Processing, No. 4,
April, p. 55-58, 1991

Hysys 3.2 Documentation, Aspen Tech Driving Process Profitability, 2003

Ikoku, C.U., Separation and Processing In Natural Gas Engineering – A Systems Approach,
Penn Well Book, Penn Well Publishing CO., Tulsa, Okla, 1980

Kohl, A.L. Riesenfeld, F.C., Gas Purification, 4
th
ed., Gulf Publishing Co., Book Division,
Houston, 1985

Kumar, S., Gas Production Engineering, Gulf Publishing Co., Book Division, Houston, Tex,
ch. 4-6, p. 89-274, 1987

Maddox, R.N., Gas Conditioning and Processing – Gas and Liquid Sweetening, 3-rd ed.,
Campbell, J.M., Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, Okla, April, 1982

Manning, F.S., Thompson, R.E., Gas dehydration using glycol, Oilfield Processing of
Petroleum, Volume One: Natural Gas, Penn Well Book, Penn Well Publishing Co., Tulsa,
1991

Manning, W. P., and Wood, H.S., Guidelines for glycol dehydrator design – Part 1.
Hydrocarbon Processing, 1993

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

64

Nafta-Gaz, Maćkowice Dehydration Facility Operating Manual, Nafta-Gas, 2004

Pontiff, M.E., Process optimization review, Newfield Exploration Co., 2005,

Regional Department of Gas Transport in Tarnów (ROP Tarnów), materials from conference
accompanying the opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, 21
st
January 2005

Robinson, J.N., Wichert, E., Petrofina Canada Ltd.; Moore, R.G., Heideman, R.A., Estimation
of the Water Content of Sour Natural Gases, University of Calgary, SPE Journal, August 1977

Rojey, A., Claude Jaffret , Sylvie Cornot-Gandolphe, Bernard Durand, Sophie Jullian, Michel
Valais, Natural Gas Production Processing Transport, Institut Francais du Petrole
Publications, Translation (updated and expanded) of Le gaz naturel. Production. Traitement.
Transport, Editions Technip, Paris, 1994

Rosman, A., Water Equilibrium in the ehydration of Natural Gas With Triethylene Glycol,
1973

Sivalls, C.R., Glycol Dehydration Design Manual, Laurence Reid Gas Conditioning
Conference, Processing Gas Cond. Conference, University of Oklahoma, Okla., 1976

Sloan, Jr., E., Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gas, 1997, copyright 1998 by Marcel Dekker,
Inc., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY
www.dekker.com

Stosur, S., Cooperation of Mackowice Dehydration Facility with national gas transport
system, conference accompanying opening of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, 21
st
January
2005

Tannehill, C.C., Echterhoff, L. W. , and Leppin, D., The Cost of Conditioning Your Natural
Gas for Market, 73
rd
Annual GPA Convention, New Orleans, LA, March, 1994

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

65
Trent, R.E., Dehydration with Molecular Sieves. Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning
Conference, Norman, OK, February, 2001
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

66

Tables

Table 2. 1 Physical Properties of Commercial Glycols (reproduced from Daubert and Danner,
1985)

Ethylene
glycol
Diethylene
glycol
Triethylene
glycol
Tetraethylene
glycol
Abbreviation EG DEG TEG T
4
EG (TrEG)
Overall chemical formula C
2
H
6
O
2
C
4
H
10
O
3
C
6
H
14
O
4
C
8
H
18
O
5

Molecular weight [kg/kmol] 62,068 106,122 150,175 194,228
Melting point [
o
C] -13,00 -10,45 -7,35 -5,00
Boiling point at 101325 Pa [
o
C] 197,30 245,00 277,85 307,85
Vapor pressure at 25
o
C [Pa] 12,24 0,27 0,05 0,007
Density at 25
o
C [kg/m
3
] 1110 1115 1122 1122
Absolute viscosity at 25
o
C
[Pa·s]
0,01771 0,03021 0,03673 0,04271
Absolute viscosity at 60
o
C
[Pa·s]
0,00522 0,00787 0,00989 0,01063
Specific heat at 25
o
C [J/kg·K] 2395 2307 2190 2165
Flash point [
o
C] 111,11 123,89 176,67 196,11

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

67

Table 5. 1 Water contents of gas for given dew points in Maćkowice dehydration facility
pressure and dew point work-range (Nafta-Gaz, 2004)
P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,018 -27 0,025 -22,9 0,036 -18,8
27,6 0,017 -27,2 0,025 -23,1 0,035 -19
28,1 0,018 -26,9 0,026 -23,2 0,035 -18,8
28,7 0,018 -27,1 0,025 -22,8 0,035 -18,8
29,2 0,017 -27,5 0,024 -23,3 0,034 -19,3
29,8 0,017 -27,3 0,024 -23,2 0,034 -19,5
30,4 0,016 -27,9 0,023 -23,7 0,033 -19,6
30,9 0,016 -28,2 0,023 -23,9 0,032 -20
31,5 0,016 -28,1 0,023 -24,2 0,032 -20,3
32,0 0,016 -28,5 0,022 -24,4 0,031 -20,4
32,6 0,016 -28,5 0,022 -24,5 0,031 -20,6
33,2 0,015 -28,7 0,022 -24,6 0,03 -20,7
33,7 0,015 -28,9 0,021 -24,9 0,03 -20,7
34,3 0,015 -29,1 0,021 -25,1 0,03 -21,1
34,8 0,014 -29,2 0,021 -25,3 0,029 -21,3
35,4 0,015 -29,1 0,02 -25,3 0,028 -21,5
36,0 0,014 -29,3 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,6
36,5 0,014 -29,9 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,9
37,1 0,014 -29,7 0,019 -26 0,027 -22 0,039 -18,2
37,6 0,013 -30,4 0,019 -26,1 0,027 -22,2 0,037 -18,3
38,2 0,013 -30,5 0,019 -26 0,026 -22,4 0,037 -18,5
38,8 0,013 -30,6 0,019 -26,2 0,026 -22,5 0,036 -18,5
39,3 0,013 -30,8 0,018 -26,6 0,026 -22,6 0,035 -18,7
39,9 0,012 -30,9 0,018 -26,7 0,025 -22,8 0,035 -18,8

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

68
Table 5. 2 Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 1 of 4)
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C -40 -40,00 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Comp Mole Frac NG 1 0 0,999822 0,998802 0,994062 0,977004 0,926761 0,800924 0,525055 0,032416 0,032416 0,032416
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 1,78E-04 1,20E-03 5,94E-03 2,30E-02 7,32E-02 0,199076 0,474945 0,967584 0,967584 0,967584
Z Factor 0,995188 8,81E-04 0,995188 0,996218 0,996996 0,997576 0,997954 0,997932 0,996642 0,991957 0,993004 0,993883
Mass Density kg/m3 0,853712 1054,49 0,853289 0,785442 0,727702 0,678777 0,638188 0,606935 0,587882 0,583746 0,553466 0,526208
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,46115 16,46774 16,47688 16,504 16,58206 16,77682 17,20343 17,965 17,965 17,965
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
] = 0,135562 0,913126 4,524305 17,52095 55,8042 151,6903 361,9035 737,3064 737,3215 737,3351
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,59685 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure Kpa 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999928 0,999515 0,997606 0,990742 0,970541 0,919972 0,80903 0,590953 0,20153 0,032416
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 7,20E-05 4,85E-04 2,39E-03 9,26E-03 2,95E-02 8,00E-02 0,19097 0,409047 0,79847 0,967584
Z Factor 0,992517 2,21E-03 0,987959 0,990553 0,99251 0,994001 0,995118 0,995834 0,995826 0,993959 0,98718 0,984592
Mass Density kg/m3 1,826639 1054,953 2,147638 1,973988 1,826606 1,700705 1,593395 1,503793 1,433335 1,386413 1,371575 1,327933
Molecular Wright 16,46942 18,0151 16,45213 16,46217 16,46902 16,48134 16,51343 16,59211 16,76397 17,10139 17,70357 17,965
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,054844 0,369326 1,823647 7,053893 22,44607 60,97907 145,5172 311,697 608,453 737,3351
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,6056 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999963 0,999754 0,998788 0,995321 0,985134 0,959664 0,903817 0,793934 0,596676 0,270738
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 3,67E-05 2,46E-04 1,21E-03 4,68E-03 1,49E-02 4,03E-02 9,62E-02 0,206066 0,403324 0,729262
Z Factor 0,985064 4,42E-03 0,975872 0,981116 0,985059 0,988072 0,990382 0,992091 0,993106 0,99289 0,9899 0,980576
Mass Density kg/m3 3,680918 1055,034 4,345989 3,984439 3,679663 3,419901 3,197366 3,007565 2,849244 2,724768 2,641157 2,612049
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,44272 16,45592 16,46374 16,4721 16,48937 16,52963 16,61655 16,78691 17,09231 17,59653
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,02794 0,187523 0,923569 3,565226 11,327 30,73496 73,29028 157,0241 307,3425 555,7249
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,61348 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999975 0,999833 0,999181 0,996847 0,989998 0,972894 0,935425 0,861717 0,729221 0,509163
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 2,49E-05 1,67E-04 8,19E-04 3,15E-03 1,00E-02 2,71E-02 6,46E-02 0,138283 0,270779 0,490837
Z Factor 0,977643 6,62E-03 0,963736 0,971687 0,977642 0,982186 0,985684 0,988345 0,990195 0,990927 0,989531 0,983602
Mass Density kg/m3 5,563285 1055,113 6,598667 6,032949 5,560168 5,159245 4,816303 4,522551 4,273601 4,069508 3,915565 3,82412
Molecular Wright 16,46942 18,0151 16,43672 16,45126 16,46018 16,46779 16,48047 16,50811 16,56683 16,68139 16,88681 17,22757
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,018981 0,12696 0,623664 2,402648 7,621263 20,65389 49,20551 105,3731 206,3396 374,036
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

69
Table 5.2b Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 2 of 4)
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,62119 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999981 0,999873 0,999378 0,997609 0,992429 0,979508 0,95123 0,895629 0,795648 0,629204
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 1,90E-05 1,27E-04 6,22E-04 2,39E-03 7,57E-03 2,05E-02 4,88E-02 0,104371 0,204352 0,370796
Z Factor 0,970258 8,83E-03 0,951549 0,962267 0,97026 0,976344 0,981032 0,984633 0,987268 0,988768 0,988409 0,984385
Mass Density kg/m3 7,474177 1055,192 8,908599 8,120855 7,468663 6,918913 6,450217 6,048684 5,706312 5,420531 5,194701 5,039737
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,43247 16,44758 16,45732 16,46484 16,47543 16,49689 16,54156 16,62825 16,78348 17,04149
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,014508 0,096707 0,473805 1,821597 5,768893 15,61413 37,16258 79,53179 155,7211 282,5601
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,63688 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999987 0,999913 0,999575 0,998371 0,994859 0,98612 0,967032 0,929551 0,862171 0,749796
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 1,32E-05 8,73E-05 4,25E-04 1,63E-03 5,14E-03 1,39E-02 3,30E-02 7,04E-02 0,137829 0,250204
Z Factor 0,955599 1,32E-02 0,927023 0,943466 0,955612 0,964803 0,971871 0,977337 0,981485 0,984334 0,985479 0,983751
Mass Density kg/m3 11,38324 1055,351 13,7116 12,41986 11,37161 10,4998 9,762924 9,134077 8,596383 8,140997 7,766747 7,481237
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,42667 16,44207 16,45281 16,46059 16,46936 16,48483 16,51558 16,57444 16,6794 16,85395
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,010051 0,066516 0,324139 1,241031 3,917547 10,57614 25,12137 53,68303 105,0286 190,6648
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,65348 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,99999 0,999932 0,999673 0,998752 0,996072 0,989423 0,97493 0,946511 0,895465 0,810293
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 1,03E-05 6,76E-05 3,27E-04 1,25E-03 3,93E-03 1,06E-02 2,51E-02 5,35E-02 0,104535 0,189707
Z Factor 0,941109 1,77E-02 0,902296 0,924731 0,941132 0,953463 0,962913 0,970226 0,975846 0,979939 0,982294 0,982086
Mass Density kg/m3 15,41135 1055,511 18,77865 16,89122 15,39215 14,16351 13,13523 12,263 11,51855 10,88526 10,35645 9,93579
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,42274 16,43809 16,44932 16,45741 16,46545 16,47806 16,50195 16,54694 16,62675 16,75932
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,007838 0,051486 0,249505 0,951245 2,992914 8,059008 19,10334 40,75873 79,65841 144,5639
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,69075 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999993 0,999952 0,99977 0,999131 0,997283 0,992722 0,98282 0,963464 0,928768 0,870911
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 7,43E-06 4,80E-05 2,30E-04 8,69E-04 2,72E-03 7,28E-03 1,72E-02 3,65E-02 7,12E-02 0,129089
Z Factor 0,912718 2,65E-02 0,852287 0,887568 0,912768 0,931448 0,945642 0,956597 0,96508 0,97151 0,975949 0,977969
Mass Density kg/m3 23,83609 1055,832 29,81105 26,38896 23,79828 21,74116 20,05625 18,64756 17,45501 16,44117 15,58522 14,88087
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,41739 16,43263 16,44419 16,45267 16,46018 16,4701 16,48725 16,51844 16,5731 16,66352
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,005662 0,036597 0,175293 0,662485 2,070397 5,545669 13,09114 27,84049 54,28041 98,37066
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

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Table 5.2c Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 3 of 4)
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,73488 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999994 0,999962 0,999818 0,999319 0,997885 0,994366 0,986757 0,971931 0,945414 0,901254
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 6,06E-06 3,85E-05 1,82E-04 6,81E-04 2,11E-03 5,63E-03 1,32E-02 2,81E-02 5,46E-02 9,87E-02
Z Factor 0,885287 3,53E-02 0,801717 0,851043 0,885364 0,910429 0,929306 0,943805 0,955041 0,963674 0,969976 0,973769
Mass Density kg/m3 32,76622 1056,157 42,24562 36,68723 32,70598 29,6512 27,2057 25,19285 23,50623 22,07962 20,87337 19,8684
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,41364 16,42899 16,44057 16,44921 16,4565 16,46516 16,47901 16,50335 16,54545 16,61474
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,004616 0,029307 0,138633 0,519165 1,611285 4,292802 10,09099 21,38908 41,59576 75,24829
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,78728 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000 5000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999995 0,999967 0,999846 0,99943 0,998245 0,995349 0,989113 0,977002 0,955393 0,919462
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 5,29E-06 3,29E-05 1,54E-04 5,70E-04 1,76E-03 4,65E-03 1,09E-02 2,30E-02 4,46E-02 8,05E-02
Z Factor 0,859054 4,41E-02 0,75104 0,815533 0,859158 0,890549 9,14E-01 0,9319 0,945766 0,95648 0,964497 0,969835
Mass Density kg/m3 42,20853 1056,488 56,36004 47,8481 42,12253 37,88522 34,5712 31,88647 29,66101 27,79094 26,21273 24,89146
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,41068 16,42634 16,43786 16,44653 16,45369 16,46161 16,47349 16,49374 16,5283 16,58489
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,00403 0,025071 0,117018 0,434047 1,337547 3,544099 8,295609 17,52469 33,99159 61,37301
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,99151 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000 8000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,999975 0,999887 0,999594 0,998775 0,996808 0,992626 0,984579 0,970326 0,94675
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 4,41E-06 2,54E-05 1,13E-04 4,06E-04 1,22E-03 3,19E-03 7,37E-03 1,54E-02 2,97E-02 5,32E-02
Z Factor 0,790396 7,06E-02 0,612019 0,7209 0,790572 0,839223 0,874918 0,901925 0,922745 0,938915 0,951349 0,960475
Mass Density kg/m3 73,39992 1057,511 110,6143 86,57958 73,21987 64,3026 57,76382 52,6919 48,61259 45,2535 42,4498 40,10192
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,40396 16,42122 16,43267 16,44117 16,44798 16,45474 16,46367 16,47777 16,50101 16,53849
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,003357 0,019317 0,086119 0,309711 0,933332 2,431904 5,619164 11,75109 22,61243 40,57841
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -41,10392 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,999979 0,999919 0,999738 0,99927 0,998209 0,996052 0,992041 0,985125 0,973919
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 4,27E-06 2,09E-05 8,10E-05 2,62E-04 7,30E-04 1,79E-03 3,95E-03 7,96E-03 1,49E-02 2,61E-02
Z Factor 0,735116 0,176007 0,623604 0,677581 0,735258 0,788426 0,833824 0,871305 0,901826 0,926502 0,946273 0,961818
Mass Density kg/m3 197,299 1061,048 271,1565 230,1548 196,7218 171,0245 151,4395 136,2668 124,2411 114,5037 106,4832 99,80019
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,38932 16,4118 16,42444 16,43259 16,43851 16,4436 16,44918 16,45682 16,46845 16,48651
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,003252 0,015889 0,061717 0,199802 0,556253 1,364449 3,008631 6,064803 11,3351 19,87495
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

71
Table 5.2d Water content calculation with use of Hysys application (page 4 of 4)
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,99604 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000 30000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,99998 0,999926 0,999768 0,999375 0,998511 0,996801 0,99369 0,988416 0,979989
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 4,13E-06 1,98E-05 7,44E-05 2,32E-04 6,25E-04 1,49E-03 3,20E-03 6,31E-03 1,16E-02 2,00E-02
Z Factor 0,836617 0,26321 0,787539 0,808816 0,836689 0,867052 0,896785 0,924049 0,948025 0,968509 0,985585 0,999408
Mass Density kg/m3 260,043 1063,782 321,9708 289,1354 259,2511 233,2235 211,1631 192,6839 177,2246 164,2381 153,2648 143,9466
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,38437 16,40719 16,42069 16,42906 16,43479 16,43938 16,44403 16,45003 16,45887 16,47242
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,003146 0,015052 0,056669 0,177091 0,476543 1,134202 2,437416 4,808525 8,827251 15,24902
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,93605 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000 40000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,999981 0,99993 0,999785 0,999433 0,998674 0,997197 0,994549 0,99012 0,983118
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 3,98E-06 1,88E-05 6,99E-05 2,15E-04 5,67E-04 1,33E-03 2,80E-03 5,45E-03 9,88E-03 1,69E-02
Z Factor 0,964618 0,349965 0,955701 0,956455 0,964662 0,97742 0,992353 1,007714 1,022349 1,03557 1,046991 1,056396
Mass Density kg/m3 300,7149 1066,491 353,6698 325,9354 299,7577 275,8061 254,3943 235,5396 219,0746 204,7493 192,2995 181,4849
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,38031 16,40366 16,41775 16,42638 16,43209 16,43644 16,44059 16,44569 16,45305 16,46424
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,00303 0,014345 0,053222 0,163468 0,431976 1,010212 2,136093 4,153622 7,529158 12,86498
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,89911 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000 50000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,999982 0,999934 0,999799 0,999474 0,998783 0,997455 0,9951 0,991199 0,985083
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 3,83E-06 1,80E-05 6,63E-05 2,01E-04 5,26E-04 1,22E-03 2,54E-03 4,90E-03 8,80E-03 1,49E-02
Z Factor 1,098653 0,436294 1,121822 1,105999 1,09869 1,097277 1,099654 1,104182 1,109651 1,115204 1,120244 1,124344
Mass Density kg/m3 330,035 1069,161 376,5492 352,2691 328,9393 307,0578 286,9262 268,664 252,2582 237,6145 224,5998 213,0735
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,37712 16,40077 16,4153 16,42416 16,42991 16,43412 16,43795 16,44248 16,4489 16,45861
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,002921 0,013729 0,050478 0,153415 0,400888 0,927037 1,939258 3,733471 6,7066 11,36711
Name NG Water In SatGas SatGas Sargas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C 0 -40,87408 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000
Comp Mole Frac Methane 1 0 0,999996 0,999983 0,999937 0,999809 0,999505 0,998865 0,997644 0,995497 0,991965 0,986465
Comp Mole Frac H2O 0 1 3,70E-06 1,73E-05 6,32E-05 1,91E-04 4,95E-04 1,13E-03 2,36E-03 4,50E-03 8,04E-03 1,35E-02
Z Factor 1,233769 0,522215 1,285294 1,254669 1,233811 1,220082 1,211407 1,206158 1,203081 1,201229 1,199886 1,198501
Mass Density kg/m3 352,6695 1071,786 394,3253 372,5774 351,4535 331,3435 312,5132 295,1048 279,1653 264,6765 251,5814 239,806
Molecular Weight 16,46942 18,0151 16,3745 16,3983 16,41319 16,42226 16,42806 16,4322 16,43581 16,43994 16,4457 16,45438
c [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]= 0,002819 0,013185 0,048174 0,145359 0,376912 0,864803 1,795334 3,431505 6,122926 10,31423
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

