Reinhard Billet

Packed Towers

VCH
Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0

© VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, D-69451 Weinheim, (Federal Republic of Germany), 1995 Distribution: VCH, P.O. Box 1011 61, D-69451 Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany) Switzerland: VCH, P.O. Box, CH-4020 Basel (Switzerland) United Kingdom and Ireland: VCH, 8 Wellington Court, Cambridge CBl 1HZ (United Kingdom) USA and Canada: VCH, 220 East 23rd Street, New York, NY 10010-4606 (USA) Japan: VCH, Eikow Building, 10-9 Hongo 1-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 (Japan) ISBN 3-527-28616-0

Reinhard Billet

Packed Towers
in Processing and Environmental Technology
Translated by James W. FuUarton

VCH

Weinheim • New York • Basel • Cambridge • Tokyo

Professor Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Billet Institut fur Thermo- und Fluiddynamik Fakultat fiir Maschinenbau Ruhr-Universitat Bochum UniversitatsstraBe 150 D-44801 Bochum

This book was carefully produced. Nevertheless, the author, translator and publisher do not warrant the information contained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

Published jointly by VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany) VCH Publishers, Inc., New York, NY (USA)

Editorial Directors: Louise Elsam, Karin Sora Production Manager: Peter Biel

Library of Congress Card No. applied for. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Die Deutsche Bibliothek - CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Billet, Reinhard: Packed towers in processing and environmental technology/ Reinhard Billet. Transl. by James W. Fullarton. - 1. ed. Weinheim ; New York ; Basel; Cambridge ; Tokyo : VCH, 1995 ISBN 3-527-28616-0

© VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, D-69451 Weinheim (Federal Republic of Germany), 1995 Printed on acid-free and low-chlorine paper All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form - by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means - nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law. Composition: Hagedornsatz GmbH, D-68519 Viernheim Printing: Betzdruck GmbH, D-64219 Darmstadt Bookbinding: Industrie- und Verlagsbuchbinderei Heppenheim GmbH, D-64646 Heppenheim Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany

Preface
In the chemical and allied industries, there is a continuously rising trend towards separation processes that are operated in packed columns with systematically stacked or randomly dumped beds. It was initiated by the 1973 oil crisis and the associated demand for saving fuel by optimum design and operation of the processes. Another factor that has contributed towards the widespread adoption of packed beds in industry has been the increasing severity of ecological legislation. Since they can be operated under more moderate conditions, packed columns are superior to plate columns in coping with the demands of saving energy and protecting the environment. Thus packed columns can offer the following advantages: - They allow lower energy consumption in separation processes that entail a large number of theoretical stages. - They can more readily satisfy the requirements for the economic use of heat pumps. - They permit thermally instable mixtures to be separated at lower temperatures at the foot of the column and can thus minimize or even completely avoid products of decomposition or polymerization reactions that may be responsible for pollution. - In absorbers, particularly those for off-gas scrubbing, they require compressors of lower power ratings than those installed in plate columns. Beds of packing are also being used to an increasing extent for direct heat transfer between liquids and gases (or vapours) and for liquid-liquid extraction. The trend runs parallel to striking improvements in the design of traditional packing and has also led to the development of completely new packing geometries. However, the results obtained in process engineering studies did not always agree satisfactorily with the traditional relationships given in the literature. Consequently, research work had to be directed at devising new correlations and models for the efficiency and operating characteristics of packed columns with the aim of developing physically well-founded design methods that are applicable to all types of packing used in industry. The book "Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology" is intended as a contribution towards this aim. The reliability of the methods presented here has been demonstrated by results gained in comprehensive experiments that embraced more than sixty types of metallic, ceramic, and plastics packing of various geometries and dimensions and were performed on systems that covered a wide range of physical properties in the liquid and the gas or vapour phases. These pilot-plant experiments were carried out over a period of more than 20 years in the course of the author's activities in research and industry. The results thus obtained provided a sound basis upon which a theoretical model could be developed to describe the hydrodynamics and mass transfer in packed columns. The experiments also served to verify the scientific accuracy of the models and thus to ensure close agreement between theory and practice. The author has presented papers on the subject at meetings held by various engineering institutions, including the VDI, EFCE and AIChE, and at the ACHEMA, CHISA and ACHEMASIA fairs. He has also held seminars on packed columns, e.g. in the Conicet Institute, Santa Fe and Bahia Blanca, Argentina; at the Glitsch Symposium in Dallas, Texas, USA; the Korean Institute of Energy Research in Taejon, South Korea; the Petrobras in Rio

VI

Preface

de Janeiro; the Belo Horizonte University in Brazil, and the Tientsin University in China. The book has been written in response to many requests for a review of the engineering aspects in packed columns. The author wishes to take this opportunity of expressing his most sincere thanks to all those who assisted him in the experimental work, to Dr. M. Schultes for his valuable cooperation in evaluating the examples, to M. Ernst for her commitment in typing the German manuscript, to Th. Cipa for his assistance in proof-reading, and - in particular - to J. W. Fullarton for translating the work into English. Bochum, January 1994 R. Billet

Biography
Reinhard BILLET gained his Dipl.-Ing. (in 1953) and Dr.-Ing. (in 1957) degrees in Process and Chemical Engineering at the Technical University of Karlsruhe. From 1954-1960, he was a Scientific Assistant under Professor E. Kirschbaum at the Plant and Process Engineering Institute of Karlsruhe University. In 1960, he joined the staff of the BASF Chemical Engineering Research Department and was subsequently involved in plastics production, plant design, environmental protection, and industrial safety. In 1975, he was appointed Professor of Process Engineering and called to the Chair for Thermal Separation Processes; and 1992, to the Chair for Process and Environmental Engineering at the Ruhr-University of Bochum. During the period 1983/1984, he acted as the Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Professor Billet was awarded the Ring of Honour of the German Institute of Engineers (VDI) in 1964; and, in 1986, the Medal for Outstanding Merit, by the Technical University of Wroclaw. Most of his research work has been in the fields of evaporation, distillation, absorption, liquid-liquid extraction, and environmental engineering. He has written over 200 scientific articles, four university booklets, and three monographs in German. His book ,,Industrielle Destination" has been translated into English, Czechoslovakian, and Chinese; ,,Verdampfung und ihre technischen Anwendungen", into English and Chinese; and ,,Energieeinsparung bei thermischen Stofftrennverfahren", into Polish. The "Proceedings of the Packed Column Analysis and Design Seminar" is also available in Korean and Chinese. The results of his research work have been presented at national and international congresses and meetings. Professor Billet is a member of the VDI Panel of Experts on the thermal separation of gases and liquids and the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) Working Party on Distillation, Absorption and Extraction. He is also a member of the New York Academy of Sciences.

.

3 5.1 3.7 4.8 4.6 4.3 1.1 1.1 5.2 2.6 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns 119 Mass transfer in the liquid phase 119 Mass transfer in the vapour phase 121 Vapour-liquid phase boundary 124 Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics 130 Mass transfer at high liquid loads 139 Mass transfer in absorbers accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase 141 .4 4.2 1.4 Experimental determination of packing performance Pilot plants for testing gas-liquid systems Evaluation of measurements 31 Test systems 37 Experimental results 41 31 31 4 4.9 4.3 4.5 5.2 3.1 2.Contents 1 1.1 4.3 Types of packing 23 25 Packing dumped at random 24 Packing stacked in geometric patterns Geometric packing parameters 27 3 3.4 Introduction 1 Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems Theoretical column efficiency 11 Energy consumption and number of theoretical stages 17 Height of bed determined from the HTU-NTU model 20 2 2.3 3.4 5.2 5.2 4.5 4.10 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns 73 Fluid-dynamics model 73 Resistance to flow 76 Loading conditions 82 Flooding conditions 84 Relationship between boundary loads 87 Pressure drop in packed columns 88 Liquid holdup in packed beds 96 Liquid entrainment at high loads 100 Phase inversion in packed beds 102 Relationship between loading and flood points 112 5 5.

1 7.4 7.X Contents 6 6.1 6.4 Overall evaluation of packing 239 Materials of construction 239 Capital investment 241 Evaluation for the separation of thermally unstable mixtures Evaluation in terms of minimum column volume 247 244 .5 7.2 11.4 6.2 9.6 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns 171 173 Theoretical considerations 171 Effect of inlet liquid distribution on the efficiency of packed columns Maximum packing efficiency in inlet zones 176 Effect of phase ratio on relative efficiency 183 Effect of height of packing on relative efficiency 185 Estimation of relative efficiency 185 8 8.5 8.1 11.1 9.3 11.3 6.7 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 191 Scale-up model 194 Inlet and end effects in industrial-scale plants identical to those in pilot plants 197 Inlet and end effects in industrial-scale plants different to those in pilot plants 198 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets 199 Effect of phase maldistribution 206 Gas or vapour distribution 210 Effect of mass transfer coefficient on scale-up 212 9 9.2 8.1 10.2 Design of distributors 230 230 Fundamental design aspects and relationships Types of phase distributors 233 11 11.2 7.4 8.5 End effects in packed columns 147 Phenomenological description 147 Correlation of end effects 150 Experimental results 154 Column design and scale-up 157 Examples of scale-up 167 7 7.1 8.3 7.3 8.3 Phase redistribution in columns 213 213 Estimation of optimum number of phase redistributors Costs relationships 219 Examples 225 10 10.2 6.6 8.

1 12.10 14.5 11.2 12.1 14.9 14.8 Theoretical considerations in the design of column internals State of the art in the development of packing 255 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing 262 Limits to the further development of packing 270 250 12 12.1 13.7 14.3 12.11 Examples for the design of packed columns 337 Determination of the diameter of an off-gas absorption column with various types of packing 342 Design of a packed column for the rectification of an isobutane/n-butane mixture 344 Scaling up measurements performed in pilot plants 348 Design of an absorber for removing acetone from process air 350 Design of a desorber for removing carbon dioxide from process effluents 355 Determination of the difference between the theoretical and the real liquid holdup 360 Additional column height required to compensate maldistribution 361 Retrofitting a plate column with packing for steam distillation of crude oil 362 Reduction in height effected by redistributors 363 Advantages of geometrically arranged packing in fractionating fatty acids 364 Recovery of acetone from production effluents by liquid-liquid extraction 365 .6 13.3 14.5 14.8 14.4 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing 291 Advantages of retrofitting 291 Potential for retrofitting with low-pressure-drop packing 296 Advantages of packing in steam rectification 302 Improvement in product purity caused by restricting the pressure drop in beds of packing 310 13 13.7 11.7 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems 313 General aspects 313 Experimental 314 Fluid dynamics of dispersed and continuous phases 318 Dispersed-phase holdup 318 Phase throughput 322 Mass transfer in the dispersed and continuous phases 324 Extraction efficiency.2 14.4 13.3 13. test results and derivation of model 327 14 14.6 11.4 14.6 14.Contents XI 11.5 13.2 13.

1 15.3 Contents Recent trends in packing technology 369 Fluidized beds of packing 369 Hydrodynamics of fluidized packed beds 370 Mass transfer in fluidized packed beds 370 References 373 Index 379 .2 15.XII 15 15.

specific for the packing flow rate of bottom product concentration costs per unit volume of packing costs per unit height of column costs for one redistributor in a column of diameter ds costs per unit area of column shell costs.[kg/h] [kmol/m3] [DM/m3] [DM/m] [DM] [DM/m2] [DM]. [DM/m 3 [DM] Cr Cs c Cc ch cL CP Cs Cv d dh dP ds D D D e E Ec Ev [m] [m] [m] [m] [DM/m] [m2/s] [kmol/h]. specific for the material and method of construction of column shell column efficiency volumetric packing efficiency wall factor vapour load factor wetting factor .[kg/h] [DM/m2] [1/s] fs fv fw total surface area per unit packed volume packing area per unit efficiency and per unit volumetric vapour flow rate hydraulic area of packing per unit volume of packed bed effective interfacial area per unit packed volume column shell area per unit efficiency and per unit volumetric vapour flow rate constant. specific for the material and method of production of the packing diffusion coefficient of transferring component flow rate of distillate (overhead product) relative efficiency.Key to symbols a a' ah aPh as A Ah As B B c Cp CPs [m2/m3] [s/m] [m2/m3] [m2/m3] [m/s] [s/m] [m2] [m2] [m2] [s] [kmol/h]. or energy parameter costs factor. specific for the packing cross-sectional area of an individual channel total area of packing free cross-sectional area constant. costs per unit volume of the packed column capital investment costs for a packed column packing constant to allow for liquid holdup packing constant to allow for mass transfer in liquid packing constant to allow for pressure drop costs of the packing to be evaluated in relation to those of a random bed of 50-mm Pall rings packing constant to allow for mass transfer in gas size of an element of packing hydraulic diameter particle diameter column diameter costs factor.

[mbar] pressure P Ap [mbar].[kmol/kmol] M maldistribution nh number of flow channels number of theoretical stages corresponding a bed height H nt N number of separation units N packing density K3] NTU number of transfer units in a phase number of overall transfer units NTUO [bar]. specific for the material and method of construction of column shell F [kmol/h]. for the bed of packing and the column shell.[kg/h] flow rate of feed [kg^m^V1] vapour capacity factor related to the free column cross-section Fv [m/s2] acceleration due to gravity g h [kJ/kmol] molar enthalpy Ah [kJ/kmol] molar condensation. per unit efficiency and per unit volumetric vapour flow rate Kp. i.[kg/h] flow rate of liquid slope of equilibrium line myx.e.[mbar] boiling pressure of a component liquid distribution coefficient [kJ/h] energy consumption Q film thickness s [m] s [m] thickness of the basic material. evaporation enthalpy [m3/m3] liquid holdup hL H [m] effective height of fill of column packing [m] height of inlet zone in a bed of packing Ht [m] HTU height of a mass transfer unit [m] overall height of a mass transfer unit HTUO k [m/s] overall mass transfer coefficient K [DM s/m3] total costs.e.mYX .XIV Key to symbols costs factor. sheet. foil or fibre. of the packing elements S [kmol/h] flow rate of carrier steam t time [s] liquid phase residence time tL [s] T temperature [K] [m3m~2s~1] uL liquid load (also related to hour) uL [m/s] local liquid velocity Uy [m/s] superficial gas or vapour velocity Uy [m/s] average effective gas or vapour velocity v' volume of packing material per unit efficiency and volumetric gas [s] or vapour load [DM/m3] u . i. Ks [DM s/m3] packing costs per unit efficiency and per unit volumetric vapour flow rate length of flow path for phase contact [m] L [kmol/h] flow rate of carrier liquid L [kmol/h] .[mmWG] pressure drop P [bar].

8 [m/s] [m3/m3] [kg ri V [kg.[kg/h] [kg/m3] [kg nrV 1 ] [kmol/kmol] [kmol/kmol] [kmol/kmol] [kmol/kmol] [m~2] X y Y Z zh [m-2] specific column volume flow rate of carrier gas flow rate of gas or vapour specific gravity of packing packing weight per unit volumetric flow rate of gas or vapour and unit efficiency mole fraction in liquid phase molar load fraction of transfer component in liquid mole fraction in gas or vapour phase molar load fraction of transfer component in gas or vapour number of liquid distributor outlets number of flow channels per unit area of column cross-section Greek symbols a CO.Key to symbols Vy XV V V w w' X [m3/(m3/s)] [kmol/h] [kmol/h].kmol] [m2/s] [kg/m3] [kg/s2] [s] [N/m2] Q a T Xy relative volatility mass transfer coefficient void fraction of packing efficiency dynamic viscosity column efficiency stripping factor molecular mass. molar mass kinematic viscosity coefficient of resistance mass density surface tension duration of contact between the phases shear stress in gas flow diameter ratio flow parameter Subscripts B C D e F Fl L o P Ph bottom product continuous phase distillate (overhead product) effective feed flood point liquid surface pilot plant interface .

column shell loading point technical or industrial scale vapour or gas wetting Dimensionless numbers Fo Fr Ma Re Sc We Fourier number Froude number Marangoni number Reynolds number Schmidt number Weber number .ML Key to symbols s S T V W film thickness.

e. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. i. Another advantage is that the reduction in the average column pressure brought about by vacuum operation increases the average relative volatility of the components in the mixture and thus reduces energy consumption. because it permits heat pumps to be installed and a number of columns to be linked together. The design and process engineering improvements that have ensued entail that feedstocks are subjected to less severe treatment and can thus be optimally exploited. atmospheric pollution is reduced and less residues have to be disposed of. 1. A typical example is provided by low-pressure-drop packing in the vacuum rectification of mixtures that are unstable to heat and that necessitate a large number of theoretical stages for their thermal separation. They also entail production under ecologically favourable conditions (cf. high-performance packing is an essential requirement in the economic design of an integrated separation plant. Low-pressure-drop.1). The attendant decrease in the total pressure drop and operation under vacuum ensure that the temperature at the bottom of the column is comparatively low.1 Introduction The clamour for energy-saving techniques in almost all branches of industry has acted as a spur in the development of thermal separation equipment. 1. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 .1. Fig. Fig. Hence. processing and environmental protection Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. decomposition products that are detrimental to the environment can be largely avoided. Relationships established by separation techniques between energy consumption.

desorption. e. Rectification. Greatest significance from the aspect of saving energy is attached to their use in rectification. whether random or stacked. The scope of this book has therefore been restricted to a comprehensive treatment of packed-bed technology and its application to separation processes. However. the capacity. Contact between the two phases is thus established. . e. and the specific properties of the product and inlet streams must be known in order to devise the model. including packing. absorption. i. The main applications for packed columns are the separation of vapour-liquid or gas-liquid systems. In desorption . absorption. In rectification.mass transfer proceeds in the opposite direction. and the only means of acquiring these data is by experiment. i.2). in rectification. e. the aim of this book is to supplement the theoretical considerations by the results of relevant studies that were performed in the author's laboratories and pilot plants and were scaled up to meet practical requirements. In many cases. and liquid-liquid extraction processes consist essentially of passing two countercurrent phases through a packed column (cf. and the costs. will grow accordingly. with the result that the low-boiling component flows upwards and the high boiler accumulates at the bottom of the column. Fig. before any one particular type of packing can be selected for a given separation task. the capacity. a subject to which particular attention has been devoted in the course of this book. the separation efficiency. Physical absorption processes consist of mass transfer from the gas into the liquid phase. They will also be adopted on a wider scale in ecological engineering for purifying off-gas streams and for water treatment.e. the vapour produced in the distillation section of the column flows countercurrent to the liquid formed in a condenser. the liquid holdup. In future. mass transfer takes place between two liquid phases. the pressure drop. they have also proved to be superior to conventional plate columns for liquid-liquid extraction processes. 1. and desorption. into a solvent that selectively absorbs the desired component from the gas stream. and the demand for the necessary equipment.2 1 Introduction From this point of view. The parameters that affect the design.often referred to as stripping . these separation processes will not be confined to petroleum refineries and the chemical and allied industries. g. it is not surprising that packing designed to conserve energy has been the subject of many new developments on the part of equipment manufacturers. A physical model is required to describe the hydraulics and the mass transfer efficiency in a given separation column and thus to allow the main dimensions to be calculated and the process engineering performance to be predicted. adequate knowledge must be available on the performance characteristics. allow lower pressure drops per theoretical stage than plate columns and are thus better suited to meet demands on optimum energy consumption in thermal separation plants. from the liquid into the gas phase.g. In the extraction of a component from a mixture of liquids by means of a selective solvent. It is taken for granted here that the reader is already acquainted with these separation processes and their thermodynamic fundamentals together with the literature on the subject and the standard terminology. Consequently. It is known that packed columns.

/. The gas or vapour load in a packed column is usually expressed by the capacity factor. and QL is the density of the liquid. o v is the density of the gas or vapour.1 Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems The optimum choice of a packed column for a given separation task would be impossible without a sound knowledge of the characteristic parameters and physical quantities that permit process engineering evaluation and comparison.e. At low or moderate pressures. Hence. which is often resorted to in practice as a measure of the dynamic load on the column. QV is small compared to QL and can thus be neglected. 1 Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems Packed towers for continuous Rectification Absorption Solvent I A (absorbent)J { b a s Desorption Liquid = A Loaded feed : | gas Extraction Feed j f Extract Feed * Bottom product Loaded solvent y DesorbedTTcarrier liquid t t / 5 ™ -gas |f Raff mate ^ I Solvent . which is given by Fy = Uy (1-1) where uv is the superficial velocity.2. Fy = Uy \J~Qy~ (1-2) . the vapour capacity factor. i. is the product of the superficial velocity uv and the square root of the vapour density. — Auxiliary product End product Applications for packed columns in thermal separation processes 1.Feed Fig. 1.

3. especially those intended for vacuum rectification. It is usually expressed as a function of the capacity factor F v for a given liquid load uL or a given liquid-gas ratio. The pressure drop per unit height of bed Ap/H depends on the gas uv and liquid uL loads (cf. because it largely governs the compressor rating. A major criterion in selecting packing for absorption processes in which gas is forced through the column by a compressor is the pressure drop Ap in the bed. may be taken to cover both cases.e. 1. Flowchart for a packed column . which has to be determined by experiment: Fy yfoL (1-4) A crucial factor in evaluating packed columns.1 Introduction The maximum permissible value for the capacity factor also depends on a dimensionless flow parameter that allows for the ratio of the liquid to the vapour flow rate LIV and is given by (1-3) In practice. i. (1-5) Another factor of great importance in evaluating packed columns is the pressure drop per unit of separation efficiency. Thus. Liquid PT Gas or vapour Ap H=N T Gas or vapour I ? Liquid Fig. 1. the number of separation units N required for a given process. which is defined by the number of theoretical stages nt in rectification or by the number of transfer units NTU in absorption and desorption. i. Fig. is the resistance offered by the bed of packing to the flow of vapour.e. A general term.3). the capacity of packed columns is frequently described by the following function.

become less as the pressure drop per unit efficiency for the specific bed of packing decreases. the total pressure drop per separation unit can be expressed as a function of the capacity factor for a given ratio LIV of the liquid to the vapour flow rate.ez + nt. i. a low pressure drop allows entire installations to be designed from the aspect of optimum energy consumption. more effective heat transfer. in which x¥ is the mole fraction in the feed of the more volatile component that has to be concentrated to a mole fraction xD in the overhead product (distillate) with a molar flow rate D. which is based on the concept of an equilibrium stage. It is the sum of the number of stages in the enrichment zone ntez and the number in the stripping zone ntsz. y. and xB is the mole fraction of this volatile fraction that remains in the bottom product (molar flow rate B). In analogy to Eqn (1-5).e. 1. e.BI for the stripping zone and DI for the enrichment zone .sz (1-10) . The equilibrium curve is the locus of the points x. They also entail larger differences between the temperature of the heating medium and that of the mixture.1. Moreover. The two operating lines derived from material balance equations .= HFy) The following relationship thus applies: ^ (1-8) (1-9) If the vapour pressure at the top of the column is kept constant during rectification.4.and thus the boiling point .1 Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems 5 N = nt or N = NTU The total pressure drop in the gas or vapour is given by (1-6) &P=PB-PT (1-7) where pB is the pressure at the lower column inlet and pT is the pressure at the upper column outlet. a stage in which the ascending vapour is in phase equilibrium with the descending liquid. The number of theoretical stages nt is represented by the steps that link the equilibrium curve with the two operating lines between the points x B and xD. nt = nt. that at the bottom of the column . if a large number of theoretical stages is required in a given vacuum rectification. An example of the corresponding diagram is shown in Fig. Low boiling points are an absolute necessity in the vacuum rectification of thermally instable mixtures. i. ~ . i. i. The number of theoretical stages nt required to separate a binary feed with a molar flow rate F can be determined diagrammatically by the McCabe-Thiele method.e. which is the locus of all points of intersection of the two operating lines for any given feed stream.e.intersect at the point / on the g-line.

i. e.e. 1. h'F is the molar enthalpy at the operating temperature in the inlet cross-section of the column. and on the position of the two operating lines BI and DI.4.1 Introduction Number of theoretical stages n t Equilibrium curve Operating *i V Reflux condenser^ 0 xB xF xD Liquid mole fraction x Fig. i.e. the relationship between the vapour y and the liquid x mole fractions of the more volatile component in the enrichment zone is given by the following linear equation: (1-13) y = r + 1• x + r+ 1 . taking a binary mixture as an example If xF. In this case. xD and xB are given. on the shape of the equilibrium curve for the binary system. the molar flow rates of both the vapour and liquid will remain practically constant along the respective flow paths both above and below the inlet. The factor / in this equation is a measure for the thermal state of the feed and is given by /=!-" h'F-hF Ahv (1-12) where hF is the molar enthalpy of the feed at the inlet temperature. in both the enrichment and stripping zones. The position of the intersect / can be obtained from the material balance at the inlet cross-section of the column. Determination of the the number of theoretical stages in a continuous rectification column. If the individual components of the mixture have roughly the same molar evaporation enthalpy. i. nt depends on the phase equilibrium in the mixture. and Ahv is the molar condensation enthalpy of the vapour stream in the inlet cross-section.

The reflux ratio r at the head of the column is a factor that greatly affects the economics of rectification. i. e. i.4 can be easily plotted. d-17) where xD is the mole fraction of the more volatile component in the overhead product.e.1 Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems 7 where r is the ratio of the reflux flow rate L to the overhead product flow rate D. r=|The corresponding equation for the stripping zone is d-14) where b is the ratio of the flow rate of liquid L in the stripping zone to that of the bottom product B. allowance for the difference between Aht and Ahh is made by the expression K.e. i. and the high-boiling Ahh components differ significantly. the operating lines for the enrichment and stripping zones in Fig. If the molar evaporation enthalpies for the low-boiling A/z. a linear relationship no longer exists between the mole fractions v and x of the more volatile component in the vapour and in the liquid respectively.—^— Ahh . i.1.Ahi The equation for the enrichment zone is thus no longer linear.e. In this case. (1-18) r+1 y= r+1 ^ r+1 # The intercept >. 1.0 with the axis of ordinates in this case is given by — (1-20) . Inserting x = 0 in Eqn (1-13) yields the value for y0 at the intercept with the axis of ordinates. b = -j (1-16) If the values for xF and / are given and those for xD and xB are specified.

by = and yt and xt are the coordinates of the intersect / (cf. the NTU for steady-state operation can be expressed as follows in the terms of the concentration difference y* .has the greater molar evaporation enthalpy. NTUV = NTUOV. The height of a transfer unit is then defined by . It may often be assumed that the resistance to mass transfer in rectification is predominantly in the vapour phase.24) where y* is the phase equilibrium concentration of the more volatile component in the vapour in contact with the liquid of concentration x* at the phase boundary in any given horizontal cross-section of the column. Fig. x — » x*. Eqn (1-17)} depends on which of the two components .+f (1-22) the reflux ratio r7 at the inlet cross-section. the surface mass transfer coefficient in the liquid phase is |3L — » °o and that in the vapour phase fV is identical to the overall mass transfer coefficient on the vapour side kov. 1. i.4). In this case. Fig.5): —£(1.the highboiler or the low-boiler . If the molar flow rates for the liquid L and the vapour V are kept constant and there is no mixing in the axial direction. the following equation applies: / yA *—r where the parameter mI is given by xF-xB m. An alternative concept to the number of theoretical stages nt for the evaluation of separation efficiency is the number of transfer units NTU. In this case. Likewise.y in the vapour (cf.8 1 Introduction Whether its position is higher or lower than the corresponding intercept formed by the linear relationship {cf. = ^ ^ ( 1 2 1 ) " r. the relationship for the stripping zone in the column is also nonlinear if the molar evaporation enthalpies of the components differ. e. 1. Accordingly. and x and y are the fractions that correspond to the concentrations of the more volatile component in the bulk of the vapour and in the liquid respectively.