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Table 5. 3 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [g
H2O
/Sm
3
]
Temperature C
Pressure
[kPa] -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
100 0,135562 0,913126 4,524305 17,52095 55,8042 151,6903 361,9035 737,3064
250 0,054844 0,369326 1,823647 7,053893 22,44607 60,97907 145,5172 311,697 608,453 737,3351
500 0,02794 0,187523 0,923569 3,565226 11,327 30,73496 73,29028 157,0241 307,3425 555,7249
750 0,018981 0,12696 0,623664 2,402648 7,621263 20,65389 49,20551 105,3731 206,3396 374,036
1000 0,014508 0,096707 0,473805 1,821597 5,768893 15,61413 37,16258 79,53179 155,7211 282,5601
1500 0,010051 0,066516 0,324139 1,241031 3,917547 10,57614 25,12137 53,68303 105,0286 190,6648
2000 0,007838 0,051486 0,249505 0,951245 2,992914 8,059008 19,10334 40,75873 79,65841 144,5639
3000 0,005662 0,036597 0,175293 0,662485 2,070397 5,545669 13,09114 27,84049 54,28041 98,37066
4000 0,004616 0,029307 0,138633 0,519165 1,611285 4,292802 10,09099 21,38908 41,59576 75,24829
5000 0,00403 0,025071 0,117018 0,434047 1,337547 3,544099 8,295609 17,52469 33,99159 61,37301
8000 0,003357 0,019317 0,086119 0,309711 0,933332 2,431904 5,619164 11,75109 22,61243 40,57841
20000 0,003252 0,015889 0,061717 0,199802 0,556253 1,364449 3,008631 6,064803 11,3351 19,87495
30000 0,003146 0,015052 0,056669 0,177091 0,476543 1,134202 2,437416 4,808525 8,827251 15,24902
40000 0,00303 0,014345 0,053222 0,163468 0,431976 1,010212 2,136093 4,153622 7,529158 12,86498
50000 0,002921 0,013729 0,050478 0,153415 0,400888 0,927037 1,939258 3,733471 6,7066 11,36711
60000 0,002819 0,013185 0,048174 0,145359 0,376912 0,864803 1,795334 3,431505 6,122926 10,31423

Table 5. 4 Water content of natural gas after Hysys [g
H2O
/Nm
3
]
Temperature C
Pressure
[kPa] -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
100 0,14301 0,963297 4,772893 18,48364 58,87037 160,025 381,7883 777,8178 777,8337 777,848
250 0,057858 0,389619 1,923847 7,44147 23,67937 64,32957 153,5127 328,8232 641,8845 777,848
500 0,029475 0,197827 0,974314 3,761118 11,94936 32,42369 77,31722 165,6518 324,2294 586,2593
750 0,020024 0,133935 0,657931 2,534662 8,040013 21,78872 51,90911 111,1628 217,6769 394,5874
1000 0,015305 0,102021 0,499838 1,921685 6,085865 16,47204 39,20448 83,90167 164,2772 298,0854
1500 0,010603 0,070171 0,341949 1,30922 4,132796 11,15725 26,50166 56,63265 110,7994 201,1409
2000 0,008269 0,054315 0,263214 1,003511 3,15736 8,501811 20,15298 42,99822 84,03524 152,507
3000 0,005973 0,038607 0,184924 0,698885 2,184155 5,850376 13,81044 29,37018 57,26286 103,7756
4000 0,00487 0,030917 0,14625 0,54769 1,699817 4,528671 10,64545 22,56431 43,88124 79,38281
5000 0,004251 0,026449 0,123447 0,457895 1,411039 3,73883 8,751411 18,48759 35,85926 64,74515
8000 0,003542 0,020379 0,090851 0,326728 0,984614 2,565526 5,92791 12,39675 23,85487 42,80799
20000 0,003431 0,016762 0,065108 0,21078 0,586816 1,439419 3,17394 6,398034 11,95791 20,96698
30000 0,003319 0,015879 0,059783 0,186821 0,502727 1,19652 2,57134 5,07273 9,312264 16,08687
40000 0,003197 0,015133 0,056146 0,172449 0,455711 1,065718 2,25346 4,381843 7,942848 13,57185
50000 0,003081 0,014483 0,053251 0,161845 0,422915 0,977973 2,045811 3,938607 7,075094 11,99168
60000 0,002974 0,01391 0,050821 0,153346 0,397621 0,912319 1,893979 3,620049 6,45935 10,88095
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

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Table 5. 5 Water content on basis of gas stream flow (after Hysys)
Name SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000
CompMassFlowH2O kg/h 1,23E-02 5,76E-02 0,210783 0,636424 1,651129 3,790811 7,876656 15,07368 26,94011 45,46727
Std Gas Flow STD_m3/h 4362,565 4370,501 4375,293 4378,339 4380,861 4383,751 4387,715 4393,253 4400,49 4408,903
c= 0,00282 0,013186 0,048176 0,145357 0,376896 0,864741 1,795161 3,431096 6,122071 10,31261


Table 5. 6 Water content comparison between Clapeyron equation based solution and flows based solution (after Hysys)
Name SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas SatGas
Temperature C -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Pressure kPa 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000 60000
c_flow= 0,002819812 0,013186 0,048176 0,145357 0,376896 0,864741 1,795161 3,431096 6,122071 10,31261
c_Clapeyron= 0,002819467 0,013185 0,048174 0,145359 0,376912 0,864803 1,795334 3,431505 6,122926 10,31423
Difference 3,45153E-07 9,43E-07 1,36E-06 -1,4E-06 -1,6E-05 -6,1E-05 -0,00017 -0,00041 -0,00085 -0,00163
Percent Difference 0,012 0,007 0,003 -0,001 -0,004 -0,007 -0,010 -0,012 -0,014 -0,016
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

74

Table 5. 7 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from
manual and Hysys package
P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C
% Tr[C] % Tr[C] % Tr[C] % Tr[C]
27,0 20,7048 -27 21,875 -22,9 21,7391 -18,8
27,6 23,7907 -27,2 21,875 -23,1 22,2222 -19
28,1 18,1297 -26,9 16,129 -23,2 22,2222 -18,8
28,7 16,7322 -27,1 19,3548 -22,8 20,4545 -18,8
29,2 18,2692 -27,5 20 -23,3 20,9302 -19,3
29,8 19,0476 -27,3 20 -23,2 15 -19,5
30,4 15,7895 -27,9 14,8148 -23,7 15,1671 -19,6
30,9 13,9785 -28,2 11,5385 -23,9 15,7895 -20
31,5 12,759 -28,1 11,5385 -24,2 15,1194 -20,3
32,0 5,88235 -28,5 15,3846 -24,4 16,442 -20,4
32,6 5,88235 -28,5 10,2041 -24,5 11,4286 -20,6
33,2 6,25 -28,7 4,34783 -24,6 14,2857 -20,7
33,7 6,25 -28,9 8,69565 -24,9 11,7647 -20,7
34,3 3,22581 -29,1 6,66667 -25,1 6,25 -21,1
34,8 9,67742 -29,2 5,8296 -25,3 3,33333 -21,3
35,4 1,96078 -29,1 9,09091 -25,3 3,44828 -21,5
36,0 6,66667 -29,3 0 -25,8 0 -21,6
36,5 0 -29,9 0 -25,8 0 -21,9
37,1 0 -29,7 0 -26 3,57143 -22 -2,6316 -18,2
37,6 2,98507 -30,4 0 -26,1 3,57143 -22,2 1,06952 -18,3
38,2 1,51515 -30,5 0 -26 5,45455 -22,4 -1,9284 -18,5
38,8 0 -30,6 0 -26,2 0 -22,5 -0,5587 -18,5
39,3 -8,3333 -30,8 3,22581 -26,6 0 -22,6 0 -18,7
39,9 0 -30,9 0 -26,7 0 -22,8 -1,4493 -18,8


47,2 0 -32,4 -15,385 -28,7 -12,821 -24,5 -16,667 -20,9
47,7 0 -32,6 -20 -28,8 -15,789 -24,7 -16,667 -20,8
48,3 0 -32,7 -20,968 -28,9 -18,644 -24,8 -17 -21
48,8 0 -32,8 -21,951 -29 -20 -24,9 -14,828 -21,2
49,4 0 -32,9 -22,951 -29,1 -20,69 -25,1 -15,517 -21,2
50,0 0 -33 -23,967 -29,2 -21,387 -25,1 -16,207 -21,4
50,5 0 -33,1 -16,667 -29,3 -22,093 -25 -17,857 -21,5
51,1 0 -33,1 -16,667 -29,4 -25 -25,7 -18,571 -21,6
51,6 0 -33,2 -21,739 -29,5 -28,205 -25,8 -21,429 -21,8
52,2 0 -33,3 -27,273 -29,6 -29,87 -25,9 -21,786 -21,9
52,8 0 -33,4 -30,841 -29,7 -24,183 -26 -19,63 -21,9
53,3 0 -33,5 -32,075 -29,8 -25 -26,1 -20 -22,1
53,9 0 -33,6 -33,333 -29,9 -25,828 -26,2 -20,37 -22,2
54,4 0 -33,7 -33,333 -30 -26,667 -26,3 -18,846 -22,4
55,0 0 -33,8 -25 -30,1 -26,667 -26,4 -21,154 -22,5

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

75

Table 5. 8 Percent difference of amount of water saturating gas between values obtained from
manual and article according to P. Gandhidasan
P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C
% Tr[C] % Tr[C] % Tr[C] % Tr[C]
27,0 -12,96 -27 -25,288 -22,9 -44,074 -18,8
27,6 -7,8619 -27,2 -26,67 -23,1 -41,617 -19
28,1 -12,342 -26,9 -32,462 -23,2 -40,072 -18,8
28,7 -13,582 -27,1 -24,602 -22,8 -40,072 -18,8
29,2 -9,6518 -27,5 -22,945 -23,3 -39,854 -19,3
29,8 -8,4553 -27,3 -22,272 -23,2 -41,397 -19,5
30,4 -5,4914 -27,9 -20,436 -23,7 -37,993 -19,6
30,9 -7,242 -28,2 -21,765 -23,9 -36,781 -20
31,5 -6,6552 -28,1 -23,786 -24,2 -39,05 -20,3
32,0 -9,0216 -28,5 -19,71 -24,4 -35,446 -20,4
32,6 -9,0216 -28,5 -20,368 -24,5 -36,94 -20,6
33,2 -3,3354 -28,7 -21,031 -24,6 -33,252 -20,7
33,7 -4,4754 -28,9 -17,446 -24,9 -33,252 -20,7
34,3 -5,628 -29,1 -18,742 -25,1 -36,208 -21,1
34,8 0,8715 -29,2 -20,052 -25,3 -33,121 -21,3
35,4 -5,628 -29,1 -14,335 -25,3 -29,948 -21,5
36,0 0,32618 -29,3 -17,515 -25,8 -30,663 -21,6
36,5 -3,0093 -29,9 -17,515 -25,8 -32,831 -21,9
37,1 -1,8853 -29,7 -12,871 -26 -28,792 -22 -51,026 -18,2
37,6 1,68842 -30,4 -13,492 -26,1 -30,213 -22,2 -44,07 -18,3
38,2 1,1476 -30,5 -12,871 -26 -26,774 -22,4 -45,659 -18,5
38,8 0,6038 -30,6 -14,116 -26,2 -27,471 -22,5 -41,722 -18,5
39,3 -0,4928 -30,8 -10,509 -26,6 -28,172 -22,6 -39,306 -18,7
39,9 6,72712 -30,9 -11,117 -26,7 -24,602 -22,8 -40,072 -18,8


47,2 7,16637 -32,4 -3,3354 -28,7 -20,368 -24,5 -34,722 -20,9
47,7 6,14217 -32,6 -3,9038 -28,8 -21,696 -24,7 -33,985 -20,8
48,3 5,62585 -32,7 -4,4754 -28,9 -16,804 -24,8 -35,463 -21
48,8 13,7333 -32,8 -5,0501 -29 -17,446 -24,9 -32,392 -21,2
49,4 13,2588 -32,9 -5,628 -29,1 -18,742 -25,1 -32,392 -21,2
50,0 12,7816 -33 -6,2091 -29,2 -18,742 -25,1 -33,853 -21,4
50,5 12,3018 -33,1 0,32618 -29,3 -18,092 -25 -29,948 -21,5
51,1 12,3018 -33,1 -0,2221 -29,4 -16,872 -25,7 -30,663 -21,6
51,6 11,8194 -33,2 -0,7735 -29,5 -17,515 -25,8 -32,105 -21,8
52,2 11,3343 -33,3 -1,3278 -29,6 -18,161 -25,9 -32,831 -21,9
52,8 10,8465 -33,4 -1,8853 -29,7 -12,871 -26 -28,088 -21,9
53,3 10,3561 -33,5 -2,4457 -29,8 -13,492 -26,1 -29,501 -22,1
53,9 9,86292 -33,6 -3,0093 -29,9 -14,116 -26,2 -30,213 -22,2
54,4 9,36706 -33,7 -3,576 -30 -14,744 -26,3 -26,774 -22,4
55,0 17,9816 -33,8 3,29321 -30,1 -15,375 -26,4 -27,471 -22,5

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

76
Table 5. 9 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
Water saturation temperature
P [bar] -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18
27 14,87 16,33 17,92 19,65 21,52 23,56 25,77 28,17 30,76 33,57 36,61 39,89 43,43 43,79 44,17 44,54 44,92 45,30 45,68 46,07 46,46 46,85 47,25
27,6 14,61 16,04 17,60 19,30 21,14 23,15 25,32 27,67 30,22 32,97 35,95 39,17 42,64 43,01 43,37 43,74 44,11 44,48 44,86 45,24 45,62 46,01 46,39
28,1 14,40 15,81 17,35 19,02 20,84 22,81 24,95 27,27 29,78 32,49 35,43 38,60 42,02 42,38 42,74 43,10 43,46 43,83 44,20 44,58 44,95 45,33 45,71
28,7 14,16 15,55 17,06 18,71 20,49 22,43 24,53 26,81 29,27 31,94 34,82 37,94 41,30 41,65 42,00 42,36 42,72 43,08 43,44 43,81 44,18 44,55 44,93
29,2 13,97 15,34 16,83 18,45 20,21 22,12 24,19 26,44 28,87 31,50 34,34 37,41 40,72 41,07 41,42 41,77 42,12 42,48 42,83 43,20 43,56 43,93 44,30
29,8 13,75 15,09 16,56 18,16 19,89 21,77 23,80 26,01 28,40 30,98 33,78 36,80 40,06 40,40 40,74 41,08 41,43 41,78 42,13 42,49 42,85 43,21 43,57
30,4 13,53 14,86 16,30 17,87 19,58 21,42 23,43 25,60 27,95 30,49 33,24 36,21 39,42 39,75 40,09 40,43 40,77 41,11 41,46 41,81 42,16 42,52 42,87
30,9 13,36 14,67 16,10 17,65 19,33 21,15 23,13 25,34 27,59 30,10 32,81 35,74 38,90 39,23 39,57 39,90 40,24 40,58 40,92 41,26 41,61 41,96 42,31
31,5 13,17 14,46 15,86 17,38 19,04 20,84 22,78 24,89 27,17 29,64 32,31 35,20 38,31 38,63 38,96 39,29 39,62 39,96 40,29 40,63 40,98 41,32 41,67
32 13,01 14,28 15,67 17,17 18,81 20,58 22,50 24,59 26,84 29,28 31,91 34,76 37,83 38,15 38,48 38,80 39,13 39,46 39,79 40,13 40,46 40,80 41,15
32,6 12,83 14,08 15,45 16,93 18,54 20,29 22,18 24,23 26,45 28,85 31,45 34,25 37,28 37,60 37,91 38,23 38,56 38,88 39,21 39,54 39,87 40,21 40,54
33,2 12,65 13,89 15,23 16,70 18,28 20,00 21,87 23,89 26,08 28,45 31,00 33,77 36,75 37,06 37,37 37,69 38,01 38,33 38,65 38,97 39,30 39,63 39,96
33,7 12,51 13,73 15,06 16,26 18,07 19,78 21,62 23,62 25,78 28,12 30,65 33,37 36,32 36,63 36,94 37,25 37,56 37,88 38,20 38,52 38,84 39,17 39,50
34,3 12,35 13,55 14,86 16,29 17,83 19,51 21,33 23,46 25,43 27,74 30,23 32,92 35,82 36,13 36,43 36,74 37,05 37,36 37,67 37,99 38,31 38,63 38,96
34,8 12,21 13,41 14,70 16,11 17,64 19,30 21,10 23,04 25,15 27,43 29,89 32,55 35,42 35,72 36,02 36,33 36,63 36,94 37,25 37,57 37,88 38,20 38,52
35,4 12,06 13,24 14,52 15,91 17,42 19,05 20,83 22,75 24,83 27,07 29,50 32,13 34,96 35,25 35,55 35,85 36,15 36,46 36,76 37,07 37,38 37,70 38,01
36 11,91 13,08 5,49 15,71 17,20 18,81 20,56 22,46 24,51 26,73 29,13 31,72 34,51 34,80 35,09 35,39 35,69 35,99 36,29 36,60 36,90 37,21 37,52
36,5 11,79 12,94 14,19 15,55 17,02 18,62 20,35 22,23 24,26 26,45 28,82 31,39 34,15 34,44 34,73 35,02 35,31 35,61 35,91 36,21 36,51 36,82 37,13
37,1 11,66 12,79 14,03 15,37 16,82 18,40 20,11 21,96 23,96 26,13 28,47 31,00 33,73 34,01 34,30 34,59 34,88 35,17 35,47 35,76 36,06 36,36 36,67
37,6 11,54 12,67 13,89 15,22 16,66 18,22 19,91 21,74 23,73 25,87 28,19 30,69 33,39 33,67 33,95 34,24 34,53 34,82 35,11 35,40 35,70 36,00 36,30
38,2 11,41 12,52 13,73 15,04 16,47 18,01 19,68 21,49 23,45 25,57 27,86 30,33 32,99 33,27 33,55 33,83 34,12 34,40 34,69 34,98 35,27 35,57 35,87
38,8 11,29 12,39 13,58 14,87 16,28 17,81 19,46 21,25 23,18 25,27 27,54 29,98 32,61 32,88 33,16 33,44 33,72 34,00 34,29 34,57 34,86 35,16 35,45
39,3 11,19 12,27 13,46 14,74 16,13 17,64 19,28 21,05 22,97 25,04 27,28 29,69 32,30 32,57 32,85 33,12 33,40 33,68 33,96 34,25 34,53 34,82 35,11
39,9 11,07 12,14 13,31 14,58 15,96 17,45 19,07 20,82 22,71 24,76 26,97 29,36 31,94 32,21 32,48 32,75 33,03 33,30 33,58 33,86 34,15 34,43 34,72
47,2 9,90 10,85 11,88 13,01 14,23 15,55 16,98 18,52 20,20 22,00 23,96 26,06 28,33 28,57 28,81 29,05 29,29 29,53 29,78 30,03 30,28 30,53 30,78
47,7 9,83 10,78 11,80 12,92 14,13 15,44 16,86 18,39 20,05 21,85 23,79 25,88 28,13 28,36 28,60 28,84 29,08 29,32 29,57 29,81 30,06 30,31 30,56
48,3 9,75 10,69 11,71 12,82 14,01 15,31 16,72 18,24 19,89 21,67 23,59 25,66 27,89 28,12 28,36 28,60 28,83 29,07 29,31 29,56 29,80 30,05 30,30
48,8 9,69 10,62 11,63 12,73 13,92 15,21 16,61 18,12 19,75 21,52 23,43 25,48 27,70 27,93 28,16 28,40 28,63 28,87 29,11 29,35 29,59 29,84 30,09
49,4 9,62 10,54 11,55 12,63 13,81 15,09 16,48 17,98 19,60 21,35 23,24 25,27 27,47 27,70 27,93 28,16 28,40 28,63 28,87 29,11 29,35 29,59 29,84
50 9,55 10,46 11,46 12,54 13,71 14,98 16,35 17,84 19,44 21,18 23,05 25,07 27,25 27,48 27,71 27,94 28,17 28,40 28,64 28,88 29,11 29,36 29,60
50,5 9,49 10,40 11,39 12,46 13,62 14,88 16,25 17,72 19,32 21,04 22,90 24,91 27,07 27,30 27,52 27,75 27,98 28,22 28,45 28,69 28,92 29,16 29,40
51,1 9,42 10,33 11,31 12,37 13,52 14,77 16,13 17,59 19,17 20,88 22,73 24,72 26,86 27,09 27,31 27,54 27,77 28,00 28,23 28,46 28,70 28,93 29,17
51,6 9,37 10,27 11,24 12,30 13,44 14,69 16,03 17,48 19,05 20,75 22,58 24,56 26,69 26,91 27,14 27,36 27,59 27,82 28,05 28,05 28,51 28,75 28,99
52,2 9,30 10,20 11,16 12,21 13,35 14,58 15,91 17,36 18,92 20,60 22,42 24,38 26,49 26,71 26,93 27,16 27,38 27,61 27,84 28,07 28,30 28,53 28,77
52,8 9,24 10,13 11,09 12,13 13,26 14,48 15,80 17,23 18,78 20,45 22,25 24,20 26,30 26,51 26,73 26,96 27,18 27,40 27,63 27,86 28,09 28,32 28,55
53,3 9,19 10,07 11,02 12,06 13,18 14,40 15,71 17,13 18,67 20,33 22,12 24,05 26,14 26,35 26,57 26,79 27,01 27,24 27,46 27,69 27,92 28,15 28,38
53,9 9,13 10,01 10,95 11,98 13,09 14,30 15,60 17,02 18,54 20,19 21,97 23,88 25,95 26,17 26,38 26,60 26,82 27,04 27,27 27,49 27,72 27,95 28,18
54,4 9,09 9,95 10,89 11,92 13,02 14,22 15,52 16,92 18,44 20,07 21,84 23,75 25,80 26,01 26,23 26,45 26,66 26,89 27,11 27,33 27,56 27,78 28,01
55 9,03 9,89 10,83 11,84 12,94 14,13 15,42 16,81 18,31 19,94 21,69 23,58 25,62 25,83 26,05 26,26 26,48 26,70 26,92 27,14 27,36 27,59 27,82
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