1.1

Fundamental operating characteristics of packed columns for gas-liquid systems

HTUOV =

H NTUn

H dy
ye-y

(1-25)

If it is assumed that kov is constant over the height of the column in mass transfer controlled by the vapour phase, a mass balance yields HTUOV = ds kov aph where aph is the phase contact area per unit column volume, ds is the column diameter, V is the molar flow rate of the vapour, and HTUOV is usually determined by experiment. Hence the following relationship exists between the number of theoretical stages per unit height nt/H and the height of a transfer unit HTUOV: V H HTUn (1-27) (1-26)

\n[myxy-

(p v ) x * = x =k o v

"it
y*dy x+dx

0&Z7/Z2 y

Liquid mole fraction x ^o x0

J

a=-

Fig. 1.5. Determination of the number of transfer units by the two-film theory

10

1 Introduction

In other words, the number of transfer units in systems with a low relative volatility is given by (NTUov)a
= smal,

= n,

(1-28)

Likewise, the height of a transfer unit can be equated to the height equivalent of a theoretical stage, i.e. {HTUOy) , = HETS = — (1-29)

a

small

The stripping factor X for a given section of the column is defined as the product of the mean slope myx of the equilibrium curve and the molar vapour/liquid ratio VIL, i. e. \ = myxj(1-30)

Once the height of a transfer unit HTUOV and the number of transfer units NTUOV are known, the height of the column required for the relevant separation process can be obtained from their product. Hence,
cy

H = HTUQV

' NTUOV = HTUOV

^—

(1-31)

The figure thus derived is identical to that obtained from the number of theoretical stages nt and the separation efficiency ntIH for the packing concerned {cf. Eqn (1-27)}, i. e.
H

=

An analogous analysis applies for mass transfer in the liquid phase. This procedure for the determination of column height is referred to in the literature as the HTU-NTU concept. It is applied in Chapters 3, 5 and 14. The efficiency, expressed as the number of separation units per unit height NIH, can be assessed graphically from its relationship to the column load or capacity factor, which can be written as NIH = i{Fv) (1-33)

A knowledge of this function is essential in determining the load relationships for the pressure drop per unit height AplH {Eqn (1-5)} and the pressure drop per separation unit Ap/TV {Eqn (1-8)}. These relationships allow the column volume vv per unit of vapour flow rate and unit of separation efficiency to be determined in terms of the capacity factor /v{Eqn (1-34)} or the pressure drop per unit of separation efficiency ApIN {Eqn (1-35)}, i. e.

1.2

Theoretical column efficiency

11

vv=i(Fv) vv=f(Ap/N)

(1-34) (1-35)

The specific column volume vv is an important factor in determining the capital investment costs and is defined by

where H is the effective height of the column, N is the number of theoretical separation units, and uv is the superficial vapour velocity.

1.2 Theoretical column efficiency
The relative volatility a, a term that was introduced in Eqns (1-28) and (1-29), is a measure for the ease with which a mixture can be separated. It expresses the relationship between the molar fraction y of the more volatile component in the vapour and that of the liquid x with which it is in phase equilibrium; and it is defined by

Its magnitude governs the shape of the equilibrium curve (cf. Fig. 1.4), which is defined by the following equation:

y =f

w

= i

a + (

/i)x

^-38)

If a is constant, the curve assumes the form of an equilateral hyperbola. The greater the value of a, the greater the value of y for a given value of x. As a rule, the relative volatility a of the two components of a mixture, and thus the ease with which they can be separated, decreases with a rise in pressure. Thus, if the value of a for a given mixture is comparatively small, the number of theoretical stages nt required for separation increases with the specific pressure drop Ap/nt within the packing, particularly during vacuum operation. If the pressure at the head of the column pT is kept constant, the pressure drop Ap governs the rise in pressure up to the value at the bottom of the column pB, i.e.

[^y

(1-39)

It follows that the reflux ratio required for separation in the enrichment zone of a rectification column rises. In other words, the energy consumption must increase. In view of the following relationship, the liquid-vapour ratio also increases:

12

1

Introduction

L_ V

r+ 1

(1-40)

Hence, the number of theoretical stages required for a given separation task, as defined by Eqn (1-41), is greater in beds of packing with high values of Ap/n, than in those with low values (cf. Fig. 1.6): Ap Ap V\ n, (1-41)

If this aspect is taken into consideration in the planning stages of a separation plant, it will be seen that the maximum feasible load entails not only the smallest column diameter but also the largest number of theoretical stages, and thus the greatest height. Hence, if separation is under vacuum with a large number of theoretical stages, the optimum load will be less than the maximum to an extent that depends on the pressure drop characteristic for the packing selected. Accordingly, the design load in separation tasks of this nature depends on the optimum pressure drop per separation stage and is associated with the minimum total costs. Particular attention must therefore be devoted to the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt in selecting packing for rectification processes involving a large number of theoretical stages. As Ap/nt increases, the relative volatility a of the mixture decreases in the direction from the top to the bottom of the column. Consequently, the theoretical number of separation

0

Liquid/Vapour ratio L/V

Reflux ratio r
Fig. 1.6. Qualitative effect of the pressure drop per theoretical stage on the relationship between the number of theoretical stages and the reflux ratio

1.2

Theoretical column efficiency

13

stages nt ought to be higher than that in an isobaric column (ntiso), i.e. a column in which there is theoretically no pressure drop, and the ratio ntisolnt {Eqn (1-42)} can be regarded as the theoretical column efficiency r\c {Eqn (1-43)}:
(nt) (nt) Ap/nt = 0 Ap/m > 0
=

nttiso
n

(1-42) (1-43)

t

f [pT, a r Ap/nt> nt(L/V,

In other words, the theoretical column efficiency depends on the operating pressure pT and relative volatility aT at the top of the column, the pressure drop per separation stage Ap/nt, and the number of theoretical stages nt. The value of r\c thus varies from the one separation task to another. It is comparatively difficult to calculate x\c accurately from phase equilibrium relationships, and a graphicalmathematical method based on the qualitative method shown in Fig. 1.7 would therefore be more expedient for the evaluation of Eqn (1-41). This plot is analogous to that proposed by Gilliland for isobaric (theoretically Ap/nt = 0) columns. The ordinates in the diagram are referred to as stage-number parameters and are defined by Eqn (1-44) for isobaric and by Eqn (1-45) for nonisobaric columns, i. e.
_ ft t, iso n ^t,min,iso , 1 L _ -

(1-44) (1-45)

t,iso ~
ll

ll

t

t,min,iso

S

-

. 1

-

S

Wnt

> 0

Fig. 1.7. Determination of the theoretical column efficiency

o(v-D v rrmm,iso •

e=-

v

g rmin,iso+

Energy parameter

The abscissae are referred to as energy parameters and are defined by Eqn (1-46) for isobaric and Eqn (1-47) for nonisobaric columns, i. e.

14

1

Introduction riso-rmin.iso (v-l)rminjso ^ .46)

=

e

=

o

( 1

j

7

^+1

vg rw/n^/50 + 1

According to Eqn (1-46), the reflux ratio riso in the isobaric column exceeds the minimum rminJso by a factor v, i. e.

Similarly, according to Eqn (1-47), the reflux ratio r in the real column exceeds the minimum in the isobaric column rminiso by a factor vg, i.e.
f
= V

g rmin,iso

(!- 49 )

If the factor v by which the actual reflux ratio exceeds the minimum rmin in the real column is the same as that for the isobaric column, as determined by Eqn (1-47), the following equation would apply: r = v rmin (1-50)

In this case, the factor vg for the real column is given by Eqn (1-51), which is obtained by combining Eqns (1-49) and (1-50); and the reflux ratio r for the real column, by Eqn (1-52), which is obtained by combining Eqns (1-48) and (1-50), i. e.

(1-51)

r =ris0^shL'min, iso

(1-52)

This method allows the number of theoretical stages nt and the reflux ratio r for a real column to be determined from the corresponding values ntminiso and rminiso for an isobaric column. The theoretical column efficiency, as defined by Eqn (1-42), can then be obtained quite easily in the light of the qualitative diagram in Fig. 1.7. The following relationships apply and can be evaluated by alternative means:
t, min. iso iso s-i co\

r] c = — —^—J
v\c = nt,iso
1 - 5
n

(1-53)

d-54)
' ^

t,min,iso

=

_Lz±_ numinAso + siso
*^iso
n

t,min,iso

'

3

1.2

Theoretical column efficiency

15

An example of a diagram that can thus be obtained is shown in Fig. 1.8. It allows the actual values for the reflux ratio and the number of theoretical stages to be obtained in both isobaric and real columns, i.e. for both Ap/nt = 0 and Aplnt > 0, from the corresponding minimum values for an isobaric column, i.e. a column with no pressure drop. In this case, the theoretical column efficiency r\c will also be known. It is evident from Fig. 1.9 that a low theoretical column efficiency, corresponding to a large number of theoretical stages, can be expected if the energy requirements are high in rectification columns with a moderate to comparatively high pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. This applies in this case particularly to columns that are operated with a lower reflux ratio, as defined by 1 (1-56)

Hence, an urgent requirement in separation processes of this nature is packing with a very small pressure drop per theoretical stage, e.g. 0 < Ap/nt < 3 mbar. The advantages of packing with small values of Ap/nt are demonstrated in Fig. 1.10. They apply particularly to operation under vacuum with a large number of theoretical stages nt.

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

V\ \ A V V\ \ \A \ \

\s s
\

\

n s

t-ntmin.iso
1

N

r
s

s
X \ ^\ \

nnin.iso 'Vg ~ ' )

2
0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

0.1

Vg ^m i n. i s o " * " '

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.9

1.1

Energy parameter e
Fig. 1.8. Diagram for the determination of the number of theoretical stages in nonisobaric vacuum rectification. Plotted for vacuum systems with relative volatilities between 1.1 and 3.6 and overhead pressures between 20 and 250 mbar

84 0.88 0.76 0.9995. 1.10.0 0. • = = = :?- 0.2 Ap/n t = 6.72 0.96 \ / 0.8 0. — ^-— • x B = 2 0 0 ppm »» — i—• T" 7 r~~ k-7 • • "120 f)pm PT =15C mb(Jl / I 90 Ap/nt = 13mbar = 0 1 53 ] = 0.— ' l "C . a T = \M ^tmin. Theoretical column efficiency as a function of the overhead pressure .80 g .6 0.4 0.68 10 / / / / / A 'J7 / / 20 I / / A / 7 / \ j 1/ V / / * / J 7 / /I x D =0.5 fnbar eon column effi cien f \ ^ .9.92 0.0.16 Introductior 1.947 f =1 130 140 150 100 110 120 Reflux ratio r Fig.Jso = ^L 40 60 100 200 400 600 1000 Pressure at head of column pT [mbar] Fig. Theoretical column efficiency as a function of the reflux ratio in the rectification of a mixture of thionyl chloride and ethylene chloride too . 1.

1.3 Energy consumption and number of theoretical stages One of the most important tasks in planning rectification plants is the exact determination of the relationship expressed by Eqn (1-41). xB = const • CO 1D3I \ \ man! o I ZD Fig. e. because the minimum total costs CT>min. 1. This relationship can be expressed in thermodynamic terms and. This requirement is illustrated qualitatively in Fig.12. highly efficient packing.13. which shows the number of theoretical stages nt as a function of the reflux ratio r for columns with low and high values of Ap/nt.1. This is demonstrated qualitatively in Fig. furthermore. distillate and bottoms. The number of theoretical stages under otherwise identical conditions is theoretically higher in the separation of systems with a low relative volatility a than of systems with a high one. A diagram of this nature is characteristic for the vacuum rectification of a mixture whose relative volatility a is comparatively small at a column overhead pressure pT and becomes progressively smaller as a result of the rise in pressure that occurs as the mixture descends through the column. Qualitative relationship between the number of theoretical stages and the reflux ratio with the relative volatility as parameter rmini ^ ^ " ^ ^ Reflux ratio r . i. The only economic solution for vacuum rectification in this case is to install low-pressure-drop. as is evident from the qualitative diagram presented in Fig.e. The consequence of the shift is a pronounced rise in the minimum total costs CT>min. because it allows considerable savings in costs. between the number of theoretical stages nt and the reflux ratio r that corresponds to a constant pressure pT at the top of the column and that is required to separate a mixture with low-boiling mole fractions of xF.2. 1. the sum of the capital investment C7 and the operating costs Co. x D . 1.11. The relationship is shown qualitatively in Fig. is of particular importance in planning rectification processes with a large number of theoretical stages designed to separate mixtures whose relative volatilities are comparatively small and.3 Energy consumption and number of theoretical stages 17 1. The economics in cases of this nature dictate the use of packing with a low pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. This relationship forms the basis for all optimization calculations by fixing the mutual dependence of capital expenditure and the costs of utilities. xD and xB in the feed. as has been demonstrated in Section 1. i. 1.11.6. become even less at higher pressures. \ CO CD CO ) x F . Economic limits are imposed on the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt in separation tasks of this nature. shifts towards high reflux ratios r and towards large numbers of theoretical stages.

This case corresponds to a minimum number of theoretical stages ntmin. Fig. which flow at rates of D and B and with molar fractions of xD and xB. r r = K yi ~ XD X ~ ' . respectively. ymin is the point where the enrichment line. It must always be higher than the minimum value rmin that is associated with an infinitely large number of theoretical stages and would therefore raise the costs to an infinite extent (cf. M2. 1.11).xB h The parameter that decisively affects the rate of heat consumption is thus the reflux ratio r. Thus. the curve that joins the minima M7. 1. This case would arise in vacuum rectification with a large number of theoretical stages when the progressive increase in the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt is initially associated with a drop in capital investment costs.14). . if it is assumed that the relative volatility is constant.13 passes through a minimum itself. intersects the axis of ordinates. in the set of total costs curves presented in Fig. of the low-boiling component differs from that of the high boiler Ahh.14.18 1 Introduction Theoretically.1 (1-59) """ K-xD yi-x. 1. the characteristic molar liquid enthalpies hD' and hB of the distillate and bottoms at their respective boiling points. 1. at which the total costs CT pass through a minimum. and the rise. of the low-boiling component. 1. if flow is equimolar. In Fig. in which hardly any overhead product is withdrawn arises if the reflux ratio r is infinitely large. the molar liquid enthalpies hF and hF of the feed at its boiling point and its inlet temperature. which can be calculated from the values of xD and xB for the lowboiling fractions in the overhead product and the bottoms by means of the Fenske equation. In binary systems the minimum reflux ratio rmin is comparatively easy to determine (cf. The rate of heat flow Q in a rectification plant operated along the lines of the flow chart shown in Fig.e. respectively. by the cumulative effect of the growing number of theoretical stages.e. The boundary case. The drop could be caused by the reduction in column diameter. i. (159) where K is the factor given by Eqn (1-18) in Section 1. and subsequently. The curves for the rectification and stripping zones then coincide with the diagonals in the ylx diagram. with a rise. i.4 is governed by the reflux ratio r. and the molar evaporation enthalpy Ahvof the overhead product vapour.1. The parameters that are given by the definition of the task are the molar flow rate F of the mixture fed with a molar fraction of xF of low-boiling components and the specified purities of the distillate and bottoms. min x ° ymin 1- x ~ ° ~yi yl-x] n ^sn (1 58) " If the molar vaporization enthalpy A/i. Fig. which passes through the common intersect / of the g-line and the equilibrium curve. Hence packing of this nature has an optimum value for the pressure drop per theoretical stage (Ap/nt)opt. _ xD .

/ > x cTmin 1 Fig. Graph for the determination of the minimum reflux ratio and the minimum number of theoretical stages. 1.1. Qualitative relationship between costs and the reflux ratio Reflux ratio r x F . 1.13. '<D = const•• = const. The example taken was a binary mixture Liquid mole fraction x . 1. X 3 PT 'I "1 1 jAp/nt) p(Ap/nt).3 Energy consumption and number of theoretical stages 19 00 <L ' \ IV.12. ^/ cTmin 2 Tmini m 1 \ \ \ / M. Effect of the pressure drop per theoretical stage on the total costs in vacuum rectification with a large number of theoretical stages (Ap/n t ). /opii /opt 2 Reflux ratio r Fig. Fig.14.

. (1-63) Therefore. If the relative volatility is almost constant in the range of concentrations concerned.20 1 Introduction ntmin = T1.In (-^±^AIn a \ 1 . cons. A knowledge of the slope myx of the equilibrium curve for the system is required for the determination of the stripping factor A . is related to the respective heights for the individual phases HTUV and HTUL by the stripping factor X. which is obtained by ignoring the enthalpy differences h'D . the slope can be obtained as a function of the mole fraction x of the liquid phase by differentiating Eqn (1-38). i.h'B and h'B . i. and NTUOL in the liquid phase. by Eqn (1-65): H = HTUOV ' NTUOV H = HTUOL • NTUOL (1-64) (1-65) The procedure for the determination of the numerical values of NTUOV and NTUOL is illustrated qualitatively in Fig. a rough estimation can be obtained from the following relationship.^ = [l+xla_1)f d-66) Thus the calculation of the effective height of bed consists essentially of determining the values for HTUV and HTUL as described in Chapter 5. which is defined by Eqn (1-30). from Eqn (1-30). Thus Eqn (1-62) applies for the vapour phase. it is almost directly proportional to the energy consumption Q in rectification processes. e. 1. (myx) a . for both the vapour HTUOV and liquid HTUOL phases.xB It follows that. for the liquid phase: HTUOV = HTUV + X HTUL (1-62) HTUOL = HTUL + — HTUV A. the height H required to realize NTUOV transfer units in the vapour phase is given by Eqn (1-64).xD xB I 1 (1-60) In many cases.5. The height of an overall transfer unit HTUO. 1. if the reflux ratio r is very high.hF in Eqn (1-57): 4 ~^ t ^ (r + 1) A/V (1-61) xD . and Eqn (1-63).4 Height of bed determined from the HTU-NTU model The HTU-NTU model for the determination of the requisite height of a bed of packing has previously been described by Eqn (1-31). = . e.

1.4

Height of bed determined from the HTU-NTU model

21

The equilibrium curve for absorption and desorption processes is often linear in the range of low transfer component loads Yin the gas and X in the liquid. In other words, the slope mYx of the Y = f(X) relationship can be regarded as constant, and the equilibrium curve can be defined by Y=mYXX The stripping factor in this case is then given by (1-67)

where L/Vis the ratio of the liquid to the gas flow rate.

2 Types of packing
Column packing for industrial separation processes is produced from various materials and is supplied in multifarious shapes and sizes. It may be dumped at random or stacked in regular geometric patterns, and it must ensure a large area of contact between the gas and the liquid phases and a uniform phase distribution. The current economic situation favours the adoption of packed columns in rectification, absorption, and liquid-liquid extraction processes. Consequently, the demand for packing in mass transfer equipment for the chemical and allied industries has greatly increased and has triggered off many new developments in the last few years. As has already been mentioned, packed columns have also become widely accepted in ecological engineering, e. g. in air and gas scrubbing processes and in water treatment. The main unit operation involved is mass transfer, but heat transfer by direct contact is also a significant factor. The only new high-performance packings to which consideration has been given in this book are those for which process engineering performance data are available. Hence, certain gaps may exist in the information presented. Nevertheless, the theoretical fundamentals and the fluid dynamics and mass transfer models that have been derived from the results obtained on all packings investigated are sufficiently accurate for application in industrial practice. The main applications dealt with here are systems in which the phases are in countercurrent flow. The analysis and design of packed columns for thermal separation processes can be difficult in many cases. This applies not only to the actual scale-up of laboratory and pilot plant results but also to the uncertainty involved in many cases by the procedures adopted. Most hydrodynamic calculations for packed columns are uncomplicated and lead to results that can be satisfactorily applied in practice. However, results obtained by mass transfer calculations, e. g. for the determination of column height, are often associated with a degree of uncertainty, and dubiety can thus arise. An example arises in applying the data derived from special absorption tests to solve rectification problems. Despite the valuable contributions made by some research workers, this task was still considered to be insoluble until a few years ago. Since the physical laws relating to mass transfer are fundamentally the same in all cases, it ought to be possible to describe thermal separation processes in terms that are valid for all systems. To this aim, the author has performed comprehensive experiments on numerous individual types of packing of various shapes and sizes. The results obtained with different systems and in columns of different dimensions have been systematically analyzed. They have been compared with those obtained in a previous model developed by the author about ten years ago for predicting the mass transfer efficiency of packed columns by means of a relationship of general validity. The model necessitates prior determination of the liquid holdup. It has been verified by measurements performed by the author or cited in the literature, and it allows all test results obtained with various rectification systems, including data from absorption studies, to be brought to a common denominator. A model for liquid-liquid systems in packed columns has also been checked against experimental results.

Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0

24

2

Types of packing

The trend in thermal separation techniques decidedly favours high-performance packing with the outstanding process engineering characteristics specified by the chemical and allied industries. The packing systems selected for consideration here can be regarded as representative of the progress made in this field. The scientific studies required to determine the packing characteristics and to derive data for industrial-scale columns were performed in the author's laboratories and external pilot plants.

2.1 Packing dumped at random
Many conventional beds of random packing have caused difficulties and problems in large-diameter columns, and their shortcomings account for the reservations that are still held against them. A frequent difficulty has been to attain uniform distribution of the liquid over the entire cross-section at the feed inlet or the head of the column, i.e. to ensure that the packing is adequately wetted. The risk of maldistribution also exists in the layer of packing close to the column shell. Thus the likelihood of channelling in many beds of random packing introduces an uncontrollable and fortuitous element in the separation of mixtures with certain physical properties and poses the threat of poor efficiency in columns of large diameter. Consequently, special plates and, in some cases, geometrically arranged beds of packing were formerly given preference over random packing in an attempt to realize high capacities and efficiencies. However, great changes in the design of random packing have largely altered this situation in recent industrial practice. Modern types of random packing merit particular attention from the economic aspects of optimizing performance and minimizing materials consumption and production costs. They feature a low pressure drop per theoretical stage, which is an absolutely essential asset for saving energy and avoiding thermal decomposition of the product stream in separation processes. The examples presented in Fig. 2.1 have been restricted to types for which process engineering performance data were available from studies in the author's research facilities. The plastics Nor-Pac ring was the first modern type of high-performance packing to be introduced in industrial practice. It was followed by other latticework types, e.g. Hiflow rings and saddles and Hackette, Din-Pac, Envi-Pac, and VSP rings. They have one feature in common, viz. their latticework structure, but differ from one another in their basic geometry and the associated characteristic data, i.e. the effective void fraction, the surface area per unit volume, the packing density, and the bulk density. In the subsequent stages of widespread acceptance in practice, latticework packing set the pace. Systematic studies had shown that it represented an optimum, and it was accordingly recommended for a number of applications. Close runners-up were the plastics and metal cascade mini-rings, known under the tradename CMR. New designs of saddles include the Super-Torus. Characteristic examples of packing that were investigated in the author's laboratories are illustrated in Fig. 2.1 together with the relevant geometrical data, i.e. the nominal size d, the number N per unit volume, the surface area per unit volume a, and the void fraction e. The studies embraced a relatively wide range of metallic, ceramic and plastics packing of various geometries and dimensions, and the results allow the optimum packing to be selected for a given separation task.

2.2

Packing stacked in geometric patterns

25

Nominal packing size 50 mm

Fig. 2.1. Examples of packing for random beds including data on the number per unit volume, the area per unit volume, and the relative void fraction

2.2 Packing stacked in geometric patterns
Packing stacked in a regular pattern permits the realization of a minimum pressure drop per theoretical stage, and is therefore most suitable for minimizing energy consumption in separation processes that necessitate many stages. It also permits the lowest possible column bottom temperature in the separation of heat-sensitive mixtures. The capital investment costs for geometrically arranged packing is normally higher than that for dumped. However, studies on separation process economics have shown that the greatest contribution towards the

26

2

Types of packing

total costs is made by energy, in which case preference would be given to arranged packing. In fact, the demand for energy-saving separation equipment has even diverted trends from mass-transfer trays towards columns with systematically arranged packing. The benefits offered by low-pressure-drop packing are by no means confined to rectification and are now widely recognized in absorption processes - for the removal of pollutants and recoverable products from off-gas streams - and in desorption. One of the factors that has initiated this trend has been the increased severity of the legislation imposed in industrial countries on the prevention of air and water pollution. The design aim of all new types of stacked packing has been to minimize the pressure drop per unit efficiency at high loads. The predecessors of most modern designs are Sulzer Chemtech gauze and sheet-metal packings. Various reports have confirmed the successful performance in practice of stacked packing, even in columns of comparatively large diameter. The provisos are that the beds have been carefully installed and that the liquid phase has been uniformly distributed. Maldistribution, which is often observed in conventional beds of packing and which greatly impairs the efficiency, can be largely avoided by devices for redistributing any liquid that may channel down the walls of the column. Normally, specialized knowledge on how best to distribute the liquid is part and parcel of manufacturing knowhow. The wide variety of thermal separation tasks in the process industries acts as an incentive for manufacturers of stacked packing to further modify existing designs (cf. Fig. 2.2). High-performance structured gauze packing has proved successful in many fields of the chemical and allied industries, e. g. the production of heavy water and the distillation of amines and glycols, higher fatty acids and alcohols, and methanol. A factor that restricts their widespread acceptance is their capital investment costs. For instance, they are uneconomical at pressure drops higher than 10 mm WG per theoretical stage. This costs factor entails a gap between the applications for stacked beds of packing and those for dumped beds. New and cheaper, yet more effective arranged packing had to be developed to close this gap. Again the first step towards meeting the requirements was made by Sulzer. The prototype that they introduced on the market was the Mellapak, which has since been succesfully used for many years in industrial columns with diameters of up to eight metres. Other companies followed suit with designs of outstanding merit, e.g. Glitsch structured sheet-metal packing, Montz Bl-type metal and Cl-type plastics packings, and Raschig Ralu Pak 250 VC metal packing. It is beyond the scope of this book to go into full details on all the developments that have been made in the last few years. The aim is more to outline the current state of the art and the direction of present trends and to illustrate these in the light of some examples of modern, high-performance, randomly dumped and systematically arranged beds of packing. Fig. 2.2 illustrates the geometry of some modern stacked packing and includes data on the geometry, e. g. the surface area per unit volume a and the void fraction 8. The corresponding process engineering data presented in Chapter 3 were derived from experiments in the author's pilot plants and were supplemented by manufacturers' data. Obviously, the list given in Fig. 2.2 is by no means complete; examples of packings with excellent process engineering characteristics that have not been included are the Rombopak and Norton types.

2.3

Geometric packing parameters

27

Mellapok 250 Y

Nontz C 1^300

a-250. e = 0.96 Nontz packing Bl - 300

a = 250
3

a^ 202

e=0,978
3

-7m ], £ [m /m ]
Fig. 2.2. Examples of geometrically arranged packing including data on the area per unit volume and relative void fraction

3

2.3 Geometric packing parameters
The examples shown in Figs. 2.1 and 2.2 represent a mere cross-section of the multifarious packings offered for process and ecological engineering. It can be seen that each packing has its own peculiar geometry and surface structure. Each must be subjected to comprehensive experiment in order to determine the performance characteristics upon which reliable fluid-dynamics and mass-transfer models can be based.

The volume of material required for the bed is given by V < — sA (2-2) and the effective void fraction of the bed. which is usually in the form of sheet metal.— as (2-4) 20 60 100 140 180 220 260 300 340 380 420 460 500 Area per unit volume a [ m 2 /m 3 ] Fig. A quantity to which the performance parameters are usually related is the ratio a of the surface area of the packing to the volume of the column.28 2 Types of packing Column packing with a high volumetric efficiency obviously necessitates excellent hydrodynamic design and surfaces that greatly promote separation. the area per unit volume. or plastics film.e. The relationship between the relative void fraction. i. 2. by vc-vP Vr (2-3) A simple relationship between 8. (2-1) The effective void fraction or porosity 8 in a bed of packing depends on the surface area Ap of the packing and the thickness s of the basic material. and s can be obtained by combining Eqns (2-1) to (2-3). a.3. Thus 8 > 1 . and the average wall thickness of packing . metal foil.

2. Flue gas desulfurization plant in one of BASF AG's power stations. 2. and they must allow for the geometry and texture of the packing. 2. Eqns (2-1) to (2-4) are valid for all beds of packing.3 Geometric packing parameters 29 In principle. but the information that they yield on the efficiency. It can be seen from the nomogram presented in Fig. Other parameters are required to evaluate the performance. and pressure drop is purely qualitative. It consists of two absorption columns of 9.4. capacity. Eqn (2-4) reveals the limits within which the effective void fraction 8 for a desired surface area per unit volume a can be altered by appropriate selection of the practically realizable thickness s of the material. Together with 8 and a. The beds of 50-mm plastic Hiflow rings are packed to an effective height of c. The packing density T V and thus the area a per unit volume in random beds may be somewhat greater in large-diameter columns (subscript T) than in pilot columns (subscript P) Fig. 8 m . they govern the phase distribution and the area of contact between phases.3 that the effective void fraction increases as the thickness of the material decreases.4 m diameter and 35 m total height.

.4.30 2 Types of packing of comparatively small diameter.EP) ^~ J\p (2-6) A photograph of a twin-line absorption plant is shown in Fig.(1 . 2. The differences in the area per unit volume and the relative void fraction can be obtained from the following equations: (2-5) ET = 1 . This example clearly demonstrates that columns with random beds of modern packing can also give good results in plants of large capacity.

1 Pilot plants for testing gas-liquid systems The experimental results reported here were gained in a number of bench-scale and pilot plants. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . 3.2.) (3-1) The same applies to the pressure drop per unit height.3 Experimental determination of packing performance Accurate knowledge of the performance characteristics is a fundamental requirement for the optimum design of absorption. 3. a knowledge of which is required for safe design and operation. i. the fluid dynamics.2 Evaluation of measurements The rectification efficiency. the number of liquid distribution points was varied between 15 and 2400 per square metre. The studies have also yielded information on the operating zone of a packing. Various distributors with different numbers of perforations. and the properties of the system to be separated. liquid and gas loads. can also be expressed as a function of the capacity factor Fv if the liquid load uL is kept constant. Ap/H = f(Fv) (if LIV = const. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH.1. i. i. five of which are shown in Figs.3-3. i. desorption and rectification columns from the aspects of fluid dynamics and mass transfer. the height of a transfer unit HTUOV in the bed of packing. The flow chart for one of the pilot plants used for absorption/desorption experiments and hydraulic studies is reproduced in Fig. 3.e. pressure drop.e. 3. HTUOV = f(Fv) ( if "L = const. Particular attention is attached to the load at which the liquid commences to hold up in the column and that at which flooding occurs. and that of the layout for the rectification experiments.) (3-2) The absorption efficiency. liquid holdup. as expressed by the number of theoretical stages per unit height of packing nt/H.e. is a function of the vapour capacity factor Fv at a constant liquidvapour ratio LIV. nJH = f(Fv) (if LIV = const. in Fig.7. Systematic experiments have led to new fundamental concepts and fresh knowledge in modern packing technology.e.) (3-3) Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. and pressure drop. residence time. 3. were taken to determine the effect exerted by the number of liquid streams per unit of cross-sectional area. the loading conditions. The results of the experiments have been evaluated in terms of the interrelationships between the separation efficiency. They have allowed mathematical models to be derived from comprehensive physical relationships between the packing performance. the geometry of the packing. In the main tests.

) (3-4) The pressure drop per unit height of bed Ap/H is also a function of Fv if uL is constant. i. i.e.32 3 Experimental determination of packing performance I s ob"S Alternatively. e. it can be expressed as a function of wL if Fv is constant. A/?/// = f (Fv) (if wL = const. HTUOV = f ( M J (if / v = const.) (3-5) .

) (if uL = const. In this form.3. the desorption efficiency is given by $LaPh. the product of the mass transfer coefficient |3L and the interfacial area per unit volume aPh. it is referred to as the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and is expressed either as a function of the liquid load uL at a constant gas capacity factor Fv {Eqn (3-6)} or as a function of the gas capacity factor at a constant liquid load {Eqn (3-7)}: fiLaPh = t(uL) fiLaPh = f(Fv) (if Fv = const.2 Evaluation of measurements 33 a c 'EH o u If the resistance to mass transfer is entirely in the liquid phase.) (3-6) (3-7) .

Perforated-pipe distributor for pilot columns d s =220 mm Z = 2150 1/m2 Fig.) (3-8) (3-9) .• I ' l l d5 = 450 mm ds= 300 mm Z = 730 1/m2 Z = 1350 1/m2 Fig. 3.) (if uL = const.34 3 Experimental determination of packing performance I & - ^ $ & . Capillary distributor for pilot columns Likewise. 3. the liquid holdup hL can be expressed either as a function of the liquid load at a constant gas capacity factor {Eqn (3-8)} or as a function of the gas capacity factor at a constant liquid load {Eqn (3-9)}: hL = f(uL) hL = f(Fv) (if F v = const.3.4.

3. 3. Profiled-slot distributor for pilot columns d s =500 mm .5. Z = 610 1/mz Fig. 3. Nozzle distributor for pilot columns .2 Evaluation of measurements 35 d s =450mm 1/m2 Z = 380 1/m2 Fig.6.

which is defined by Eqn (1-3). Funnel distributor for pilot columns Normally. Hence. the dynamic load at the flood point Fv FJ/VQ^ is a measure for the upper capacity limit under operating conditions. It can be determined from its relationship to the dimensionless flow parameter \|). flooding represents the condition for the maximum capacity of a packed column. 3.36 3 Experimental determination of packing performance = 800 mm Z = 490 1/m 2 Fig. In other words.7. The height HTUOV of an overall mass transfer unit is related as follows to the heights of the transfer units in the gas HTUV and liquid HTUL phases: HTUQV = HTUV + X HTUL (3-11) where X is the stripping factor and is given by (3-12) in which myx is the average slope of the equilibrium curve in the range of concentrations concerned. Qv VQL \ V V 6L (3-10) The relationship expressed by Eqn (3-10) can be obtained by experiment. .

J ^ The volumetric mass transfer coefficient $LaPh in the liquid phase is given by (3-13) The numerical value of HTUOV is obtained from the number of overall transfer units NTUOyin the gas phase for a given liquid load uL. . resistance to mass transfer is entirely in the liquid phase in desorption tests with a carbon dioxide-water/air system. in Table 3. those for the determination of liquid holdup.3. the corresponding value of HTUV can be calculated by inserting the value of |3L<zP/j determined in the desorption tests in Eqn (3-16). and those used together with the gas and liquid loads for the determination of the upper and lower loading points. Once the values for HTUOV and $LaPh are known. These two systems have practically identical diffusion characteristics.3. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient in the gas phase %aPh can then be obtained from the following equation: ^ = (317) 3. Thus.4. if HTU0V for the absorption system is known. the resistance to mass transfer is located in both the gas and liquid phases. The physical properties of the systems selected for the determination of the gas-side pressure drop are listed in Table 3. For instance.3 Test systems The hydrodynamic and mass-transfer parameters presented here for various gas-liquid systems were determined experimentally in the author's laboratories or taken from the literature.myx j . i. On the other hand. in Table 3.3 Test systems 37 The height of a transfer unit in the liquid phase HTUL is obtained from the corresponding number of transfer units NTUL: HTUL = . the height of a gas transfer unit HTUV can be determined from HTUV = HTUOV .2. -J±±(3-16) In absorption tests with an ammonia/air-water system. data derived from tests on the one system may be applied to the other system.e.

00 0. Ap/NTUov HTUQV.9 15.17 1. NaOH in H 2 O CO 2-air/water Methanol / ethanol Ethanol/water Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Toluene / n-octane Toluene / n-octane Toluene / n-octane trans-1 czs-Decahydronaphthalene 1.30 0.5 m 1.5-0. 293 K Air /Water 1 bar.1 8.9 8.51 0.27 0.3 m 0. Ap/H.06 58. the pilot plant.49 0.52 0.14 1. 293 K Desorption 1 bar.14 0.9 QL kg/m 999 791 870 885 890 1115 999 1033 1039 1000 738 791 963 949 926 905 886 866 839 833 763 844 924 833 3 v L -10 6 m 2 /s 1. HTU L . H^V/u.45 0.28 0.52 0. Table 3.18 1. Ap/H.9 20.80 3.8 16.46 0. = const. HTUOV.4 46.38 0.8 m 0.6 m Packed height 0-15 m 0.8 4. ^L tVULjpv = cons t.1 15.45 Air / water Air/methanol Air/turbine oil Air/machine oil 1 Air/machine oil 2 Air/ethylene glycol NH3-air/ water NH 3 -air/4% H 2 SO 4 in H 2 O SO2-air/1.1 15. 293 K Column diameter 0.19 1.96 1.34 0.5-4 m 0-2 m 0-2 m 1.9 2.43 1.2.13 1.03 1.24 0.72 50.8 2.03 0. and the process engineering magnitudes to be determined System Rectifcation 0. List of the densities and kinematic viscosities of the systems investigated in the studies on efficiency and pressure drop System P mbar 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 33 67 133 266 532 1000 100 133 266 13 1000 133 Qv kg/m 1.4 8. Ap/n t = f(Fv)L/V = const.16 1.52 0.3 m 0.0 28.76 99.90 0.48 3 v v • 106 m 2 /s 15.6 16.3-1.38 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Table 3.8 15.15 1.3-2 m H L = f(F v ) U | = const . Ap/NTUov = f(Fv)u.29 0.60 0.2 15.03 16.78 mol.1.4 m 0.19 1.5 8. p L • a = f ( u L ) F v = const.39 0.2 Dichloroethane / toluene Ethylbenzene / styrene .30 1.12 1. Ap/H. Test function n t /H.1 15.19 1.15 1.18 1.= const.22 0.1 15.35 0. 293 K Chemical absorption 1 bar.9 15.05 1.50 0.22-0. General data on the investigated system.5 105.22 m 0.2 15.4 15..013-1 bar Physical absorption 1 bar.06 3.

4 72.04 0.0 72.0 D L -10 9 m 2 /s 1.00 16.5 43.00 0.7 72.19 185.00 17.0 38.14-10.4.3 Test systems 39 Table 3.63 1.50 4.00 1.00 53.3 77.94 0. Range of properties of the systems embraced by the studies on capacity Gas density Gas viscosity Liquid density Liquid viscosity Gas velocity Liquid velocity QV T]v °L i]L [kg/m3] [kg/ms] [kg/m3] [kg/ms] 0.70 1.6 73.6 28.6 750-1026 0.00 1.22 4.30-1.3.4 57.5.3 0.40 1.37 7.0 23.14 0.0 73.22 1.08 1.40 1.8 72.3.00 0.6 -18.78 1.82 2.78 M NaOH in water Air/sorbitol solution 1 Air/sorbitol solution 2 Air/sorbitol solution 3 Air/calcium chloride solution 1 Air/calcium chloride solution 2 Air/calcium chloride solution 3 Air/DuPont Petrowet solution 1 Air/DuPont Petrowet solution 2 Air/DuPont Petrowet solution 3 Nitrogen/heavy oil 1000 800 878 1064 1033 1039 1299 1268 1215 1321 1225 1170 1000 1000 1000 1810 riL-103 kg/ms 1.36-10.19-10. Some physical properties of the systems investigated in the studies on liquid holdup System QL kg/m 3 Air / water Air/methanol Air/benzene Air/ethylene glycol solution Air/4% H 2 SO 4 in water Air/1.97 1.43-8.00 a L -10 3 kg/s 2 73.0 76.50 2.00 1.65 18.0 73.98 a L -10 3 kg/s 2 74.0 72.4 54.40 1.9 59.0 86.63 1.3 80. Properties of the gas-liquid systems for which allowance had to be made in the evaluation of mass transfer Systems with liquid phase resistance T K 288 298 298 298 298 293 293 296 294 QL kg/m 3 1003 788 1157 1237 1040 997 998 996 997 v L -10 6 m 2 /s 1.0 72.33 ScL Carbon dioxide/water Carbon dioxide /methanol Carbon dioxide / buffer solution 1 Carbon dioxide / buffer solution 2 Carbon dioxide/1.0 22.40 1.0 - Table 3.40 1.82 1.78 M NaCl solution Carbon dioxide-water/air Carbon dioxide-air/water Oxygen-water / air Chlorine-air / water 713 193 871 1186 641 535 '549 391 741 .59 3.3 -92.66 1.60-10.88-144 uVF1 [m/s] uLF1 [m3/m2 h] Table 3.

0 12.40 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Table 3.162 1.4 14.9 14. Properties of the gas-liquid systems for which allowance had to be made in the evaluation of mass transfer Systems with gas phase resistance T K 293 300 300 300 303 303 289 298 294 294 303 303 289 QV kg/m 3 1.8 3.224 0.378 Air / water Air/methanol Air/benzene Air/ethyl n-butyrate Helium / water Freon 12/water Ammonia-nitrogen / water Ammonia-oxygen / water Ammonia-air/4% H 2 SO 4 in water Sulfur dioxide-air/1.8 TTT 2.3 71.6 126.4 0.6 16.6 15.612 0.159 4.0 1/Z 2.7 DylO6 m 2 /s 24.4 27.9 70.4 10.167 1.4 21.8 Scv 0.8.78 M NaOH in water Sulfur dioxide-Freon 12/3 M NaOH in water Chlorine-air/2 M NaOH in water Acetone-nitrogen / water 16 14 12 10 Rectification L/V= 1 / / >1 / -a a 70 Ar / Y 1.797 1.9 15.0 13.3 10.9 14.8 72.9 15.443 0.4 87.180 1.4 54.1 15. 3.162 1.247 0.3 5.609 1.6 15.2 15.2 1.150 1.9 24.9 72.200 1.1 2.800 1.2 1/2 Vapour capacity factor F v [m' s" kg ] Fig.8 71. Liquid load as a function of the vapour capacity factor in systems operated at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum.166 vv • 106 m 2 /s 15.2 59.3 72.5 22.9 a L -10 3 kg/s 2 72.188 1.6 70.122 1.190 4.950 1.4 15.632 1.720 2.6 uvwn\ene A ~—0 0.6.162 0.085 0.4 1 2.7 24.291 1.5 9.1 7.2 2.480 1. Valid for total reflux .

If the system's resistance to mass transfer is mainly in the liquid phase.32 and 3. 4.9-3.31 provide unmistakable evidence to the effect that.34. It is evident from Figs.37). 3.36. which is particularly effective at low liquid loads. and if it is in both the gas and liquid phases. i. Figs.23). the effect of the system. 3.36 and 4. 3. and Fig.24-3.8. On the other hand. Figs.7. if it is mainly in the gas phase. Fig. 3.50. under which it spreads the small amounts of liquid uniformly over its surface and thus gives rise to a higher efficiency. 3. They apply for rectification at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum with total reflux.17 show the efficiency and pressure drop chararacterics for random beds of metal packings in pilot columns of various diameters. if the liquid load is kept constant below the loading point. 3.6.30 and 3.19 show the corresponding relationships for random beds of plastics and ceramic packings.29. Thus Figs. Fig.5 applies. systems are entered in Table 3. Typical log-log pressure drop diagrams for random beds of packing produced from different materials are reproduced in Figs.e. The physical properties relating to rectification. The figures listed in Table 3. Although geometrically arranged packing presents by far the greater area per unit volume. and Fig.8.32-3.33 illustrate the effect exerted by the dimensions of the packing.38 are characteristic for the relationship between the liquid holdup and the liquid load when the gas load is constant. it increases considerably in the loading range and attains a maximum at the flood point.9 describe the range of capacities and the physical properties of all the mass transfer systems that were evaluated. the efficiency of metal gauze packing depends greatly on the load (Fig. 3. the effect of the shape of the packing. The results represented in these diagrams were obtained in vacuum rectification. the effect of the material from which the packing was produced.5 to 3. 3. Table 3. 3. 3.3. Two systems listed in Table 3.35. Table 3.4 Experimental results Some of the results determined in experiments on fluid dynamic behaviour and mass transfer efficiency are presented in Figs.18 and 3.20-3. They are representative for the comprehensive test program and were obtained by systematic evaluation of Eqns (3-1) . Table 3. its liquid holdup is only slightly more than that of random packing (Figs.9-3. 3. the liquid holdup is practically independent of the gas load. vapour-liquid. 3.10 were selected to study absorption processes in which mass transfer is accompanied by a fast chemical reaction in the liquid phase.22 that geometrically arranged metal packing has a low pressure drop per theoretical stage and a very high separation efficiency that depends very little on the load.(3-10) and Eqn (3-17). Figs. 3. .4 Experimental results 41 The physical properties of the gas-liquid systems selected for the mass transfer studies are reviewed in Tables 3. An increase in the slope of the pressure drop curves indicates that the loading point has been exceeded. The curves shown in Figs. As opposed to this. This can be ascribed to the fact that the surface of the gauze exerts a capillary action.8 indicates the wide range of liquid loads encompassed by the rectification tests performed under total reflux with these systems. 3.

33 2.162 1. Properties of the gas-liquid systems for which allowance had to be made in the evaluation of mass transfer QV kg/m 3 kg/m 3 QL Systems with resistance in the gas and liquid phases T K v v -10 6 m2 / s ScL Dv-10 6 m2 / s v L -10 6 m 2 /s a L -10 3 kg/s 2 D L -10 9 m 2 /s Ammonia-air/water Ammonia-propane/water Ammonia-Freon 12/water Sulfur dioxide-air/water Sulfur dioxide-oxygen/water Acetone-air/water Methanol-air/water Ethanol-air/water Carbon dioxide-air/ 1 M NaOH in water 1.6 15.9 25.50 4.0 17.317 0.208 1.967 1.52 0.763 4.59 0.77 293 301 295 303 297 300 300 298 1.1 19.3 72.64 1.1 6.86 0.7 21.33 2.75 4.04 4.0 23.7 21.1 23.929 1.4 70.01 1.50 0.473 0.5 26.18 1. List of properties of the systems investigated in the rectification studies Ts K kg/m 3 0.7 72.9 19.8 16.44 1.297 1.894 0.9 105.0 72.2 22.24 0.8 19.140 0.9 12.8 35.43 0.5 12.8. 4 0.3 8.150 1.162 1.72 2.2 15.268 0.066 1.18 3.1 15.2 1.9 10.6 15.0 26.567 0.0 72.929 0.827 3.793 0.2 13.809 0.7 25.3 D L -10 9 m 2 /s 2.53 0.87 1.7 2.1 4.904 0.45 0.188 1.806 Qv jars' Rectification systems Scv Pr mbar 314 329 345 364 385 407 321 327 345 352 350 336 343 365 Vv-10 6 m 2 /s Dy-10 6 m 2 /s QL kg/m 3 956 941 926 908 887 866 779 774 758 787 835 846 739 968 6 v L •10 m2 /s a L -10 3 kg/s 2 0.881 0.92 0.510 0.7.5 14.0 0.96 0.09 597 418 536 530 556 728 600 819 678 B 293 Table 3.45 1.89 72.950 1.803 0.33 5.798 0.53 3.9 2.1 72.0 9.85 3.84 0.53 0.8 8.1 4.4 28.99 0.5 23.7 15.2-Dichloroethane / toluene" 33 67 133 267 533 1000 103 133 267 1000 133 13 1000 1000 255 181 128 89 62 45 195 171 118 82 123 1019 113 70 n = negative system.303 3.785 0.Table 3.4 0.980 1043 1.39 0.791 0.187 15.0 9.2 21.185 1.5 8.168 15.6 15.2 64.8 4.900 1.34 0.1 15.294 0.0 1.86 ScL Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene" Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene11 Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene11 Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene11 Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene11 Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene" Toluene / n-octane11 Toluene / n-octane11 Toluene / n-octane11 Ethanol / waterp Ethylbenzene / styrene" trans-1 cw-Decahydronaphthalene" Methanol / ethanol11 1.908 0.54 0.8 8.241 0.67 2.66 1.30 0.0 17.4 3.3 3.9 15.03 0.483 0.20 75.780 0.9 11. p = positive system .5 20.220 1.1 12.79 1.41 6.1 72.86 0.633 0.1 22.42 3.452 0.200 52.246 999 996 998 989 998 997 997 997 1.5 19.373 0.8 14.2 15.35 28.9 120.

Fig. 3.3. Characteristic results of absorption experiments are presented in Figs.04-6.38-10" 2.20 758-1237 0.2 15.4 15.0029-2.Air/H 2 O + H2SO4 1. it can be improved by increasing the gas or liquid load.30-1.185-2. Absorption systems embraced by the experiments System QV [kg/m ] QL[kg/m ] r]v/Qv [m /s] D v [m /s] Transfer component dissolved by Conditions 2 2 3 3 NH3 . 3.46 that.2-10" 6 5 NH3 . 3.47 demonstrates that. 3.929 2. in the range below the loading point.10.4 Table 3.50 17.42.40 clearly shows that the shape of packing exerts a not inconsiderable effect on the load at the flood point.41 and 3.38-10- Physical absorption in the solvent Chemical absorption: 2NH 3 + H2SO4+ H2O = (NH4)2 SO4 + H2O System operated at standard temperature and pressure Fig. Loading ranges and properties of the systems investigated Gas capacity factor Liquid load Liquid density Liquid viscosity Liquid-side diffusion coefficient Surface tension Gas density Gas viscosity Gas-side diffusion coefficient Schmidt number of liquid Schmidt number of gas Number of packings investigated Number of absorption and desorption measurements Number of rectification measurements Absorption and desorption systems investigated Rectification systems investigated Experimental results 43 F v [m"1/2 kg1/2 s uL [m3/m2 h] QL [kg/m3] vL [m 2 /s] D L [m 2 /s] aL [kg/s 2 ] Qv [kg/m 3 ] vv [m 2 /s] D v [m 2 /s] ScL SCy 0.9. Fig. 3.2-10 6 5 SO2 .7 15.66 1.2-lO"5 Chemical absorption: SO2 + 2 NaOH = Na2SO3 + H2O 2.2563-118. even if the packings compared are of the same nominal size.43-3.39 gives an impression of the relationship between the flood load and the flow parameter for geometrically arranged metal packing of various sizes.45.2-74.18 1032.122 67 2605 665 31 14 Table 3.7-87.18 998. . As opposed to this.Air/H 2 O + NaOH 1.0 0.4 45-1186 0.2-lO"6 1. and of desorption experiments.18 1039.Air/H 2 O 1.066-4.2-126. It is evident from Fig. 3. in Figs.2 3. mass transfer in systems with resistance on the liquid side is independent of the gas load. The effects of the packing dimensions are also revealed in the latter.773 0. if mass transfer in absorption systems is predominantly in the gas phase.

rendered hydrophilic. They led to the conclusion that the surface treatment did not increase the efficiency to a level higher than that attained by unfinished packing after an operating period of one week at the most (cf.8 2. e. which is valid for a desorption system.0 12 1. In experiments with an absorption system (cf. 6 4 2 0 I 1 1 1 1 j a> Q. ds=500mm.—. Other studies were performed on plastics packing that had been given a surface finish. \ —.g. 3.2 2. 3. the differences in mass transfer were significantly greater. Z = 600 1/m2 Ethylbenzene/Styrene. H = 2 m cu .4 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m' 1/z s"1 kg" 2 ] Fig. Performance data for metal Raschig rings showing the effect of packing size . 3. / V J o cu CDCO 0.4 0. as is evident from Fig. it was observed that when new.4 16 1.—•-o— £== 2 D- O~ r\ \ j 9 / • 24 f 20 O ^ —o— —o— —-A— 16 12 50 mm 25 mm 15 m m / / y' S CO ' ' S5 A- / -o CO CO a E c^ Q.8 1. and the efficiency became stable after an operating period of a few days. freshly installed beds of packing were first taken on stream the liquid holdup was slightly less than that of the packing a few days later.0 2. L/V = l.44 3 Experimental determination of packing performance In the course of the studies. A. 67 mbar. Fig.50): Raschig rings.48. Fig. metal.9. 3.6 0. The same applies to the mass transfer.49).

ratio L/V=1 20 "Z 16 -a „ JZ* •••••• 1.8 1.© .8 2.6 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m" 1/2 s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig. H = 2 m.0 1.2 2.6 1.2-Propylene/Ethylene glycol 6.4 2. metal. Performance data for metal Raschig rings showing the effect of the system and the test conditions .6 0.2 1. 3. Z = 600 1/m2 Ring size 50 mm.7mbar . ds= 500 mm.Ethylbenzene/Styrene 34 mbar .4 Experimental results 45 Raschig rings.4 0.© . a CO -Q / / ^ — 0.10.Ethylbenzene/Styrene 67 mbar Methanol/Ethanol 1 bar T a "a «_ .3.0 2.4 1.

2 1. L/V = 1. 67 mbor. Performance data for metal Pall rings showing the effect of packing size .4 1. H = 2 m --" 3 o—•• ^ -cr-" CF—6-O- -o- —O" A 12 10 .6 1.8 1.— u — bu m m — o — 25 mm —A— 1 5 m m a >[3 r t .4 0. metal.6 0. 3.2 2.11.6 2.8 2. ds = 500 mm.46 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Pall rings.0 2.8 3. Z = 600 1/m2 Ethylbenzene/Styrene. / • / / ^"' .0 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m~ 1/2 s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig.4 2.0 1. -— y -oS7 CD • ' 6 1 / / C D <] QCO 0.

2 1.3. L/V = 1.0 2. Performance data for metal Pall rings showing the effect of packing size .6 0./ I d ZD CO • co CD ' 3 - ^ Q .' Vapour capcity factor Fv tm" 1/z s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig.8 2. H = 2 m " cz o 4 —-^ vsb.2 2. —O" > > u i ! i M M — — CO CO CD (—> Ja D E cr 4 2 > **— o CD CDCO ID <\ n 0.= 12 10 — o — 50 m m — a — 25 m m —A— 1 5 m m / / V .4 Experimental results 47 Pall rings. ds = 500 mm.12.4 2.6 1.4 1. metal. i '• • _r—| ^ • -D—^ ] O i A o— —o.4 0.6 2. Z = 600 1/m2 Methanol/EthanolJ bar.8 1. 3. y r A- ^.0 1.

2 2. Performance data for metal Pall rings showing the effect of the system and the test conditions .6 2.6 1.4 2.8 3. ds= 500 mm.48 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Pall rings. ratio L/V = 1 1. 3. H = 2 m.2-Propylene/Ethylene glycol -©-• Ethylbenzene/Styrene .2 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m" 1/z s"1 kg 1/z ] Fig. Z = 600 1/mz Ring size 50 mm.0 3. metal.8 1.Ethylbenzene/Styrene 6.13.4 1.0 2.7 mbar _ a .0 1. • 6 / ^ 2 ••ir 0.8 2.2 1.© .

2 1.0 2. ds=220 mm.3. 6 • / fcr <±> *- 0 o CD CD.4 0.8 1. 67 mbar.6 4.4 2. Z=2036 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. 3.14.8 3. L/V=1.4 Experimental results 49 Metallic rings.2 3. Performance data for various metal rings determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions . H=15 m a Z3 CO i 6 E 38-mm Pall ring N=14301 irr3 — o — VSP ring 1 N = 30948 rrr3 —^— 50-mm Pall ring N=6000 m"3 — o .6 2. 0 0.VSP ring 2 N = 7621 m"3 ••••A--- •te _ co CO .0 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m~1/2s~1 kg 1/z ] Fig.

metal. 3.50 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm rings. ds=220 mm.45 m 1 . LAM. 4 A / VP —TT ^ _ .8 3. 8 . H=1.6 2 2.a ^ 1 .4 0.2 1. 67 mbar. n0. \ / Or 3 & —• TOP-Pok.8 1. N = 6880 m- \ > / Pall rings. Z=2036 1/m2 Chloro-/Ethylbenzene.4 2.15. Performance data for metal Pall and Top-Pak rings determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions . N=6360 nr 3 / </ ^ ^ oo E cu •—• O Q.2 Vapour capacity factor F v [m" l/2 s" 1 kg1/2] Fig.

d s = 220 mm.2 5 .3.16.5. 67 mbar.8 1.6 2. Performance data for metal Pall and CMR-Turbo rings determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions .8 3.4 2. O t_ CO Y / /V j / c5L <J 0. H = 1.2 Vapour capacity factor F v [m" 1/2 s" 1 kg1/2] 3.5 m V Ml ¥--^— A t V 1 0 O.6 Fig. N=62430 m"3 Pall ring N=53200 m~3 P •a CO a __ / \A CD. L/V=1.m m -CMR-Turbo No.4 Experimental results 51 Metallic rings. Z--2036 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene.0 2.2 1.. 3. 1.

Z=2036 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethy[benzene.0 2.4 2.17.2 / / 0.2 1. Performance data for metal Pall and Hiflow rings determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions . 3. J / 2 I £• rE <" Y 3.—.52 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm rings.H=15m -a . ds=220 mm .8 1/2 1 1/2 Vapour capacity factor Fv [ m s kg ] Fig. metal.8 1.4 0.6 2. 67mbar(L/V=1.