77
Table 5. 10 Water amount in dehydrated gas [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
Water saturation temperature
P [bar] -31 -30 -29 -28 -27 46,39 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18
27 15,68 17,22 18,90 20,73 22,71 24,86 27,19 29,72 32,45 35,42 38,62 42,08 45,81 46,20 46,59 46,99 47,39 47,79 48,19 48,60 49,01 49,42 49,84
27,6 15,41 16,92 18,57 20,36 22,31 24,42 26,71 29,19 31,88 34,78 37,93 41,32 44,99 45,37 45,75 46,14 46,53 46,93 47,32 47,72 48,13 48,53 48,94
28,1 15,19 16,68 18,30 20,07 21,99 24,07 26,32 28,77 31,41 34,28 37,37 40,72 44,33 44,70 45,08 45,47 45,85 46,24 46,63 47,02 47,42 47,82 48,22
28,7 14,94 16,40 18,00 19,73 21,62 23,66 25,88 28,28 30,88 33,69 36,73 40,02 43,57 43,94 44,31 44,69 45,06 45,45 45,83 46,22 46,61 47,00 47,40
29,2 14,73 16,18 17,75 19,46 21,32 23,34 25,52 27,89 30,45 33,23 36,22 39,46 42,96 43,32 43,69 44,06 44,43 44,81 45,19 45,57 45,95 46,34 46,73
29,8 14,50 15,92 17,47 19,15 20,98 22,96 25,11 27,44 29,96 32,69 35,63 38,82 42,26 42,61 42,98 43,34 43,71 44,08 44,45 44,82 45,20 45,58 45,96
30,4 14,28 15,68 17,20 18,86 20,65 22,60 24,72 27,01 29,49 32,17 35,07 38,20 41,58 41,93 42,29 42,65 43,01 43,37 43,74 44,11 44,48 44,85 45,23
30,9 14,10 15,48 16,98 18,62 20,39 22,31 24,40 26,02 29,11 31,75 34,61 37,71 41,04 41,39 41,74 42,09 42,45 42,81 43,17 43,53 43,90 44,27 44,64
31,5 13,89 15,25 16,73 18,34 20,09 21,98 24,03 26,26 28,67 31,27 34,09 37,13 40,41 40,76 41,10 41,45 41,80 42,15 42,51 42,87 43,23 43,59 43,96
32 13,73 15,07 16,53 18,12 19,84 21,71 23,74 25,94 28,31 30,89 33,67 36,67 39,91 40,25 40,59 40,93 41,28 41,63 41,98 42,33 42,69 43,05 43,41
32,6 13,53 14,86 16,30 17,86 19,56 21,40 23,40 25,56 27,91 30,44 33,18 36,14 39,33 39,66 40,00 40,33 40,67 41,02 41,36 41,71 42,06 42,42 42,77
33,2 13,35 14,65 16,07 17,61 19,29 21,10 23,07 25,20 27,51 30,01 32,71 35,62 38,77 39,10 39,43 39,76 40,09 40,43 40,77 41,12 41,46 41,81 42,16
33,7 13,20 14,49 15,89 18,60 19,07 20,86 22,81 24,92 27,20 29,66 32,33 35,21 38,32 38,64 38,97 39,30 39,63 39,96 40,30 40,64 40,98 41,32 41,67
34,3 13,02 14,30 15,68 17,18 18,81 20,58 22,50 24,43 26,83 29,26 31,89 34,73 37,79 38,11 38,43 38,76 39,08 39,41 39,74 40,08 40,42 40,75 41,10
34,8 12,89 14,14 15,51 17,00 18,61 20,36 22,26 24,31 26,53 28,94 31,54 34,34 37,37 37,69 38,00 38,32 38,65 38,97 39,30 39,63 39,96 40,30 40,64
35,4 12,72 13,97 15,31 16,78 18,37 20,10 21,97 24,00 26,19 28,56 31,13 33,89 36,88 37,19 37,50 37,82 38,14 38,46 38,78 39,11 39,44 39,77 40,10
36 12,57 13,79 5,79 16,57 18,14 19,85 21,69 23,69 25,86 28,20 30,73 33,46 36,41 36,71 37,02 37,34 37,65 37,97 38,28 38,61 38,93 39,26 39,58
36,5 12,44 13,65 14,97 16,40 17,96 19,64 21,47 23,45 25,59 27,91 30,41 33,11 36,02 36,33 36,63 36,94 37,25 37,57 37,88 38,20 38,52 38,84 39,17
37,1 12,30 13,49 14,80 16,21 17,74 19,41 21,21 23,17 25,28 27,57 30,04 32,70 35,58 35,88 36,18 36,49 36,79 37,10 37,41 37,73 38,04 38,36 38,68
37,6 12,18 13,36 14,65 16,05 17,57 19,22 21,00 22,94 25,03 27,29 29,74 32,38 35,22 35,52 35,82 36,12 36,42 36,73 37,04 37,35 37,66 37,97 38,29
38,2 12,04 13,21 14,49 15,87 17,37 19,00 20,76 22,67 24,74 26,97 29,39 31,99 34,81 35,10 35,39 35,69 35,99 36,29 36,60 36,90 37,21 37,52 37,84
38,8 11,91 13,07 14,33 15,69 17,18 18,78 20,53 22,41 24,46 26,66 29,05 31,62 34,40 34,69 34,98 35,28 35,57 35,87 36,17 36,47 36,78 37,09 37,40
39,3 11,80 12,95 14,19 15,55 17,02 18,61 20,34 22,21 24,23 26,41 28,77 31,32 34,07 34,36 34,65 34,94 35,23 35,53 35,83 36,13 36,43 36,73 37,04
39,9 11,68 12,81 14,04 15,38 16,83 18,41 20,12 21,96 23,96 26,12 28,46 30,98 33,69 33,98 34,26 34,55 34,84 35,13 35,43 35,72 36,02 36,32 36,63
47,2 10,44 11,44 12,54 13,72 15,01 16,40 17,91 19,54 21,31 23,21 25,27 27,49 29,89 30,14 30,39 30,64 30,90 31,16 31,42 31,68 31,94 32,20 32,47
47,7 10,37 11,37 12,45 13,63 14,90 16,29 17,78 19,41 21,16 23,05 25,09 27,30 29,68 29,92 30,17 30,42 30,68 30,93 31,19 31,45 31,71 31,97 32,24
48,3 10,29 11,28 12,35 13,52 14,79 16,16 17,64 19,25 20,98 22,86 24,88 27,07 29,42 29,67 29,92 30,17 30,42 30,67 30,92 31,18 31,44 31,70 31,96
48,8 10,22 11,21 12,27 13,43 14,69 16,05 17,52 19,12 20,84 22,70 24,71 26,88 29,22 29,46 29,71 29,96 30,21 30,46 30,71 30,96 31,22 31,48 31,74
49,4 10,15 11,12 12,18 13,33 14,57 15,92 17,38 18,97 20,67 22,52 24,51 26,66 28,98 29,22 29,47 29,71 29,96 30,21 30,46 30,71 30,96 31,22 31,48
50 10,07 11,04 12,09 13,23 14,46 15,80 17,25 18,82 20,51 22,34 24,32 26,45 28,75 28,99 29,23 29,47 29,72 29,96 30,21 30,46 30,71 30,97 31,22
50,5 10,01 10,97 12,01 13,15 14,37 15,70 17,14 18,70 20,38 22,20 24,16 26,28 28,56 28,80 29,04 29,28 29,52 29,77 30,01 30,26 30,51 30,76 31,02
51,1 9,94 10,89 11,93 13,05 14,27 15,59 17,01 18,56 20,23 22,03 23,98 26,08 28,34 28,57 28,81 29,05 29,29 29,53 29,78 30,03 30,27 30,52 30,78
51,6 9,88 10,83 11,86 12,97 14,18 15,49 16,91 18,44 20,10 21,89 23,83 25,91 28,16 28,39 28,63 28,87 29,10 29,35 29,59 29,59 30,08 30,33 30,58
52,2 9,82 10,76 11,78 12,88 14,08 15,38 16,79 18,31 19,96 21,73 23,65 25,72 27,95 28,18 28,41 28,65 28,89 29,13 29,37 29,61 29,85 30,10 30,35
52,8 9,75 10,68 11,70 12,79 13,98 15,27 16,67 18,18 19,81 21,58 23,48 25,53 27,74 27,97 28,20 28,44 28,67 28,91 29,15 29,39 29,63 29,88 30,12
53,3 9,70 10,62 11,63 12,72 13,91 15,19 16,57 18,07 19,70 21,45 23,34 25,38 27,57 27,80 28,03 28,27 28,50 28,73 28,97 29,21 29,45 29,70 29,94
53,9 9,64 10,56 11,55 12,64 13,81 15,08 16,46 17,95 19,56 21,30 23,17 25,20 27,38 27,60 27,83 28,06 28,30 28,53 28,77 29,00 29,24 29,48 29,73
54,4 9,58 10,50 11,49 12,57 13,74 15,00 16,37 17,85 19,45 21,18 23,04 25,05 27,22 27,44 27,67 27,90 28,13 28,36 28,60 28,83 29,07 29,31 29,55
55 9,53 10,43 11,42 12,49 13,65 14,90 16,26 17,73 19,32 21,03 22,88 24,88 27,03 27,25 27,48 27,71 27,94 28,17 28,40 28,63 28,87 29,11 29,35
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

78
Table 5. 11 Amount of water in natural gas [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
Gas Temperature C Pressure
[bar]
10 15 20 25 30
27 383,22 530,95 726,48 982,30
27,6 375,97 520,84 712,56 963,37
28,1 370,16 512,74 701,41 948,21
28,7 363,47 503,40 688,56 930,72
29,2 358,10 495,92 678,25 916,70
29,8 351,90 487,27 666,34 900,51
30,4 345,95 478,97 654,91 884,96
30,9 341,17 472,30 645,72 872,47
31,5 335,64 464,58 635,09 858,01
32 331,19 458,37 626,54 846,37
32,6 326,03 451,17 616,63 832,89
33,2 321,06 444,24 607,08 819,90
33,7 317,06 438,65 599,39 809,43
34,3 312,41 432,17 590,46 797,28
34,8 308,67 426,94 583,25 787,48
35,4 304,31 420,86 574,88 776,08
36 300,11 414,99 566,79 765,07
36,5 296,71 410,25 560,25 756,18
37,1 292,76 404,73 552,65 745,83
37,6 289,56 400,27 546,50 737,46
38,2 285,84 395,07 539,34 727,71
38,8 282,24 390,04 532,40 718,26
39,3 279,32 385,96 526,78 710,62
39,9 275,92 381,21 520,23 701,70

47,2 241,64 333,30 454,15 611,68
47,7 239,69 330,57 450,38 606,55
48,3 237,40 327,37 445,96 600,53
48,8 235,54 324,77 442,37 595,63
49,4 233,36 321,71 438,15 589,88
50 231,23 318,74 434,04 584,28
50,5 229,50 316,31 430,69 579,72
51,1 227,47 313,47 426,77 574,36
51,6 225,81 311,15 423,57 569,99 758,71
52,2 223,87 308,43 419,81 564,87 751,80
52,8 221,97 305,77 416,14 559,86 745,06
53,3 220,43 303,61 413,15 555,78 739,55
53,9 218,61 301,06 409,63 550,99 733,09
54,4 217,13 298,99 406,76 547,07 727,82
55 215,39 296,55 403,39 542,48 721,62

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

79
Table 5. 12 Amount of water in natural gas [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
Gas Temperature C Pressure
[bar]
10 15 20 25 30
27 404,28 560,13 766,40 1036,28
27,6 396,62 549,45 751,71 1016,30
28,1 390,50 540,91 739,95 1000,31
28,7 383,44 531,06 726,39 981,86
29,2 377,78 523,16 715,51 967,07
29,8 371,24 514,04 702,95 949,99
30,4 364,96 505,28 690,89 933,58
30,9 359,91 498,25 681,20 920,41
31,5 354,08 490,10 669,99 905,15
32 349,38 483,55 660,97 892,88
32,6 343,94 475,96 650,51 878,65
33,2 338,70 468,65 640,44 864,95
33,7 334,48 462,76 632,32 853,91
34,3 329,58 455,92 622,90 841,09
34,8 325,63 450,40 615,30 830,74
35,4 321,03 443,99 606,47 818,72
36 316,60 437,79 597,93 807,11
36,5 313,01 432,79 591,04 797,73
37,1 308,84 426,97 583,01 786,81
37,6 305,47 422,26 576,53 777,98
38,2 301,55 416,78 568,97 767,69
38,8 297,74 411,47 561,65 757,73
39,3 294,67 407,17 555,73 749,66
39,9 291,08 402,16 548,82 740,26

47,2 254,92 351,61 479,10 645,29
47,7 252,86 348,73 475,12 639,88
48,3 250,45 345,36 470,46 633,53
48,8 248,48 342,61 466,67 628,36
49,4 246,18 339,39 462,23 622,30
50 243,94 336,25 457,89 616,38
50,5 242,11 333,69 454,36 611,57
51,1 239,97 330,69 450,22 605,92
51,6 238,22 328,25 446,84 601,31 800,39
52,2 236,17 325,38 442,87 595,91 793,11
52,8 234,17 322,57 439,00 590,63 785,99
53,3 232,54 320,29 435,85 586,32 780,19
53,9 230,62 317,61 432,14 581,26 773,37
54,4 229,06 315,42 429,11 577,13 767,81
55 227,23 312,85 425,56 572,28 761,27

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

80
Table 5. 13 Water to remove from natural gas for 10
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 368,4 366,9 365,3 363,6 361,7 359,7 357,4 355,0 352,5 349,6 346,6 343,3 339,8 339,4 339,1 338,7 338,3 337,9 337,5 337,1 336,8 336,4 336,0
27,6 361,4 359,9 358,4 356,7 354,8 352,8 350,6 348,3 345,8 343,0 340,0 336,8 333,3 333,0 332,6 332,2 331,9 331,5 331,1 330,7 330,3 330,0 329,6
28,1 355,8 354,3 352,8 351,1 349,3 347,3 345,2 342,9 340,4 337,7 334,7 331,6 328,1 327,8 327,4 327,1 326,7 326,3 326,0 325,6 325,2 324,8 324,4
28,7 349,3 347,9 346,4 344,8 343,0 341,0 338,9 336,7 334,2 331,5 328,6 325,5 322,2 321,8 321,5 321,1 320,7 320,4 320,0 319,7 319,3 318,9 318,5
29,2 344,1 342,8 341,3 339,6 337,9 336,0 333,9 331,7 329,2 326,6 323,8 320,7 317,4 317,0 316,7 316,3 316,0 315,6 315,3 314,9 314,5 314,2 313,8
29,8 338,2 336,8 335,3 333,7 332,0 330,1 328,1 325,9 323,5 320,9 318,1 315,1 311,8 311,5 311,2 310,8 310,5 310,1 309,8 309,4 309,1 308,7 308,3
30,4 332,4 331,1 329,6 328,1 326,4 324,5 322,5 320,3 318,0 315,5 312,7 309,7 306,5 306,2 305,9 305,5 305,2 304,8 304,5 304,1 303,8 303,4 303,1
30,9 327,8 326,5 325,1 323,5 321,8 320,0 318,0 315,0 313,6 311,1 308,4 305,4 302,3 301,9 301,6 301,3 300,9 300,6 300,2 299,9 299,6 299,2 298,9
31,5 322,5 321,2 319,8 318,3 316,6 314,8 312,9 310,7 308,5 306,0 303,3 300,4 297,3 297,0 296,7 296,3 296,0 295,7 295,3 295,0 294,7 294,3 294,0
32,0 318,2 316,9 315,5 314,0 312,4 310,6 308,7 306,6 304,3 301,9 299,3 296,4 293,4 293,0 292,7 292,4 292,1 291,7 291,4 291,1 290,7 290,4 290,0
32,6 313,2 311,9 310,6 309,1 307,5 305,7 303,8 301,8 299,6 297,2 294,6 291,8 288,7 288,4 288,1 287,8 287,5 287,1 286,8 286,5 286,2 285,8 285,5
33,2 308,4 307,2 305,8 304,4 302,8 301,1 299,2 297,2 295,0 292,6 290,1 287,3 284,3 284,0 283,7 283,4 283,1 282,7 282,4 282,1 281,8 281,4 281,1
33,7 304,5 303,3 302,0 300,9 299,0 297,3 295,4 293,4 291,3 288,9 286,4 283,7 280,7 280,4 280,1 279,8 279,5 279,2 278,9 278,5 278,2 277,9 277,6
34,3 300,1 298,9 297,6 296,1 294,6 292,9 291,1 289,2 287,0 284,7 282,2 279,5 276,6 276,3 276,0 275,7 275,4 275,1 274,7 274,4 274,1 273,8 273,5
34,8 296,5 295,3 294,0 292,6 291,0 289,4 287,6 285,6 283,5 281,2 278,8 276,1 273,2 272,9 272,6 272,3 272,0 271,7 271,4 271,1 270,8 270,5 270,1
35,4 292,3 291,1 289,8 288,4 286,9 285,3 283,5 281,6 279,5 277,2 274,8 272,2 269,4 269,1 268,8 268,5 268,2 267,9 267,6 267,2 266,9 266,6 266,3
36,0 288,2 287,0 294,6 284,4 282,9 281,3 279,5 277,6 275,6 273,4 271,0 268,4 265,6 265,3 265,0 264,7 264,4 264,1 263,8 263,5 263,2 262,9 262,6
36,5 284,9 283,8 282,5 281,2 279,7 278,1 276,4 274,5 272,5 270,3 267,9 265,3 262,6 262,3 262,0 261,7 261,4 261,1 260,8 260,5 260,2 259,9 259,6
37,1 281,1 280,0 278,7 277,4 275,9 274,4 272,6 270,8 268,8 266,6 264,3 261,8 259,0 258,7 258,5 258,2 257,9 257,6 257,3 257,0 256,7 256,4 256,1
37,6 278,0 276,9 275,7 274,3 272,9 271,3 269,7 267,8 265,8 263,7 261,4 258,9 256,2 255,9 255,6 255,3 255,0 254,7 254,5 254,2 253,9 253,6 253,3
38,2 274,4 273,3 272,1 270,8 269,4 267,8 266,2 264,4 262,4 260,3 258,0 255,5 252,8 252,6 252,3 252,0 251,7 251,4 251,2 250,9 250,6 250,3 250,0
38,8 270,9 269,9 268,7 267,4 266,0 264,4 262,8 261,0 259,1 257,0 254,7 252,3 249,6 249,4 249,1 248,8 248,5 248,2 247,9 247,7 247,4 247,1 246,8
39,3 268,1 267,0 265,9 264,6 263,2 261,7 260,0 258,3 256,4 254,3 252,0 249,6 247,0 246,7 246,5 246,2 245,9 245,6 245,4 245,1 244,8 244,5 244,2
39,9 264,8 263,8 262,6 261,3 260,0 258,5 256,9 255,1 253,2 251,2 248,9 246,6 244,0 243,7 243,4 243,2 242,9 242,6 242,3 242,1 241,8 241,5 241,2
47,2 231,7 230,8 229,8 228,6 227,4 226,1 224,7 223,1 221,4 219,6 217,7 215,6 213,3 213,1 212,8 212,6 212,3 212,1 211,9 211,6 211,4 211,1 210,9
47,7 229,9 228,9 227,9 226,8 225,6 224,2 222,8 221,3 219,6 217,8 215,9 213,8 211,6 211,3 211,1 210,8 210,6 210,4 210,1 209,9 209,6 209,4 209,1
48,3 227,6 226,7 225,7 224,6 223,4 222,1 220,7 219,2 217,5 215,7 213,8 211,7 209,5 209,3 209,0 208,8 208,6 208,3 208,1 207,8 207,6 207,4 207,1
48,8 225,8 224,9 223,9 222,8 221,6 220,3 218,9 217,4 215,8 214,0 212,1 210,1 207,8 207,6 207,4 207,1 206,9 206,7 206,4 206,2 205,9 205,7 205,5
49,4 223,7 222,8 221,8 220,7 219,5 218,3 216,9 215,4 213,8 212,0 210,1 208,1 205,9 205,7 205,4 205,2 205,0 204,7 204,5 204,2 204,0 203,8 203,5
50,0 221,7 220,8 219,8 218,7 217,5 216,3 214,9 213,4 211,8 210,1 208,2 206,2 204,0 203,8 203,5 203,3 203,1 202,8 202,6 202,4 202,1 201,9 201,6
50,5 220,0 219,1 218,1 217,0 215,9 214,6 213,3 211,8 210,2 208,5 206,6 204,6 202,4 202,2 202,0 201,7 201,5 201,3 201,1 200,8 200,6 200,3 200,1
51,1 218,0 217,1 216,2 215,1 213,9 212,7 211,3 209,9 208,3 206,6 204,7 202,8 200,6 200,4 200,2 199,9 199,7 199,5 199,2 199,0 198,8 198,5 198,3
51,6 216,4 215,5 214,6 213,5 212,4 211,1 209,8 208,3 206,8 205,1 203,2 201,3 199,1 198,9 198,7 198,5 198,2 198,0 197,8 197,8 197,3 197,1 196,8
52,2 214,6 213,7 212,7 211,7 210,5 209,3 208,0 206,5 205,0 203,3 201,5 199,5 197,4 197,2 196,9 196,7 196,5 196,3 196,0 195,8 195,6 195,3 195,1
52,8 212,7 211,8 210,9 209,8 208,7 207,5 206,2 204,7 203,2 201,5 199,7 197,8 195,7 195,5 195,2 195,0 194,8 194,6 194,3 194,1 193,9 193,7 193,4
53,3 211,2 210,4 209,4 208,4 207,2 206,0 204,7 203,3 201,8 200,1 198,3 196,4 194,3 194,1 193,9 193,6 193,4 193,2 193,0 192,7 192,5 192,3 192,0
53,9 209,5 208,6 207,7 206,6 205,5 204,3 203,0 201,6 200,1 198,4 196,6 194,7 192,7 192,4 192,2 192,0 191,8 191,6 191,3 191,1 190,9 190,7 190,4
54,4 208,0 207,2 206,2 205,2 204,1 202,9 201,6 200,2 198,7 197,1 195,3 193,4 191,3 191,1 190,9 190,7 190,5 190,2 190,0 189,8 189,6 189,3 189,1
55,0 206,4 205,5 204,6 203,6 202,5 201,3 200,0 198,6 197,1 195,5 193,7 191,8 189,8 189,6 189,3 189,1 188,9 188,7 188,5 188,3 188,0 187,8 187,6
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