3.4 Experimental results 53 Hiflow rings.2 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m 1/2 s~ 1 kg 1 / 2 ] 3.4 0.5m CO ' ' > / 0.8 3.4 2. Performance data for plastic Hiflow rings showing the effect of packing size . L/V = 1.18.8 1. 67mbar. ds=220mm .6 2.0 2. plastic. Z= 2036 1/m2 Chiorobenzene/EthyIbenzene.6 Fig. H = 1. 3.2 1.

* .5 12 10 . 3.19. O CI o cu Q.5 CD o 1. Z=2036 1/m2 Chloro-/Ethylbenzene. Performance data for various 50-mm ceramic packings determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions .5 0. ds=220 mm.5 m 2. 67 mbar.1 kg 1/z ] Fig.4 Vapour capacity factor Fv [nr 1 / 2 s. H--1. CO 0 0.54 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm rings. _ CO CD Q.2 2.8 2.6 1 1. ceramic.6 3 3.-a— Pall ring N--6195 1/m3 . .4 1.INTALOX saddle N = 8175 1/m3 o— Hiflow ring = 4684 1/m3 ^ •= (ZL < 6 -o 1 . L/V--1.

.4 2. metal.4 0.3.8 1.4 m 133 mbar 67 mbar 33 mbar / Qi • ' t _^. ds--220 mm.0 2.4 Experimental results 55 MONTZ-PAC Bl-300.6 2.2 3.8 3. 3.2 1. Z--2150 l/m 2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. 9 L Q.6 Vapour capacity factor Fv [m~1/2s~1 kg1/2 ] ^ — — - — • — Fig. L/V=l H = 1. C= * 0 — . 0. Performance data for metal Montz-Pac Bl-300 packing showing the effect of operating pressure .20.

o " E 6 i CO 3 E 2 c= 52CD GO 1 0 0. 3.6 2 2. ds = 220 mm. metal.4 2.2 3.4 m 133 mbar -—^— 67 mbar 33 mbar a.8 3. Performance data for metal Ralu-Pac 250 YC packing showing the effect of operating pressure .8 1.4 ' 0.21.2 1.6 Vapour capacity factor F v lm~ l/2 s~ 1 kg 1/2 ] Fig.56 3 Experimental determination of packing performance RALU-PAC 250 YC. Z=2150 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. L/V=l H = 1.

H=L5m.8 s ^— F—^ cS- 1.2 1. L/V=1.3.4 Experimental results 57 Gempak A 2T metal.8 1 3. 67 mbar 1 0 8 — —o— 6I 4 2 0 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene Z=215O 1/m2 — o ~ pQra-/meta-Xylene Z = 600 1/m2 1 / 11 / 1 1 / / / i r °- c 2 0 0.0 Vapour capacity tactor Fylm'^s" kg ' ] Fig.4 2. 3.22.6 2.2 12 3. ds=220mm.4 0. Performance data for metal Gempac A 2T packing for various test systems .0 2.6 4.

Performance data for various types of metal gauze packing determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions .23. ds=220 mm.2 r 2.4 1. C _ > Q.6 1 3.6 1. " • E o CO QL < C D — — — * " 0.4 Vapour capacity factor Fv [ m ^ s " kg1'2] Fig. 3.58 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Gauze packings.2 0. H=1. Z=2036 1/m2 Chloro-/Ethylbenzene. metal.0 1.8 2. 67 mbar.5 m \ / o CD 6 N --o— —•— O c> < ^ ^ ^ Sulzer packing B X Montz packing A1 o CD rf — on.0 3. L/V = l.

• 10 • 20. 3.6 0. A 40 v 60. Pressure drop data for 25-mm metal Bialecki rings showing the effect of liquid load 1/z Gas capacity factor Fv [m" s"1 kg "1/z g1/2] Fig.3 0.15m.5m Air/Water. H = 1.5 2 3 4 0. 293 K 50-mm NOR-PAC.5 2 3 Gas velocity u v [ m / s ] 0.5 3 2 •o CD W 40 •^ 30 HI fl \l 1 n T/ 4 3 0.810 1.8 1 1.292 K 100 80 -A u L [m /m h] a 0 ^60 <t>20 #72. • < 20 S 1 5 j 10 //i / / / / u if p / 1 r \ J.6 0.3. 1 bar.3 0.25.H=1.d s =0. metal N=55000 m"3. d s = 0. 3. 1 bar.4 u L [m 3 /m 2 h] o 0.8 / Iff / IfI I'ftJ f 1.6 0.3m.4 Experimental results 59 25-mm Bialecki ring.V ' J/ tf // / v t / 0. plastic N=7320m 3 . Pressure drop data for 50-mm plastic Nor-pac rings showing the effect of liquid load .4m Air/Water.4 0. 3.5 2 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [m"l/2s~1kg1/2] Fig.24.

3.6 3 4 3 /m2h i j •o CD 1 0 CO CO / w /A f A % / 1// / / 111 Y /& i 6 2 t 7 1 1. Pressure drop data for 50-mm plastic Hiflow rings showing the effect of the liquid load 06 1 2 3 4 Gas capacity factor Fv [m"l/2s"1 kg1/2l Fig. plastic = 6280ni 3 . plastic N=12850 m-3ds=0-3m.5 2 Gas capacity factor Fv [m"1/2 s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig. Pressure drop data for 45-mm plastic Hackette packing showing the effect of the liquid load . I bar. 1 bar.26. ^ 43 i l l 60 1 1 || 4 —tf/ \ \ A m 40 Y 40 30 < CD 20 15 1 0 1 Ij ' i /' Ihf D / I 20 < i/t t / th u/ d /) // p f/ / r [m a 0 * 15 -&30. 3.3m.d s --0.27. 296 K 100 80 60 / -i 45-mm Hackette.7 • 46.4 ---70.60 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm Hiflow.0 #61. 291 K i i u L [m 3 /m 2 h] o 0 3 10 • 20.H--Um Air/Water.H--L35m Air/Water.

H =1.4 m Air/Water. Pressure drop data for 50-mm ceramic Hiflow rings and Intalox saddles showing the effect of liquid load . 3. H = U5m.3 n3/r n h 2 0.1 kg 1 / 2 ] 2 0. CD. ceramic d s = 0.45 m. STP 100 IA 50-mm packings.28.8 1 1.4 Experimental results 61 50-mm packing size.5 Gas capacity factor Fv [rn l/2 s 1 kg l/2 ] Fig. CD CO CO T / o> / p D / r „ -20 0. 296 K I / 60 y 1/ / 4 9 U I i -/„ 60 40 INTALOX saddle o . 3. Air/H 2 0. A N=5004m.l / 2 s.29.3.6 1 1. plastic d s --0.5 2 3 Gas capacity factor F v lm.5 Hiflow ring a .45m. Pressure drop in various beds of 50-mm plastic packing determined in tests on the same system and under the same conditions Fig. 1 bar. v N-8882m" 3 e (JD 7 I n / - e 20 ( c 1 10 i/ "A D 0 / D ^ r J 20 =1= Q.

ds=0. A — -j— /ai Y 1A / I 4 'i.15 0. Liquid holdup data for 25-mm metal Bialecki rings showing the effect of load 25-mm NOR-PAC ring.3 0. H = 1.5m.6 0.15 0.0 1.4 0.8 1.62 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 25-mm Bialecki ring.1 0.15 m.8 1 1. STP 20 ^ 15 plast i r e n nr /80 !! ^ M /. 1Ci I ti t TD 6 io 8 A / ^ 60' \ u -36 m3/m2h IB. metal.5 2 3 4 Gas velocity u v l m / s ] Fig.6 0.STP| zl) 1 5 e 10' T= 8< pn f in 0u y/ 60 40 • 20 r 7 „ V 7 y/ ^ n ° 6 — • "CD z ] — 1 H 7i UL=10 m^/urr -o 1" 2( 1. Liquid holdup data for 25-mm plastic Nor-Pac rings showing the effect of load .Air/H20.5 2 3 Gas velocity u v [m/s] 1 0.3 0. ds= 0. 5 2 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [m" l/2 s" 1 kg1/2 ] Fig. 3.4 j- /9 0.8 1 1 .1 0. Air/H 2 0.3 0.31. 3.2 0.1 0.30.6 0.4 0.5 5 J n1 0.4 m.15m.2 03 0.15 0.2 0. H =1.

8 1 15 2 3 4 5 6 3 3 2 Liquid load u L -10 [m /m s] Fig.metal. y y ^y° 1.7 FVtFl d=15mm. 3. Air/Water 1 bar.3 m 0. 1 bar.6 1 1.33. Liquid holdup data for metal Montz packing of three different sizes .3m ( H=0.H=1m d=35mm. F v ^0.22m- ^ 3 B 1-IOC y A 4 y A y > 1 1.H = 1.B1-300 ^ ds=0.291K. 293 K.43r n 0. Air/Water..4 Experimental results 63 Pall rings.22m t31-200 \ J rl s =0. 3.6 0.22 m.N=229225m d s =0.6 0. Liquid holdup data for metal Pall rings of three different sizes Montz packing.4 0.5 2 3 4 6 3 Liquid load uL-10 [m 3 /m 2 s 10 15 20 Fig.32. Fv < FvF| 10 .3'i-1.N = 19520m ds= 0.8mV d=25mm.N=52000m d s =0.5 -o.3.22m. metal.

d s = 0.4 m Air/Water.7-FV. Liquid holdup data for ceramic.9 .34. H = 1.3m. Air/H 2 0.U r n " 1 ' 2 s " 1 k g l / 2 • ^ ^ m 6 50-mm Hiflow.64 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm Pall ring. STP. N 3 y 45-mmHackette N--12000 1/m3 1 2 ^ 5 0-mm JOR-F 1. Liquid holdup data for plastic Hiflow. and plastic Pall rings Plastic rings. and Nor-Pac packing .293 K. Hackette. 3.5 —1~^ 3 s^ / yd y y 1 1.4m FV =0. d s = 0.5 2 3 4 N--7 i 6 o 710 1/m3 8 T 10 7 15 20 Liquid load uL -10 [rr/m s] z Fig.5 r 2 3 4 3 3 6 2 8 10 15 Liquid load uL 10 [m /m s] Fig.3m. H = 1 -1. 1 bar. 3. metal. N = 6815 1/m 3 - jE c -^ a.35.FI A / y y 4 3 2 1. F V <0.

5 2 3 ds = 0. plastic m3 = 6815 1/ 4 6 3 1. 1 bar. H = 4.3m r y i ^ 1. Liquid holdup data for plastic Nor-Pac rings of two different sizes Air/Water.5 2 15 20 Liquid load uL-10 [m /m s] Fig. 293K.22m..36.8 0.4 Experimental results 65 *-PAC rings.5 / ••= 0. 1 bar. D •= CZ) 3 0 Air/Water d s = 0.Air/Water-Ethyleneglycol o Air/Water 3 3 4 2 6 8 10 15 Liquid load uL-10 [m /m s] Fig.4 0.6 0. met al r< o / CD D 1 4 i >> .3 0. plastic. 273 K.4 0.7 • R V.15m.6 0.37. 3. H = 1m a Air/Water * Air/Methanol -B. H .8 1 1. Fv < 0. 3.M o n t z packing Bl-300. Liquid holdup data for metal Montz packing and plastic Hiflow rings .22m. — 10 — Q Fv <0.J 8 10 3 2 r ''y 3 1 .FI.U m A Air/Solution of organic acid ds = 0.7-F V F l y° I I I 1 . 5 1 y±Y 5()-mm Hi flow rina.3.

5 2 3 4 6 8 10 3 Liquid load uL-10 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig.-1/ — -10 Fig. 5 1 . F l e 10 ^E ^f y 6b ' o 0 Q ^ % •§ TD 5 4 o i 3 c 'A 15 20 f ? OJ 1. Flood data for various types of structured sheet-metal packing .2m Air/Water.39.45.22 1.4 0. 8 0. Liquid holdup data for metal Mellapak 250 Y packing System Air/Water 293 K Chloro-/Ethylbenze ne Packing p T lmbar] o Mellapak 250 Y 1000 A Ralupak 250 YC 1000 •&.1.30 0. 295H .38. 3.22.45 1. 3.0.• 21 B1300 B1200 Montz B1100 B1300 1000 1000 1000 67 Him] 1 .45 2 3 4 6 8 10 20 30 40 60 L / Pv ? Flow parameter -7.4 d s lm] 0.22 m H--1. metal.66 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Mellapak 250Y.22 1.0. F v <0.7 ' W .4 0.30 0..7 1. 1 bar. d 5 -.

dtnim] V D Plastics dumped packing 50 50 45 50 NOR-PAC ring Hiflow ring Hackette INTALOX saddle ds m 0.40 135 1.45 1.30 030 0.3.30 0.50 1.40.30 0. Flood data for various types of dumped plastic packing 4- '-— .20 N 1/m3 7320 6280 12850 9422 9875 O 0 El Flow parameter Fig.4 Experimental results 67 Si.45 H m 1. 3.

8 1 1 . 295 K U L =10 m 3 /m 2 h I 1 1. ds = 0.3 . plastics. 0 Q. 3.2 3 u L =15m 3 /m 2 h. 3.42.4 0.3m NH 3 -Air/Water.6 0. 5 2 3 4 Gas capacity factor Fig.2 0.0.1 0.68 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 50-mm rings .8 0.41. H^2 m. 1 bar. < _Q o Rolupak 250 YC D 50-mm Hiflow Z = 2400 1/m2 2 0.15 0.4 § 1 . 295K |ds = 0.0 N[1/m 3 ] A 9331 n 6425 o 6450 v 6660 Q. metol Hitlow ring.H435mii l l 2.6 0.8 0. Height of an overall transfer unit and specific pressure drop for metal Ralupac 250 YC packing and 50-mm Hiflow rings . Height of an overall transfer unit and specific pressure drop for various types of dumped plastic packing Fig.4 n ZD CO CO CD e Z3 CO ^ ffl CD 0.6 CD <ZL CO 3 -Air/H 2 0 1 bar.45m_ Ui=23m3/m2h 0.H=1.45 m. O 1 <• o 0.5 2 3 4 Gas capacity factor F v [m 1 / 2 s 1 kg 1/2 ] 0.

3.44.l bar.8 1 Liquid load u L l 0 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] Plastic rings . 3. 3. Fv=l nr 1/2 s. metal.4 Experimental results 69 50-mm rings. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for various types of dumped plastic packing 2 3 4 6 3 3 8 10 Liquid load uL-10 [m /m2s] .5 2 3 4 6 8 10 Fig. H=1.3 m. ds=300mm .1 kg1/2 20 15 / CO.43. Vb o r 10 r-j J / y o H flow ring N=5000 1/ m 3 D Pall ring N= 6000 1/m 3 1. ds = 0. 1 bar. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for metal Hiflow and Pall rings 0. 293 K. 296 K Fig.4m C0rAii7Water. H = U m System: Air/C0 2 -H 2 0.

3. H = 1. ds=0. H =1.3m C0 2 -Air/Water. 293 K 30 im ring — 20-n N = 10740 1/m3 20 l/2 1 Fv-( 185 m.5 m CQ 2 -Air/H 2 0.55 nr s. d s = 0.5 bU-rnm ring 5120 1/m3 1 1/2 n F v. _ ~*pi ' • CO MITIOW lliiy 1 f f ° d1 1 2 5 1 0 0.4 a o a 16 — Pall ring 14 / •5- rT(— / / Q ^ A i r 0.70 3 Experimental determination of packing performance Hiflow ring ceramic.1 bar. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for plastic Hiflow and Pall rings .0.45.6 0. plastic. 3. uL=15 m 3 /m 2 h CO (— .3m.kg \_J 2 3 4 6 8 10 Liquid load uL-103 [m 3 /m 2 s] 15 Fig.5 2 Gas capacity factor Fv [m" 1/2 s" 1 kg 1/2 ] Fig.s" kg y y & < A\ y y 10 8 y ^ y 3 y yy y 4 6 4 y 1. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for ceramic Hiflow rings showing the effect of the packing size 50-mm rings. 294 K. 1 bar.3 m.8 1 1.46.

o o GO o • 0.3.3m. 288K. Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients and liquid holdup data for plastic Nor-Pac rings showing the effect of operating time Liquid load uL • 10 [m3/m3s] . STP E 2 J L := 6 o CO a Fig. 3. plastic d s --0. 1 bar.35m Plastic 1 u O .5 2 5 3 7 9 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [m s" kg Liquid load u L -10 [m /m 2 s] Fig. H--1.Hiflow N--6450m"3 .D .48. H = 1.o . Gas-phase mass transfer coefficients for plastic Hiflow and Pall rings showing the effect of the gas and liquid loads 50-mm NOR-PAC ring. d s = 300mm.6 1 15 m3/m2 1.i -1 kg 1/2 • I 3 1/2 1.5 2 V2 1 F 1 6m v = 1 3 4 1/. N--7710 1/m3 20 15 10 Operation v start up A 2 days o 4 days • 12 days C02-H20/Air.4m.47. 3.4 0.4 Experimental results 71 50-mm rings .P a l l N = 6425m"3 NH 3 -Air/H 2 0.

Liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients for treated and untreated surfaces of 50-mm plastic Hiflow rings . 3. H=1.55nTl/2s-1kg1/2 30 o E 20 A ?I 1 5 unt rea ted N =68K3 1/m3 tre ateci N =6890 1. 1 bar. plastic. ds=0.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 3 3 Liquid load u r 1 0 [m /m 2 s] 15 '£.3m. H=1m NH 3 -Air/Water. 3. i X W / / / 1.72 3 Experimental determination of packing performance 25-mm NOR-PAC. Fv = 0. 293 K 3 4 6 8 10 20 30 3 2 Liquid load uL [m /m h] Fig. 1 bar. Fig. plastic.50. 293K. ds=1m.49. Height of an overall transfer unit for 25-mm plastic Nor-Pac rings showing the effect of operating time 50-mm Hiflow ring.3m C0 2 -Air/Water.

Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . From the aspect of the hydrodynamics. The geometry of the channels can be described by the effective void fraction in the bed and by the ratio a of the surface of the packing to the volume of the bed.1). Equilibrium of forces during two-phase flow within a channel of a packed column Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. 4. 4. and the physical properties of the two phases under operating conditions. Other relevant factors are the texture of the packing. and their validity must be confirmed by experiment. The very complexity of these parameters and their interrelationships renders an accurate theoretical description of the flow patterns almost impossible.1 Fluid-dynamics model It can be assumed that the liquid phase flows in the form of a film in channels of the same free volume as those in the bed of packing under consideration. the effective void fraction in a packed column is equivalent to the number of vertical flow channels in which a liquid of density QL and dynamic viscosity r\L flows in the form of a film of thickness so at an average velocity uL countercurrent to a stream of gas or vapour with an average velocity uv (cf. simplifying assumptions must be made.1.4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns The flow patterns for the liquid and gas streams in packed separation columns depend on the geometry of the channels formed by the arrangement and size of the packing in the bed. 4. the velocities of the countercurrent streams. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Fig. Packing surface Interfacial area Frictional force o Force of gravity 1 Packing Liquid holdup Vapour or gas Fig. Consequently.

turbulent flow. i. Rearranging Eqn (4-4) to give K and substituting this value in Eqn (4-2) yields the following equation for the local liquid velocity uLs at any point in a layer of thickness s in the liquid film: )s r\L 2 / (4. the equilibrium of forces can be described by duL>s If the downward liquid velocity uLs is expressed as a function of the density QL and the dynamic viscosity r\L. T\LK . Thus.QLgso = . Examples of departures from this model are oblique channels arising from the geometry of the packing. Experimental studies to verify the equations in the model have confirmed that this procedure is permissible. The equations thus derived are valid for vertical flow in both phases and laminar flow in the liquid film. (4-2) ds S ° r\L Multiplication by i}L yields the shear stress in the liquid at the gas interface. it can be assumed that the force of gravity is in equilibrium with the shear forces at any point in a given coaxial layer of thickness s within the liquid film and that the frictional force exerted by the vapour of density Qy acts at the surface of the film.74 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns If steady-state conditions exist and inertia forces are neglected. i. in any given layer of thickness 5 in a liquid film of total thickness so.| ~Y~ Qv (4-4) The integration constant K can therefore be obtained. In steadystate operation. and the texture of the packing. Eqn (4-1) can be integrated to give uLtS = Ks-— Differentiation then yields the velocity gradient in the film.e.e. the shear stress in the liquid is in equilibrium with that in the vapour of density QV and velocity uv.5) The theoretical average flow velocity uL for a liquid film of thickness so is defined by uL = — s I uLtS ds (4-6) o . A practicable means of allowing for them is to introduce a function for the flow or resistance factor §.

e. Experience has shown that hL is influenced by the following factors: .1 Fluid-dynamics model 75 The solution to this equation is the mean local velocity uL of a liquid that descends countercurrent to an ascending stream of vapour flowing at a mean local velocity uv within a bed of packing. which is normally given in column design problems: . the mean velocities uL and uv depend on the packing geometry and the liquid holdup hL. without voids.the ratio a of the surface area of the packing to the volume of the bed.e. i.4.^ l u v Qvj (4-7) If the liquid and vapour loads uL and uv are given. and . The void fraction is given by 8Vc Vp ~ (4_io) where VP is the volume occupied by the packing itself. The following relationship exists between a and e: s= l-a^AP (4-11) If the liquid holdup hL is known and the packing is uniformly wetted. the theoretical total film thickness So is given by so = — a (4-12) The following relationship exists between the mean liquid velocity uL and the volumetric flow rate. which is defined by where VL is the liquid volume and Vc is the column volume under operating conditions. y g SOQL . . i. The ratio a is defined by where AP is the total area of the surface presented by the bed of packing and Vc is the column volume.the texture of the packing.the void fraction 8.

2 Resistance to flow The resistance factor § allows for the geometry of random packing or of the flow channels in systematically stacked beds. and between uv>Fh uL>Fi and hL)Ft. It is thus valid for all industrial packing. if the liquid load uL is constant.) (4-15) This equation describes flow in terms of the column load. is shown qualitatively in Fig. an increase in the gas velocity Uy does not significantly affect the liquid holdup hL until the loading point uv>s is reached at the surface of the film. (4-13). uL. In other words. It can be seen from this diagram that.e. The extensive experimental work required to verify the relationship is described in Chapter 3.76 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns so a (4-13) The corresponding relationship exists between the mean vapour velocity uv and the pg ume flow rate of vapour uv. This is evident from Fig. 4. uL. and Uy respectively in Eqn (4-7) gives a\LuL = V (f QL -} hL{. They follow logically from the physical model. They also revealed that the vapour velocity at the loading point uv>s is about 70 % of that at the flood point uFi. At the point s = s0. uVy and uL. The exponent n is exactly n — V3 for laminar flow in vertical channels. as described by Eqn (4-15). when the gas velocity is uV}F[. 4.2. 4. and the liquid commences to hold up in the bed of packing. Afterwards. and the mathematical description applies to the entire loading range. The application of Eqn (4-15) to evaluate experimental results has revealed that § is analogous to the friction factor in pipe flow in that it is a function of Reynolds number Rey for the gas phase. and (4-14) for so. in the Uy > uvs range. lower diagram in Fig. these relationships are valid between uVjS.2) and if uv > UyFl. The interrelationships between hL. Theoretically. .e Substituting the terms on the right-hand sides of Eqns (4-12). i. . which shows the correlation between gas and liquid flow in both circular pipes and packed beds. It also allows for the transition from laminar to turbulent liquid flow and thus depends on the vapour and liquid loads. i. volume flow rate of vapour u v i. if the liquid load uL is kept constant. 4. and the packing characteristics. the physical properties of the liquid-vapour system._htf «}*.S and hL}S'.e. the liquid holdup hL increases with the gas velocity until it attains a maximum hL>m at the flood point. at s = s0.3. The experiments demonstrated that it does not undergo any further change once this point has been reached. even if uL > uLjF\ (cf. It can be seen that the slope is practically the same in all cases. the flow velocity is theoretically zero. in which the subscript S refers to the loading point and the subscript Fl to the flood point. the liquid holdup hL is practically equal to hLjS at loads uv < uvs.

2 Res is tan ce to flo w 11 ZD TD ID Gos or vapour load u v -o a o Fig. which is defined as the volume of stationary liquid that exists in the form of a film on the surface of the packing or is present in voids. Thus hL>dyn (4-16) The dynamic component flows downwards. dead spots. An expression for hL that is valid over the entire loading range can be obtained by rearranging Eqn (4-15). There are two components of liquid holdup: a static hLst and a dynamic hL>dyn.4. Thus . In most industrial mass transfer processes. 4. until the stage is reached when the static can be regarded as nonexistent. As the liquid load increases. and phase boundaries in the bed of packing within a two-phase countercurrent column during the period in which the liquid phase descends at a constant rate onto the surface of the bed. the difference between the two components becomes progressively greater. Qualitative relationship between the liquid holdup and the phase loads in a packed column Liquid holdup hL The resistance factor § also depends on the liquid holdup. the dynamic component preponderates by several orders of magnitude.2. and the static remains within the bed.

78 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Gas Reynolds number Re V(Packing fe o 3. and a is the surface area per unit volume in m2/m3.3. hL = g 3 „ WiJ a 4 /IL) 2 (4-17) The basic assumption in this case is that the flow of liquid over the packing is laminar. 4. & 00 CD Cd CO oo CD Gas Reynolds n u m b e r R e j Fig. It differs from flow in the vertical channels of the model in that it continually changes direction and is interrupted at boundaries. Another point in which the theory departs from reality is that laminar flow in the film applies only at comparatively low liquid loads. above which flow becomes turbulent.a N\\ lh (4-19) where h is the height and d the outer diameter of an individual element of packing. According to definition. N is the number of elements per cubic metre.cr = 10 For laminar liquid flow in the vertical channels of the model. and the following relationship for turbulent film flow was established by experiment on about 50 different types of packing dumped at random: n = \— . The corresponding relationship for flow in tubes is presented as a comparison. and a figure of n = 2/3 has been determined for flow in systematically arranged beds of packing. has been derived from numerous measurements. the exponent n in Eqn (4-18) is exactly n = V3. . Qualitative log-log relationship between the resistance factor and the gas Reynolds number in the channels of a packed column with the liquid Reynolds number as parameter. The critical Reynolds number. The value changes at higher loads. uL (4-18) ReL.

4.2 --- \\v \\\ \\\ s V L 40 1\\\V < \ \ \ N A\ y vV 3^ s \ \> \ Nv v \ \ \ \ NVAS.e.7 0.9381 . The first step in their compilation was to rearrange the equation to solve for §.Syslem: Air/Water 1 bar . uL hL(z-hLf\ 1 UyQv (4-20) Values of | thus calculated for flow in a bed of metallic Bialecki ring packing were plotted against the corresponding Reynolds numbers with the liquid load uL as parameter. . i.2 Resistance to flow 79 Although Eqn (4-17) can be solved only by iteration.4 convincingly verify this analogy.5 0. 298 K \\^ V\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 3 2 \ S 5 £ 4 J \ \ \-— A sy \> \ \ \\ \\ yX \ \N \ u = 80m /m h" V \ L 41' CO CD ct: \ \ 0 " X \ \v 10 Y 2. \ \s ri ^g tQl N =78323 1/m3 a =331 m z /m 3 e =0.8 \ ! ^ _ K\ \ ^ y.4. The curves presented in Fig.V .^ \\ \ \ \ V -2 5-mni Biale :ki \ \^ \ \ \ \ S \ \V A N\ \ \\y \ _ ^ _^. 4.3 0. 4. The values for the Reynolds numbers were derived from the following relationship: Pipe flow 100 70 50 40 30 20 10 \ Bialecki rings V \\ _ V \ \\ VV \ \ \V\ \^\ \ -A. \ A \ \\ v > v y \ \\ \ \ \ > \ \\ ^ \\ \\\ = 80m 3 /m 2 h \\\ \\ r- 01 30 50 100 300 500 1000 r" --•2. \ \ \ w S 0.8 3000 5000 10000 Gas Reynolds number Rev Fig. Valid for an air/water system at STP.4 0. Resistance factor as a function of the gas Reynolds number for a packed column and a tube with the liquid load as parameter. its great advantage is that it is analogous to the equation for two-phase countercurrent flow in vertical tubes.

5 111.629 2.654 2.939 2.580 1.812 1.1.1.812 Plastic Ceramic Ralu ring Plastic . Numerical values for C at the loading and flood points for various types of packing are presented in Table 4.742 2. However.913 1. i.064 1.725 2.846 2. Evaluation of the results obtained on all the packings investigated led to the following relationship: = C Rey2 ReL° (4-22) in which C is a constant that is characteristic for individual types of packing and must be determined experimentally. Data for determining the loading and flood points in random beds of packing Dumped Packing Material Size mm 50 35 25 50 35 25 50 50 50 hydr.696 2. Table 4.954 0. this is only to be expected. calculated from the standard equations cited in the literature.627 2.965 0.816 2.4 223.083 1.679 2.919 0.757 1. The fact that the two sets of curves are largely parallel in the range of laminar gas flow provides striking evidence of the analogy and confirms the validity of the model based on flow in vertical channels in packed columns. The relative positions of the two sets of curves show that the resistance factors are higher in the bed of packing.906 0. because the pressure drop for gas flow in beds of packing is considerably greater than that in vertical smooth pipes. have been included in the diagram.951 0.2 95.887 0.843 CFI Pall ring Metal 1. A relationship that is more useful in practice for the determination of § at the loading and flood points in specific separation tasks is (4-23) C2 rMlL where r| L /ry is the viscosity ratio for the two phases and W is the well-known flow parameter described by Eqn (1-3).843 2.0 116. N 1/m3 6242 19517 53900 6765 17000 52300 6215 5770 5720 112.938 0.1 151.783 0.2 8 m 3 /m 3 0.80 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns Uyid-lSp) Key — Qy (4-21) The corresponding curves for two-phase pipe flow.e.6 139.1 225.5 95.

942 0.0 194.1 118.5" 50 50 25 50 25 80 60 32 50 35 25 25 45 15 70 47 N 1/m 3 7330 17450 50000 48920 5000 40790 6815 6890 6050 46100 5120 13241 121314 29200 31100 60744 63547 158467 560811 6871 5990 47700 7841 33434 2000 6800 53000 6278 18200 48533 37037 12000 193522 9763 28168 a m 2 /m 3 86.0 155.0" 0.012 1.703 2.956 0.6 60.1.0 104.277 2.856 2.0 190.522 1.885 1.930 2.8 202.788 0.0 98.472 2.528 2.697 2.966 0.996 2.2 E Resistance to flow 81 m 3 /m 3 0.870 1.928 0.132 1.4 82.689 1.5 356.755 2.991 NOR PAC ring Plastic 2.975 0.865 2.841 2.918 2.912 1.6 199.9 110.98? 1.947 0.3 202.5" 1.825 2.5 95.753 2.936 0.841 1.8 286.864 2.840 2.242 2.925 0. 50 S 25 50 38 20 30 PmK 30 P 1.410 1.454 2.871 1.871 1.970 2. (continued) Dumped Packing Material Size mm 50 35 25 6 25 10 50 25 50 50 hydr.930 0.644 2.967 0.9 92.920 0.5 307.952 0.913 2. = made hydrophilic .830 0.961 0.944 0.179 3.5 164.955 0.574 1.0 174.900 1.702 2.521 2.819 2.953 0.866 2.786 2.970 1.178 1.929 Hiflow ring Metal Plastic Ceramic Glitsch ring Metal Glitsch CMR ring Metal TOP-Pak ring Raschig ring Alu Ceramic VSP ring Metal ENVIPAC ring Plastic Bialecki ring Metal Tellerette Hackette Raflux ring DINPAC Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic hydr.9 117.758 0.0 232.959 3.5" T 1.894 2.400 1.916 2.8 141.972 0.0 210.482 2.956 0.977 0.0 190.2 180.875 2.980 0.974 0.806 2.4 138.680 0.962 0.790 2.966 2.975 0.896 1.7 131.0 197.971 0.987 2.177 1.809 0.846 2.564 2.5 89.9 121.702 1.938 0.0 139. 1.894 2.0 105.832 2.760 1.918 0.923 Cs cFI 1.959 0.2 Table 4.944 2.579 1.925 0.083.626 2.694 1.4.894 0.694 2.7 111.899 1.9 188.

It can be expressed as a function of the flow rate LIV. the resistance factor § 5 allows for the shape of the flow channels and is therefore dependent on the packing geometry and on the vapour and liquid loads. i. for uvin Eqn (4-15) yields the following theoretical relationship for the liquid holdup at the loading point: Solving for hL>s and inserting in Eqn (4-26) yields the following equation for the vapour velocity at the loading point: — i/12 8 QL 12 rw UL 8 QL n/ L I V Qv As has already been mentioned.e.1). and it also allows for the transition from laminar flow in the liquid phase. Substituting uv>s. At a given liquid load wL. and viscosity r\L/r\v ratios by combining Eqns (4-23) and (1-3). 4. Thus.82 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns (4 24) - The one and only constant C in Eqn (4-23) describes the shape and surface of the packing. and the form of Eqn (4-23) has been confirmed for all the types of packing investigated.S — 0 at s = s0'.2). when ML. Fig. it is assumed for the purpose of drawing up the model that the shear forces and the force of gravity are in equilibrium in a layer of any given thickness between 5 = 0 and s = s0 within the liquid film. density QV/QL. . UL>S = 0 (ifs = so) (4-25) The corresponding vapour velocity is the upper limit for the absolutely stable hydrodynamic range defined by VtV^VIF < 42 6 ) - The practical application of Eqn (4-26) necessitates a knowledge of the liquid holdup hL = hLS at the loading point and the associated resistance factor (cf. as defined by Eqn (4-26). The viscosity m and load nL exponents are practically independent of the type of packing. It is also assumed that the frictional force exerted by vapour of density QV and velocity uv acts at the surface of the liquid film (cf. the liquid commences to hold up when its velocity at the interface with the vapour becomes zero.3 Loading conditions If inertia forces are neglected and steady-state conditions exist in the main loading range. 4. 4. Fig.

The values at the further end Phase inversion Continuous phase :gas ) Disperse phase : liquid S CO on 0. is the point at which phase inversion occurs. the values for the constant Cs and the exponent ns in Eqn (4-29) depend on the loading range.5. It has been found that the following empirically determined numerical values of ns apply in common for all types of packing in the loading ranges concerned: . It can be seen from this diagram that a discontinuity. Accordingly. the discontinuity. divides the function into two linear sections. i. 4. The equation has been confirmed by experiment and is presented graphically in Fig.4. In other words.5. and the high slope of the linear relationship in this range indicates an increase in the resistance factor 5s and a proportionally greater pressure drop in the gas phase. Qualitative log-log relationship between the resistance parameter and the modified flow parameter of the axis correspond to very high liquid loads. 4. The large majority of mass-transfer processes take place within the section represented by the lower values of flow parameter on the axis of abscissae.4 Flow porameter I ff V I pL W Fig. this is the point at which the gas becomes the disperse phase. It can thus be concluded that the intersect of the two straight lines. and the liquid.e. the load point constant C5. An example of a known relationship is presented in Fig. the continuous. Data on the higher loading range are not yet available for all the packings investigated. 4. and the exponent ns must be determined empirically.3 Loading conditions 83 - (4-29) ci Qv QL In this equation. It is given by (4-30) The associated values for the liquid load correspond to phase inversion at 50-100 m3/m2h. which is specific for the packing. which correlates with the phase inversion.6.

System: Air/Water.84 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns (4-31) £ W i*-> 0. metal.50.2. and can thus be described by the following equations: —— = 0. 293 K *-* * ^ <s 0. 4.723 (4-32) 35-mm Bialecki ring.4 Flooding conditions The flood point in a bed of packing can be described physically by empirical curves in which the liquid holdup hL has been plotted against the gas load uv with the liquid load uL as parameter.3 0.6. =-0.2 0.4 0. the curves are vertical at the flood point. uL -* uLtFl (for uL = uL>Fl) Applying these equations to Eqn (4-15) for n = % leads to the following theoretical flood point correlations: . 4. or plotted against uL with the gas load uv as parameter.4-*„. 4.= 0. 1 bar. Curves of this nature are presented qualitatively in Fig.1 0.8 1 Flow parameter | | / ^ ( A N 2 3 4 56 Fig.2 (systematically stacked).1 (randomly dumped) and Table 4. uv^ uv>Fl (tor uv = uv>Fl) (4-33) (4-34) -JJ^. Resistance parameter for a bed of metal packing Numerical values of the constant Cs for specific types of packing are listed in Table 4.6 0. In the upper diagram.

2. 1 QL (4-36) For a given liquid-gas mass flow ratio L/V.024 2.075 3.838 0.116 3.970 0.977 0.945 0. Data for determining the loading and flood points in geometrically arranged beds of packing Arranged packing Pall ring Bialecki ring Ralu pack Mellapak Gempak Impulse packing Material Ceramic Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Ceramic Montz packing Metal Plastic Euroform Plastic Size mm 50 35 YC-250 250 Y A2T-304 250 100 85 N 1/m3 7502 20736 a m2/m3 155.4.975 B1-200 Bl-300 Cl-200 C2-200 PN-110 for the gas load uV}Fi.655 2. these equations are related as follows: Qv Qv QL u L.930 0.610 2.0 250.945 0.0 91.464 1.793 CFI 3.996 1.098 2.979 0.954 0.936 3.4 Flooding conditions Table 4.8) = ~y <T 8 QL QL UVtFi g V This is a purely theoretical relationship that shows how the liquid holdup at the flood point depends on the packing geometry.986 2.0 8 m3/m3 0.2 176.975 0.Fl — V Tv U V.0 110.4 200.464 2. i / T T (e-hL>Fl)2 \lhLZL and for the liquid load.900 0.0 200.664 3.973 1.Fl (4-37) It follows that (4-38) I .6 250.178 3.653 3.099 1. the physical properties of the system.339 2.0 250.0 200.157 2.754 0.558 2.0 202.0 300. and the gas or .

because the actual flood point is generally not attained owing to column instability and entrainment of packing elements in loose.194 Ov (4-42) ~77 \\ > °. In analogy with Cs.1 <uL< 200 m 3 /m 2 h) / T I L > 1 .4 -> nFl = -0. they depend on whether the loading range is above or below the phase inversion. Cm is a constant that depends on the shape and texture of the packing and must be determined empirically.4 -> nFi = -0. is given by (4-41) Qv QL r\L \ r\v Except that the exponent for the viscosity ratio is 0. which then becomes the continuous phase. the liquid holdup cannot possibly exceed the effective void fraction. If Eqn (4-38) is written in the following simplified form. dumped beds. It can be seen .e. and it remains to be seen whether its existence can be verified in practice. and.1 0 " 4 kg/ms (4-40) \W Values determined by flood point measurements are usually lower. The resistance factor §F/ at the flood point. the right-hand side of the equation must be positive.2.4.2 instead of 0. Values thus obtained in numerous loading tests with air/water absorption and rectification systems are listed in Tables 4. the form of this equation is identical to that of Eqn (4-29). the value at the loading point.^ \ QL •SE] r (for 0. in the second place. must be determined empirically. as defined by Eqn (4-35). The constant CFi and the exponent nFh in common with Cs and ns in Eqn (4-9). In analogy to the numerical values quoted for ns in Eqns (4-31) and (4-32).86 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns vapour load. is theoretical. the values determined for hLF[ will be of the same order for water (subscript W) as the reference liquid: hLtFl = 0.3741 8 .1 and 4. Only one of the solutions of this fourth-order equation is of physical significance: in the first place. This implies that the liquid holdup at the flood point must not be less than e/3 and must therefore lie uniquely within the following limits: E/3 < hLtFl < e (4-39) The holdup at the flood point hLFh as defined by Eqn (4-38).708 V V QL A (4-43) If the column load is higher than that at the phase inversion. i. •y L y — < 0. the continuous gas phase becomes the dispersed phase and bubbles upwards through the downward stream of liquid. The values thus obtained for nFt apply to all types of packing.

This fact leads to the following relationship for the theoretical maximum vapour load at the flood point uv>Fi.4. in which case the gas velocity would be negligibly small.max = uL>Fi (for hL}Fi = E) = —g — — 5 a r\L (4-47) 4.5 and CFt = 3. uv — > 0 or LIV'—» a>.\ -f.\ — 3 ? y £>FI y (4-45) a y Qv Qv This equation contains the well-known packing factor ale3 formerly resorted to in the literature. as uL or LIV tends to zero. Eqn (4-25)} uLtS = 0 (ifs = 0) (4-48) The associated vapour load at the flood point uv>Fi can be derived from Eqns (4-5). Thus.Fi.e. at extremely low liquid loads. i. and (4-41). Thus.e. all the liquid in the bed of packing must be thrust upwards by the frictional force in the vapour if the following condition is satisfied {cf. Theoretically. the liquid holdup hLFi may account for about one-third of the effective void fraction 8 in the bed of packing. .y -> oo) (4-46) Inserting this boundary condition in Eqn (4-38) yields the theoretical maximum liquid load uUmax\ UL. g. \ I 2g A I hLFi * / QL (A ^ X (4-49) Values of uV. The theoretical limit is expressed by (hL.max = uVFl (for hLtFl = I-) = -J.5 Relationship between boundary loads 87 that they lie between CFl = 1. (4-14).Fi)th -> hLiFl = j e (for uL^ 0-^:^0) (4-44) This relationship can be derived from the preceding equations.max'- \[\[^Uy. i. (4-12). by Sherwood.Fi)th -» hL)Fi = e (for uL » 0.Fl. e.5 Relationship between boundary loads According to the flow model. i. the maximum liquid holdup at the flood point hLFi corresponds to the void fraction e and would be reached at extremely high liquid velocities uL ^^> 0.0 in the range of liquid loads between uL = 5 m3/m2h and uL = 80 m3/m2h.Fi obtained from this equation are higher than those calculated from Eqn (4-35) by a factor /. (hL. which is given by . e. for flood point correlations.

between r\v = 7. Flooding can also be expected if the boundary condition for Eqn (4-36) is uL — > 0. . between oL = 750 and QL = 1026 kg/m3. the aim of this chapter is to devise a theoretical relationship that will allow the pressure drop to be calculated for both conventional and modern types of packing in two-phase countercurrent columns. If this substitution is made in Eqn (4-53).1. the liquid density.4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns f = 1The ratio of Eqn (4-26) to Eqn (4-49) is Uy. Therefore. gravity and shear are held . in the compilation of which it was assumed that the bed of packing is equivalent to a multiplicity of flow channels through which the liquid flows downwards in the form of a film.3 and QV = 1. the boundary condition uL — » 0 entails that hLFi = e/3.FI = 144 m 3 /m 2 h. The liquid load in the tests was varied between uL>Fi = 4. between QV = 0.S L}S hL.6 Pressure drop in packed columns All equations found in the literature for the determination of gas-side pressure drop in packed absorption. in which case Eqn (4-35) becomes W^F/ = (4-53) According to Eqn (4-44).88 and UL. and the dynamic viscosity of the liquid.s = hr (4-50) _1 1 [%Fi e . It is to be based on the fluid-dynamics model described in Section 4. Eqn (4-45) will again be obtained. the gas density.Fl (4-52) These ratios lead to the conclusion that the loading point can be anticipated at about 70% of the flood point.37 kg/m3. If inertia forces are neglected./i L)5 (4-51).36 x 10"3 to y\L = 92. from T]L = 0.14 X 10~6 and r\v = 18. and of Eqn (4-26) to Eqn (4-35). Comprehensive experimental studies have verified that the flow model presented here can generally be applied to all kinds of packed columns with countercurrent gas-liquid systems.6 x 10"3 kg/ms. They have largely been derived from studies on traditional packing and cannot be applied unreservedly to modern types. 4.19 x 10~6 kg/ms. desorption or rectification columns are empirical or semiempirical. All the measurements agreed very well with the theoretically derived relationships for the loading and flood points.h MV^W ^ \ §S L. the dynamic viscosity of the gas.

(4-54).4.— H xv = Ee Qe H xv (4-55) 8 — h. The difference can be allowed for by a wall factor fs. In an actual bed of packing. which can be obtained from the literature. e. —= 1+ — (4-57) Inserting the expressions given by Eqns (4-14).y . i. The pressure drop Ap in a bed of height H.L The effective area ae is given by ae = fw a = au + aL (4-56) where fw is a factor that allows for the change in resistance caused by wetting the surface of packing with an area a. and % the gas-side resistance factor. and aL is the area of the surface of the liquid in the flow channels. uv the average gas velocity. Thus. au is the area of the unwetted surface. and (4-57) in Eqn (4-55) yields the following expression for the pressure drop per unit height: Ap a Uy \ ~W = %L (z-hLy ~QvJ 1 ' (4-58) in which the § L is the resistance factor for the wetted bed of packing and is given by | t = i/W = S ^ ^ - (4-59) . i. e. xv is identical to the expression on the right-hand side of Eqn (4-4).hL can be derived from Eqn (4-54).QV (4-54) in which QV is the gas density. Ap = . effective area ae and effective void fraction ee = 8 . (4-56). In other words. TV= -^ . the effective area ae is the sum of the unwetted area au and the area of the liquid surface aL in the flow channels.6 Pressure drop in packed colums 89 in equilibrium within the film by the frictional forces corresponding to the shear stress TV that acts in the gas or vapour at the surface of the film. the hydraulic diameter of the flow channels differs from the theoretical value to an extent that depends on the column diameter ds.

i. applies for the pressure drop per unit height Apo/H in a gas stream flowing through an unwetted bed of packing. The diagram also shows empirically determined values for the pressure drop ratio AplAp0 plotted against the liquid load. as uL decreases. The higher the liquid load.5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 Liquid load uL 103 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig. fw = 1 and aL = 0. i.8 1 1.e. because the liquid holdup tends towards zero and thus loses its effect. (4-62) e-hL Eqn (4-27) allows Eqns (4-61) and (4-62) to be solved graphically in terms of the liquid load UL. the greater the effect on the function f(hL) and the higher the pressure drop. It can be seen that. which is given by (4-61) Ap0 z-hL This equation states that the increase in pressure drop caused by wetting can be described by the ratio of the resistance factors for two-phase and single-phase flow and a term that is a function of the liquid holdup.288 m.90 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns The limiting case of hL = 0.d < » ii > > H ? =99—^htoi—^^^ 0. which applies to 50-mm plastics Hiflow rings. Thus. 50-mm Hiflow ring. 4.37m Air/H2O. 293 K \ / 1 i 1 I i —i Theoretical curve . Pressure drop ratio in a wetted and unwetted bed of packing as a function of the liquid load . the two axes of ordinates in the diagram can be equated. PP. 1 bar. the function f(hL) approaches a limiting value of unity. The extent to which the pressure drop in the gas stream within the wetted bed exceeds that within the dry bed corresponds to the ratio Ap/Ap0. d s = 0. viz.8 ii i i i 1 0.8 0. H = 1.e.7. inserting hL — 0 in Eqn (4-58) gives Apo Qv 1T fs (4-60) where %0 is the resistance factor for the dry bed of packing. It can be seen that the i{hL) function fairly closely fits the characteristic shape of the curve for the experimental values.6 0. Hence. This is demonstrated in Fig. 4.7.

4. At low loads. d s =0. the downward slope of the curve becomes more pronounced.PP. and the second summand becomes the more decisive. flow is laminar.08 (4-64) This relationship embraces the effect exerted on the gas stream by the gas Reynolds number Rev. The resistance factor §# can be determined from the following equation. flow becomes turbulent.6h u.39m Air.8.288m.8. It has to be determined experimentally. H = 1.5 D — i» J % 0.6 Pressure drop in packed colums 91 Apo " \e-hL (4-63) where W is an expression for the degree of wetting. The relationship between the resistance factor %0 and the gas Reynolds number Rev is illustrated by the example given in Fig.8 • i s 0. 32mm ENVIPAC. 1 bar. which is defined by Uy dp Qy 6V ~ (1-8)% Js (4-65) where dp is the particle diameter and is given by (4-66) The constant Cp characterizes the geometry and the surface of the unwetted packing and is therefore specific for any given type. 293 K g ™ 0. Q 0. which has been taken from the literature: 64 Rev 1. Resistance factor for a wetted bed of packing as a function of the gas Reynolds number 5 0. In this range of Reynolds numbers (Rev ~ 2100 or less). which is valid for an unwetted bed of 32-mm plastic Envipac rings.3 6 8 10J 2 3 4 5 6 8 104 Gas Reynolds number Rev Equating Eqn (4-61) with Eqn (4-63) and substituting for §0 in Eqn (4-64) gives rise to the following relationship for the resistance factor ^L in two-phase flow: . and the first summand in the expression on the right-hand side of Eqn (4-64) governs the shape of the curve. 0. Above this.4.4 Fig. 4.

The check embraced the effects exerted by the various physical properties of 24 different systems (cf.39m Air/H 2 O. Eqns (4-64) and (4-67) have been checked against the experimental results obtained on more than 50 types of packing.92 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns (3 -x) (4-67) As the liquid trickles through the bed. In Fig. the shear forces acting in .FI. Mathematical prediction of the theoretical liquid holdup hL by means of Eqn (4-27) is restricted to the range below the loading point. Evaluation of the comprehensive data thus obtained revealed that the numerical value for the exponent x in Eqns (4-63) and (4-67) was x = 1. 4.288 m.9. and rectification. and the liquid forms a film on the surface of the packing.Above this point. It shows the theoretical relationship between the liquid holdup hL and the ratio of the gas velocity uy to the value at the flood point UV. desorption. the surface structure differs from that during gas flow through a dry bed.e. viz.5 and that the expression for W can be replaced by a function.Up to the loading point.8 0. Resistance factor for a wetted bed of packing as a function of the liquid load The Reynolds number ReL of the liquid in this case is given by ReL = uL QL a r\L (4-69) The second term in Eqn (4-68) becomes unity in the range below the loading point. 4.5 0. d s = 0.3) including some intended for purely hydraulic studies and mixtures intended for absorption. calculated values for the resistance factor § L have been plotted against the liquid load uL determined by measurements in a wetted bed of 32-mm plastic Envipac rings. 293 K CD O C 1 0. Table 3. i.1 — 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 Liquid load u L -10 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] 20 Fig.81 —A- 12 "co A . static holdup occurs at the points of contact between the individual elements of packing and in the intervening spaces.6 0. PP. and this fact is expressed by the difference between Eqn (4-67) and Eqn (4-64). The qualitative diagram presented in Fig. H = 1.10 is intended for the mathematical description of hL above this limit. Eqn (4-67) contains an additional term.9.4 0. W = exp (4-68) 200/j \h 32-mm ENVIPAC. Hence. ht is practically independent of the gas velocity and assumes a constant value hLS. 4. 1 bar.

As a result. If this limiting load. Precise measurement of the pressure drop by experiment is rendered difficult by the unsteady gas and liquid flow above the loading point. the liquid flows so densely in the channels within the bed of packing that it coalesces in the narrow parts of the bed. Numerical values of Cp determined by experiment on various conventional and modern types of packing are listed in Tables 4. extensive zones of the effective open cross-section become filled with liquid to form a continuous layer. and hLjFi is that at the flood point. The points at which this stage is reached are defined by Eqns (4-42) and (4-43).3 (dumped at random) and 4. viz.pi and attains the greatest value. the liquid holdup and the resistance factor or pressure drop in the gas stream increase at disproportionately high rates. which is referred to as phase inversion. At particularly high loads.4. in the actual vicinity of the flood point. The empirically determined numerical value of the exponent n is n = 13.5. hL>s is the liquid holdup as defined by Eqn (4-47). almost 11 %. as defined by Eqn (4-40) and confirmed for 0 < uL < 200 m3/m2h and r| > 1 x 10=4 kg/ms. and the liquid holdup thus greatly increases until it attains a maximum hLyFl {cf. The pressure drop model derived here has been confirmed by measurements performed under the conditions listed in Table 4.hLjS) (4-70) uv.6 Pressure drop in packed colums 93 Fig. is exceeded. . It is higher in the loading range extending up to about 90 % of the flood point load uV. (4-67). (4-68). regardless of whether or not the bed is wetted. Eqn (4-67) no longer applies. the average deviation of the values calculated by means of Eqns (4-58).4 (stacked in regular arrangement). and the range of scattering of the values thus determined is correspondingly greater. 4. all that has now to be known for the determination of pressure drop is the one constant Cp. Up to the loading point. which is specific for any given type of packing.m In this equation. An empirical equation that satisfies this condition is = hL>s + (hLtFi . At higher values of the parameters in these equations. through which the gas phase rises in the form of bubbles. Hence. Qualitative relationship between the liquid holdup and the relative gas load 0 Gas velocity ratio u v / u V F the gas progressively support the liquid film. and (4-70) from the values determined by experiment amounts to about 9 %. Eqn (4-40)} at the flood point.10.

921 0.011 0.003 0.358 0.7 108.944 0.6 139. 2 25.968 0.371 0. 4 webs 50 50 35 25.940 CP Pall ring Metal 0.9 104.965 0.918 0.0 311.887 0.962 0.6 60. Super NOR-PAC ring Plastic Plastic Raflux ring VSP ring ENVIPAC Plastic Metal Plastic Top-pak Bialecki ring Aluminium Metal .327 0.0 98. 1 80.891 Plastic Ceramic Ralu ring Plastic Hilflow ring Metal Plastic Ceramic Hiflow ring.365 0.276 0.1 89.957 0.925 0.662 0.0 164.939 0.947 0.913 0. 2 32.894 0.621 0.94 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Table 4.954 0. 50 25 90 50 50.4 138.956 0.809 0.975 0.7 117.538 0.311 0. Data for determining the pressure drop in random beds of packing Arranged packing Material Size mm 50 38 35 25 15 50 35 25 50 50 50.4 249.5 95.763 1. 1 50 50 35 25 N 1/m3 6242 15772 19517 53900 229225 6765 17000 52300 6215 5770 5720 5000 40790 1340 6815 6890 46100 1904 5120 16840 121314 6050 7330 17450 47837 44346 69274 193738 193522 7841 33434 2000 6800 53000 6947 6278 19303 55000 a m 2 /m 3 112.868 0. No.628 0. 3 60.338 0.951 0.719 1.421 0.773 0.439 0.4 223.350 0.936 0.5 54. hydr.0 e m 3 /m 3 0. 25 75 50 35 20.689 0.758 0.4 238.4 307.3 202.414 0.965 0.741 0. TypeB 25.6 121.9 69. No.595 0.5 368.6 149. No.955 0.1 118.1 151.966 0.383 0. hydr.8 141.3.435 0.468 0.8 193.3 92.933 0.397 0.918 0.698 0.925 0.6 199.4 194.942 0.938 0.783 0.967 0.1 225.833 0.952 0.549 0. No.927 0.5 179.0 86.0 116.980 0. 10 webs 22 15 15 50.4 111. No.977 0.9 106.927 0.782 0.865 0.2 94.604 0.906 0.3 286.919 0.961 0.397 0.990 0.2 82.