81
Table 5. 14 Water to remove from natural gas for 10
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
-31 -30 -29 -28 -27 -26 -25 -24 -23 -22 -21 -20 -19 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18
27 388,6 387,1 385,4 383,5 381,6 379,4 377,1 374,6 371,8 368,9 365,7 362,2 358,5 358,1 357,7 357,3 356,9 356,5 356,1 355,7 355,3 354,9 354,4
27,6 381,2 379,7 378,1 376,3 374,3 372,2 369,9 367,4 364,7 361,8 358,7 355,3 351,6 351,3 350,9 350,5 350,1 349,7 349,3 348,9 348,5 348,1 347,7
28,1 375,3 373,8 372,2 370,4 368,5 366,4 364,2 361,7 359,1 356,2 353,1 349,8 346,2 345,8 345,4 345,0 344,6 344,3 343,9 343,5 343,1 342,7 342,3
28,7 368,5 367,0 365,4 363,7 361,8 359,8 357,6 355,2 352,6 349,7 346,7 343,4 339,9 339,5 339,1 338,8 338,4 338,0 337,6 337,2 336,8 336,4 336
29,2 363,0 361,6 360,0 358,3 356,5 354,4 352,3 349,9 347,3 344,5 341,6 338,3 334,8 334,5 334,1 333,7 333,3 333,0 332,6 332,2 331,8 331,4 331
29,8 356,7 355,3 353,8 352,1 350,3 348,3 346,1 343,8 341,3 338,5 335,6 332,4 329,0 328,6 328,3 327,9 327,5 327,2 326,8 326,4 326 325,7 325,3
30,4 350,7 349,3 347,8 346,1 344,3 342,4 340,2 338,0 335,5 332,8 329,9 326,8 323,4 323,0 322,7 322,3 321,9 321,6 321,2 320,9 320,5 320,1 319,7
30,9 345,8 344,4 342,9 341,3 339,5 337,6 335,5 332,6 330,8 328,2 325,3 322,2 318,9 318,5 318,2 317,8 317,5 317,1 316,7 316,4 316 315,6 315,3
31,5 340,2 338,8 337,3 335,7 334,0 332,1 330,0 327,8 325,4 322,8 320,0 316,9 313,7 313,3 313,0 312,6 312,3 311,9 311,6 311,2 310,9 310,5 310,1
32 335,7 334,3 332,9 331,3 329,5 327,7 325,6 323,4 321,1 318,5 315,7 312,7 309,5 309,1 308,8 308,5 308,1 307,8 307,4 307,1 306,7 306,3 306
32,6 330,4 329,1 327,6 326,1 324,4 322,5 320,5 318,4 316,0 313,5 310,8 307,8 304,6 304,3 303,9 303,6 303,3 302,9 302,6 302,2 301,9 301,5 301,2
33,2 325,4 324,1 322,6 321,1 319,4 317,6 315,6 313,5 311,2 308,7 306,0 303,1 299,9 299,6 299,3 298,9 298,6 298,3 297,9 297,6 297,2 296,9 296,5
33,7 321,3 320,0 318,6 316,2 315,4 313,6 311,7 309,6 307,3 304,8 302,2 299,3 296,2 295,8 295,5 295,2 294,9 294,5 294,2 293,8 293,5 293,2 292,8
34,3 316,6 315,3 313,9 312,4 310,8 309,0 307,1 305,1 302,8 300,3 297,7 294,9 291,8 291,5 291,1 290,8 290,5 290,2 289,8 289,5 289,2 288,8 288,5
34,8 312,7 311,5 310,1 308,6 307,0 305,3 303,4 301,3 299,1 296,7 294,1 291,3 288,3 287,9 287,6 287,3 287,0 286,7 286,3 286,0 285,7 285,3 285
35,4 308,3 307,1 305,7 304,3 302,7 300,9 299,1 297,0 294,8 292,5 289,9 287,1 284,2 283,8 283,5 283,2 282,9 282,6 282,3 281,9 281,6 281,3 280,9
36 304,0 302,8 310,8 300,0 298,5 296,7 294,9 292,9 290,7 288,4 285,9 283,1 280,2 279,9 279,6 279,3 278,9 278,6 278,3 278,0 277,7 277,3 277
36,5 300,6 299,4 298,0 296,6 295,1 293,4 291,5 289,6 287,4 285,1 282,6 279,9 277,0 276,7 276,4 276,1 275,8 275,4 275,1 274,8 274,5 274,2 273,8
37,1 296,5 295,3 294,0 292,6 291,1 289,4 287,6 285,7 283,6 281,3 278,8 276,1 273,3 273,0 272,7 272,4 272,0 271,7 271,4 271,1 270,8 270,5 270,2
37,6 293,3 292,1 290,8 289,4 287,9 286,3 284,5 282,5 280,4 278,2 275,7 273,1 270,3 270,0 269,7 269,4 269,0 268,7 268,4 268,1 267,8 267,5 267,2
38,2 289,5 288,3 287,1 285,7 284,2 282,5 280,8 278,9 276,8 274,6 272,2 269,6 266,7 266,4 266,2 265,9 265,6 265,3 264,9 264,6 264,3 264 263,7
38,8 285,8 284,7 283,4 282,1 280,6 279,0 277,2 275,3 273,3 271,1 268,7 266,1 263,3 263,1 262,8 262,5 262,2 261,9 261,6 261,3 261 260,7 260,3
39,3 282,9 281,7 280,5 279,1 277,6 276,1 274,3 272,5 270,4 268,3 265,9 263,3 260,6 260,3 260,0 259,7 259,4 259,1 258,8 258,5 258,2 257,9 257,6
39,9 279,4 278,3 277,0 275,7 274,2 272,7 271,0 269,1 267,1 265,0 262,6 260,1 257,4 257,1 256,8 256,5 256,2 255,9 255,7 255,4 255,1 254,8 254,5
47,2 244,5 243,5 242,4 241,2 239,9 238,5 237,0 235,4 233,6 231,7 229,6 227,4 225,0 224,8 224,5 224,3 224,0 223,8 223,5 223,2 223 222,7 222,4
47,7 242,5 241,5 240,4 239,2 238,0 236,6 235,1 233,5 231,7 229,8 227,8 225,6 223,2 222,9 222,7 222,4 222,2 221,9 221,7 221,4 221,1 220,9 220,6
48,3 240,2 239,2 238,1 236,9 235,7 234,3 232,8 231,2 229,5 227,6 225,6 223,4 221,0 220,8 220,5 220,3 220,0 219,8 219,5 219,3 219 218,7 218,5
48,8 238,3 237,3 236,2 235,1 233,8 232,4 231,0 229,4 227,6 225,8 223,8 221,6 219,3 219,0 218,8 218,5 218,3 218,0 217,8 217,5 217,3 217 216,7
49,4 236,0 235,1 234,0 232,9 231,6 230,3 228,8 227,2 225,5 223,7 221,7 219,5 217,2 217,0 216,7 216,5 216,2 216,0 215,7 215,5 215,2 215 214,7
50 233,9 232,9 231,8 230,7 229,5 228,1 226,7 225,1 223,4 221,6 219,6 217,5 215,2 214,9 214,7 214,5 214,2 214,0 213,7 213,5 213,2 213 212,7
50,5 232,1 231,1 230,1 229,0 227,7 226,4 225,0 223,4 221,7 219,9 217,9 215,8 213,6 213,3 213,1 212,8 212,6 212,3 212,1 211,8 211,6 211,3 211,1
51,1 230,0 229,1 228,0 226,9 225,7 224,4 223,0 221,4 219,7 217,9 216,0 213,9 211,6 211,4 211,2 210,9 210,7 210,4 210,2 209,9 209,7 209,4 209,2
51,6 228,3 227,4 226,4 225,2 224,0 222,7 221,3 219,8 218,1 216,3 214,4 212,3 210,1 209,8 209,6 209,4 209,1 208,9 208,6 208,6 208,1 207,9 207,6
52,2 226,4 225,4 224,4 223,3 222,1 220,8 219,4 217,9 216,2 214,4 212,5 210,5 208,2 208,0 207,8 207,5 207,3 207,0 206,8 206,6 206,3 206,1 205,8
52,8 224,4 223,5 222,5 221,4 220,2 218,9 217,5 216,0 214,4 212,6 210,7 208,6 206,4 206,2 206,0 205,7 205,5 205,3 205,0 204,8 204,5 204,3 204
53,3 222,8 221,9 220,9 219,8 218,6 217,4 216,0 214,5 212,8 211,1 209,2 207,2 205,0 204,7 204,5 204,3 204,0 203,8 203,6 203,3 203,1 202,8 202,6
53,9 221,0 220,1 219,1 218,0 216,8 215,5 214,2 212,7 211,1 209,3 207,5 205,4 203,2 203,0 202,8 202,6 202,3 202,1 201,9 201,6 201,4 201,1 200,9
54,4 219,5 218,6 217,6 216,5 215,3 214,1 212,7 211,2 209,6 207,9 206,0 204,0 201,8 201,6 201,4 201,2 200,9 200,7 200,5 200,2 200 199,8 199,5
55 217,7 216,8 215,8 214,7 213,6 212,3 211,0 209,5 207,9 206,2 204,3 202,3 200,2 200,0 199,7 199,5 199,3 199,1 198,8 198,6 198,4 198,1 197,9
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

82
Table 5. 15 Water to remove from natural gas for 15
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 516,1 514,6 513,0 511,3 509,4 507,4 505,2 502,8 500,2 497,4 494,3 491,1 487,5 487,2 486,8 486,4 486,0 485,7 485,3 484,9 484,5 484,1 483,7
27,6 506,2 504,8 503,2 501,5 499,7 497,7 495,5 493,2 490,6 487,9 484,9 481,7 478,2 477,8 477,5 477,1 476,7 476,4 476,0 475,6 475,2 474,8 474,4
28,1 498,3 496,9 495,4 493,7 491,9 489,9 487,8 485,5 483,0 480,2 477,3 474,1 470,7 470,4 470,0 469,6 469,3 468,9 468,5 468,2 467,8 467,4 467,0
28,7 489,2 487,9 486,3 484,7 482,9 481,0 478,9 476,6 474,1 471,5 468,6 465,5 462,1 461,8 461,4 461,0 460,7 460,3 460,0 459,6 459,2 458,9 458,5
29,2 481,9 480,6 479,1 477,5 475,7 473,8 471,7 469,5 467,0 464,4 461,6 458,5 455,2 454,8 454,5 454,1 453,8 453,4 453,1 452,7 452,4 452,0 451,6
29,8 473,5 472,2 470,7 469,1 467,4 465,5 463,5 461,3 458,9 456,3 453,5 450,5 447,2 446,9 446,5 446,2 445,8 445,5 445,1 444,8 444,4 444,1 443,7
30,4 465,4 464,1 462,7 461,1 459,4 457,5 455,5 453,4 451,0 448,5 445,7 442,8 439,5 439,2 438,9 438,5 438,2 437,9 437,5 437,2 436,8 436,4 436,1
30,9 458,9 457,6 456,2 454,7 453,0 451,1 449,2 227,0 444,7 442,2 439,5 436,6 433,4 433,1 432,7 432,4 432,1 431,7 431,4 431,0 430,7 430,3 430,0
31,5 451,4 450,1 448,7 447,2 445,5 443,7 441,8 439,7 437,4 434,9 432,3 429,4 426,3 425,9 425,6 425,3 425,0 424,6 424,3 423,9 423,6 423,3 422,9
32,0 445,4 444,1 442,7 441,2 439,6 437,8 435,9 433,8 431,5 429,1 426,5 423,6 420,5 420,2 419,9 419,6 419,2 418,9 418,6 418,2 417,9 417,6 417,2
32,6 438,3 437,1 435,7 434,2 432,6 430,9 429,0 426,9 424,7 422,3 419,7 416,9 413,9 413,6 413,3 412,9 412,6 412,3 412,0 411,6 411,3 411,0 410,6
33,2 431,6 430,4 429,0 427,5 426,0 424,2 422,4 420,3 418,2 415,8 413,2 410,5 407,5 407,2 406,9 406,6 406,2 405,9 405,6 405,3 404,9 404,6 404,3
33,7 426,1 424,9 423,6 421,6 420,6 418,9 417,0 415,0 412,9 410,5 408,0 405,3 402,3 402,0 401,7 401,4 401,1 400,8 400,5 400,1 399,8 399,5 399,2
34,3 419,8 418,6 417,3 415,9 414,3 412,7 410,8 408,3 406,7 404,4 401,9 399,3 396,3 396,0 395,7 395,4 395,1 394,8 394,5 394,2 393,9 393,5 393,2
34,8 414,7 413,5 412,2 410,8 409,3 407,6 405,8 403,9 401,8 399,5 397,0 394,4 391,5 391,2 390,9 390,6 390,3 390,0 389,7 389,4 389,1 388,7 388,4
35,4 408,8 407,6 406,3 405,0 403,4 401,8 400,0 398,1 396,0 393,8 391,4 388,7 385,9 385,6 385,3 385,0 384,7 384,4 384,1 383,8 383,5 383,2 382,9
36,0 403,1 401,9 409,5 399,3 397,8 396,2 394,4 392,5 390,5 388,3 385,9 383,3 380,5 380,2 379,9 379,6 379,3 379,0 378,7 378,4 378,1 377,8 377,5
36,5 398,5 397,3 396,1 394,7 393,2 391,6 389,9 388,0 386,0 383,8 381,4 378,9 376,1 375,8 375,5 375,2 374,9 374,6 374,3 374,0 373,7 373,4 373,1
37,1 393,1 391,9 390,7 389,4 387,9 386,3 384,6 382,8 380,8 378,6 376,3 373,7 371,0 370,7 370,4 370,1 369,9 369,6 369,3 369,0 368,7 368,4 368,1
37,6 388,7 387,6 386,4 385,1 383,6 382,1 380,4 378,5 376,5 374,4 372,1 369,6 366,9 366,6 366,3 366,0 365,7 365,5 365,2 364,9 364,6 364,3 364,0
38,2 383,7 382,5 381,3 380,0 378,6 377,1 375,4 373,6 371,6 369,5 367,2 364,7 362,1 361,8 361,5 361,2 361,0 360,7 360,4 360,1 359,8 359,5 359,2
38,8 378,7 377,7 376,5 375,2 373,8 372,2 370,6 368,8 366,9 364,8 362,5 360,1 357,4 357,2 356,9 356,6 356,3 356,0 355,8 355,5 355,2 354,9 354,6
39,3 374,8 373,7 372,5 371,2 369,8 368,3 366,7 364,9 363,0 360,9 358,7 356,3 353,7 353,4 353,1 352,8 352,6 352,3 352,0 351,7 351,4 351,1 350,9
39,9 370,1 369,1 367,9 366,6 365,3 363,8 362,1 360,4 358,5 356,4 354,2 351,8 349,3 349,0 348,7 348,5 348,2 347,9 347,6 347,3 347,1 346,8 346,5

47,2 323,4 322,4 321,4 320,3 319,1 317,8 316,3 314,8 313,1 311,3 309,3 307,2 305,0 304,7 304,5 304,2 304,0 303,8 303,5 303,3 303,0 302,8 302,5
47,7 320,7 319,8 318,8 317,6 316,4 315,1 313,7 312,2 310,5 308,7 306,8 304,7 302,4 302,2 302,0 301,7 301,5 301,2 301,0 300,8 300,5 300,3 300,0
48,3 317,6 316,7 315,7 314,6 313,4 312,1 310,6 309,1 307,5 305,7 303,8 301,7 299,5 299,2 299,0 298,8 298,5 298,3 298,1 297,8 297,6 297,3 297,1
48,8 315,1 314,1 313,1 312,0 310,8 309,6 308,2 306,6 305,0 303,2 301,3 299,3 297,1 296,8 296,6 296,4 296,1 295,9 295,7 295,4 295,2 294,9 294,7
49,4 312,1 311,2 310,2 309,1 307,9 306,6 305,2 303,7 302,1 300,4 298,5 296,4 294,2 294,0 293,8 293,5 293,3 293,1 292,8 292,6 292,4 292,1 291,9
50,0 309,2 308,3 307,3 306,2 305,0 303,8 302,4 300,9 299,3 297,6 295,7 293,7 291,5 291,3 291,0 290,8 290,6 290,3 290,1 289,9 289,6 289,4 289,1
50,5 306,8 305,9 304,9 303,9 302,7 301,4 300,1 298,6 297,0 295,3 293,4 291,4 289,2 289,0 288,8 288,6 288,3 288,1 287,9 287,6 287,4 287,2 286,9
51,1 304,0 303,1 302,2 301,1 299,9 298,7 297,3 295,9 294,3 292,6 290,7 288,8 286,6 286,4 286,2 285,9 285,7 285,5 285,2 285,0 284,8 284,5 284,3
51,6 301,8 300,9 299,9 298,9 297,7 296,5 295,1 293,7 292,1 290,4 288,6 286,6 284,5 284,2 284,0 283,8 283,6 283,3 283,1 283,1 282,6 282,4 282,2
52,2 299,1 298,2 297,3 296,2 295,1 293,8 292,5 291,1 289,5 287,8 286,0 284,1 281,9 281,7 281,5 281,3 281,0 280,8 280,6 280,4 280,1 279,9 279,7
52,8 296,5 295,6 294,7 293,6 292,5 291,3 290,0 288,5 287,0 285,3 283,5 281,6 279,5 279,3 279,0 278,8 278,6 278,4 278,1 277,9 277,7 277,5 277,2
53,3 294,4 293,5 292,6 291,5 290,4 289,2 287,9 286,5 284,9 283,3 281,5 279,6 277,5 277,3 277,0 276,8 276,6 276,4 276,1 275,9 275,7 275,5 275,2
53,9 291,9 291,1 290,1 289,1 288,0 286,8 285,5 284,0 282,5 280,9 279,1 277,2 275,1 274,9 274,7 274,5 274,2 274,0 273,8 273,6 273,3 273,1 272,9
54,4 289,9 289,0 288,1 287,1 286,0 284,8 283,5 282,1 280,6 278,9 277,1 275,2 273,2 273,0 272,8 272,5 272,3 272,1 271,9 271,7 271,4 271,2 271,0
55,0 287,5 286,7 285,7 284,7 283,6 282,4 281,1 279,7 278,2 276,6 274,9 273,0 270,9 270,7 270,5 270,3 270,1 269,9 269,6 269,4 269,2 269,0 268,7