09 0.4.930 0.172 0.453 0.945 0.17-16. stacked Ceramic Plastic Ralu pack Impulse packing Metal Ceramic Metal Plastic Euroform Plastic hydr.6 86.4 182.481 0.900 0.329 0.250 Pall ring.954 0.95 54-380 0.15-0.754 0.417 0. Data for determining the pressure drop in geometrically arranged beds of packing Arranged packing Material Size mm 50 50 50.0 200.4 122.399 Hiflow saddle Tellerette Hackette Plastic Plastic Plastic hydr.7 0.916 0.6 Table 4.747 0.2 131.4 e m 3 /m 3 0.172 0.80 0.931 CP Raschig ring INTALOX Ceramic Plastic Ceramic 1. YC-250 100 B1-200 B1-300 Cl-200 C2-200 PN-110 N 1/m3 7502 7640 8150 a m 2 /m 3 155.0 300.66-0.21-5. = made hydrophilic Table 4.1 114.98 .454 0.538 0.76-3.908 0.355 0.7 200.900 0.0 96. hydr.761 0. Characteristic values required for fluid dynamic studies on random beds of packing Gas capacity factor Liquid load Column diameter Packed height Interfacial area Void fraction Number of packings investigated Number of measurements Fv u L -10 3 ds H a E m -l/2 s -l k g l/2 m 3 / m2 s m m m 2 /m 3 m 3 /m 3 54 3296 0.0 110.1 250.828 0.758 0.0 133. (continued) Arranged packing Material Size mm 25 50 50 50 25 45 N 1/m3 48175 8656 8882 9939 35365 12252 Pressure drop in packed colums 95 a m 2 /m 3 185.295 0.979 0.936 0. stacked Hilflow ring.911 0.5.0 E CP m 3 /m 3 0. = made hydrophilic Table 4.0 200.662 0.233 0.3.4.938 0.191 0.3 140.

uv. and So given by Eqns (4-13). If the column is operated in the load range between the loading and flood points in twophase countercurrent flow.2-4.4. It is valid for both conventional and modern packing in two-phase countercurrrent columns and allows reliable results to be obtained for multifarious two-phase systems. applying the boundary condition implied by Eqn (4-25) gives rise to the following relationship for the liquid holdup in the uv < uvs range: . the acceleration due to gravity g.e. It allows for all the main parameters that affect hL up to the flood point in a two-phase countercurrent column: the phase densities QL and QV. with the result that the existing relationships can no longer yield reliable results for the liquid holdup.e. Inserting the expressions for uL. which states that the velocity uL)S tends to zero at the surface of the liquid. In this case.96 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns 4. which is valid for uniform and complete wetting of the packed surfaces. hL = a Vi " (4-72) ah -Qvuv a This equation is analogous to Eqn (4-17). and the resistance factor § L . As was already mentioned in Chapter 3. The boundary condition that applies in this case is defined by Eqn (4-25). the downward stream of liquid is no longer independent of the gas load. but includes the term (ah/a)2/3 to embrace the effect of the hydraulic area ah. The actual flow behaviour can be visualized by allowing for the fact that the surfaces of the packing are not completely wetted at the liquid loads normally encountered in practice. The model presented here for the prediction of liquid holdup has been based on the fundamental relationships enunciated in Sections 4. i. the thickness s0 of the descending liquid film can be described in terms of the liquid holdup hL and the hydraulic area ^ of the packing surface. the phase loads uL and uv. so = — ah (4-71) This equation differs from Eqn (4-12). Therefore. along the walls of which the liquid trickles downwards in counterflow with the ascending gas stream. An assumption made in deriving the model is that the effective void fraction in the bed of packing can be represented by a multiplicity of vertical flow channels. the liquid viscosity \\L. The results of the experiments described in Chapter 3 have shown that the liquid holdup in the uv < uv>s range is a function of uL only and that the gas stream exerts hardly any effect. (4-14).7 Liquid holdup in packed beds The relationships given in the literature for the liquid holdup in packed columns apply merely to a few conventional forms of packing and have often been derived solely from measurements on air/water systems. because it is held up by the shear forces in the gas stream. i. the geometry of modern packing differs greatly in many respects from that of former types. and (4-71) in Eqn (4-7) yields the liquid holdup for the entire loading range in twophase countercurrent flow.

(4-74). ( 4 _ 7 3 ) QLg I \ a If this equation is compared with the theoretical relationship for the liquid holdup. It is presented graphically in Fig. together with Eqn (4-73). and the Froude number FrL.2 hLtS (4-76) Inserting Eqn (4-76) in Eqn (4-70) leads to hL = 1 + 1.5 and led to the conclusion that the upper loading point is to be anticipated at about 70 % of the load at the flood point. The data include the number N of packing elements per unit column volume and the void fraction e. hLiPl = 2.4. The curve in Fig. A relationship between the holdup at the loading point hLiS. 4.85 Ch Rel25 FrlA Numerical values for the constant Cy. are listed together with characteristic geometric data on the types of packing concerned in Tables 4.8. which is related to the liquid holdup by Eqn (4-27). 4.11. 4. The numerical value n 2/3 = for the index n has been generally confirmed by experiments on both random and stacked beds of packing. The following relationships for two ranges of Reynolds numbers were derived from the corresponding studies on the systems listed in Table 3. The conditions for the tests in which the data for the holdup evaluations were acquired are listed in Table 4. it will be seen that allowance for the actual flow conditions in a packed bed has been made by the term (ayjd)/z'. as defined by Eqn (4-69). in which the holdup ratio hLlhLS has been plotted against the gas load ratio uv/uVjFi. a power of the ratio of the hydraulic to the geometric area. for the calculation of hL in the entire capacity range. as described by Eqn (4-27).2 times greater than that in the capacity range below the loading point.2 UVFI (4-77) This equation can be applied.e. It can also be seen that the liquid holdup near the flood point is about 2.6 (dumped) and 4. A relationship for the ratio aja has been determined in fluid dynamics studies on the liquid holdup and subsequently correlated to an empirical function.3: = ChRe£15Fr£1 ReL<5 (4-74) (4-75) -^1 a lReL>5 = 0. as determined from Eqn (4-73). The diagram confirms the theoretical considerations that were presented in Sect. and (4-75). and that at the flood point hLFh was also derived from the results of the experiments. . It was thus found that it depends on the liquid Reynolds number ReL.7 Liquid holdup in packed beds 97 <*h i .11 was plotted from these relationships. On an average.7 (arranged).7% from the figures for the liquid holdup calculated from Eqns (4-73). i. the experimental results differ by only 6.

601 0.343 0.593 0.0 121.6 58.651 0.0 154. No.938 0.6 199.3 265.0" CMR 0. 2 32. 1 50 50 35 25 N 1/m3 6242 19517 47500 229225 6664 16682 52300 6455 9764 28518 5000 39917 6997 101444 110688 60744 63547 158467 560811 32509 28445 7710 17147 44500 193738 193522 7841 33434 1962 6773 52681 6871 6278 18177 52000 a m 2 /m 3 112.3 197. No.894 0.7 182. No.927 0.926 0.799 1.718 0.9 188.5" CMR 1.949 0.173 0.951 0.965 0.9 92.930 0.98 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Table 4.787 0.2 95.4 215.5" CMR.851 0.5" CMR 30 P 30 PMK 50 35 25 15 15 50.870 1.8 100.692 Pall ring Metal Plastic Ceramic DINPAC ring Plastic Hiflow ring Metal Plastic Ceramic Glitsch ring Metal NOR PAC ring Plastic Raflux ring VSP ring Plastic Metal ENVIPAC ring Plastic Top-pak ring Bialecki ring Aluminium Metal .2 239.5 356.039 0.958 0.959 0.907 0.0 105.3 225.5 121.369 0.167 0.935 0. 6 ribs 1.0 232.491 1.770 0.038 1. T 1.8 174.930 0.335 0.966 0.9 104.975 0.965 0.975 0. No. 2 25.918 0. No.962 0.5 120.4 102.784 0.977 0.776 0.933 0.794 1.0 138.641 0.0 148.991 1.9 180.0 8 m 3 /m 3 0.644 0.0 110.971 0.338 0.980 0.590 0.972 0. 3 60.961 0.876 0.0 168.0 368.1 139.956 0.955 0.937 0. 1 80.587 0.6.924 0.719 0.0 180.974 0.6 139.040 1. Data for determining the liquid holdup in random beds of packing Dumped packing Material Size mm 50 35 25 15 50 35 25 50 70 45 50 25 50 20.7 307.887 0.942 0.0 319.958 0.881 0.798 0.528 1.8 225.945 ch 0.135 1. 4 ribs 20.797 0.922 0.

900 0.570 0.547 0.726 0.455 0.6.928 ch 0.930 0.588 0.1 771.960 0.9 310.554 0.0 202.4 180.511 Pall ring Bialecki ring Ceramic Metal Gempak Impulse packing Metal Metal Ceramic Montz packing Metal Mellapak Euroform Plastic Plastic .0 102.4 436.066 0.0 139.936 ch 1.670 0.620 0.791 1.643 Raschig ring Metal Ceramic Carbon Berl saddle Ceramic Tellerette Hackette Plastic Plastic Table 4.678 0.395 0.917 0.577 0.620 0.9 205.833 0.0 250.987 0.5 E mVm3 0.648 0.930 0.2 492.7 Table 4.4 191.623 0.7.6 275.094 0.626 0.975 0.431 1. (continued) Dumped packing Material Size mm 15 25 15 10 6 25 25 13 25 45 N 1/m3 260778 48381 220000 847552 3022936 51913 63920 529720 35000 12000 Liquid holdup in packed beds 99 a m 2 /m 3 378.977 0.0 300.482 0.7 176.830 0.700 0. Data for determining the liquid holdup in geometrically arranged beds of packing Arranged packing Material Size mm 50 35 25 A2 T-304 250 100 Bl-100 Bl-200 Bl-300 250 Y PN-110 N 1/m3 7510 20736 63700 a m 2 /m 3 138.979 0.4.660 0.690 0.900 0.690 0.0 250.0 £ m 3 /m 3 0.695 0.0 100.0 200.0 110.960 0.7 205.

Hence.100 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns 3 O odel correlcitio n [ine / o £ j 1 0. The droplets thus formed would then fall through the void that lies between the tear-off edge and the underlying packing element.4 0.2 0.44 59-772 0. Values of liquid holdup calculated from the model compared with those determined by experiment Table 4.12). the liquid flows through the channels largely in the form of a film or lamellae.6 0. Characteristic values required for fluid dynamic studies on geometrically arranged beds of packing Gas velocity Liquid load Column diameter Total area per unit volume Void fraction Liquid density Liquid viscosity Surface tension Number of systems investigated Number of packings investigated Number of measurements uv ds a 8 QL ii L -10 3 m/s m 3 / m2 s m m 2 /m 3 m 3 /m 3 kg/m 3 kg/ms kg/s 2 0.6-86.99 800-1810 0.09-2. and. 4.8 / "TH ^ —& 0. the possibility exists that the liquid film may become partly detached from the lowermost edges of the packing surfaces. the column efficiency could still be substantially improved (cf. on which they would be deposited and thus mixed with the local descending liquid film.37-23.5 0. particularly at high liquid loads.51 0. the individual droplets may be held in suspension by a gas stream of the corresponding velocity.8 Liquid entrainment at high loads If a bed of packing consists of large elements dumped at random or of elements stacked in a regular geometric pattern.8 Gas velocity ratio Fig.78-185 22. 4.3 16 56 822 TlL-10 3 GL • 10 3 4.076-0.0 0.57-0. as has been demonstrated by experiment. However. they may be entrained in the ascending gas and conveyed to the packing elements immediately above them. .11. if the basic pattern in a stacked bed is a latticework. Alternatively. To an extent that depends on their size.3 W \& iU V /U V ( FI i 1 1 1 0. the flood point would not be reached. Fig.8. within this loading range.

V2 s.3^ )ar| "7 / / r / 67 mbar 6000 5000 4000 / y " • load at max. In other words.0 Fig.e..effy .8 Liquid entrainment at high loads 101 The onset of entrainment in cavities within beds of packing entails that the buoyancy forces acting on a liquid droplet of diameter d^r are in equilibrium with the force of gravity. 4. depends on the diameter d^ and stability of the droplets.5 §5 35 Th Fv [m. L/V = 1 3 E 3 = AL inn ^ ^ L lUU /o — 2 -—k>i -9 | x 78°/.d =500mm.= \/T -tddr(QL-Qv) (4-79) Ethylbenzene/Styrene. i. which governs entrainment.5 kg'/2](67mbar) .• maximum load 7000 — 4000 5000 6000 8000 9000 Vapour load V [kg/m 2 h] 2. e--23% 12% 1 M s j P 2 . Fv.12. the following condition must be satisfied: (4-78) le ddr — MKe Qv = — dl — g(QL~ Qv) O JO Consequently. the capacity factor Fv>e.Z=6001/m I Pall ring 50 mm. metal ! /> / r Y 8000 1i \I / AL / / 7000 .4. Results of experiments on the entrainment of liquid droplets at the head of the column 2.l kg 1/2 ](34mbar) 4^5 1.5 2l Fv ^s" 1 E 10 ?.

15.1 is not valid unless the assumptions made in its development apply. been confirmed experimentally in numerous studies. hL. as is indicated by the example shown in Fig. This volume increases with the vapour capacity factor in the Fv > Fv>e range.12 gives an idea of the amount of liquid AL that is entrained by the gas stream at the head of a Pall-ring column for the separation of an ethylbenzene/styrene system under vacuum and total reflux. However. It can be assumed that the volume of liquid that may be entrained within the voids of a packed bed does not exceed AL. phase inversion occurs. The fluid dynamics model developed in Section 4. It ought to be possible to express phase inversion in physical terms by altering the exponent in the relationship for the resistance factor §. it can be deduced from Fig. 4. in fact. the original disperse phase .becomes the continuous phase.12). This stage sets in at the comparatively high liquid loads encountered in a number of absorption processes and. As a result. i. Fig. i. Experimental studies have revealed that the relationships for the loading and flood points derived from the model can be applied in the loading range described by a load parameter of i|> < 4 without reservation and to within an accuracy that is adequate for practical purposes. 4. 4. particularly. it can be assumed that the droplets are redeposited in the packing. 4. and this fact has long since been exploited in industrial practice. as is expressed by a significant rise in the liquid holdup. 4. In actual fact. as defined by Eqn (4-24).16). 4. It can be derived from them that the point at which phase inversion can be expected is at a flow parameter. of ip = xps = 0. Since the efficiency attains a maximum in this loading range (cf. If the transition point is reached at a given liquid load uL>i.9 Phase inversion in packed beds Strictly speaking. upper diagram in Fig. if this value of load parameter is exceeded.4 (4-80) The physical interpretation of these relationships is as follows (cf. the flow model presented in Section 4. the associated liquid holdup can be expressed as a fraction / of the relative void fraction. the area of contact between the phases would be increased. and it is physically unjustified to describe the onset of flooding in terms of descending liquid droplets when the equilibrium of forces has been attained.6. Actual flooding does not commence until the liquid load becomes even greater and an increasing quantity of the liquid film or lamella is supported by the energy of the gas stream.13 to 4. and the previously continuous gas phase becomes the disperse phase.e. some results of which have been collated in Figs. e. in high-pressure rectification.102 4 Fluid dynamics in counter cur rent packed columns The lower diagram in Fig.1 is thus confirmed.i = {hLtS)t = is (4-81) . The associated diagrams apply to packing of various geometries and textures produced from various materials and with flow channels of various dimensions. and mass transfer would thus be intensified.the liquid . This assumption has. 4.12 and the arguments presented above that packed columns are also eminently suitable for separating liquid droplets.

4 0. v Air/Methanol.8 a > i < ^ s n Pall ring.i = («u)i = 12 (4-83) .e.8 1 k >c 3 4 6 810 Modified flow parameter <\>s ( . i. plastic 1 0. 0. from Eqn (4-27).06 0. 293 K •c — * > ^ .1 0.1 bar.8 Z 6 = 3 2 r Bialecki ring. s.8 Fig.4. metal -—. OToluene/n-Octane133mbar • Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar A Air/Ethylene glycol.13. 4.3 0.9 Phase inversion in packed beds 103 Nominal packing size 25 m m o Air/Water 1 bar 293 K. .p ) The corresponding vapour velocity at the loading point (uv?s)i can then be derived from Eqn (4-26). i i Raschig ring. Resistance factor as a function of the modified flow parameter 0.6 0. ceramic «. 2 0. Thus (4-82) KS)/ = (i-QVn/ir-A/v\/ and the corresponding theoretical liquid load.2 0.

06 0. ceramic I 1 a i_ ! i p I i pi a a.104 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Nominal packing size 50 mm oAir/Water 1 bar 293 K . (4-86) .1 0.14. the following relationship exists between (uLS)i and (uv.30.133mbar b • ^ 4 3 i L -^ i • Raschig ring . e. 4. and / then follows from Eqns (4-81) to (4-85). i. sEthanol/Wateri bar 0 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67. S o 0.s)i QL Qv (4-84) Rearranging Eqn (4-24) gives (4-85) The relationship between §5>.6 0.4 Fig.4 0. Resistance factor as a function of the modified flow parameter Modified flow parameter ^s(^p lv> Now.8 1 v T 2 3 0. k D I i "GO all rin o ramie 1 k a.s)i'L V = (uL>s)j (uv.2 0.

Resistance factor as a function of the modified flow parameter 0. (4-88) QLIUL (i-0 2 where qs is a characteristic constant that applies for the packing under the conditions at the loading point and is given by (4-89) .30.8 1 2 v0. -) o i i i i J 2 -Montz packing.4 0.15.300 1 i K i 1 Fig.9 Phase inversion in packed beds 105 o Air/Water 1 bar 293 K D.e.4.06 0.60. B1 .NOR-PAC ring. 4. with the consequence that the equation valid immediately before the phase inversion is (4-87) Combining Eqns (4-86) and (4-87) gives rise to a relationship that allows the phase inversion coefficient i for a bed of packing to be determined.1 11 02 0. i.4 3 4 Modified flow parameter 4M YT The experimentally verified relationship expressed by Eqn (4-29) must apply below the phase inversion. metal.\— i i i i i i i rTl 6 f. 15 mm . plastic.mChlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67-133 mbar c 4 3 ? a <_ a 1 1 o 0 1 U .

Hence. if hL>m = hLiS — hLi. 4. the difference between the load at the loading point and that at the flood point becomes progressively smaller and tends towards zero. Above the loading point.17 for the standard air/water system. In other words. Measurements in packed columns have shown that the pressure drop curves Ap/H = t(uv)uL = const run parallel below the loading point. the slope increases with the liquid load. 4. Fig. 4.3) can be obtained from Fig.e.16.18.19).106 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Phases / V : disperse ex Gas load uv Fig. The relationship between the phase inversion coefficient / and the packing characteristic § 5 is shown graphically in Fig. Qualitative description of phase inversion It is evident from Eqn (4-88) that i depends on the viscosity ratio of the two phases and on the density of the liquid. equating Eqn (4-26) with Eqn (4-35) would give (4-90) Equating the theoretical relationship derived from the model for the liquid holdup at the loading point {Eqn (4-27)} with that at the flood point {Eqn (4-38)} gives rise to . An idea of the effect exerted by the physical properties of the various systems (cf. Table 3. 4. uvs = uVyFh when complete phase inversion occurs (cf. i.

/ / / ^ System: Air/Water at STP .12 o o (hUs)-. ^ • = o CO 0.4.9 Phase inversion in packed beds 107 0. 4.17.04 f 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Packing characteristic qs-10"6[m^2S"2] Fig.18.14 \Q 0.16 0.£ 0. Relationship between the phase inversion coefficient and the packing characteristics for various systems . Relationship between the phase inversion coefficient and the packing characteristics for an air/water system at STP chloride solution 1 Air /Calcium chloride solution 1 Air/Methanol 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Packing characteristic qs-10~6[rrr2 s~z] Fig. e * ^ ^ ^ ^ ==—-= . 4. 0.06 0.

108 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns -o a> ZD CO CO CD Fig. Eqn (4-90) can be reduced to Eqn (4-93). e. e. It therefore follows that the resistance factors are all of the same magnitude. the liquid holdup accounts for one-half of the void fraction. the liquid holdup is given by (4-93) In other words.t = & (4-94) As a consequence. %m = h. the liquid holdup defined by Eqn (4-93) can be attained if the liquid load assumes the limiting value given by Eqn (4-83) (for i = 0. i. Qualitative pressure drop function Gas or vapour load u v (4-91) The theoretical boundary condition is defined by (4-92) In this case. (4-95) "v. 4.19. Theoretically. i.5).s-uKFI % a2 ^ .

m = ^ L hus (4-102) Hence. i. from Eqn (4-101).9 Phase inversion in packed beds 109 The corresponding vapour load is obtained from Eqn (4-82) (for / = 0.5).1) > 0. Rearranging Eqn (4-89) gives rise to -Q-= (—)=— qs \a I a \ a (4-103) . Eqn (4-38). The relationships n = f(qs) and mf = f(qs) for various systems at standard temperature and pressure are presented graphically in Fig. e.16) mt = nli (4-101) (4-100) where m is the ratio of the liquid holdup at the flood point to that at the loading point. Thus. n can be determined from Eqn (4-100).20. i.e. e. 4. i. 4. and m. i. The liquid holdup in the uL < uLi range is given by hL. the relationship between them is given by (cf. it can be equated to Eqn (4-83) to obtain the formal relationship between i and n. e. i = n 3V2(3n-l) At the phase inversion. if i is known from Eqn (4-88). it follows that %>n> % (4-99) If Eqn (4-98) is applied to the conditions at the phase inversion. (3n .m = m (4-97) where n < /2The corresponding vapour load follows from the general theoretical relationship to describe the liquid holdup at the flood point.4. Since UL>FI > 0 and. Fig. consequently.

The following theoretical value of m is obtained by substituting hLyFllz for n in Eqn (4-105): (4-106) -1 In analogy to Eqn (4-40).34 ^n (I i/ i i\ 0. Section 4.21.7).—— 0. 4.33 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Packing characteristic q s 10" 6 [m~ 2 s " 2 ] Fig.20. Substituting ne for hL>m {Eqn (4-97)} and it for hL>s {Eqn (4-105)} in Eqn (4-102) gives 1 (4-105) Since the liquid holdup at the flood point is very difficult to determine by experiment.e.. The average is m — 2. A —» i ——.35 QJ O O -Air/Water I 1 .37 -—— CD CO O -c: d.. uL.36 0.349.0 inversion 3. -H \\ \ ^ + \ \ \ / • . 0 0 —I—I—J — — 0. 50 A-r .39 0. Characterization of the phase inversion point in various systems Substituting for e3la2 in Eqn (4-83) then gives the liquid load at the phase inversion.38 0. i.0 2. .110 4 Fluid dynamics in counter current packed columns 4. . — — * — — - — — •^ .i = ^ T ^3 « — — (4-104) This expression for the liquid load at the phase inversion is shown as a function of the area per unit volume a with the void fraction e as parameter in Fig.5 itio rr 2. 5 / 1 . 4. i — Air/Calcium chloride solution 1 -i .2 for lowviscosity systems (cf.5 3. — V ^/ >^^-— — « . the holdup at liquid loads of uL < uL>i can be estimated from (4-107) where ri = 0.0 * • — Nitrogen/Heav / oil i i ^ — -— = n 0. the values of m derived from it are not very accurate.

at which phase inversion commences (cf. Figs.21.i = Cs Inserting the numerical values then gives (4-109) CSi = 0.4.respectively.9(] • — — . inserting values of hLjFilz thus obtained in Eqn (4-106) would again yield a value of about 2. The following condition must be satisfied at the phase inversion: 55 - 55.13 to 4.349. this alteration would be expressed as a change in the exponents and constants in Eqns (4-29) and (4-41) for the resistance factors § 5 / and I=F/)I. Numerical values for the exponents can be obtained from Eqns (4-32) and (4-43). The flow pattern is altered once the flow parameter exceeds the value i^.i) Cs.2 for m.15). Liquid load at the phase inversion point as a function of packing characteristics If r\L = r\w.3.r 300 350 z 3 400 450 500 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.98 •7 Air/Water S T P £ 80 a cr // Cs.i (4-108) Eqn (4-29) can therefore be converted into ("s .695 C 5 [ — Another condition that must be satisfied at the phase inversion is (4-110) (4-111) .ns. Solving Eqn (4-105) for n would then give rise to n = 0.9 Phase inversion in packed beds 111 120 System: at V • e = 0.5 /£ = 40 e--0.I'. '""\? Phase inversion 20 50 100 150 200 250 W. 4. If the set of equations in the model is to be formally retained. 4.

s ^ uV}D < uVyF{ (4-114) Substituting for uvs from Eqn (4-26). at which the column volume is a minimum. Cs = Cs. The design load uVD. The values of ^s and §F/ required for the calculations and corresponding to n$ = nSj. 4. and fw>s for fw in Eqn (4-58) gives rise to the pressure drop per unit height (Ap/H)s in the uv = uV.i) ZT) The simplified relationship in this case is thus (4"112) ( ^ 0. uv. (4-58). Likewise.e. ^L from Eqn (4-59). i. the vapour load at the loading and flood points can be formally determined by Eqns (4-28) and (4-35). HFI = nFiti.S loading range. Thus.2 (nFl-nFl.Fi = 2— fw. The liquid holdup and thus the pressure drop within this range increase at a higher rate than they do in the range below the loading point. (4-57).112 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns Eqn (4-41) can therefore be converted to yield the following relationship for the constant: \0.hLjS hLiS e (4-117) Substituting m for hLiFilhL>s {cf. then lies between uV}s and uym. i. The pressure drop ratio is therefore &PFI „ fw. and CFl = CFiA can be obtained from Eqns (4-29) and (4-41) respectively. the pressure drop per unit height (Ap/H)Fi at the flood point uv = uVtn can be derived from Eqns (4-35).10 Relationship between loading and flood points The range between the loading and flood points is of utmost importance in the design and operation of packed columns. Eqn (4-102)} then gives . and (4-59) a n d / w = fWiFl.s hLjm e . even in the range above the phase inversion.e. f$ from Eqn (4-57).i.1028 — (4-113) Consequently.

05 «-uL < ut = 0. Thus.n The factor n can be obtained by combining Eqns (4-97) and (4-107).s .S %Fl fw fw. x — = 2 ^-r— (m .n . it can be expressed as follows by substituting the right-hand side of Eqn (4-105) for m: (4-121) fw. i. The effective area ae is that of the surface of the flow channels of hydraulic diameter dh in which the pressure drop would be the same as that encountered in the bed of packing under consideration. Uy. Eqn (4-97)} and zn/m for hLfS {cf.n) Aps Jw. ..S m 1.Fi m Eqn (4-121) are defined by Eqn (4-56) as the ratios of the effective area ae to the area per unit volume a at the loading and flood points respectively.4. e.hLyFi I dhiFtfs Substituting ne for hL>m {cf. Eqn (4-119)} in the ApFi/Aps ratio thus obtained gives rise to the following equation: 1n (4-125) UV. the pressure drop ratio can be expressed by the following simple relationship: ApFl n fw..10 Relationship between loading and flood points 113 It follows from Eqns (4-97) and (4-102) that (4-119) Hence. /^ r \0.S H Ap is ?5 (4-124 a) 1 (4-124 b) -E 2 . The hydraulic diameter dh is defined by (4-123) fwa The pressure drop per unit height at the loading and flood points can be derived from Eqn (4-58).Fl .349 (4-122) r\wlQw The factors fw>s and fw. 1 o m (4-120) Alternatively.s \ 3 V2(3n-l) .

.s ratio is thus known from Eqn (4-59).hLtFl \~ (4-130) The expression within the square brackets in this equation can be equated to (uViS/uViFif-08 = 0.97. it differs from e by a factor/.Fl fw. i.Fl • + hL.+ Re v.s 1. and the pressure drop ratio can therefore be obtained from Eqn (4-121). i. (4-126) uv. Thus hL. Eqn (4-127) can also be derived by substituting Eqns (4-97) and (4-119) for hLiFt and hLS.114 4 Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns The ratio of the vapour load at the flood point to that at the loading point can be derived by equating Eqns (4-120) and (4-125).97 |t. (4-128) Im (nS - n Fl) This ratio can also be estimated by applying Eqn (4-59).Fi \ ° ' 3 Rev. e. t s 1-n (4-131) The fw.e. Applying Eqns (4-97) and (4-119) then gives rise to 0. can be calculated from Eqn (4-67) or expressed in terms 64 lL.s^Fi is the ratio of Eqn (4-29) to Eqn (4-41). The liquid holdup hL>s accounts for only a fraction of the relative void fraction 8.e.s Substituting the right-hand side of Eqn (4-105) for m in this equation then gives (I-")2 uv.Filfw. respectively.s • .S (4-129) In this case. Thus.Fi hL.s 1 64 . The flood point exponent n depends fundamentally on the system and the flow parameter \p and can be calculated from the model. the ratio of this equation. Thus.8 • Re v.8 Reom 1. fw.s (4-127) -«V2(3w-l) where n is defined by Eqn (4-122) and the term h. in Eqn (4-52). i.s = f e (4-132) .

e. each at STP in the loading range below the phase inversion.4.10 Relationship between loading and flood points 115 Hence.22. air/calcium chloride solution. Modified resistance parameter ratio as a function of the flow parameter . the following relationship applies for the factor /: d-f)2' f 144 s2 * (4-133) QL)\QL Equating Eqns (4-97).2 0.1 — — — — — _ «-—' \\\0 s / y 1 •55 1. 4.0 a i . and nitrogen/heavy oil.32 0.8 TZJ / / * 1 bar.4 04 0 Flow parameter i|) Fig. which is given by R = (4-136) « O 2 8 i — — S 2.2 i 1 0.08 0. Fig. 4.24 0. in analogy to the derivation of Eqn (4-88) for the determination of the phase inversion coefficient /.28 0.4. (4-102) and (4-132) gives (4-134) Substituting f o r / o n the left-hand side of Eqn (4-105) then gives /5 _ (I-/) 2 n5[2(3n-l)f3 {l-n[2(3n-l)]V3}2 (4-135) Three systems with different physical properties were taken as examples for evaluating the relationships discussed above: air/water.04 0. i.4 i_ CD 1 2.22 shows the relationship obtained from Eqn (4-131) between the flow parameter i|> and the modified resistance parameter ratio R.36 0.16 0. 293 K 1 1 0.12 0. — —— — . \p < 0.

4 0. as determined on some metal packings and an air/water system at STP. 1 <-n 1 r" -—- O 0.2 0. 4. the vapour load ratio WV. the following can also be determined as functions of the flow parameter ip: the ratio of the resistance factors ^L.04 0.— • .16 0.25-4. • •• Air Water \ A -1 .32 0. if the functions n = f(i|j) and §5/^7 are known. 4. and the pressure drop ratio ApFl/Aps {Eqn (4-120)}.8 0. are shown as an example in Figs. Finally. which is the ratio of the liquid holdup at the flood point to that at the loading point and was determined from the relationship between m and n expressed by Eqn (4-105). _.36 0. Resistance parameter ratio as a function of the flow parameter .4 Flow parameter ty Fig.6 ratio. 293 K CO CD 0 0.F//"KS {Eqn (4-127)}.24 was plotted from Eqns (4-133) and (4-135) and shows the coefficient n for the liquid holdup under flooding conditions as a function of the flow parameter I|J..2 r / . It also shows the corresponding function for ra.12 0. • ^F 1 If C5 =0.28 0.24 0.27.S {Eqn (4-131)}. — ^ • - — " "a — — — — — —^ —— .116 4 Fluid dynamics in counter current packed columns Thus Fig.6 0. Fig.6 i i Dor. 4.23.08 0. These relationships.23 would be obtained for packing with a CFilCs = 0.FI^L. 4.

3 0. 4. Characteristics defining the loading range between the loading and flood points 0. — — — § ( ms r2 i •• —.24 ty 0.5 2. — — — .0 \ 3.S Fig. .. \ N V \ \ Air/Calcium c:hloricle solution 1 — " V .8 — — — . .2 0. — — — ' ^ — i — — — _ fw.08 0. .9 0. 1 bar.36 0. 293 K ™ - 0.39 4. Ratio of the liquid holdup at the loading point to that at the flood point as a function of the flow parameter Glitsch ring 30 P Air/Water.0.20 0.5 3. 2 9 3 K .16 0.• •• 0.Fl/fw.0 2.25.5 ^-—8 \ \ \ n \ \ \ Air/Water S\ 1 bar. .04 Flow parameter 0.—• ——— — ~<— — — — m.4.38 0.37 m . 4.40 Fig.33 1.24.32 0.36 —n ..* • 0. .28 0.q 1. 0.10 Relationship between loading and flood points I 117 0.35 — I mi — — — .0 0 0.12 0.34 0.0 .1 0. \ Nitrogen/Heavy oil \ * * — *——..4 Flow parameter ty . • • J.

118

4

Fluid dynamics in countercurrent packed columns

Glitsch ring 30 Pmk Air/Water. 1 bar. 293 K 1.5
QJ CO

— -—

1.3 7
_,
1

a

en

5 1.1 ^— ™ 0.9 _ 0.8

H

1

-4 ^ u
^ — * •

^ — -

«——

CO

•W F l ' 'W S

*"
a o

0.4 0.34 .—- —— 0.33 0.1 0.2 0.3

Fig. 4.26. Characteristics defining the loading range between the loading and flood points

0.4

Flow parameter ^

Glitsch ring 0.5 CMR 304 Air/Water. 1 bar. 293 K 1.5
s——• — —

1.3 6
<

V
0.8 1
a t_ a
(—3

^ | — H — ^- —
^ ^

0.6 0.345

fw.Fl/fw,S — — —

0.335

,

Fig. 4.27. Characteristics defining the loading range between the loading and flood points

0.1 0.2 0.3 Flow parameter <\>

0.4

5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns
Effective mass transfer entails that the liquid must remain in intimate contact with the gas or vapour or that the two phases must flow countercurrent and be distributed as uniformly as possible over the entire cross-section of the packed column. The surface of the packing should be wetted to the utmost extent in order to ensure maximum area of contact at the interface with the countercurrent gas. Thus the shape and structure of the packing, the phase loads, and the physical properties of the system under consideration are of decisive importance for the intensity of mass transfer. It can be seen from the examples in Fig. 5.1 that the geometry and dimensions of the packing elements depend on the flow pattern of the phases and thus the mass transfer efficiency, which is also governed by the length of the flow path that has to be traversed before the surface of the liquid in contact with the gas is renewed. Since the liquid is continuously remixed at the points of contact with the packing, it can be assumed that mass transfer in both phases occurs by non-steady-state diffusion. In this case, the mass transfer coefficient |3 is described by the Higbie correlation, viz.

P ~ "Trif" V ~

(5-1)

where D is the diffusion coefficient for the component transferred and x is the duration of contact, i.e. the time required for the interfacial area to be renewed after each flow path of length lx has been traversed.

5.1 Mass transfer in the liquid phase
If DL is the diffusion coefficient for the component transferred in the liquid phase, lT the length of the flow path in the free space between the elements of packing, and r L the corresponding duration of liquid contact along the path /T, the mass transfer coefficient |3L in the liquid phase is given by o . / n (5-2) The term xL is governed by the liquid holdup hL, the liquid load wL, and the length of lr of the flow path, i.e. xL = hL lT — uL (5-3)

Combining Eqns (4-27), (5-2) and (5-3) gives rise to Eqn (5-4) for the volumetric mass transfer coefficient |3L<2Ph, i.e.

- c -*te)Mt)* •*"*?•
Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0

( 54 >

-

120

5

Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns

Standard ring

Pall ring

Saddle

Latticework

Shaped ring

Surface-treated

Stacked

Grid

Spiral

Sheet

Honeycomb

Gauze lamella

Fig. 5.1. Basic geometry of random and arranged packing Substituting this expression in Eqn (3-14) yields the following equation for the height of a transfer unit HTUL on the liquid side: 1 (5-5)

where CL is a constant that characterizes the shape and structure of the packing. Strictly speaking, Eqns (5-3) and (5-4) are valid for the capacity range up to the loading point, i. e. uv < uvs. If the gas or vapour load exceeds uvs, the liquid is held up so that hL > hLS- The liquid velocity uL decreases and can be estimated by an empirical equation of the form

5.2

Mass transfer in the vapour phase

121

(5-6) where, according to experiment, n = 2. The following equation applies for a given liquid load uL:
uL = (uL)Uv>Uvs(hL)Uv>Uvs (5-7)

The volumetric mass transfer coefficient in the capacity range between the loading and flood points can be derived from Eqns (5-2), (5-3), (5-7) and (4-27), i. e.

pL aPh = 12* CL a (uL)t > , s ( y ^ *f

(5-8)

where CL is the characteristic for the packing and is determined by mass transfer experiments. Numerical values are listed in Table 5.1 for dumped packing; and in Table 5.2 for regularly stacked packing. The method for the determination of the aPhla ratio is described in Section 5.3.

5.2 Mass transfer in the vapour phase The duration of contact x v with the gas phase is defined by the length of the path of contact between the phases /T, the superficial gas velocity uv, the void fraction e, and the liquid holdup hL, i. e.
Tv=lT(e-hL)—
Uy

(5-9)

In conventional beds of packing, xv is comparatively short, and mass transfer takes place within a very thin sublayer. It can therefore be assumed that mass transfer in the gas phase also follows the law of non-steady-state diffusion as described by Eqn (5-11), which embraces the diffusion coefficient D = Dv for the solute in the gas phase and the time iv, as described by Eqn (5-9), i.e.

The effect of the Reynolds Rev and Schmidt Scv numbers can be determined by expressing them in terms of the dynamic viscosity r\v and the density QV of the vapour phase. Thus ^ ^
a T] V

(5-11)

Scv = -^—
QyDy

(5-12)

122

5

Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns

Table 5.1. Calculation of liquid-side and gas-side volumetric mass transfer in random packing Dumped Packing Material Size mm 50* 38 35* 25* 50* 35* 25* 50* 50 50, hydr. 50 35* 25, type A 25, type B 25, typeC 25, 10 webs* 50 25* 50* 50, hydr.* 25* 50 38 20, 4 webs 50 50 50 38 25* 15* 13 10 8 6 25 13 50, No. 2 25, No. 1 N 1/m3 6242 15772 19517 53900 6765 17000 52300 6215 5770 5720 7330 17450 52356 50000 47619 48920 5000 40790 6815 6890 46100 5120 13241 110741 6050 6871 5990 13275 47700 189091 378000 672000 1261000 3022936 50599 378000 7841 33434 a m 2 /m 3 112.6 149.6 139.4 223.5 111.1 151.1 225.0 116.5 95.2 95.2 86.8 141.8 211.0 202.0 192.0 197.9 92.3 202.9 117.1 118.4 194.5 89.7 111.8 261.2 82.0 105.5 95.0 118.0 190.0 312.0 370.0 440.0 550.0 771.9 202.2 370.0 104.6 199.6 e m 3 /m 3 0.951 0.952 0.965 0.954 0.919 0.906 0.887 0.783 0.938 0.939 0.947 0.944 0.951 0.953 0.922 0.920 0.977 0.962 0.925 0.925 0.918 0.809 0.788 0.779 0.942 0.956 0.830 0.680 0.680 0.690 0.640 0.650 0.650 0.620 0.720 0.640 0.980 0.975

cL
1.192 1.227 1.012 1.440 1.239 0.856 0.905 1.227 1.520 1.481 1.080 0.756 0.862 0.883 0.888 0.976 1.168 1.641 1.487 1.553 1.577 1.377 1.659 1.744 1.219 1.326 1.416 1.536 1.361 1.276 1.367 1.303 1.210 1.130 1.379 1.419 1.222 1.376

Cv 0.410 0.341 0.336 0.368 0.380 0.446 0.415 0.303 0.341 0.322 0.425 0.366 0.410 0.408 0.402 0.345 0.369 0.390 0.379 0.464 0.465 0.342 0.389 0.210 0.230 0.412 0.401 0.265 0.272

Pall ring

Metal

Plastic

Ceramic Ralu ring Plastic

NOR PAC ring

Plastic

Hiflow ring

Metal Plastic

Ceramic

Hiflow ring; Super TOP-Pac ring Raschig ring

Plastic Aluminium Ceramic

Carbon

0.471

VSP ring

Metal

0.420 0.405

5.2 Table 5.1. (continued) Dumped Packing Material Size mm 80, No. 3 60, No. 2 32, No. 1 50* 35* 25* 25 50 25 25 13 38 25 13 13 N 1/m3 2000 6800 53000 6278 18200 48533 436096 3900 37037 66664 561877 24928 80080 691505 730000

Mass transfer in the vapour phase

123

a m 2 /m 3 60.0 98.4 138.9 121.0 155.0 210.0 419.5 100.0 190.0 134.5 282.2 164.0 260.0 545.0 625.0

E

m 3 /m 3 0.955 0.961 0.936 0.966 0.967 0.956 0.901 0.972 0.930 0.430 0.400 0.700 0.680 0.650 0.780

cL
1.603 1.522 1.517 1.721 1.412 1.461 1.431 1.798 0.899 1.335 1.364 1.568 1.246 1.364 1.677

Cv 0.257 0.296 0.459 0.302 0.390 0.331 0.288

Envi Pac ring

Plastic

Bialecki ring

Metal

Plastic Tellerette Sphere Plastic Glass

Bed saddle

Ceramic

0.244 0.387 0.232 0.488

Intalox saddle

Ceramic

hydr. = hydrophilic; * = likewise estimated for rectification

Table 5.2. Calculation of liquid-side and gas-side volumetric mass transfer in geometrically arranged packing Stacked Packing Material Size mm 50 50 50, hydr. 35 YC-250* 250 50 100 100, n B1-200 B1-300* Cl-200 C2-200 PN-110 N 1/m3 7502 7640 8150 20736 a m 2 /m 3 155.2 131.3 140.1 176.6 250.0 250.0 55.0 91.4 102,7 200.0 300.0 200.0 200.0 110.0
8

m 3 /m 3 0.754 0.916 0.911 0.945 0.945 0.975 0.806 0.838 0.816 0.979 0.930 0.954 0.900 0.936

cL
1.278 1.374 1.437 1.405 1.334 0.983 0.939 1.317 1.170 0.971 1.165 1.006 0.739 0.973

Cv 0.333

Pall ring Hiflow ring

Ceramic Plastic

Bialecki ring Ralu pack Impulse packing

Metal Metal Metal Ceramic

0.377 0.385 0.270 0.327 0.383 0.390 0.422 0.412

Montz packing

Metal Plastic

Euroform

Plastic

0.167

hydr. = hydrophilic; n = newly stacked; * = likewise estimated for rectification

124

5

Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns

The following equation can be derived by introducing these dimensionless number relationships in Eqns (5-9) and (5-10):
3_

PvaPh = Cv—x lT2

-Dv[ (e-hL)
2

-^ L

(5-13)

According to Eqn (3-17), the corresponding height HTUV of a transfer unit on the vapour side is given by
j_

1

/

2

T U

HTUV = -±- - V (e - hL)2 —
a Experimentally determined numerical values for the constant Cv, which is characteristic for the geometry of the packing, are listed in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. The numerical values for the exponents m and n are m = 3/4 and n = 1/3 and have also been obtained from measurements. The term aPhla can be evaluated by the method presented in Section 5.3. The determination of the liquid holdup hL in the M ^ - UV,S range requires evaluation of Eqn (4-27); and in the uv > uV)s range, evaluation of Eqn (4-77). The characteristic to be taken for the length of the path of contact lr is the hydraulic diameter dh, i.e. lT = dh = A (5-15)

5.3 Vapour-liquid phase boundary The term aPhla in Eqns (5-4), (5-5), (5-8), (5-13) and (5-14) is the ratio of the area aPh at the phase boundary to the area per unit volume of packing. It has been related by means of a dimensionless analysis to the density QL, the dynamic viscosity r] L , and the surface tension oL of the liquid, the area of the unwetted packing a, the void fraction 8, and the liquid load uL. This relationship, in turn, can be expressed in terms of the Reynolds number ReL, the Froude number FrL, and the Weber number WeL of the liquid phase and is valid up to the loading point. Thus,
aph
8 0.5

luL

QI

-0.2 /
(

2

\0.75 /

u\a

a

— J

oLa j

\ g

= 3

805

Ret2 Wei:15 FrL0A5

The hydraulic area ah included in the model for the holdup (cf. Section 4.7) is sometimes larger than the area of the phase boundary aPh. This is because it embraces a fictitious quantity that corresponds to the volume of liquid that accumulates in the dead spaces of the packing and does not contribute towards mass transfer between the phases. It was for this reason that ah was considered to be independent of the Weber number We.

' cz "c a CD -- 1 ° NOR-PAC r ng Fig.3 Vapour-liquid phase boundary 125 The difference between the hydraulic area ah and the area of the phase boundary aPh in packed countercurrent columns is evident from Figs. dumped 50 mm . if it decreases.2 1. 4. and "neutral". Thus a surface tension gradient is formed in the liquid phase from the top to the bottom of the column and influences the area of the phase boundary. "negative".4 .4.2 to 5.8 06 0. if it remains practically constant. Rectification columns differ from those designed for absorption or desorption in that the physical properties of the phases are subject to change over the height of the column.8 Pall ring ***** 8 at o a o u.2.5. Systems are said to be "positive" if the surface tension increases in the direction of liquid flow.s ds (5-18) If the packed column is divided into elements of height AH.0 0. To is in equilibrium with the shear stress in the liquid film TS.3 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Liquid load u L [ m3 / m2 h ] .^ rl / a = 111 T 2 m3 i a * — i CD *— o sz CL. 0.2 1.4 a = 87m 2 /m3 E a Plastic. The shear stress induced by a surface tension gradient is given by doL dx ~dx~ ~&H (5-17) where da L /dx is the differential change in surface tension from the top H = 0 to the bottom H = H of the column and x is the mole fraction of the lower-boiling component in the liquid phase. 5.b 0. which were plotted from Eqns (4-74) and (5-16). which is given by {cf. in which the driving force consists of differences Ax in the low-boiling mole fractions within the boundary layer of the 1. Fig.0 0. Hydraulic and phase contact areas as functions of the liquid load 0.3 1. 5.1 and Eqn (4-1)} duL.

AJC is the difference between the concentration in the bulk to that at the surface of the liquid and is given by (cf. 5. Hydraulic and phase contact areas as functions of the liquid 10 15 3 20 25 30 35 40 load Liquid load U | _ [m liquid phase. and its ratio with the term S in Eqn (5-19) is the Marangoni number MaL. MaL = do> dx AJC DLr\La (5-21) where doL/dx is the rate of change in surface tension along the height of the column with respect to the composition x in the liquid phase. Fig. The Peclet number PeL in the liquid phase is given by PeL = uL (5-20) It characterizes the mass transfer brought about by flow and molecular diffusion.126 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns Fig. i. 1. the following relationship can be derived from Eqns (4-13). and (5-18): o = T\LUL = _So_ L Ax dojdx AH (5-19) The dimensionless quantity S is a measure for the mass transfer effected by the surface tension gradient.5) .3.e. (5-17). and if ujso is substituted for the change duLslds in the liquid velocity within a layer of thickness ds.

Hydraulic and phase contact areas as functions of the liquid load 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Liquid load uL [m 3 /m 2 h] = x-x* = L (x-xe) (5-22) The difference in concentration depends on the distribution of the resistance to mass transfer in the two phases. i.4. on the ratios HTUJHTUOL for the liquid phase and HTUvIHTUov for the vapour phase.2 Fig. e. These two ratios are related as follows: HTUL HTUQL ~ HTUV ~ HTU ~ kov ~ I3 (5-23) where v is given by HTUV HTUL (5-24) . 5.5.3 Vapour-liquid phase boundary 127 -a cz a a CO a QJ CZ a a 0.

They show the relationship between the packing efficiency and the capacity for absorption. It can be now assumed that. JL MX. including the model equations developed above. the interfacial area aPh is reduced by the surface tension gradient and surface destabilization. however.2 . 5. the following relationship applies above the loading point: _ = + \ a }Uv>Uvs a \ a a / \ uv>m Thus the interfacial area at the flood point will be given by ow I a In this case. In negative systems. Thus. and (5-13) by an average of 14 %.6. The packing concerned in each case was Hiflow rings of various sizes and materials. Figures 5. The increase in liquid holdup within the range above the loading point also causes an increase in the area aPh of the phase boundary. _ 5 _ J_ v = Cv myx ML £k. QL_ ( V Q V ) 2 QV - DL2 - where ML and Mv are the molecular masses of the respective phases. and 5.7 convincingly demonstrate the good agreement between the efficiencies determined by experiment and those calculated from the NTU-HTU concept.^ (5-27) The mass transfer efficiencies HTUOv {Eqn (3-11)} determined by experiment in rectification systems differ from those calculated from Eqns (5-27).128 5 Mass transfer in countercur rent packed columns The ratio v can be determined from Eqns (1-29). 4 • 10-4|MflL|0'5) . in analogy to Eqn (4-70). . the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the range in question can be calculated from the above equations. and (5-14). (5-5). Allowance for this effect can be made by — = (1 . desorption and rectification systems. (5-4). The difference in concentration can then be calculated from the following equation: Ax = ~^(x-xe) (5-26) The evaluation of numerous studies on rectification systems has shown that the area aPh of the phase boundary remains constant in positive and neutral systems and that Eqn (5-16) can thus be applied.5.

5. ds= 0.8 2. uL = 15 m 3 /m 2 h. 1 bar. 1 bar.4 / 1/2 —-V CO a 0.33 m .8 1/2 3.4 2.6 Gas capacity factor Fv lm" s" kg ' 1 12 Fig.6 rnlnilnfnrl rnr\.6 4. uL = 10 m 3 /m 2 h.8 1 .8 s" kg 1 3. Z = 2400 1/m2 Ammonia-Air/Water. metal.3 mm. 293 K.5. plastic.6 2. 2 1.45 m •a? " 4 5 a. Comparison of the load-efficiency relationship calculated from the model correlation with that determined in desorption experiments 50-mm Hiflow rings. Z = 1400 1/m2 Carbon dioxide-Water/Air.6.3 Vapour-liquid phase boundary 129 50-mm Hiflow rings.2 3. 293 K. 5.2 1/z 3.S co \ V a g D D ^ n ^— U V-— / / UUI V § i 3 a t- "B"—U 1.45 mm. 5. CO Experimental data = n ^ •— / / Model calculated curve z 2. ds= 0.4 0. 1 0.E xperime ntal data CD ^ °.0 2. Comparison of the load-efficiency relationship calculated from the model correlation with that determined in absorption experiments .4 0. H = 1.0 Gas capacity factor Fv [m~ ] Fig.0 2.2 0. H = 1.2 \ "EH:3—nHol M LJUcl 1.

J — io 2. approximately HTUQV = HFv uL = const.4 Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics The factors that influence fluid dynamics and mass transfer in beds of packing are the flow velocities of the phases and the physical properties of the system.3.4 0. e.0 2. (5-32) The liquid load uL depends on the mass flow ratio L/V.2 1.e. the densities of the vapour QV and the liquid o L .2 3. 5. i.4 o / o Model calc jlated (:urve 0. mass transfer is a function of Reynolds number Rev (and thus the capacity factor Fv) and the Schmidt number Scv acccording to Section 8. the density. e. They are all related by the pressure drop per transfer unit. which is the case in most rectification and many absorption and desorption systems. L/V = 1. 67 mbar. . i. Comparison of the load-efficiency relationship calculated from the model correlation with that determined in rectification experiments 5.8 1.8 3. and a factor that allows for the shape and surface structure of the packing.130 5 Mass transfer in counter cur rent packed columns 25-mm Hiflow rings. Z = 2036 1/m2 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. H = 1.g..6 2. Under these circumstances. e. NTUn = C ty uL = const.5 m en CD I Experimental data 1 } ° C —o— o txr° a—£Q .4 0 Vapour capacity factor F v [m 1 / Z s"1 kg 1 / z ] Fig. which is referred to here as the specific pressure drop and is defined by &p NTUn HTUn (5-30) H The equation can be applied if mass transfer is predominantly in the vapour phase. the void fraction. d s = 228 mm. viscosity. and the vapour capacity factor Fv. Other parameters are introduced by the packing. (5-31) The following simple relationship for the specific pressure drop at a constant liquid load uL can be obtained by combining Eqns (5-30) and (5-31): Sc. plastic.7. the surface area per unit volume.g. and diffusion coefficient.

A comparison of Eqn (5-32) with Eqn (5-37) reveals that the exponents in. n = 0 -. The latter can be expected at liquid loads of u^ > 10-15 m 3 /m 2 h. uL no longer exerts an effect on the modified pressure drop per transfer unit. . Fig. L/V = 1.e. i. it can be expressed as follows in terms of the various parameters: This equation allows the results of rectification studies to be correlated and compared with those obtained in absorption experiments. e. absorption tests in which the load in the one phase was kept constant and that in the other was varied. and the gas load is varied or vice versa. A -— • Scv 3 = B uLn F{?-n = BULFV" (5-37) Figures 5.8 to 5.5.e. 5. in absorption processes. The phase ratio L/V can be determined by rearranging Eqn (5-33). m. i.11. the liquid load is kept constant. and in the other. i. It can be seen that they confirm the above relationships. In this case. and n are theoretically related by in = m + n (5-38) If the liquid loads are higher than about 15 m 3 /m 2 h.4 Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics 131 In other words. however. the specific pressure drop modified by the Schmidt number is a function of the liquid and gas loads. it is only in this higher loading range that rectification and absorption experiments can be described by a common exponent. and Fig. 5. According to a recent suggestion.10 show the results of rectification experiments under total reflux. with the result that the exponent n in Eqn (5-37) becomes zero. the general form of which is shown qualitatively in Fig. T. Eqn (5-34) becomes In most absorption studies. e. The liquid loads in vacuum rectification are quite often less.11 indicates that packing may have two ranges of liquid loads . i. i.e. The equation that applies in this case is derived from Eqns (5-34) and (5-35).in one of which n < 0.12. Consequently. t V = 1=AF? <«5> (5-36) Rectification experiments are often performed at a phase ratio of L/V = 1. as is evident from the diagrams presented in Chapter 3. 5. T-"ft.

imm Hiflow ring.8.H=U8m M:=39435 1/m3 N 2 z = 600 1/m a iloro-/Ethylbenzene 40 pr = 67mbar. when n tends to zero.6 0.meta ii =0.132 100 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns 80 -•eg. i.H 440 m N=39917 1/m3 Z=1350 1/m2 NH3-Air/H20 uL = 10m3/m2h p=1barJ=293K 2 1/2 1/2 1 3 l/2 Capacity factor Fv [nf f s~ kg ] Fig.ornl inn 2 1.L/V=1 30 / e_ / -1 Q- 20 i/ Rectificat on L/V=1 \ r < CD 10 4 / 3 6 n / i n 1 / N ft /Abe . Modified specific pressure drop as a function of the capacity factor in rectification and absorption (jn)uL > i5m3/m2h = m (5-39) It can be derived from the above equations that the constants A and B are related by B = A QL (5-40) The only case in which the constants are the same is that of higher liquid loads.5 0.0 o25mm Hiflow r.8 1.rnetal ds =0. m 3 /m 2 h - (5-41) .3 m.22m. 5.e.

in Table 5.9. m and n.6.3.u L =10rn 3 /m 2 h p=lbar.8 1 G25mm NOR-PAC. Modified specific pressure drop as a function of the capacity factor in rectification and absorption 3 1/2 Capacity factor Fv [m" s" kg ] These equations were evaluated in the light of the results obtained in numerous studies on pressure drop and mass transfer in the rectification and absorption systems listed in Table 5. Numerical values for the constant A that were determined for dumped packing are presented in Table 5.5. Inserting the numerical values for m and n in Eqn (5-34) yields relationships for the pressure drop per transfer unit in the range of lower {Eqn (5-42)} and higher {Eqn (5-43)} liquid loads.PVDF ds=0.3m. and for regularly stacked packing. e. It was thus revealed that the difference between the calculated and experimental figures are slight if the numerical values listed in Table 5. i.PP ( Js=0. . 5.6 0.4 are allotted to the exponents m.40m s|=47837 1/m3 1 40 2 i?=600 1/m 30 %-Air/H 2 0.L/V--l 2 1/2 1 - Fig.H=1.H = U 7 m N = 45400 1/m3 Z = 2250 1/m2 Chloro -/Ethylbenzene p T --67mbar.T = 293K 60 q 1 J A¥ JT 20 1 0 Absorp tion uL = 10m:/ m 2 h ^ 4 If "g i f- M T ILi — RecTiTication t/V=1 4 / 0.22m.5.4 Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics 133 3 n 25mm NOR-PAC.