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

83
Table 5. 16 Water to remove from natural gas for 15
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 544,4 542,9 541,2 539,4 537,4 535,3 532,9 530,4 527,7 524,7 521,5 518,0 514,3 513,9 513,5 513,1 512,7 512,3 511,9 511,5 511,1 510,7 510,3
27,6 534,0 532,5 530,9 529,1 527,1 525,0 522,7 520,3 517,6 514,7 511,5 508,1 504,5 504,1 503,7 503,3 502,9 502,5 502,1 501,7 501,3 500,9 500,5
28,1 525,7 524,2 522,6 520,8 518,9 516,8 514,6 512,1 509,5 506,6 503,5 500,2 496,6 496,2 495,8 495,4 495,1 494,7 494,3 493,9 493,5 493,1 492,7
28,7 516,1 514,7 513,1 511,3 509,4 507,4 505,2 502,8 500,2 497,4 494,3 491,0 487,5 487,1 486,8 486,4 486,0 485,6 485,2 484,8 484,5 484,1 483,7
29,2 508,4 507,0 505,4 503,7 501,8 499,8 497,6 495,3 492,7 489,9 486,9 483,7 480,2 479,8 479,5 479,1 478,7 478,4 478,0 477,6 477,2 476,8 476,4
29,8 499,5 498,1 496,6 494,9 493,1 491,1 488,9 486,6 484,1 481,4 478,4 475,2 471,8 471,4 471,1 470,7 470,3 470,0 469,6 469,2 468,8 468,5 468,1
30,4 491,0 489,6 488,1 486,4 484,6 482,7 480,6 478,3 475,8 473,1 470,2 467,1 463,7 463,3 463,0 462,6 462,3 461,9 461,5 461,2 460,8 460,4 460,1
30,9 484,1 482,8 481,3 479,6 477,9 475,9 473,8 470,6 469,1 466,5 463,6 460,5 457,2 456,9 456,5 456,2 455,8 455,4 455,1 454,7 454,3 454,0 453,6
31,5 476,2 474,9 473,4 471,8 470,0 468,1 466,1 463,8 461,4 458,8 456,0 453,0 449,7 449,3 449,0 448,7 448,3 448,0 447,6 447,2 446,9 446,5 446,1
32,0 469,8 468,5 467,0 465,4 463,7 461,8 459,8 457,6 455,2 452,7 449,9 446,9 443,6 443,3 443,0 442,6 442,3 441,9 441,6 441,2 440,9 440,5 440,1
32,6 462,4 461,1 459,7 458,1 456,4 454,6 452,6 450,4 448,1 445,5 442,8 439,8 436,6 436,3 436,0 435,6 435,3 434,9 434,6 434,2 433,9 433,5 433,2
33,2 455,3 454,0 452,6 451,0 449,4 447,5 445,6 443,4 441,1 438,6 435,9 433,0 429,9 429,6 429,2 428,9 428,6 428,2 427,9 427,5 427,2 426,8 426,5
33,7 449,6 448,3 446,9 444,8 443,7 441,9 439,9 437,8 435,6 433,1 430,4 427,5 424,4 424,1 423,8 423,5 423,1 422,8 422,5 422,1 421,8 421,4 421,1
34,3 442,9 441,6 440,2 438,7 437,1 435,3 433,4 431,6 429,1 426,7 424,0 421,2 418,1 417,8 417,5 417,2 416,8 416,5 416,2 415,8 415,5 415,2 414,8
34,8 437,5 436,3 434,9 433,4 431,8 430,0 428,1 426,1 423,9 421,5 418,9 416,1 413,0 412,7 412,4 412,1 411,8 411,4 411,1 410,8 410,4 410,1 409,8
35,4 431,3 430,0 428,7 427,2 425,6 423,9 422,0 420,0 417,8 415,4 412,9 410,1 407,1 406,8 406,5 406,2 405,8 405,5 405,2 404,9 404,6 404,2 403,9
36,0 425,2 424,0 432,0 421,2 419,6 417,9 416,1 414,1 411,9 409,6 407,1 404,3 401,4 401,1 400,8 400,5 400,1 399,8 399,5 399,2 398,9 398,5 398,2
36,5 420,3 419,1 417,8 416,4 414,8 413,1 411,3 409,3 407,2 404,9 402,4 399,7 396,8 396,5 396,2 395,8 395,5 395,2 394,9 394,6 394,3 393,9 393,6
37,1 414,7 413,5 412,2 410,8 409,2 407,6 405,8 403,8 401,7 399,4 396,9 394,3 391,4 391,1 390,8 390,5 390,2 389,9 389,6 389,2 388,9 388,6 388,3
37,6 410,1 408,9 407,6 406,2 404,7 403,0 401,3 399,3 397,2 395,0 392,5 389,9 387,0 386,7 386,4 386,1 385,8 385,5 385,2 384,9 384,6 384,3 384,0
38,2 404,7 403,6 402,3 400,9 399,4 397,8 396,0 394,1 392,0 389,8 387,4 384,8 382,0 381,7 381,4 381,1 380,8 380,5 380,2 379,9 379,6 379,3 378,9
38,8 399,6 398,4 397,1 395,8 394,3 392,7 390,9 389,1 387,0 384,8 382,4 379,8 377,1 376,8 376,5 376,2 375,9 375,6 375,3 375,0 374,7 374,4 374,1
39,3 395,4 394,2 393,0 391,6 390,2 388,6 386,8 385,0 382,9 380,8 378,4 375,8 373,1 372,8 372,5 372,2 371,9 371,6 371,3 371,0 370,7 370,4 370,1
39,9 390,5 389,3 388,1 386,8 385,3 383,7 382,0 380,2 378,2 376,0 373,7 371,2 368,5 368,2 367,9 367,6 367,3 367,0 366,7 366,4 366,1 365,8 365,5

47,2 341,2 340,2 339,1 337,9 336,6 335,2 333,7 332,1 330,3 328,4 326,3 324,1 321,7 321,5 321,2 321,0 320,7 320,5 320,2 319,9 319,7 319,4 319,1
47,7 338,4 337,4 336,3 335,1 333,8 332,4 330,9 329,3 327,6 325,7 323,6 321,4 319,1 318,8 318,6 318,3 318,1 317,8 317,5 317,3 317,0 316,8 316,5
48,3 335,1 334,1 333,0 331,8 330,6 329,2 327,7 326,1 324,4 322,5 320,5 318,3 315,9 315,7 315,4 315,2 314,9 314,7 314,4 314,2 313,9 313,7 313,4
48,8 332,4 331,4 330,3 329,2 327,9 326,6 325,1 323,5 321,8 319,9 317,9 315,7 313,4 313,1 312,9 312,7 312,4 312,2 311,9 311,6 311,4 311,1 310,9
49,4 329,2 328,3 327,2 326,1 324,8 323,5 322,0 320,4 318,7 316,9 314,9 312,7 310,4 310,2 309,9 309,7 309,4 309,2 308,9 308,7 308,4 308,2 307,9
50,0 326,2 325,2 324,2 323,0 321,8 320,4 319,0 317,4 315,7 313,9 311,9 309,8 307,5 307,3 307,0 306,8 306,5 306,3 306,0 305,8 305,5 305,3 305,0
50,5 323,7 322,7 321,7 320,5 319,3 318,0 316,6 315,0 313,3 311,5 309,5 307,4 305,1 304,9 304,7 304,4 304,2 303,9 303,7 303,4 303,2 302,9 302,7
51,1 320,8 319,8 318,8 317,6 316,4 315,1 313,7 312,1 310,5 308,7 306,7 304,6 302,4 302,1 301,9 301,6 301,4 301,2 300,9 300,7 300,4 300,2 299,9
51,6 318,4 317,4 316,4 315,3 314,1 312,8 311,3 309,8 308,1 306,4 304,4 302,3 300,1 299,9 299,6 299,4 299,1 298,9 298,7 298,7 298,2 297,9 297,7
52,2 315,6 314,6 313,6 312,5 311,3 310,0 308,6 307,1 305,4 303,6 301,7 299,7 297,4 297,2 297,0 296,7 296,5 296,3 296,0 295,8 295,5 295,3 295,0
52,8 312,8 311,9 310,9 309,8 308,6 307,3 305,9 304,4 302,8 301,0 299,1 297,0 294,8 294,6 294,4 294,1 293,9 293,7 293,4 293,2 292,9 292,7 292,5
53,3 310,6 309,7 308,7 307,6 306,4 305,1 303,7 302,2 300,6 298,8 297,0 294,9 292,7 292,5 292,3 292,0 291,8 291,6 291,3 291,1 290,8 290,6 290,4
53,9 308,0 307,1 306,1 305,0 303,8 302,5 301,1 299,7 298,0 296,3 294,4 292,4 290,2 290,0 289,8 289,5 289,3 289,1 288,8 288,6 288,4 288,1 287,9
54,4 305,8 304,9 303,9 302,8 301,7 300,4 299,0 297,6 296,0 294,2 292,4 290,4 288,2 288,0 287,7 287,5 287,3 287,1 286,8 286,6 286,3 286,1 285,9
55,0 303,3 302,4 301,4 300,4 299,2 297,9 296,6 295,1 293,5 291,8 290,0 288,0 285,8 285,6 285,4 285,1 284,9 284,7 284,4 284,2 284,0 283,7 283,5

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

84
Table 5. 17 Water to remove from natural gas for 20
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 711,6 710,2 708,6 706,8 705,0 702,9 700,7 698,3 695,7 692,9 689,9 686,6 683,1 682,7 682,3 681,9 681,6 681,2 680,8 680,4 680,0 679,6 679,2
27,6 698,0 696,5 695,0 693,3 691,4 689,4 687,2 684,9 682,3 679,6 676,6 673,4 669,9 669,6 669,2 668,8 668,4 668,1 667,7 667,3 666,9 666,6 666,2
28,1 687,0 685,6 684,1 682,4 680,6 678,6 676,5 674,1 671,6 668,9 666,0 662,8 659,4 659,0 658,7 658,3 657,9 657,6 657,2 656,8 656,5 656,1 655,7
28,7 674,4 673,0 671,5 669,8 668,1 666,1 664,0 661,7 659,3 656,6 653,7 650,6 647,3 646,9 646,6 646,2 645,8 645,5 645,1 644,7 644,4 644,0 643,6
29,2 664,3 662,9 661,4 659,8 658,0 656,1 654,1 651,8 649,4 646,8 643,9 640,8 637,5 637,2 636,8 636,5 636,1 635,8 635,4 635,1 634,7 634,3 634,0
29,8 652,6 651,2 649,8 648,2 646,5 644,6 642,5 640,3 637,9 635,4 632,6 629,5 626,3 625,9 625,6 625,3 624,9 624,6 624,2 623,9 623,5 623,1 622,8
30,4 641,4 640,0 638,6 637,0 635,3 633,5 631,5 629,3 627,0 624,4 621,7 618,7 615,5 615,2 614,8 614,5 614,1 613,8 613,4 613,1 612,7 612,4 612,0
30,9 632,4 631,1 629,6 628,1 626,4 624,6 622,6 620,0 618,1 615,6 612,9 610,0 606,8 606,5 606,2 605,8 605,5 605,1 604,8 604,5 604,1 603,8 603,4
31,5 621,9 620,6 619,2 617,7 616,1 614,3 612,3 610,2 607,9 605,4 602,8 599,9 596,8 596,5 596,1 595,8 595,5 595,1 594,8 594,5 594,1 593,8 593,4
32,0 613,5 612,3 610,9 609,4 607,7 606,0 604,0 602,0 599,7 597,3 594,6 591,8 588,7 588,4 588,1 587,7 587,4 587,1 586,8 586,4 586,1 585,7 585,4
32,6 603,8 602,5 601,2 599,7 598,1 596,3 594,4 592,4 590,2 587,8 585,2 582,4 579,3 579,0 578,7 578,4 578,1 577,7 577,4 577,1 576,8 576,4 576,1
33,2 594,4 593,2 591,8 590,4 588,8 587,1 585,2 583,2 581,0 578,6 576,1 573,3 570,3 570,0 569,7 569,4 569,1 568,8 568,4 568,1 567,8 567,5 567,1
33,7 586,9 585,7 584,3 582,6 581,3 579,6 577,8 575,8 573,6 571,3 568,7 566,0 563,1 562,8 562,5 562,1 561,8 561,5 561,2 560,9 560,5 560,2 559,9
34,3 578,1 576,9 575,6 574,2 572,6 570,9 569,1 567,1 565,0 562,7 560,2 557,5 554,6 554,3 554,0 553,7 553,4 553,1 552,8 552,5 552,1 551,8 551,5
34,8 571,0 569,8 568,5 567,1 565,6 564,0 562,2 560,2 558,1 555,8 553,4 550,7 547,8 547,5 547,2 546,9 546,6 546,3 546,0 545,7 545,4 545,1 544,7
35,4 562,8 561,6 560,4 559,0 557,5 555,8 554,1 552,1 550,1 547,8 545,4 542,8 539,9 539,6 539,3 539,0 538,7 538,4 538,1 537,8 537,5 537,2 536,9
36,0 554,9 553,7 561,3 551,1 549,6 548,0 546,2 544,3 542,3 540,1 537,7 535,1 532,3 532,0 531,7 531,4 531,1 530,8 530,5 530,2 529,9 529,6 529,3
36,5 548,5 547,3 546,1 544,7 543,2 541,6 539,9 538,0 536,0 533,8 531,4 528,9 526,1 525,8 525,5 525,2 524,9 524,6 524,3 524,0 523,7 523,4 523,1
37,1 541,0 539,9 538,6 537,3 535,8 534,2 532,5 530,7 528,7 526,5 524,2 521,6 518,9 518,6 518,3 518,1 517,8 517,5 517,2 516,9 516,6 516,3 516,0
37,6 535,0 533,8 532,6 531,3 529,8 528,3 526,6 524,8 522,8 520,6 518,3 515,8 513,1 512,8 512,5 512,3 512,0 511,7 511,4 511,1 510,8 510,5 510,2
38,2 527,9 526,8 525,6 524,3 522,9 521,3 519,7 517,8 515,9 513,8 511,5 509,0 506,3 506,1 505,8 505,5 505,2 504,9 504,6 504,4 504,1 503,8 503,5
38,8 521,1 520,0 518,8 517,5 516,1 514,6 512,9 511,2 509,2 507,1 504,9 502,4 499,8 499,5 499,2 499,0 498,7 498,4 498,1 497,8 497,5 497,2 496,9
39,3 515,6 514,5 513,3 512,0 510,7 509,1 507,5 505,7 503,8 501,7 499,5 497,1 494,5 494,2 493,9 493,7 493,4 493,1 492,8 492,5 492,3 492,0 491,7
39,9 509,2 508,1 506,9 505,7 504,3 502,8 501,2 499,4 497,5 495,5 493,3 490,9 488,3 488,0 487,8 487,5 487,2 486,9 486,7 486,4 486,1 485,8 485,5

47,2 444,2 443,3 442,3 441,1 439,9 438,6 437,2 435,6 433,9 432,1 430,2 428,1 425,8 425,6 425,3 425,1 424,9 424,6 424,4 424,1 423,9 423,6 423,4
47,7 440,5 439,6 438,6 437,5 436,2 434,9 433,5 432,0 430,3 428,5 426,6 424,5 422,2 422,0 421,8 421,5 421,3 421,1 420,8 420,6 420,3 420,1 419,8
48,3 436,2 435,3 434,3 433,1 431,9 430,6 429,2 427,7 426,1 424,3 422,4 420,3 418,1 417,8 417,6 417,4 417,1 416,9 416,6 416,4 416,2 415,9 415,7
48,8 432,7 431,7 430,7 429,6 428,4 427,2 425,8 424,2 422,6 420,8 418,9 416,9 414,7 414,4 414,2 414,0 413,7 413,5 413,3 413,0 412,8 412,5 412,3
49,4 428,5 427,6 426,6 425,5 424,3 423,1 421,7 420,2 418,6 416,8 414,9 412,9 410,7 410,5 410,2 410,0 409,8 409,5 409,3 409,0 408,8 408,6 408,3
50,0 424,5 423,6 422,6 421,5 420,3 419,1 417,7 416,2 414,6 412,9 411,0 409,0 406,8 406,6 406,3 406,1 405,9 405,6 405,4 405,2 404,9 404,7 404,4
50,5 421,2 420,3 419,3 418,2 417,1 415,8 414,4 413,0 411,4 409,7 407,8 405,8 403,6 403,4 403,2 402,9 402,7 402,5 402,2 402,0 401,8 401,5 401,3
51,1 417,3 416,4 415,5 414,4 413,2 412,0 410,6 409,2 407,6 405,9 404,0 402,0 399,9 399,7 399,5 399,2 399,0 398,8 398,5 398,3 398,1 397,8 397,6
51,6 414,2 413,3 412,3 411,3 410,1 408,9 407,5 406,1 404,5 402,8 401,0 399,0 396,9 396,7 396,4 396,2 396,0 395,7 395,5 395,5 395,1 394,8 394,6
52,2 410,5 409,6 408,6 407,6 406,5 405,2 403,9 402,5 400,9 399,2 397,4 395,4 393,3 393,1 392,9 392,7 392,4 392,2 392,0 391,7 391,5 391,3 391,0
52,8 406,9 406,0 405,1 404,0 402,9 401,7 400,3 398,9 397,4 395,7 393,9 391,9 389,8 389,6 389,4 389,2 389,0 388,7 388,5 388,3 388,0 387,8 387,6
53,3 404,0 403,1 402,1 401,1 400,0 398,7 397,4 396,0 394,5 392,8 391,0 389,1 387,0 386,8 386,6 386,4 386,1 385,9 385,7 385,5 385,2 385,0 384,8
53,9 400,5 399,6 398,7 397,7 396,5 395,3 394,0 392,6 391,1 389,4 387,7 385,7 383,7 383,5 383,2 383,0 382,8 382,6 382,4 382,1 381,9 381,7 381,5
54,4 397,7 396,8 395,9 394,8 393,7 392,5 391,2 389,8 388,3 386,7 384,9 383,0 381,0 380,7 380,5 380,3 380,1 379,9 379,7 379,4 379,2 379,0 378,8
55,0 394,4 393,5 392,6 391,6 390,5 389,3 388,0 386,6 385,1 383,5 381,7 379,8 377,8 377,6 377,3 377,1 376,9 376,7 376,5 376,3 376,0 375,8 375,6

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

85
Table 5. 18 Water to remove from natural gas for 20
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 750,7 749,2 747,5 745,7 743,7 741,5 739,2 736,7 733,9 731,0 727,8 724,3 720,6 720,2 719,8 719,4 719,0 718,6 718,2 717,8 717,4 717,0 716,6
27,6 736,3 734,8 733,1 731,3 729,4 727,3 725,0 722,5 719,8 716,9 713,8 710,4 706,7 706,3 706,0 705,6 705,2 704,8 704,4 704,0 703,6 703,2 702,8
28,1 724,8 723,3 721,6 719,9 718,0 715,9 713,6 711,2 708,5 705,7 702,6 699,2 695,6 695,2 694,9 694,5 694,1 693,7 693,3 692,9 692,5 692,1 691,7
28,7 711,5 710,0 708,4 706,7 704,8 702,7 700,5 698,1 695,5 692,7 689,7 686,4 682,8 682,4 682,1 681,7 681,3 680,9 680,6 680,2 679,8 679,4 679,0
29,2 700,8 699,3 697,8 696,1 694,2 692,2 690,0 687,6 685,1 682,3 679,3 676,1 672,6 672,2 671,8 671,5 671,1 670,7 670,3 669,9 669,6 669,2 668,8
29,8 688,5 687,0 685,5 683,8 682,0 680,0 677,8 675,5 673,0 670,3 667,3 664,1 660,7 660,3 660,0 659,6 659,2 658,9 658,5 658,1 657,8 657,4 657,0
30,4 676,6 675,2 673,7 672,0 670,2 668,3 666,2 663,9 661,4 658,7 655,8 652,7 649,3 649,0 648,6 648,2 647,9 647,5 647,2 646,8 646,4 646,0 645,7
30,9 667,1 665,7 664,2 662,6 660,8 658,9 656,8 654,2 652,1 649,5 646,6 643,5 640,2 639,8 639,5 639,1 638,8 638,4 638,0 637,7 637,3 636,9 636,6
31,5 656,1 654,7 653,3 651,6 649,9 648,0 646,0 643,7 641,3 638,7 635,9 632,9 629,6 629,2 628,9 628,5 628,2 627,8 627,5 627,1 626,8 626,4 626,0
32,0 647,2 645,9 644,4 642,8 641,1 639,3 637,2 635,0 632,7 630,1 627,3 624,3 621,1 620,7 620,4 620,0 619,7 619,3 619,0 618,6 618,3 617,9 617,6
32,6 637,0 635,7 634,2 632,7 631,0 629,1 627,1 624,9 622,6 620,1 617,3 614,4 611,2 610,8 610,5 610,2 609,8 609,5 609,1 608,8 608,4 608,1 607,7
33,2 627,1 625,8 624,4 622,8 621,2 619,3 617,4 615,2 612,9 610,4 607,7 604,8 601,7 601,3 601,0 600,7 600,3 600,0 599,7 599,3 599,0 598,6 598,3
33,7 619,1 617,8 616,4 615,0 613,3 611,5 609,5 607,4 605,1 602,7 600,0 597,1 594,0 593,7 593,4 593,0 592,7 592,4 592,0 591,7 591,3 591,0 590,7
34,3 609,9 608,6 607,2 605,7 604,1 602,3 600,4 598,5 596,1 593,6 591,0 588,2 585,1 584,8 584,5 584,1 583,8 583,5 583,2 582,8 582,5 582,1 581,8
34,8 602,4 601,2 599,8 598,3 596,7 594,9 593,0 591,0 588,8 586,4 583,8 581,0 577,9 577,6 577,3 577,0 576,7 576,3 576,0 575,7 575,3 575,0 574,7
35,4 593,7 592,5 591,2 589,7 588,1 586,4 584,5 582,5 580,3 577,9 575,3 572,6 569,6 569,3 569,0 568,6 568,3 568,0 567,7 567,4 567,0 566,7 566,4
36,0 585,4 584,1 592,1 581,4 579,8 578,1 576,2 574,2 572,1 569,7 567,2 564,5 561,5 561,2 560,9 560,6 560,3 560,0 559,6 559,3 559,0 558,7 558,3
36,5 578,6 577,4 576,1 574,6 573,1 571,4 569,6 567,6 565,4 563,1 560,6 557,9 555,0 554,7 554,4 554,1 553,8 553,5 553,2 552,8 552,5 552,2 551,9
37,1 570,7 569,5 568,2 566,8 565,3 563,6 561,8 559,8 557,7 555,4 553,0 550,3 547,4 547,1 546,8 546,5 546,2 545,9 545,6 545,3 545,0 544,7 544,3
37,6 564,3 563,2 561,9 560,5 559,0 557,3 555,5 553,6 551,5 549,2 546,8 544,2 541,3 541,0 540,7 540,4 540,1 539,8 539,5 539,2 538,9 538,6 538,2
38,2 556,9 555,8 554,5 553,1 551,6 550,0 548,2 546,3 544,2 542,0 539,6 537,0 534,2 533,9 533,6 533,3 533,0 532,7 532,4 532,1 531,8 531,4 531,1
38,8 549,7 548,6 547,3 546,0 544,5 542,9 541,1 539,2 537,2 535,0 532,6 530,0 527,2 527,0 526,7 526,4 526,1 525,8 525,5 525,2 524,9 524,6 524,3
39,3 543,9 542,8 541,5 540,2 538,7 537,1 535,4 533,5 531,5 529,3 527,0 524,4 521,7 521,4 521,1 520,8 520,5 520,2 519,9 519,6 519,3 519,0 518,7
39,9 537,1 536,0 534,8 533,4 532,0 530,4 528,7 526,9 524,9 522,7 520,4 517,8 515,1 514,8 514,6 514,3 514,0 513,7 513,4 513,1 512,8 512,5 512,2

47,2 468,7 467,7 466,6 465,4 464,1 462,7 461,2 459,6 457,8 455,9 453,8 451,6 449,2 449,0 448,7 448,5 448,2 447,9 447,7 447,4 447,2 446,9 446,6
47,7 464,8 463,8 462,7 461,5 460,2 458,8 457,3 455,7 454,0 452,1 450,0 447,8 445,4 445,2 445,0 444,7 444,4 444,2 443,9 443,7 443,4 443,2 442,9
48,3 460,2 459,2 458,1 456,9 455,7 454,3 452,8 451,2 449,5 447,6 445,6 443,4 441,0 440,8 440,5 440,3 440,0 439,8 439,5 439,3 439,0 438,8 438,5
48,8 456,4 455,5 454,4 453,2 452,0 450,6 449,2 447,6 445,8 444,0 442,0 439,8 437,5 437,2 437,0 436,7 436,5 436,2 436,0 435,7 435,5 435,2 434,9
49,4 452,1 451,1 450,0 448,9 447,7 446,3 444,8 443,3 441,6 439,7 437,7 435,6 433,2 433,0 432,8 432,5 432,3 432,0 431,8 431,5 431,3 431,0 430,7
50,0 447,8 446,9 445,8 444,7 443,4 442,1 440,6 439,1 437,4 435,5 433,6 431,4 429,1 428,9 428,7 428,4 428,2 427,9 427,7 427,4 427,2 426,9 426,7
50,5 444,3 443,4 442,3 441,2 440,0 438,7 437,2 435,7 434,0 432,2 430,2 428,1 425,8 425,6 425,3 425,1 424,8 424,6 424,3 424,1 423,8 423,6 423,3
51,1 440,3 439,3 438,3 437,2 435,9 434,6 433,2 431,7 430,0 428,2 426,2 424,1 421,9 421,6 421,4 421,2 420,9 420,7 420,4 420,2 419,9 419,7 419,4
51,6 437,0 436,0 435,0 433,9 432,7 431,3 429,9 428,4 426,7 424,9 423,0 420,9 418,7 418,4 418,2 418,0 417,7 417,5 417,2 417,2 416,8 416,5 416,3
52,2 433,1 432,1 431,1 430,0 428,8 427,5 426,1 424,6 422,9 421,1 419,2 417,2 414,9 414,7 414,5 414,2 414,0 413,7 413,5 413,3 413,0 412,8 412,5
52,8 429,3 428,3 427,3 426,2 425,0 423,7 422,3 420,8 419,2 417,4 415,5 413,5 411,3 411,0 410,8 410,6 410,3 410,1 409,9 409,6 409,4 409,1 408,9
53,3 426,1 425,2 424,2 423,1 421,9 420,7 419,3 417,8 416,1 414,4 412,5 410,5 408,3 408,0 407,8 407,6 407,3 407,1 406,9 406,6 406,4 406,2 405,9
53,9 422,5 421,6 420,6 419,5 418,3 417,1 415,7 414,2 412,6 410,8 409,0 406,9 404,8 404,5 404,3 404,1 403,8 403,6 403,4 403,1 402,9 402,7 402,4
54,4 419,5 418,6 417,6 416,5 415,4 414,1 412,7 411,3 409,7 407,9 406,1 404,1 401,9 401,7 401,4 401,2 401,0 400,8 400,5 400,3 400,0 399,8 399,6
55,0 416,0 415,1 414,1 413,1 411,9 410,7 409,3 407,8 406,2 404,5 402,7 400,7 398,5 398,3 398,1 397,9 397,6 397,4 397,2 396,9 396,7 396,5 396,2
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

86
Table 5. 19 Water to remove from natural gas for 25
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 967,4 966,0 964,4 962,7 960,8 958,7 956,5 954,1 951,5 948,7 945,7 942,4 938,9 938,5 938,1 937,8 937,4 937,0 936,6 936,2 935,8 935,5 935,1
27,6 948,8 947,3 945,8 944,1 942,2 940,2 938,1 935,7 933,2 930,4 927,4 924,2 920,7 920,4 920,0 919,6 919,3 918,9 918,5 918,1 917,7 917,4 917,0
28,1 933,8 932,4 930,9 929,2 927,4 925,4 923,3 920,9 918,4 915,7 912,8 909,6 906,2 905,8 905,5 905,1 904,7 904,4 904,0 903,6 903,3 902,9 902,5
28,7 916,6 915,2 913,7 912,0 910,2 908,3 906,2 903,9 901,5 898,8 895,9 892,8 889,4 889,1 888,7 888,4 888,0 887,6 887,3 886,9 886,5 886,2 885,8
29,2 902,7 901,4 899,9 898,3 896,5 894,6 892,5 890,3 887,8 885,2 882,4 879,3 876,0 875,6 875,3 874,9 874,6 874,2 873,9 873,5 873,1 872,8 872,4
29,8 886,8 885,4 883,9 882,4 880,6 878,7 876,7 874,5 872,1 869,5 866,7 863,7 860,5 860,1 859,8 859,4 859,1 858,7 858,4 858,0 857,7 857,3 856,9
30,4 871,4 870,1 868,7 867,1 865,4 863,5 861,5 859,4 857,0 854,5 851,7 848,7 845,5 845,2 844,9 844,5 844,2 843,8 843,5 843,2 842,8 842,4 842,1
30,9 859,1 857,8 856,4 854,8 853,1 851,3 849,3 847,3 844,9 842,4 839,7 836,7 833,6 833,2 832,9 832,6 832,2 831,9 831,5 831,2 830,9 830,5 830,2
31,5 844,8 843,5 842,1 840,6 839,0 837,2 835,2 833,1 830,8 828,4 825,7 822,8 819,7 819,4 819,0 818,7 818,4 818,0 817,7 817,4 817,0 816,7 816,3
32,0 833,4 832,1 830,7 829,2 827,6 825,8 823,9 821,8 819,5 817,1 814,5 811,6 808,5 808,2 807,9 807,6 807,2 806,9 806,6 806,2 805,9 805,6 805,2
32,6 820,1 818,8 817,4 816,0 814,3 812,6 810,7 808,7 806,4 804,0 801,4 798,6 795,6 795,3 795,0 794,7 794,3 794,0 793,7 793,4 793,0 792,7 792,3
33,2 807,2 806,0 804,7 803,2 801,6 799,9 798,0 796,0 793,8 791,5 788,9 786,1 783,2 782,8 782,5 782,2 781,9 781,6 781,3 780,9 780,6 780,3 779,9
33,7 796,9 795,7 794,4 792,6 791,4 789,7 787,8 785,8 783,7 781,3 778,8 776,1 773,1 772,8 772,5 772,2 771,9 771,6 771,2 770,9 770,6 770,3 769,9
34,3 784,9 783,7 782,4 781,0 779,4 777,8 775,9 773,5 771,8 769,5 767,0 764,4 761,5 761,2 760,8 760,5 760,2 759,9 759,6 759,3 759,0 758,6 758,3
34,8 775,3 774,1 772,8 771,4 769,8 768,2 766,4 764,4 762,3 760,0 757,6 754,9 752,1 751,8 751,5 751,1 750,8 750,5 750,2 749,9 749,6 749,3 749,0
35,4 764,0 762,8 761,6 760,2 758,7 757,0 755,3 753,3 751,3 749,0 746,6 744,0 741,1 740,8 740,5 740,2 739,9 739,6 739,3 739,0 738,7 738,4 738,1
36,0 753,2 752,0 759,6 749,4 747,9 746,3 744,5 742,6 740,6 738,3 735,9 733,4 730,6 730,3 730,0 729,7 729,4 729,1 728,8 728,5 728,2 727,9 727,5
36,5 744,4 743,2 742,0 740,6 739,2 737,6 735,8 733,9 731,9 729,7 727,4 724,8 722,0 721,7 721,5 721,2 720,9 720,6 720,3 720,0 719,7 719,4 719,1
37,1 734,2 733,0 731,8 730,5 729,0 727,4 725,7 723,9 721,9 719,7 717,4 714,8 712,1 711,8 711,5 711,2 710,9 710,7 710,4 710,1 709,8 709,5 709,2
37,6 725,9 724,8 723,6 722,2 720,8 719,2 717,5 715,7 713,7 711,6 709,3 706,8 704,1 703,8 703,5 703,2 702,9 702,6 702,4 702,1 701,8 701,5 701,2
38,2 716,3 715,2 714,0 712,7 711,2 709,7 708,0 706,2 704,3 702,1 699,9 697,4 694,7 694,4 694,2 693,9 693,6 693,3 693,0 692,7 692,4 692,1 691,8
38,8 707,0 705,9 704,7 703,4 702,0 700,5 698,8 697,0 695,1 693,0 690,7 688,3 685,7 685,4 685,1 684,8 684,5 684,3 684,0 683,7 683,4 683,1 682,8
39,3 699,4 698,3 697,2 695,9 694,5 693,0 691,3 689,6 687,7 685,6 683,3 680,9 678,3 678,0 677,8 677,5 677,2 676,9 676,7 676,4 676,1 675,8 675,5
39,9 690,6 689,6 688,4 687,1 685,7 684,3 682,6 680,9 679,0 676,9 674,7 672,3 669,8 669,5 669,2 668,9 668,7 668,4 668,1 667,8 667,6 667,3 667,0

47,2 601,8 600,8 599,8 598,7 597,5 596,1 594,7 593,2 591,5 589,7 587,7 585,6 583,4 583,1 582,9 582,6 582,4 582,1 581,9 581,7 581,4 581,2 580,9
47,7 596,7 595,8 594,7 593,6 592,4 591,1 589,7 588,2 586,5 584,7 582,8 580,7 578,4 578,2 577,9 577,7 577,5 577,2 577,0 576,7 576,5 576,2 576,0
48,3 590,8 589,8 588,8 587,7 586,5 585,2 583,8 582,3 580,6 578,9 576,9 574,9 572,6 572,4 572,2 571,9 571,7 571,5 571,2 571,0 570,7 570,5 570,2
48,8 585,9 585,0 584,0 582,9 581,7 580,4 579,0 577,5 575,9 574,1 572,2 570,1 567,9 567,7 567,5 567,2 567,0 566,8 566,5 566,3 566,0 565,8 565,5
49,4 580,3 579,3 578,3 577,3 576,1 574,8 573,4 571,9 570,3 568,5 566,6 564,6 562,4 562,2 562,0 561,7 561,5 561,3 561,0 560,8 560,5 560,3 560,0
50,0 574,7 573,8 572,8 571,7 570,6 569,3 567,9 566,4 564,8 563,1 561,2 559,2 557,0 556,8 556,6 556,3 556,1 555,9 555,6 555,4 555,2 554,9 554,7
50,5 570,2 569,3 568,3 567,3 566,1 564,8 563,5 562,0 560,4 558,7 556,8 554,8 552,6 552,4 552,2 552,0 551,7 551,5 551,3 551,0 550,8 550,6 550,3
51,1 564,9 564,0 563,1 562,0 560,8 559,6 558,2 556,8 555,2 553,5 551,6 549,6 547,5 547,3 547,0 546,8 546,6 546,4 546,1 545,9 545,7 545,4 545,2
51,6 560,6 559,7 558,8 557,7 556,6 555,3 554,0 552,5 550,9 549,2 547,4 545,4 543,3 543,1 542,9 542,6 542,4 542,2 541,9 541,9 541,5 541,2 541,0
52,2 555,6 554,7 553,7 552,7 551,5 550,3 549,0 547,5 546,0 544,3 542,5 540,5 538,4 538,2 537,9 537,7 537,5 537,3 537,0 536,8 536,6 536,3 536,1
52,8 550,6 549,7 548,8 547,7 546,6 545,4 544,1 542,6 541,1 539,4 537,6 535,7 533,6 533,3 533,1 532,9 532,7 532,5 532,2 532,0 531,8 531,5 531,3
53,3 546,6 545,7 544,8 543,7 542,6 541,4 540,1 538,6 537,1 535,5 533,7 531,7 529,6 529,4 529,2 529,0 528,8 528,5 528,3 528,1 527,9 527,6 527,4
53,9 541,9 541,0 540,0 539,0 537,9 536,7 535,4 534,0 532,4 530,8 529,0 527,1 525,0 524,8 524,6 524,4 524,2 523,9 523,7 523,5 523,3 523,0 522,8
54,4 538,0 537,1 536,2 535,2 534,1 532,9 531,6 530,2 528,6 527,0 525,2 523,3 521,3 521,1 520,8 520,6 520,4 520,2 520,0 519,7 519,5 519,3 519,1
55,0 533,4 532,6 531,7 530,6 529,5 528,3 527,1 525,7 524,2 522,5 520,8 518,9 516,9 516,6 516,4 516,2 516,0 515,8 515,6 515,3 515,1 514,9 514,7

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

87
Table 5. 20 Water to remove from natural gas for 25
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0 1020,6 1019,1 1017,4 1015,5 1013,6 1011,4 1009,1 1006,6 1003,8 1000,9 997,7 994,2 990,5 990,1 989,7 989,3 988,9 988,5 988,1 987,7 987,3 986,9 986,4
27,6 1000,9 999,4 997,7 995,9 994,0 991,9 989,6 987,1 984,4 981,5 978,4 975,0 971,3 970,9 970,5 970,2 969,8 969,4 969,0 968,6 968,2 967,8 967,4
28,1 985,1 983,6 982,0 980,2 978,3 976,2 974,0 971,5 968,9 966,0 962,9 959,6 956,0 955,6 955,2 954,8 954,5 954,1 953,7 953,3 952,9 952,5 952,1
28,7 966,9 965,5 963,9 962,1 960,2 958,2 956,0 953,6 951,0 948,2 945,1 941,8 938,3 937,9 937,6 937,2 936,8 936,4 936,0 935,6 935,3 934,9 934,5
29,2 952,3 950,9 949,3 947,6 945,8 943,7 941,6 939,2 936,6 933,8 930,8 927,6 924,1 923,7 923,4 923,0 922,6 922,3 921,9 921,5 921,1 920,7 920,3
29,8 935,5 934,1 932,5 930,8 929,0 927,0 924,9 922,5 920,0 917,3 914,4 911,2 907,7 907,4 907,0 906,6 906,3 905,9 905,5 905,2 904,8 904,4 904,0
30,4 919,3 917,9 916,4 914,7 912,9 911,0 908,9 906,6 904,1 901,4 898,5 895,4 892,0 891,6 891,3 890,9 890,6 890,2 889,8 889,5 889,1 888,7 888,4
30,9 906,3 904,9 903,4 901,8 900,0 898,1 896,0 893,2 891,3 888,7 885,8 882,7 879,4 879,0 878,7 878,3 878,0 877,6 877,2 876,9 876,5 876,1 875,8
31,5 891,3 889,9 888,4 886,8 885,1 883,2 881,1 878,9 876,5 873,9 871,1 868,0 864,7 864,4 864,0 863,7 863,3 863,0 862,6 862,3 861,9 861,6 861,2
32,0 879,2 877,8 876,3 874,8 873,0 871,2 869,1 866,9 864,6 862,0 859,2 856,2 853,0 852,6 852,3 851,9 851,6 851,3 850,9 850,5 850,2 849,8 849,5
32,6 865,1 863,8 862,4 860,8 859,1 857,3 855,3 853,1 850,7 848,2 845,5 842,5 839,3 839,0 838,7 838,3 838,0 837,6 837,3 836,9 836,6 836,2 835,9
33,2 851,6 850,3 848,9 847,3 845,7 843,8 841,9 839,7 837,4 834,9 832,2 829,3 826,2 825,9 825,5 825,2 824,9 824,5 824,2 823,8 823,5 823,1 822,8
33,7 840,7 839,4 838,0 836,2 834,8 833,0 831,1 829,0 826,7 824,2 821,6 818,7 815,6 815,3 814,9 814,6 814,3 813,9 813,6 813,3 812,9 812,6 812,2
34,3 828,1 826,8 825,4 823,9 822,3 820,5 818,6 816,3 814,3 811,8 809,2 806,4 803,3 803,0 802,7 802,3 802,0 801,7 801,3 801,0 800,7 800,3 800,0
34,8 817,9 816,6 815,2 813,7 812,1 810,4 808,5 806,4 804,2 801,8 799,2 796,4 793,4 793,1 792,7 792,4 792,1 791,8 791,4 791,1 790,8 790,4 790,1
35,4 806,0 804,8 803,4 801,9 800,4 798,6 796,8 794,7 792,5 790,2 787,6 784,8 781,8 781,5 781,2 780,9 780,6 780,3 779,9 779,6 779,3 779,0 778,6
36,0 794,5 793,3 801,3 790,5 789,0 787,3 785,4 783,4 781,3 778,9 776,4 773,6 770,7 770,4 770,1 769,8 769,5 769,1 768,8 768,5 768,2 767,9 767,5
36,5 785,3 784,1 782,8 781,3 779,8 778,1 776,3 774,3 772,1 769,8 767,3 764,6 761,7 761,4 761,1 760,8 760,5 760,2 759,8 759,5 759,2 758,9 758,6
37,1 774,5 773,3 772,0 770,6 769,1 767,4 765,6 763,6 761,5 759,2 756,8 754,1 751,2 750,9 750,6 750,3 750,0 749,7 749,4 749,1 748,8 748,4 748,1
37,6 765,8 764,6 763,3 761,9 760,4 758,8 757,0 755,0 752,9 750,7 748,2 745,6 742,8 742,5 742,2 741,9 741,6 741,2 740,9 740,6 740,3 740,0 739,7
38,2 755,7 754,5 753,2 751,8 750,3 748,7 746,9 745,0 743,0 740,7 738,3 735,7 732,9 732,6 732,3 732,0 731,7 731,4 731,1 730,8 730,5 730,2 729,9
38,8 745,8 744,7 743,4 742,0 740,6 738,9 737,2 735,3 733,3 731,1 728,7 726,1 723,3 723,0 722,7 722,5 722,2 721,9 721,6 721,3 720,9 720,6 720,3
39,3 737,9 736,7 735,5 734,1 732,6 731,1 729,3 727,5 725,4 723,2 720,9 718,3 715,6 715,3 715,0 714,7 714,4 714,1 713,8 713,5 713,2 712,9 712,6
39,9 728,6 727,4 726,2 724,9 723,4 721,8 720,1 718,3 716,3 714,1 711,8 709,3 706,6 706,3 706,0 705,7 705,4 705,1 704,8 704,5 704,2 703,9 703,6

47,2 634,9 633,8 632,8 631,6 630,3 628,9 627,4 625,8 624,0 622,1 620,0 617,8 615,4 615,2 614,9 614,6 614,4 614,1 613,9 613,6 613,4 613,1 612,8
47,7 629,5 628,5 627,4 626,2 625,0 623,6 622,1 620,5 618,7 616,8 614,8 612,6 610,2 610,0 609,7 609,5 609,2 608,9 608,7 608,4 608,2 607,9 607,6
48,3 623,2 622,2 621,2 620,0 618,7 617,4 615,9 614,3 612,5 610,7 608,6 606,5 604,1 603,9 603,6 603,4 603,1 602,9 602,6 602,3 602,1 601,8 601,6
48,8 618,1 617,2 616,1 614,9 613,7 612,3 610,8 609,2 607,5 605,7 603,6 601,5 599,1 598,9 598,6 598,4 598,2 597,9 597,6 597,4 597,1 596,9 596,6
49,4 612,1 611,2 610,1 609,0 607,7 606,4 604,9 603,3 601,6 599,8 597,8 595,6 593,3 593,1 592,8 592,6 592,3 592,1 591,8 591,6 591,3 591,1 590,8
50,0 606,3 605,3 604,3 603,2 601,9 600,6 599,1 597,6 595,9 594,0 592,1 589,9 587,6 587,4 587,2 586,9 586,7 586,4 586,2 585,9 585,7 585,4 585,2
50,5 601,6 600,6 599,6 598,4 597,2 595,9 594,4 592,9 591,2 589,4 587,4 585,3 583,0 582,8 582,5 582,3 582,0 581,8 581,6 581,3 581,1 580,8 580,6
51,1 596,0 595,0 594,0 592,9 591,7 590,3 588,9 587,4 585,7 583,9 581,9 579,8 577,6 577,3 577,1 576,9 576,6 576,4 576,1 575,9 575,6 575,4 575,1
51,6 591,4 590,5 589,5 588,3 587,1 585,8 584,4 582,9 581,2 579,4 577,5 575,4 573,2 572,9 572,7 572,4 572,2 572,0 571,7 571,7 571,2 571,0 570,7
52,2 586,1 585,2 584,1 583,0 581,8 580,5 579,1 577,6 576,0 574,2 572,3 570,2 568,0 567,7 567,5 567,3 567,0 566,8 566,5 566,3 566,1 565,8 565,6
52,8 580,9 579,9 578,9 577,8 576,6 575,4 574,0 572,4 570,8 569,1 567,1 565,1 562,9 562,7 562,4 562,2 562,0 561,7 561,5 561,2 561,0 560,7 560,5
53,3 576,6 575,7 574,7 573,6 572,4 571,1 569,7 568,2 566,6 564,9 563,0 560,9 558,7 558,5 558,3 558,1 557,8 557,6 557,3 557,1 556,9 556,6 556,4
53,9 571,6 570,7 569,7 568,6 567,4 566,2 564,8 563,3 561,7 560,0 558,1 556,1 553,9 553,7 553,4 553,2 553,0 552,7 552,5 552,3 552,0 551,8 551,5
54,4 567,5 566,6 565,6 564,6 563,4 562,1 560,8 559,3 557,7 556,0 554,1 552,1 549,9 549,7 549,5 549,2 549,0 548,8 548,5 548,3 548,1 547,8 547,6
55,0 562,8 561,8 560,9 559,8 558,6 557,4 556,0 554,6 553,0 551,2 549,4 547,4 545,3 545,0 544,8 544,6 544,3 544,1 543,9 543,7 543,4 543,2 542,9

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

88
Table 5. 21 Water to remove from natural gas for 30
o
C [mg
H2O
/Sm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0
27,6
28,1
28,7
29,2
29,8
30,4
30,9
31,5
32,0
32,6
33,2
33,7
34,3
34,8
35,4
36,0
36,5
37,1
37,6
38,2
38,8
39,3
39,9

47,2
47,7
48,3
48,8
49,4
50,0
50,5
51,1
51,6 749,3 748,4 747,5 746,4 745,3 744,0 742,7 741,2 739,7 738,0 736,1 734,1 732,0 731,8 731,6 731,3 731,1 730,9 730,7 730,7 730,2 730,0 729,7
52,2 742,5 741,6 740,6 739,6 738,5 737,2 735,9 734,4 732,9 731,2 729,4 727,4 725,3 725,1 724,9 724,6 724,4 724,2 724,0 723,7 723,5 723,3 723,0
52,8 735,8 734,9 734,0 732,9 731,8 730,6 729,3 727,8 726,3 724,6 722,8 720,9 718,8 718,5 718,3 718,1 717,9 717,7 717,4 717,2 717,0 716,7 716,5
53,3 730,4 729,5 728,5 727,5 726,4 725,2 723,8 722,4 720,9 719,2 717,4 715,5 713,4 713,2 713,0 712,8 712,5 712,3 712,1 711,9 711,6 711,4 711,2
53,9 724,0 723,1 722,1 721,1 720,0 718,8 717,5 716,1 714,5 712,9 711,1 709,2 707,1 706,9 706,7 706,5 706,3 706,0 705,8 705,6 705,4 705,1 704,9
54,4 718,7 717,9 716,9 715,9 714,8 713,6 712,3 710,9 709,4 707,7 706,0 704,1 702,0 701,8 701,6 701,4 701,2 700,9 700,7 700,5 700,3 700,0 699,8
55,0 712,6 711,7 710,8 709,8 708,7 707,5 706,2 704,8 703,3 701,7 699,9 698,0 696,0 695,8 695,6 695,4 695,1 694,9 694,7 694,5 694,3 694,0 693,8

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

89
Table 5. 22 Water to remove from natural gas for 30
o
C [mg
H2O
/Nm
3
]
-31,0 -30,0 -29,0 -28,0 -27,0 -26,0 -25,0 -24,0 -23,0 -22,0 -21,0 -20,0 -19,0 -18,9 -18,8 -18,7 -18,6 -18,5 -18,4 -18,3 -18,2 -18,1 -18,0
27,0
27,6
28,1
28,7
29,2
29,8
30,4
30,9
31,5
32,0
32,6
33,2
33,7
34,3
34,8
35,4
36,0
36,5
37,1
37,6
38,2
38,8
39,3
39,9

47,2
47,7
48,3
48,8
49,4
50,0
50,5
51,1
51,6 790,5 789,6 788,5 787,4 786,2 784,9 783,5 781,9 780,3 778,5 776,6 774,5 772,2 772,0 771,8 771,5 771,3 771,0 770,8 770,8 770,3 770,1 769,8
52,2 783,3 782,4 781,3 780,2 779,0 777,7 776,3 774,8 773,2 771,4 769,5 767,4 765,2 764,9 764,7 764,5 764,2 764,0 763,7 763,5 763,3 763,0 762,8
52,8 776,2 775,3 774,3 773,2 772,0 770,7 769,3 767,8 766,2 764,4 762,5 760,5 758,3 758,0 757,8 757,6 757,3 757,1 756,8 756,6 756,4 756,1 755,9
53,3 770,5 769,6 768,6 767,5 766,3 765,0 763,6 762,1 760,5 758,7 756,9 754,8 752,6 752,4 752,2 751,9 751,7 751,5 751,2 751,0 750,7 750,5 750,2
53,9 763,7 762,8 761,8 760,7 759,6 758,3 756,9 755,4 753,8 752,1 750,2 748,2 746,0 745,8 745,5 745,3 745,1 744,8 744,6 744,4 744,1 743,9 743,6
54,4 758,2 757,3 756,3 755,2 754,1 752,8 751,4 750,0 748,4 746,6 744,8 742,8 740,6 740,4 740,1 739,9 739,7 739,4 739,2 739,0 738,7 738,5 738,3
55,0 751,7 750,8 749,8 748,8 747,6 746,4 745,0 743,5 741,9 740,2 738,4 736,4 734,2 734,0 733,8 733,6 733,3 733,1 732,9 732,6 732,4 732,2 731,9
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

90

Table 5. 23 Values of dew point temperature for given water content obtained with use of
Hysys package
P [bar] 10 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,018 -29
27,6 0,017 -30
28,1 0,018 -29
28,7 0,018 -29
29,2 0,017 -29
29,8 0,017 -29
30,4 0,016 -30
30,9 0,016 -30
31,5 0,016 -29
32,0 0,016 -29
32,6 0,016 -29
33,2 0,015 -30
33,7 0,015 -30
34,3 0,015 -30
34,8 0,014 -30
35,4 0,015 -29
36,0 0,014 -30
36,5 0,014 -30
37,1 0,014 -30
37,6 0,013 -30
38,2 0,013 -30
38,8 0,013 -30
39,3 0,013 -30
39,9 0,012 -31


47,2 0,011 -30
47,7 0,011 -30
48,3 0,011 -30
48,8 0,01 -31
49,4 0,01 -31
50,0 0,01 -31
50,5 0,01 -31
51,1 0,01 -31
51,6 0,01 -31
52,2 0,01 -31
52,8 0,01 -31
53,3 0,01 -31
53,9 0,01 -31
54,4 0,01 -31
55,0 0,009 -31


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

91

Table 5. 24 Values of dew point for given water content achieved from the Maćkowice
dehydration facility operation manual
P [bar] 10 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,018 -27
27,6 0,017 -27,2
28,1 0,018 -26,9
28,7 0,018 -27,1
29,2 0,017 -27,5
29,8 0,017 -27,3
30,4 0,016 -27,9
30,9 0,016 -28,2
31,5 0,016 -28,1
32,0 0,016 -28,5
32,6 0,016 -28,5
33,2 0,015 -28,7
33,7 0,015 -28,9
34,3 0,015 -29,1
34,8 0,014 -29,2
35,4 0,015 -29,1
36,0 0,014 -29,3
36,5 0,014 -29,9
37,1 0,014 -29,7
37,6 0,013 -30,4
38,2 0,013 -30,5
38,8 0,013 -30,6
39,3 0,013 -30,8
39,9 0,012 -30,9


47,2 0,011 -32,4
47,7 0,011 -32,6
48,3 0,011 -32,7
48,8 0,01 -32,8
49,4 0,01 -32,9
50,0 0,01 -33
50,5 0,01 -33,1
51,1 0,01 -33,1
51,6 0,01 -33,2
52,2 0,01 -33,3
52,8 0,01 -33,4
53,3 0,01 -33,5
53,9 0,01 -33,6
54,4 0,01 -33,7
55,0 0,009 -33,8

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

92

Table 5. 25 Values of dew point temperature for given water content calculated with use of
empirical equations
P [bar] 10 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,018 -24,779
27,6 0,017 -25,494
28,1 0,018 -24,186
28,7 0,018 -23,872
29,2 0,017 -24,657
29,8 0,017 -24,355
30,4 0,016 -25,164
30,9 0,016 -24,922
31,5 0,016 -24,637
32,0 0,016 -24,403
32,6 0,016 -24,127
33,2 0,015 -25,032
33,7 0,015 -24,811
34,3 0,015 -24,548
34,8 0,014 -25,591
35,4 0,015 -24,08
36,0 0,014 -25,088
36,5 0,014 -24,883
37,1 0,014 -24,641
37,6 0,013 -25,793
38,2 0,013 -25,558
38,8 0,013 -25,326
39,3 0,013 -25,136
39,9 0,012 -26,37


47,2 0,011 -25,462
47,7 0,011 -25,305
48,3 0,011 -25,119
48,8 0,01 -26,704
49,4 0,01 -26,522
50,0 0,01 -26,343
50,5 0,01 -26,195
51,1 0,01 -26,02
51,6 0,01 -25,875
52,2 0,01 -25,704
52,8 0,01 -25,534
53,3 0,01 -25,394
53,9 0,01 -25,228
54,4 0,01 -25,091
55,0 0,009 -26,848

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

93

Table 6. 1 Minimum strong TEG concentration required in given conditions
Gas Temperature:

Dew
Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
-18 87,31 89,53 90,86 91,81 92,56 93,18 93,70 94,15 94,56 94,92 95,25 95,55 95,83 96,09 96,33 96,55 96,77 96,97 97,16 97,34 97,51 97,68 97,83 97,99 98,13
-18,1 87,32 89,55 90,87 91,83 92,58 93,19 93,71 94,17 94,57 94,94 95,27 95,57 95,84 96,10 96,34 96,57 96,78 96,98 97,17 97,36 97,53 97,69 97,85 98,00 98,15
-18,2 87,34 89,56 90,89 91,85 92,59 93,21 93,73 94,19 94,59 94,95 95,28 95,58 95,86 96,12 96,36 96,59 96,80 97,00 97,19 97,37 97,55 97,71 97,87 98,02 98,17
-18,3 87,35 89,58 90,91 91,86 92,61 93,22 93,75 94,20 94,61 94,97 95,30 95,60 95,88 96,14 96,38 96,60 96,82 97,02 97,21 97,39 97,56 97,73 97,89 98,04 98,18
-18,4 87,37 89,59 90,92 91,88 92,62 93,24 93,76 94,22 94,62 94,99 95,31 95,62 95,89 96,15 96,39 96,62 96,83 97,03 97,23 97,41 97,58 97,74 97,90 98,05 98,20
-18,5 87,38 89,61 90,94 91,89 92,64 93,26 93,78 94,24 94,64 95,00 95,33 95,63 95,91 96,17 96,41 96,64 96,85 97,05 97,24 97,42 97,60 97,76 97,92 98,07 98,22
-18,6 87,40 89,62 90,95 91,91 92,66 93,27 93,80 94,25 94,66 95,02 95,35 95,65 95,93 96,19 96,43 96,65 96,87 97,07 97,26 97,44 97,61 97,78 97,94 98,09 98,23
-18,7 87,41 89,64 90,97 91,92 92,67 93,29 93,81 94,27 94,67 95,03 95,36 95,67 95,94 96,20 96,44 96,67 96,88 97,08 97,28 97,46 97,63 97,79 97,95 98,10 98,25
-18,8 87,43 89,66 90,99 91,94 92,69 93,30 93,83 94,28 94,69 95,05 95,38 95,68 95,96 96,22 96,46 96,69 96,90 97,10 97,29 97,47 97,65 97,81 97,97 98,12 98,27
-18,9 87,44 89,67 91,00 91,96 92,70 93,32 93,84 94,30 94,70 95,07 95,40 95,70 95,98 96,24 96,48 96,70 96,92 97,12 97,31 97,49 97,66 97,83 97,99 98,14 98,28
-19 87,46 89,69 91,02 91,97 92,72 93,34 93,86 94,32 94,72 95,08 95,41 95,72 95,99 96,25 96,49 96,72 96,93 97,14 97,33 97,51 97,68 97,85 98,00 98,16 98,30
-20 87,61 89,84 91,17 92,13 92,88 93,50 94,02 94,48 94,88 95,25 95,58 95,88 96,16 96,42 96,66 96,89 97,10 97,30 97,49 97,68 97,85 98,02 98,17 98,33 98,47
-21 87,76 90,00 91,33 92,29 93,04 93,66 94,19 94,64 95,05 95,41 95,74 96,05 96,33 96,59 96,83 97,06 97,27 97,47 97,66 97,85 98,02 98,18 98,34 98,50 98,64
-22 87,91 90,15 91,49 92,45 93,20 93,82 94,35 94,81 95,21 95,58 95,91 96,21 96,49 96,75 97,00 97,22 97,44 97,64 97,83 98,02 98,19 98,35 98,51 98,67 98,81
-23 88,06 90,31 91,65 92,61 93,36 93,98 94,51 94,97 95,38 95,74 96,08 96,38 96,66 96,92 97,16 97,39 97,61 97,81 98,00 98,18 98,36 98,53 98,68 98,84 98,98
-24 88,22 90,47 91,81 92,77 93,53 94,15 94,68 95,14 95,54 95,91 96,24 96,55 96,83 97,09 97,33 97,56 97,78 97,98 98,17 98,35 98,53 98,70 98,86 99,01 99,15
-25 88,37 90,62 91,97 92,93 93,69 94,31 94,84 95,30 95,71 96,08 96,41 96,71 97,00 97,26 97,50 97,73 97,95 98,15 98,34 98,53 98,70 98,87 99,03 99,18 99,33
-26 88,52 90,78 92,13 93,09 93,85 94,47 95,00 95,47 95,87 96,24 96,58 96,88 97,16 97,43 97,67 97,90 98,11 98,32 98,51 98,70 98,87 99,04 99,20 99,35 99,50
-27 88,68 90,94 92,28 93,25 94,01 94,64 95,17 95,63 96,04 96,41 96,74 97,05 97,33 97,59 97,84 98,07 98,28 98,49 98,68 98,87 99,04 99,21 99,37 99,52 99,67
-28 88,83 91,09 92,44 93,42 94,18 94,80 95,33 95,80 96,21 96,58 96,91 97,22 97,50 97,76 98,01 98,24 98,45 98,66 98,85 99,04 99,21 99,38 99,54 99,70 99,84
-29 88,98 91,25 92,60 93,58 94,34 94,97 95,50 95,96 96,37 96,74 97,08 97,39 97,67 97,93 98,18 98,41 98,63 98,83 99,02 99,21 99,39 99,55 99,71 99,87 100,0
-30 89,14 91,41 92,77 93,74 94,50 95,13 95,66 96,13 96,54 96,91 97,25 97,55 97,84 98,10 98,35 98,58 98,80 99,00 99,20 99,38 99,56 99,73 99,89 100,0 100,2
-31 89,29 91,57 92,93 93,90 94,67 95,29 95,83 96,30 96,71 97,08 97,42 97,72 98,01 98,27 98,52 98,75 98,97 99,17 99,37 99,55 99,73 99,90 100,1 100,2 100,3
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

94


Figures

Figure 2. 1 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure I (McMullan and Jeffrey, 1965 – figure
reproduced from the Journal of Chemical Physics by the American Institute of Physics)



Figure 2. 2 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure II. Small and large cavities (Behar et al.,
1994)

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

95

Figure 2. 3 Hydrate Crystal Unit Structure sH (Sloan, 1997)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

96


Figure 2. 4 Dehydration Unit Using Triethylene Glycol (ATG, 1988)



Figure 2. 5 Simplified flow diagram for a glycol dehydration unit (reprinted from John Carrol,
Natural Gas Hydrates A Guide for Engineers, 2003)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

97


Figure 2. 6 Stahl or gas-stripping column (Manning and Thompson, 1991)


Figure 2. 7 Dehydration by adsorption (reprinted from Alexandre Rojey et al, Natural Gas
Production Processing Transport, 1997)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

98


Figure 3. 1 Location of Maćkowice Dehydration Facility (reprinted from Autoatlas Polski, 2003, reproduced)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

99

Figure 3. 2 Water content of imported gas with water content limit under 3900 kPa (ROP, 2005)
Water Content In Ukrainian Gas
between 21-11-1995 do 10-01-2005
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
1995-10-
28
1996-08-
23
1997-06-
19
1998-04-
15
1999-02-
09
1999-12-
06
2000-10-
01
2001-07-
28
2002-05-
24
2003-03-
20
2004-01-
14
2004-11-
09
W
a
t
e
r

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

[
g
/
N
m
3
]

c
Water content of imported gas Water content limit
Change in the Polish Norm
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

100

Figure 3. 3 Pipeline system with the destinations of gas flow (ROP, 2005)
POLAND / UKRAINE BORDER
JAROSŁAW
HERMANOWICE
ŻURAWICA
ID 400
ID 700
ID 300 ID 700
ID 300
ID 500
ID700
towards STRACHOCIN
towards LUBACZÓW
towards
TARNÓW
towards ROZWADÓW
MAĆKOWICE
Gas
Drying
ID 300
ID 600
ID 500
ID 700
ID 300
ID 600
ID 500
ID 500
ID 700
ID 600
Gas
compressor
Gas
compressor
Gas compressor
Gas compressor
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

101


Figure 3. 4 Flowsheet of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Hysys, 2005)

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

102

Figure 3. 5 Work range of Maćkowice dehydration facility (Nafta-Gas, 2004)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

103

Figure 5. 1 Water content of natural gas (ATG, 1990)

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

104

Figure 5. 2Correction to water content in presence of brine (Katz et al, 1959)
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

105

Figure 5. 3Water content of hydrocarbon gas after GPSA


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

106
Water content according to manual 10 C
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
0,012
0,014
0,016
0,018
0,02
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Manual

Figure 5. 4 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to manual


Water content according to manual 15 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Manual

Figure 5. 5 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to manual


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

107
Water content according to manual 20 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
0,035
0,04
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Manual

Figure 5. 6 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to manual


Water content in dehydrated gas 10 C
0
0,002
0,004
0,006
0,008
0,01
0,012
0,014
0,016
0,018
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure[bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Article

Figure 5. 7 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to equations


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

108
Water content in dehydrated gas 15 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure[bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Article

Figure 5. 8 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to equations



Water content in dehydrated gas 20 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure[bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Article

Figure 5. 9 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to equations
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

109

Figure 5. 10 Flow sheet of gas saturation system with Hysys


Water content according to Hysys 10 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Hysys

Figure 5. 11 Water content of natural gas at 10
o
C according to Hysys


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

110
Water content according to Hysys 15 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
0,035
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Hysys

Figure 5. 12 Water content of natural gas at 15
o
C according to Hysys


Water content according to Hysys 20 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
0,035
0,04
0,045
0,05
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Hysys

Figure 5. 13 Water content of natural gas at 20
o
C according to Hysys
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

111



Water content comparison 10 C
0
0,005
0,01
0,015
0,02
0,025
0,03
0,035
0,04
0,045
0,05
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Manual
Hysys
Article
Saturation

Figure 5. 14 Water content comparison at 10
o
C

Water content comparison 15 C
0
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
1
2
9
,
2
3
0
,
4
3
1
,
5
3
2
,
6
3
3
,
7
3
4
,
8
3
6
,
0
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
2
3
9
,
3
4
7
,
2
4
8
,
3
4
9
,
4
5
0
,
5
5
1
,
6
5
2
,
8
5
3
,
9
5
5
,
0
pressure
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r
Manual
Hysys
Article
Saturation

Figure 5. 15 Water content comparison at 15
o
C


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

112
Water content comparison 20 C
0
0,01
0,02
0,03
0,04
0,05
0,06
0,07
0,08
2
7
,
0
2
8
,
7
3
0
,
4
3
2
,
0
3
3
,
7
3
5
,
4
3
7
,
1
3
8
,
8
4
7
,
7
4
9
,
4
5
1
,
1
5
2
,
8
5
4
,
4
pressure [bar]
a
m
o
u
n
t

o
f

w
a
t
e
r

[
g
/
S
m
^
3
]
Manual
Hysys
Article
Saturation

Figure 5. 16 Water content comparison at 20
o
C

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

113
Dew Point For Water Content
-35
-33
-31
-29
-27
-25
-23
-21
0
,
0
1
8
0
,
0
1
8
0
,
0
1
7
0
,
0
1
6
0
,
0
1
6
0
,
0
1
6
0
,
0
1
5
0
,
0
1
4
0
,
0
1
4
0
,
0
1
4
0
,
0
1
3
0
,
0
1
3
0
,
0
1
1
0
,
0
1
1
0
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
1
0
0
,
0
0
9
Water Content
D
e
w

P
o
i
n
t
Manual
Article
Hysys
Wielom. (Article)
Wielom. (Manual)
Wielom. (Hysys)

Figure 5. 17 Dew point comparison
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

114

Figure 6. 1 Dew point of a gas in contact with solutions of triethylene glycol after ATG, 1988
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

115

Figure 6. 2 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18
o
C and -29
o
C
Minimum Strong TEG Concentration
86,00
88,00
90,00
92,00
94,00
96,00
98,00
100,00
1 3 5 7 9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Gas Temperature [C]
T
E
G

M
i
n

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

[
%

m
a
s
]

-18
-19
-20
-21
-22
-23
-24
-25
-26
-27
-28
-29
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

116

Figure 6. 3 Minimum strong TEG concentration for dew point temperatures range between
-18
o
C and -19
o
C
Minimum strong TEG concentration
86,00
88,00
90,00
92,00
94,00
96,00
98,00
100,00
1 3 5 7 9
11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25
Gas Temperature C
T
E
G

M
i
n

C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

[
%

m
a
s
s
]

-18
-18,1
-18,2
-18,4
-18,5
-18,6
-18,7
-18,8
-18,9
-19
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

117

Appendices

Appendix A – Specification of Aviaterm 6 heating oil

Aviaterm 6 is heating oil used for warming up natural gas flowing into absorbtion column. It
is used as heat carrier in the temperature range between -18
o
C and 280
o
C (Maćkowice
Dehydration Facility Operation Manual, 2004)

Table of Aviaterm 6 oil specifications was provided with Mackowice dehydration Facility
operation manual.
Colour Amber – light brown
Form Transparent fluid
Boiling point [C] Over 300
o
C
Freezing poing [C] Below -16
o
C
Density [kg/m
3
] 860 kg/m
3
Ignition temperature [C] Over 200
o
C
Range of explosivness [g/m
3
] From 45 g/m
3

Self-ignition temperature [C] Omissible in Maćkowice temperature work
range
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

118

Appendix B - Water content according to manual [g/Nm3]
P
[bar]
10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27 0,018 -27 0,025 -22,9 0,036 -18,8 0,052 -14,1 0,073 -9,7
27,6 0,017 -27,2 0,025 -23,1 0,035 -19 0,052 -14,4 0,072 -10,1
28,1 0,018 -26,9 0,026 -23,2 0,035 -18,8 0,05 -14,5 0,071 -10,2
28,7 0,018 -27,1 0,025 -22,8 0,035 -18,8 0,05 -14,8 0,069 -10,4
29,2 0,017 -27,5 0,024 -23,3 0,034 -19,3 0,048 -15,1 0,068 -10,8
29,8 0,017 -27,3 0,024 -23,2 0,034 -19,5 0,047 -15,3 0,067 -11
30,4 0,016 -27,9 0,023 -23,7 0,033 -19,6 0,047 -15,6 0,065 -11,3
30,9 0,016 -28,2 0,023 -23,9 0,032 -20 0,046 -15,8 0,064 -11,5
31,5 0,016 -28,1 0,023 -24,2 0,032 -20,3 0,045 -16 0,063 -11,7
32 0,016 -28,5 0,022 -24,4 0,031 -20,4 0,044 -16,3 0,062 -12
32,6 0,016 -28,5 0,022 -24,5 0,031 -20,6 0,043 -16,5 0,061 -12,2
33,2 0,015 -28,7 0,022 -24,6 0,03 -20,7 0,043 -16,7 0,059 -12,5
33,7 0,015 -28,9 0,021 -24,9 0,03 -20,7 0,042 -16,7 0,058 -12,7
34,3 0,015 -29,1 0,021 -25,1 0,03 -21,1 0,041 -17,2 0,057 -12,9
34,8 0,014 -29,2 0,021 -25,3 0,029 -21,3 0,041 -17,3 0,057 -13,1
35,4 0,015 -29,1 0,02 -25,3 0,028 -21,5 0,04 -17,5 0,055 -13,5
36 0,014 -29,3 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,6 0,039 -17,6 0,055 -13,5
36,5 0,014 -29,9 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,9 0,039 -17,5 0,053 -13,8
37,1 0,014 -29,7 0,019 -26 0,027 -22 0,039 -18,2 0,053 -14
37,6 0,013 -30,4 0,019 -26,1 0,027 -22,2 0,037 -18,3 0,052 -14,2
38,2 0,013 -30,5 0,019 -26 0,026 -22,4 0,037 -18,5 0,051 -14,4
38,8 0,013 -30,6 0,019 -26,2 0,026 -22,5 0,036 -18,5 0,051 -14,5
39,3 0,013 -30,8 0,018 -26,6 0,026 -22,6 0,035 -18,7 0,049 -14,8
39,9 0,012 -30,9 0,018 -26,7 0,025 -22,8 0,035 -18,8 0,049 -14,9
40,4 0,012 -31 0,018 -26,7 0,025 -22,9 0,035 -19 0,048 -15,1
41 0,012 -31,2 0,018 -26,9 0,025 -23,2 0,034 -19,2 0,048 -15,1
41,6 0,012 -31,3 0,018 -27 0,024 -23,3 0,034 -19,2 0,048 -15,4
42,1 0,012 -31,4 0,018 -27,2 0,025 -23,3 0,034 -19,5 0,047 -15,6
42,7 0,012 -31,5 0,017 -27,3 0,024 -23,5 0,033 -19,7 0,046 -15,8
43,2 0,012 -31,7 0,017 -27,5 0,024 -23,6 0,033 -19,9 0,045 -15,8
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

119
43,8 0,011 -31,8 0,017 -27,7 0,023 -23,8 0,033 -19,9 0,045 -16
44,4 0,011 -31,9 0,016 -28,1 0,023 -23,9 0,032 -20,2 0,044 -16,2
44,9 0,011 -32 0,016 -28,2 0,023 -24 0,032 -20,2 0,044 -16,3
45,5 0,011 -32,1 0,016 -28,3 0,023 -24,2 0,031 -20,4 0,043 -16,5
46 0,011 -32,2 0,016 -28,4 0,022 -24,3 0,031 -20,6 0,043 -16,6
46,6 0,011 -32,3 0,015 -28,5 0,022 -24,4 0,031 -20,7 0,042 -16,7
47,2 0,011 -32,4 0,015 -28,7 0,022 -24,5 0,03 -20,9 0,042 -16,9
47,7 0,011 -32,6 0,015 -28,8 0,022 -24,7 0,03 -20,8 0,041 -17,1
48,3 0,011 -32,7 0,015 -28,9 0,021 -24,8 0,03 -21 0,041 -17,2
48,8 0,01 -32,8 0,015 -29 0,021 -24,9 0,029 -21,2 0,04 -17,4
49,4 0,01 -32,9 0,015 -29,1 0,021 -25,1 0,029 -21,2 0,04 -17,3
50 0,01 -33 0,015 -29,2 0,021 -25,1 0,029 -21,4 0,04 -17,5
50,5 0,01 -33,1 0,014 -29,3 0,021 -25 0,028 -21,5 0,039 -17,7
51,1 0,01 -33,1 0,014 -29,4 0,02 -25,7 0,028 -21,6 0,039 -17,7
51,6 0,01 -33,2 0,014 -29,5 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,8 0,038 -18
52,2 0,01 -33,3 0,014 -29,6 0,02 -25,9 0,028 -21,9 0,038 -18,1
52,8 0,01 -33,4 0,014 -29,7 0,019 -26 0,027 -21,9 0,038 -18,1
53,3 0,01 -33,5 0,014 -29,8 0,019 -26,1 0,027 -22,1 0,037 -18,2
53,9 0,01 -33,6 0,014 -29,9 0,019 -26,2 0,027 -22,2 0,037 -18,4
54,4 0,01 -33,7 0,014 -30 0,019 -26,3 0,026 -22,4 0,037 -18,5
55 0,009 -33,8 0,013 -30,1 0,019 -26,4 0,026 -22,5 0,036 -18,6


OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

120

Appendix C – Water content according to article [g/Nm3]
P [bar] 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C
[g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,01593 -27 0,01995 -22,9 0,02499 -18,8
27,6 0,01576 -27,2 0,01974 -23,1 0,02471 -19
28,1 0,01602 -26,9 0,01963 -23,2 0,02499 -18,8
28,7 0,01585 -27,1 0,02006 -22,8 0,02499 -18,8
29,2 0,0155 -27,5 0,01952 -23,3 0,02431 -19,3
29,8 0,01567 -27,3 0,01963 -23,2 0,02405 -19,5
30,4 0,01517 -27,9 0,0191 -23,7 0,02391 -19,6
30,9 0,01492 -28,2 0,01889 -23,9 0,0234 -20
31,5 0,015 -28,1 0,01858 -24,2 0,02301 -20,3
32,0 0,01468 -28,5 0,01838 -24,4 0,02289 -20,4
32,6 0,01468 -28,5 0,01828 -24,5 0,02264 -20,6
33,2 0,01452 -28,7 0,01818 -24,6 0,02251 -20,7
33,7 0,01436 -28,9 0,01788 -24,9 0,02251 -20,7
34,3 0,0142 -29,1 0,01769 -25,1 0,02203 -21,1
34,8 0,01412 -29,2 0,01749 -25,3 0,02178 -21,3
35,4 0,0142 -29,1 0,01749 -25,3 0,02155 -21,5
36,0 0,01405 -29,3 0,01702 -25,8 0,02143 -21,6
36,5 0,01359 -29,9 0,01702 -25,8 0,02108 -21,9
37,1 0,01374 -29,7 0,01683 -26 0,02096 -22 0,02582 -18,2
37,6 0,01322 -30,4 0,01674 -26,1 0,02074 -22,2 0,02568 -18,3
38,2 0,01315 -30,5 0,01683 -26 0,02051 -22,4 0,0254 -18,5
38,8 0,01308 -30,6 0,01665 -26,2 0,0204 -22,5 0,0254 -18,5
39,3 0,01294 -30,8 0,01629 -26,6 0,02029 -22,6 0,02512 -18,7
39,9 0,01287 -30,9 0,0162 -26,7 0,02006 -22,8 0,02499 -18,8

47,2 0,01185 -32,4 0,01452 -28,7 0,01828 -24,5 0,02227 -20,9
47,7 0,01172 -32,6 0,01444 -28,8 0,01808 -24,7 0,02239 -20,8
48,3 0,01166 -32,7 0,01436 -28,9 0,01798 -24,8 0,02215 -21
48,8 0,01159 -32,8 0,01428 -29 0,01788 -24,9 0,0219 -21,2
49,4 0,01153 -32,9 0,0142 -29,1 0,01769 -25,1 0,0219 -21,2
50,0 0,01147 -33 0,01412 -29,2 0,01769 -25,1 0,02167 -21,4
50,5 0,0114 -33,1 0,01405 -29,3 0,01778 -25 0,02155 -21,5
51,1 0,0114 -33,1 0,01397 -29,4 0,01711 -25,7 0,02143 -21,6
51,6 0,01134 -33,2 0,01389 -29,5 0,01702 -25,8 0,0212 -21,8 0,02611 -18
52,2 0,01128 -33,3 0,01382 -29,6 0,01693 -25,9 0,02108 -21,9 0,02597 -18,1
52,8 0,01122 -33,4 0,01374 -29,7 0,01683 -26 0,02108 -21,9 0,02597 -18,1
53,3 0,01116 -33,5 0,01367 -29,8 0,01674 -26,1 0,02085 -22,1 0,02582 -18,2
53,9 0,01109 -33,6 0,01359 -29,9 0,01665 -26,2 0,02074 -22,2 0,02554 -18,4
54,4 0,01103 -33,7 0,01352 -30 0,01656 -26,3 0,02051 -22,4 0,0254 -18,5
55,0 0,01097 -33,8 0,01344 -30,1 0,01647 -26,4 0,0204 -22,5 0,02526 -18,6

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

121

Appendix D – Water content according to Hysys in g/Nm3
P 10 C 15 C 20 C 25 C 30 C
w Tr[C] w Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C] [g/Nm3] Tr[C]
27,0 0,0227 -27 0,032 -22,9 0,046 -18,8
27,6 0,02231 -27,2 0,032 -23,1 0,045 -19
28,1 0,02199 -26,9 0,031 -23,2 0,045 -18,8
28,7 0,02162 -27,1 0,031 -22,8 0,044 -18,8
29,2 0,0208 -27,5 0,03 -23,3 0,043 -19,3
29,8 0,021 -27,3 0,03 -23,2 0,04 -19,5
30,4 0,019 -27,9 0,027 -23,7 0,0389 -19,6
30,9 0,0186 -28,2 0,026 -23,9 0,038 -20
31,5 0,01834 -28,1 0,026 -24,2 0,0377 -20,3
32,0 0,017 -28,5 0,026 -24,4 0,0371 -20,4
32,6 0,017 -28,5 0,0245 -24,5 0,035 -20,6
33,2 0,016 -28,7 0,023 -24,6 0,035 -20,7
33,7 0,016 -28,9 0,023 -24,9 0,034 -20,7
34,3 0,0155 -29,1 0,0225 -25,1 0,032 -21,1
34,8 0,0155 -29,2 0,0223 -25,3 0,03 -21,3
35,4 0,0153 -29,1 0,022 -25,3 0,029 -21,5
36,0 0,015 -29,3 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,6
36,5 0,014 -29,9 0,02 -25,8 0,028 -21,9
37,1 0,014 -29,7 0,019 -26 0,028 -22 0,038 -18,2
37,6 0,0134 -30,4 0,019 -26,1 0,028 -22,2 0,0374 -18,3
38,2 0,0132 -30,5 0,019 -26 0,0275 -22,4 0,0363 -18,5
38,8 0,013 -30,6 0,019 -26,2 0,026 -22,5 0,0358 -18,5
39,3 0,012 -30,8 0,0186 -26,6 0,026 -22,6 0,035 -18,7
39,9 0,012 -30,9 0,018 -26,7 0,025 -22,8 0,0345 -18,8

47,2 0,011 -32,4 0,013 -28,7 0,0195 -24,5 0,025 -20,9
47,7 0,011 -32,6 0,0125 -28,8 0,019 -24,7 0,025 -20,8
48,3 0,011 -32,7 0,0124 -28,9 0,0177 -24,8 0,0249 -21
48,8 0,01 -32,8 0,0123 -29 0,0175 -24,9 0,0247 -21,2
49,4 0,01 -32,9 0,0122 -29,1 0,0174 -25,1 0,0245 -21,2
50,0 0,01 -33 0,0121 -29,2 0,0173 -25,1 0,0243 -21,4
50,5 0,01 -33,1 0,012 -29,3 0,0172 -25 0,023 -21,5
51,1 0,01 -33,1 0,012 -29,4 0,016 -25,7 0,0228 -21,6
51,6 0,01 -33,2 0,0115 -29,5 0,0156 -25,8 0,022 -21,8 0,0305 -18
52,2 0,01 -33,3 0,011 -29,6 0,0154 -25,9 0,0219 -21,9 0,0301 -18,1
52,8 0,01 -33,4 0,0107 -29,7 0,0153 -26 0,0217 -21,9 0,0299 -18,1
53,3 0,01 -33,5 0,0106 -29,8 0,0152 -26,1 0,0216 -22,1 0,0295 -18,2
53,9 0,01 -33,6 0,0105 -29,9 0,0151 -26,2 0,0215 -22,2 0,0288 -18,4
54,4 0,01 -33,7 0,0105 -30 0,015 -26,3 0,0211 -22,4 0,0284 -18,5
55,0 0,009 -33,8 0,0104 -30,1 0,015 -26,4 0,0205 -22,5 0,028 -18,6

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

122

Appendix E – Example of calculation of water content saturating natural gas

Calculation of water amount saturating natural gas in given conditions was made. The
composition of natural gas is known. Solution for one chosen gas pressure and temperature is
shown below

Input data:
Gas pressure P
g
= 100 kPa
Gas temperature T
g
= -40
o
C

The data obtained from Hysys application:

Molecular weight of water M
w
= 18,0151 kg/kmol
Molecular weight of gas with water M
g-w
= 16,46115 kg/kmol
Mole fraction of pure water C
w
= 1,78*10
-4

Z-factor Z = 0,995188
Mass density of water-gas mixture ρ
g-w
= 0,853289 kg/m
3


The number of moles of gas in given conditions per 1 m
3
expressed in kmol is

w g
w g
m w g
M
m
n




=
ρ
3
1 ,
1













= =


=

kmol
kmol
kg
kg
kmol
kg
m
n
m
kg
w g
3
3
46115 , 16
853289 , 0 1

05184 , 0 =
−w g
n kmol

Mass of water accumulated in 1 m
3
water-gas mixture

w w m w g m w
M C n m ⋅ ⋅ =
− 1 , 1 ,







= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =

kg
kmol
kg
kmol m
m w
0151 , 18 10 78 , 1 05184 , 0
4
1 ,

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

123
kg m
m w
4
1 ,
10 6623 , 1

⋅ =

Calculation of the cubic volume of water-gas mixture in standard conditions by means of
Clapeyron equation was done.

For details on Clapeyron equation see attachment 5.

Z T
T
P
P
V V
c s
c s
c s
1
) ( ) (
. .
. .
. .
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
] 1 1 [
995188 , 0
1
)
15 , 273 40
15 , 273 15
( )
101325
100000
( 1
3 3
. .
Sm
K
K
Pa
Pa
m V
c s
= ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
+ −
+
⋅ ⋅ =
3
. .
2256 , 1 Sm V
c s
=

Finally the mass of water per 1 Sm
3
was calculated

. .
1 ,
c s
m w
V
m
c =
] [
2256 , 1
10 6623 , 1
3
4
Sm
kg
c


=
] [ 10 3563 , 1
3
4
Sm
kg
c

⋅ =

In attached table (5.2) water content in grams per standard cubic meter is given.

3
136 , 0
Sm
g
c =
OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

124

Appendix F – Real gas law equation use for standard volume calculation

Real gas law equation is known also as Clapeyron Equation. General form of Clapeyron
equation (1):
T R Z V P
n
⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ (1)

where:
P – gas pressure,
V – gas volume,
Z – Z factor,
R
n
– individual gas constant ,
T – temperature.

Individual gas constant equals (2):

R
n
= R ·n (2)

where:
R – universal gas constant
n – number of moles of gas

As individual gas constant is non-changeable for a given gas mixture one of the four variables
(pressure, volume, Z factor, temperature) may be calculated in given conditions if all four
variables are known for the mixture at any other conditions. This leads to the equation (3):

2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
Z T
V P
Z T
V P


=



(3)

where:
1 - stands for given volume, temperature, Z factor and pressure,
2 – stands for different volume, temperature, Z factor and pressure.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

125
For any vapor the Z factor in standard conditions equals 1

Z
s.c.
= 1

Therefore for comparison between standard conditions and any given conditions the
equation (3) becomes the following (4):

. .
. . . .
c s
c s c s
T
V P
Z T
V P ⋅
=



(4)

where:
P
s.c.
– standard pressure (P
s.c.
= 101325 Pa),
T
s.c.
– standard temperature (T
s.c.
= 288,15 K = 15
o
C),
V
s.c.
– standard volume.

After transformation the equation (4) assumes the following form (5):

Z T
T
P
P
V V
c s
c s
c s
1
) ( ) (
. .
. .
. .
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
(5)

From the equation (5) gas volume in standard conditions is calculated when pressure,
temperature and Z factor for given pressure are known.

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

126
Appendix G – Amount of TEG necessary to dehydrate gas of given water content

The values given are obtained from Maćkowice dehydration facility operation instruction.
Without compression (pressure between 2,7 MPa and 3,0 MPa)
Dew point
temperature of sour
gas [
o
C]
Water content in inlet
natural gas
[g
H2O
/Nm
3
]
Amount of TEG to
dehydrate gas
[dm
3
TEG
/1000 Nm
3
]
-10 0,1 3,1
-5 0,14 4,4
0 0,20 6,2
5 0,29 9,0
10 0,39 12,1


With compression (pressure between 4,5 MPa and 5,5 MPa)
Dew point
temperature of sour
gas [
o
C]
Water content in inlet
natural gas
[g
H2O
/Nm
3
]
Amount of TEG to
dehydrate gas
[dm
3
TEG
/1000 Nm
3
]
-10 0,075 2,4
-5 0,110 3,5
0 0,155 4,8
5 0,215 6,7
10 0,295 9,2

OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL GAS DEHYDRATION

ii

Abstract An approach for reduction of triethylene glycol (TEG) losses and energy consumption in Maćkowice Dehydration Facility, Poland is presented. Operating manuals of devices, and charts showing parts of dehydration facility Maćkowice were used for creating a steady state simulation of dewatering process under process engineering program Hysys. Analytical and mathematical calculations were made and compared with simulation outcome and experimental data for achieving reliable results. Water content values in natural gas were obtained from Maćkowice Treatment Facility operaton manual and calculated with empirical equations. The values obtained were compared to water amount in natural gas according to Hysys computation. Subsequently the amount of water necessary to be removed from natural gas in order to meet the demand for dew point temperature was calculated. The values obtained show the minimum TEG circulation for gas dehydration. Calculations of minimum TEG concentrations required for given conditions and dew point temperature required were made. On basis of the above an attempt was made to find optimum pressure and temperature work range for gas dehydration from the viewpoint of TEG losses and energy use reduction. A solution was suggested for limitation of energy and glycol consumption.

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