8 1 Capacity factor Fv [m" 1/2 s'kg 1 ' 2 ] Fig. is a constant A that is specific for a given packing.47m N=7163 1/m3 Chtoro-/Ethylbenzene P T =67mbar .33 luL < 15m /m h 3 2 = A T 15 mlh 3600 uL -0. Values for the pressure drop per transfer unit calculated from these relationships deviate by 14 % on an average from the measured values.3 m.22 m.10.134 40 5 Mass transfer in countercur rent packed columns 30 h _ 20 -- -e-50-mmHiflowring. H=1.33 Sc (5-42) 2_ \NTUn OV luL > 15 m 3 /m 2 h = A (5-43) All that these equations contain. Modified specific pressure drop as a function of the capacity factor in rectification and absorption r.L/V=1 i r 10 rceumcuuun L/V= 1 < 6 en Q.H=1. d s =0.6 - 0. 5.PVDF hydroph.37 m N=6997 1/m3 Z=600 1/m2 NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 uL= 10 m 3 /m 2 h p = lbor.PP d s = 0.T = 293K i 1 1 0.\-0. apart from the variables that describe the loading conditions and the physical properties of the system.6 0.8 0. . 3 2 1 / 4 / / \ y1 I 1 u e drop o a> Absor ptinn 3 2 u L =10rn /m h CL / 0 50-mm Hifiow ring.

5.°H V > a- 4 3 2 *^ D -1. Modified specific pressure drop as a function of the liquid load 3 4 6 8 10 20 30 40 Liquid loadu L [m 3 /m 2 h] Eqn. (5-33) log-log tan a = m / / / I | Eqn.56 1017 —| NH3-Air/H20/1bar)293K 1 Fig. (5-33) log-log tan 3 = -n iV 1 T 1 ^ ^ ^ 1 /k Fig.12.'CO <_> fcW. 5. • * * i ! 1 1 |_ 1 !^ U L1 1 1 1 1 • F V2vl 1 Qualitative diagram for modelling the specific pressure drop . 1/2 i s kg i h^—i 147 cT 6 . 5. Fv[n -1/2 -1 .11. £ TZJ 10 8 7} y i.4 Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics 135 20 5597/HI* CD.

5 175.94 112.74 34. 50 35 25.1 15.894 0.698 0.908 0.268 0.5 19.397 0.1 225.567 0.8 35.944 0.881 0.7 15.793 0.439 0.791 0.9 120.003 0.3 3.0 9.241 0.510 0.242 0.0 8 A m 3 /m 3 0.483 0.967 1.31 28.350 0.36 28.1 4.920 0.24 20.904 0.303 3. Exponents in the correlations for determining the modified specific pressure drop u L [m 3 /m 2 h] < 15 m 2.0 17.2 86.8 8.397 Pall ring Metal Plastic Ceramic Ralu ring Plastic NOR PAC ring Plastic .906 0.806 0.953 0.633 Table 5.957 0.803 0.865 0.8 202.23 38.9 105.136 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns Table 5.30 65.2 95.373 0.0 197.9 249.2 15.662 1.8 SCy Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Chlorobenzene / ethylbenzene Toluene / n-octane Toluene / n-octane Toluene / n-octane Ethanol/water Ethylbenzene / styrene trans-1 cw-Decahydronaphthalene Methanol / ethanol 1.66 56.4 223.927 0.383 0.952 0.6 149.8 8.8 4.371 0.5.947 0.91 22.18 36.5 14. Calculation of pressure drop in random beds of packing Dumped Packing Material Size mm 50 38 35 25 50 35 25 50 25 50 50. hydr.827 3.900 1.9 19.8 141.39 27.98 66.200 1. Systems investigated in correlating the specific pressure drop System Pr mbar 33 67 133 267 533 1000 103 133 267 1000 133 13 1000 1000 1000 Qv kg/m 0.33 n -0.5 111.4 3.49 61.2 15.809 0.887 0.954 0.0 23.951 0.33 in 2 2.31 cP 0.468 0.0 9.967 0.9 2.1 151.929 0.780 0.790 0.798 0.785 0.36 81.1 6.4 28.8 19.3.9 11.1 95.763 1.188 3 Vy-106 m 2 /s 52.473 0. Type B 25.938 0.294 0.913 36. 10 webs 22 N 1/m3 6242 15772 19517 53900 6765 17000 52300 6215 36621 5770 5720 7330 17450 50000 48920 69274 a m 2 /m 3 112.939 0.3 8.6 139.783 0.33 2.140 0.1 DylO6 m 2 /s 64.4.33 0 Table 5.2 Dichloroethane / toluene Ammonia-air / water 0.5 8.7 21.59 64.066 1.919 0.0 116.965 0.

435 0. 1 50 35 25 70 47 No.0 185.09 84.936 0.637 3.97 Ceramic 75 50 38 20.1 e m 3 /m 3 0.04 19.63 36.788 0.435 0.2 82.621 0.977 0.3 202.329 0.962 0.5 Turbo 62432 169930 1.689 0.918 0.809 0.549 0. No.327 0.980 0.2 100.7 117.454 0.7 173. 2 25.4 229.5. (continued) Dumped Packing Material Relationship between mass transfer and fluid dynamics 137 Size mm 50 25 90 50 50.70 75.75 51.956 0.955 0.87 48.2 104. Hiflow ring. No.976 0.942 0.975 0.8 261.641 0.758 Hiflow ring Metal 20.0 548923 0.938 0.9 121. Super Hiflow saddle TOP-Pak ring Raschig ring Plastic Plastic Aluminium Metal Ceramic VSP ring Metal Envi Pac ring Plastic Bialecki ring Metal DIN-PAK Plastic Glitsch-CMR Metal Glitsch ring Metal 30PmK 30 P 38 50 Intalox saddle Ceramic Plastic .882 0.813 0.29 114.011 0.38 78.604 2.719 1. No.54 22.538 0.720 0. No.925 0. No. No.0 210.868 0.956 0.81 19.0 110.6 60.929 0.77 18.358 0.5 249.4 354.97 68.07 50.66 47.741 0.1 118. hydr.925 0.956 0.12 27.908 A cP 0.627 0.0 86.311 0.9 69.14 45.779 0.19 29.961 0.112 2.514 0.3 122.75 18.923 0.056 1.7 202.21 25.4 175.0 143.421 0. 4 webs 50 50 50 50 35 25 15 25 50.1 89.980 0.276 0.17 32.338 0.7 367.938 0. 1 80.42 20.57 45.967 0.414 0.13 32.343 0.5 112. 2 32.64 26.94 122.0 98.968 0.15 36.57 26.632 0.773 0.966 0.39 206.39 115.4 105.851 1. No.921 1.5 54.882 0.949 0.891 0.627 0.2 152.628 0.5 1.0 64495 1.81 314.5 28379 33190 19528 8656 a m 2 /m 3 92.782 0.4 Table 5.254 3.632 0.378 0.18 297.4 138.6 199. No.10 158.77 16.947 0.50 70.7 111.641 0.5.0 155.4 194.8 175. No. 3 60.948 0. 25 N 1/m3 5000 40790 1340 6815 6890 46100 1904 5120 13241 110741 6050 9939 6871 6630 19300 52200 241600 50599 7841 33434 2000 6800 53000 6278 18200 48533 9763 28168 9914 3.31 45.25 59.7 131.

83 24. The latter is required for the calculation of \L from Eqn (4-67).233 0.930 0.56 21.0 110.979 0.68 41.295 0.936 A cP 0.945 0.62 32.0 300.0 91.975 0. the loading conditions.52 34.417 0. They are valid at loads of up to 90% of the flood .262 0.02 16.954 0.0 250.4 200.74 37.945 0. Calculation of pressure drop in geometrically arranged beds of packing Stacked packing Pall ring Bialecki ring Ralu pack Mellapak Gempak Impulse packing Material Ceramic Metal Metal Metal Metal Metal Ceramic Montz packing Metal Plastic Euroform Plastic Size mm 50 35 N 1/m3 7502 20736 a m2/m3 155.460 0.344 0.138 5 Mass transfer in countercur rent packed columns Table 5. the bed geometry.80 YC-250* 250 A2 T 304 250 100 Bl-200 Bl-300* Cl-200 C2-300 PN-110 = likewise estimated for rectification Combining these relationships for Ap/NTUOv with those for AplH.355 0.6 250.06 29.6.191 0.453 0.0 250.838 0.0 E m3/m3 0.61 31. as described in Chapter 4.252 0.0 200.979 0. yields the following expression for the height HTUOy of an overall transfer unit: HTUnv = Ap/NTUp Ap/H (5-44) The corresponding relationship for the uL < 15 m 3 /m 2 h range of liquid loads is given by {Ml UOv)uL < 15 m 3 /m 2 h ~ ^ (5-45) and that for the uL > 15 m 3 /m 2 h range.2 176.30 21.970 0.0 300.754 0. and the constants A and CP for the packing.292 0.96 30.250 37.900 0. by (5-46) ds These equations allow for the physical properties of the system.0 202.

9 that the flow pattern may change as a result of phase inversion at high liquid loads. and the packings compared were 50-mm ceramic Pall rings and 50-mm ceramic Impulse packing.14.7 mbar 0.2-Propylene glycol / Ethylene glycol 13. loading conditions of this nature have to be realized in industrial-scale equipment.6 -1.5 Mass transfer at high liquid loads 139 capacity and allow the height of a gas phase transfer unit to be calculated to within an accuracy that corresponds to an average deviation of 13 % from the measured values. whose level depends on the geometry and size of the packing. In some cases.13 that the relationship between the Schmidt number and the vapour mole fraction varies considerably according to the composition of the mixture concerned. 5.6 Vapour mole fraction y 0.3 mbar 1 .8 1. 2 A \ s M a i knnn Hell IUI IUI 1 /Eth anol *bar\ Ethylbenzene/Styrene^ 133 mbar < \ / / \ vyChlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 66. 4.0 Fig.4 0.5 Mass transfer at high liquid loads It was demonstrated in Section 4. the relationships discussed between the mass transfer efficiency and the pressure drop would entail that the pressure drop per unit of separation efficiency would be largely governed by the Schmidt number Scv for the vapour phase. these cases depend on the nature of the packing and the 1. The operating conditions were those listed for random beds in Table 5. the only magnitude that would allow their performances to be compared is the modified specific pressure drop (Ap/NTUov)Scv2/3. if various packed columns were to be tested with different systems. 5. It is evident from Fig.5. It therefore follows that.13.7.8 0.21. 4 1 . Schmidt numbers for some rectification systems .2 0.4 0. 5. According to Fig.6 Ethanol/ Water 1 bar 0. If controlled mass transfer is predominantly in the vapour phase. 5. An example of a comparison along these lines is shown in Fig.

/ Ethylbenzene 1 bar.6 0.5 2 V2 3 1 V2 Gas capacity factor Fv [m~ s" kg ] Fig.3 0. A 133 bar. LIV = 1 .22 0.0 1.5 0.2 0.7.5 1 2 1 1. uL = 15-43 m 3 /m 2 h 1 bar.5 0.25 0.5 A 6520 • 6520 Ethanol/Water Chloro.22 A33.14. 5.85 1 N[l/m 3 ] • 7600 O 7600 (j) 7600 Conditions 1 bar. CO 0.14 were obtained System Ammonia-air / Water Ethanol/Water Ammonia-air / Water d s [m] H[m] 1 0. A 67. Conditions for the tests in which the results shown in Fig. 5. LIV= 1 0.8 1. LIV = 1 1 bar 0.140 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns O -a CD Q. Modified specific pressure drop as a function of load for (random and arranged) ceramic packing Table 5.

13 to 4. and the mass transfer components were ammonia and sulfur dioxide. . in which the values of HTUOv for an ammonium-air/water system have been plotted against the liquid load uL for a constant gas load Fv.4 m3/m2h 0. = 55. Its latticework structure allows extremely low pressure drops and comparatively high capacities and presents hardly any problems in scale-up (cf. At even higher loads. In accordance with the theory.15. H =1. the carrier was air at NTP. in aqueous sodium hydroxide.5 ' • — - ^ 7 ^ ~ 0.5). 5.FV=2 m kg 1 ' 2 .15). 4. Figs. Section 8.10 were investigated to gain information on the differences in performance between physical and chemical absorption. The systems listed in Table 3. chemical absorption is resorted to for removing pollutants from industrial off-gases and power station flue gases.18 cz a a o \ i\ 0 20 [: 5hnco i n\/o nnin nose lllvtfi iiuu puiiii v. 5. STP 100 120 2 .75 - •1 — | ' — aNH 3 -Air/H 2 0. The ammonia was absorbed in water and aqueous sulfuric acid.6 Mass transfer in absorbers accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase Whereas the relationships discussed above concern separation processes in which mass transfer is solely by physical means. absorption was accompanied by a rapid chemical reaction in the solvent. 25-mm Hiflow ring.45 m. The packing selected for the studies is shown in Fig. The results of experiments performed to study this problem are shown in Fig.5. and the sulfur dioxide. as is indicated in Table 3.26 0. plastic. Z = 920 nrr2 0.22 •£ 0.6 Mass transfer in absorbers accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase 141 system and arise if the flow parameter at the loading point is (L/V) (QVIQL)I — 0-4 (cf. Efficiency as a function of the liquid load above and below the phase inversion 3 5.8.15. ds=0. it remains constant at this low value or rises slightly. HTUOv first of all decreases as the value for uL increases and reaches a minimum at loads at which phase inversion can be expected.10 Liquid load u L [m /m h] Fig.10.s=l .5 m. 5. s -1 kg 1/2 ' V i 1. In the last two systems listed. In all cases.

the resistance to mass transfer on the liquid side can ignored. Fv and L/V. the height HTUV of a transfer unit in the gas phase can be obtained from Eqn (3-16).927 82 6500 114 0. 5. The relationship is practically independent of the system and can be expressed by Ap HTUV Scv-213 = f(Fv) = CF? H (5-47) NTUV The height of a transfer unit HTUV for absorption systems with rapid chemical reaction in the liquid phase can be obtained from the values of Ap/NTUV determined from Eqn (5-47) and Ap/H from the following approximate equation: . In the ammonia-air/water system. The results plotted in Fig. in which the resistance to mass transfer is divided between the two phases.142 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns Table 5.930 58 37200 185 0.965 300 Figure 5.8. Ap/NTUov.18. If a chemical reaction occurs in the liquid. vv. the height of a transfer unit HTUL in the liquid phase can then be neglected with the result that HTUov-* HTUV and Ap/NTU0V-> &plNTUv. Examples of comparisons between physical and chemical absorption on the basis of the modified specific pressure drop per gas-side transfer unit are shown in Fig. According to the HTU-NTU model represented by Eqn (1-62).4 mm N [1/m3] a [m /m ] E [m /m ] w [kg/m3] 3 3 2 3 44500 180 0. It reveals that the efficiency of the systems in which mass transfer in the solvent phase is accompanied by a rapid chemical reaction is considerably higher than that in purely physical absorption.5 mm Hiflow Metal 28 mm 25 mm 0. 5.17 show that the efficiency of absorption accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase depends on the system.16 shows the relationships that were thus established between HTUOv. The packings investigated in the chemical absorption studies and their geometrical data Packing Height Diameter Thickness Shape of the packing investigated NOR-PAC PVDF 27 mm 27 mm 2 mm Hiflow PP 50 mm 50 mm 1.

0 1. m N = 478371/m3 50-mm Hiflow H = 14 m N=69971/m 3 8 16 24 32 0 8 16 Specific pressure drop Ap/NTU0V [mmWG] U Fig. uL=i0 m 3 /m 2 h.5 0.1 0.Air/H20 c3 \ • "•« ^^"^ S £ o • 0.3 _ NH 3 -Air/H 2 0*H 2 5q.2 CO f 5 1. Process engineering data for evaluating physical and chemical absorption .4 r— o a> cDco ^ -•- -c: co CT> c: > g n 0. 5.16.0 2.5. CD Vm 2 .0 4.5 3.9 1.3 s SB' !-•• •—•* ' •- V 0.0 0 25-mm N0R-PAC . NTP 0.6 Mass transfer in absorbers accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase 143 d s =300 mm.2 \ 0.6 TD 5 2.4 _ 0. •1 NH3.

-P. " — oo II II CO ZIZIN n II ii ii cn •T.. cal abs zr II © N o§ 3 3 -^3 CD CD CD Vo > oo \ > \ o TD CD 41 o*"CD ZE= CO 5" CD • • if CD — X D CO 1 ^S I D r1 3 4 X \ V I1 i U Tf H 1 . \ \ CO TD <T> o o o o N^ ss \ TD _ I I L —* CO < <"D uat ing CL d .—. • O TD \ f o . — ^ —-« \ \ i C T Q *^ \ / \ \ jns T3_ dat.—» c n -r** r-o —» cz> Gas capacity factor Fytrn'^s' 1 kg1/2] CO CD Height of a transfer unit HTUOV [mj CD Kj CD CO CD Specific column volume wls] cn 92.Liquid/gas ratio L/V iso CD CD UD c o r>o CD e n —»—».CD • 1 Z o <"D metol - C D CO CL 3. .

18. The high efficiency and the extremely low pressure drop are characteristic for this packing geometry.metal NH3-Air7H20 NH 3 -Aif7H 2 04i 2 S0 4 S02-Air/H20+Na0H -c --0.8 1 1.3 '/ 't ±1273 %.5 2 3 0. if the number of transfer units to be realized NTUV is known.5.HTUV • NTUV (5-49) Fig. 0. 5.4 0.8 50mm Hiflow.14 5.8 1 1.6 Mass transfer in absorbers accompanied by chemical reaction in the liquid phase 145 _ Ap/NTUV Ap/H (5-48) Hence.5 2 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [m' l / 2 s' 1 kg 1 / 2 ] Fig. 5. Modified specific pressure drop as a function of the vapour capacity factor in physical and chemical absorption .211 m = d// 4 / — C-0. the height of the column can be estimated from H .2 i f ^±10% 0. 25mm NOR-PAC PVDF NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 NH 3 -Air/H 2 0+H 2 S0 4 2.8 1 1.0 0.0 "§ 15 1.19 shows the results of studies on geometrically arranged packing with a honeycomb structure. PP NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 o NH 3 -Air/H 2 0-H 2 S0 4 * S02-Air/H?0+Na0H o 25mm Hiflow. m = 2 - 4 & | CO CO 0.5 2 3 0.1 0.

plastic d s = 0.4 0.146 5 Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns Honeycomb 1.8 1 1.a 0.5 2 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [rrr1/2 r 1 kg 1/2 ] . 295K - \ r I 1 i I I" 2 S 1-5 CD / f 1 1 1 I °-8 . H--0.s 0.3 o ~—' • c r - 0.8m CD 1 .19.6 O CD 1 0.15 10 S0 2 -Air71n NaO H uL=10m3/m2h Ibar.2 0. Height of a transfer unit and the specific pressure drop for a plastics honeycomb packing as functions of the gas capacity factor in the absorption of sulfur dioxide from air by caustic soda 0.28m. 5.2 •= 0.3 1 / / I ZL t Fig.

i. correlating. If this is not the case and if the beds of packing in the experiments are of low height. Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. or the number of theoretical stages. The external effects can primarily be attributed to the liquid distributor and. those whose influence on the results of efficiency measurements is exerted outside the bed of packing and those whose influence is exerted within the bed. presents hardly any problems. the column efficiency could be wrongly estimated.1 Phenomenological description A distinction must be drawn between external and internal end effects. which is governed by the pattern and the density of liquid distribution effected by the distributor and may even give rise to maldistribution at the inlet. either the number of transfer units. The extent of the effect depends largely on the design and not so much on the phase load. and does not disturb the flow profile. i. the end effects that thus occur must be taken into consideration in evaluating.6 End effects in packed columns The efficiency of packed columns is usually determined by experiment on rectification. These effects can be assessed experimentally by measuring the concentration profile in both phases with the aim of determining the local separation efficiency over the height of the column. thin wire netting of small area and a very large open cross-section usually suffices as a support. the method entails sampling by means of probes. if the bed is of low height. absorption. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . The shape of the inlet zone thus formed may be responsible for changes in separation efficiency over the height of the bed. in which case N = NTU. which disturb or even alter the flow profile. because a gas distributor in this case is usually dispensed with. to the device for preventing entrainment of the packing. The relationship between the efficiency and the height of the bed depends on the strength of the external and internal effects that are described above and presented qualitatively in Fig. e. This vertical efficiency gradient disappears once flow has been completely developed and equilibrium has been established. a simple. In fact.e. 6. the external effects at the head of the column are probably the most decisive. it was given preference in performing the experiments described and evaluated below. and desorption systems in pilot plants. In pilot plants. Consequently. Another factor is the ability of the packing itself to distribute the phases and even its tendency to maldistribution. However. Another. It requires simpler instrumentation. The symbol N in the diagram signifies the number of separation units. and scaling up the results obtained. the efficiency per unit height of bed remains constant. provided that the inflowing vapour is uniformly distributed over the cross-section at the foot of the column. these internal effects are mainly restricted to the liquid inlet zone at the head of the column. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Internal effects may be caused by the inflow of the phases. when applicable. 6. the gas distributor.1. Other factors that may affect measurements of column efficiency are the support plate for the packing and. In pilot plants. Strictly speaking. when applicable. less complicated method consists of determining the packing efficiency at various heights. Afterwards.

1 applies for liquid distributors with a low distribution density Z. It is also governed by the phase loads and the phase ratio. the slope dN/dH first of all increases in the AHt zone until a value of H = Ht is attained. N = nt\ and H is the height of bed per unit of efficiency. The value Ht depends on the distributor characteristic and the geometry of the packing. 6.1. and certain relationships can be derived for the efficiency dN/dH of the bed within the zones of fully developed flow. The likelihoods and boundary cases that may arise in practice can be determined qualitatively from Fig. the two-phase current becomes adapted to the flow through the channels formed by the geometry of the packing and its position and arrangement with respect to the walls of the column.1.1. the number of separation units is greater (upper diagram in Fig. if inlet maldistribution is insignificant. i. The initial value of N = Nj at the ordinate H = 0 is equal to the efficiency of any likely external effects. In the A Hi zones. The qualitative curve shown in the lower diagram of Fig. 6. 6. In the upper diagram of Fig. 6. 6. Uniform initial phase distribution Z high -AH a a. Fig. The zone of influence AHt is characterized by variations in efficiency and thus depends on the design conditions mentioned.e.e. after which it remains almost constant.148 6 End effects in packed columns i. Qualitative efficiency curve for the inlet zone of a packed column Packed height H . a» AA Poor initial phase distribution Z low -AN. the slope dNIdH of the function N = f(H) decreases as the height H increases within the AHt range until N attains the value N = Nt at a height of H = Ht.1) or less (lower diagram) by an amount ANt than that for completely developed two-phase flow and for H > Hi within a zone of the same height. N increases linearly with H. Within it. A curve of this shape can be expected if the distribution density Z of the liquid distributor is high and uniform. After this point has been reached. In this case.

1 Phenomenological description 149 Thus the following equations apply if allowance is made for external and internal effects: (dN\ dJV \ N-ANj-N. The only cases in which corrections are not required arise if Eqn (6-4) is satisfied or if the following condition applies: N » Nd + m ANt = Ni (6-5) The increment ANi corresponds to the change in efficiency within the inlet zone AHt. in scaling up beds of packing to the heights required in industrial practice. > Nd Likewise. the following function can be regarded as a measure for the extent of the inlet effects in a separation column with an effective height H: A " r = f(Z) (6-6) . The smaller the values of AHh the more rapidly the inlet distribution is corrected by a bed of packing. \ ti !Nd = o ti If the internal effects can be ignored.6. I N\ 777 \ JH > Hi < br (6 la) - ) (f) IN \ \H lANi. evaluation of Eqns (6-1) to (6-4) could yield information on the extent to which the results of separation efficiency measurements published in the literature could be adopted. either direct or with appropriate corrections.neg. Hence. I6N\ = IN\ If it is evident that end effects cannot be left out of consideration in design studies. the following applies if the external effects can be ignored: l6N\ IN-ANA N = T77 77 <-77 \ a / i )H > //. lN-Nd\ N 7 7 < 7 7 ti / (6"3) ti and if both external and internal effects can be ignored.

150 6 End effects in packed columns where Z is the number of liquid streams. Qualitative description of the effect exerted by the number of liquid distribution points on the efficiency in packed columns including the inlet zone No. feeder points on the liquid distributor.3 and 6. of liquid distribution points Z . the minimum increase in efficiency can be expected if the number of distribution points Z is 1. It is assumed that the local efficiency no longer changes with the height once flow has been completely developed in the zone concerned within the column. As the value of Z rises within the Z < Zo range. i.4 serve as a basis upon which equations to describe end effects can be derived from the results of experiments. 6.2. liquid distributors with a number Z of distribution points greater than this do not contribute towards a further increase in the efficiency of column packing. 6. The lower diagram qualitatively represents Eqn (6-6).2 shows the number of separation units N a s a function of the height H with the number of distribution points as parameter. Packed height H z]<z0<z1 £ 0 Fig. i.2 Correlation of end effects The diagrams presented in Figs. the efficiency in the inlet zone increases steadily. Therefore. Figure 6. Obviously. but the rate of increase becomes less in the Z > Zo range until the final value is attained at Z = Zmax. 6.e. Zo is the number of distribution points at which the value for ANt theoretically just becomes zero. per unit area of column cross-section. e.

Fig. Qualitative efficiency curve for a packed column with positive inlet effect H Packed height H Variable efficiency dN . 6. Qualitative efficiency curve for a packed column with negative inlet effect f AN._ Constant efficiency /dNN r dHx \ ^ ^ . i H Hi Packed height H .6. 6. (6-7) The following relationship can then be expressed in terms of the magnitudes represented qualitatively in Fig. -1 -AN.3.4.2 Correlation of end effects 151 dN = const.3: dN \ _ N-NdANj >Hi~ H (6-8) E Fig. 6. ^ O J mTAN. .

i. according to the diagram. (6-12) ANi = i ANi' Therefore.4) inlet efficiency to the efficiency in the zone of completely developed flow. e. Eqn (6-10) can be transformed into = H- (6-13) { iI dN (6-14) The factor / is a measure for the inlet effect. 6. i. As a rule.152 6 End effects in packed columns Another relationship that is evident from the diagram is N-Nd-ANj _ N-Nj H Hence the height of the inlet zone is given by ~ H-Ht (6-9) "' " v " I dJV \dHjHZH: (6-10) where. The following simple relationship applies: AN' I dN (6-15) Combining Eqns (6-12) and (6-15) yields a general relationship for the inlet factor /.3) or negative (Fig. . the factor / is identical to the ratio of the positive (Fig. the only means of determining it is by experiment.e. AHt dN ANt AN/ (6-16) In other words. (6-11) Nt = Nd + m ANt and ANt exceeds AN/ by a multiple /. 6. the following relationship must exist between i and m: 1 Consequently.

2 Correlation of end effects 153 The figure to be taken for ANt in Eqns (6-14) and (6-16) can be obtained by experiment in pilot columns with packed heights of H > Ht.e.6. + Hb in which Hb is greater than Ha by a multiple q. The results are correlated by means of the following two equations: Na = Nd + ANt + Ha dN dH lH>Hi dJV \ dH j H > H i (6-17) (6-18) Nb = Nd + AN. Scheme for modelling the inlet effect in scaling up Packed height H . 6. Nb and Nd. In this case. 6.5). i.5. (6-20) ZD Fig. Hb = qHa (6-19) These relationships give rise to a correlation that permits the positive or negative inlet effect ANt to be calculated from the measured values of 7Vfl. Fig. viz. the values to be determined are the equivalents of the separation efficiencies Na and Nb in beds of Ha and Hb height and the efficiency Nd at H = 0 (cf.

15 300 15 Tellerette Plastic 47 70 32 0-1.3 Experimental results The relationships outlined above can be interpreted in the light of the results obtained in experiments on columns of different diameter ds and beds of various height H. The number of distribution points on the liquid distributor Z was also varied. at least roughly. 6.e.1. and in others again.15 were obtained Packing Material Size d [mm] Packing height H[m] 0.6-6.33 300 490 Envipac Plastic 300 490 . in others. the height AHt of the inlet zone can be estimated graphically if a minimum of two measured values of T V for the inlet zone. of distributors Z [1/m2] Raschig ring Ceramic 8 25 35 100 500 500 800 500 800 Ethanol/Water 1 bar Ethylbenzene/ Styrene 67 mbar Methanol/Ethanol 1 bar Ethylbenzene/ Styrene 67 mbar Air/CO2-Water SO2-Air/Water 1 bar NH3-Air/Water 1 bar NH3-Air/Water 1 bar 600 Pall ring Metal 2-3. steel -.154 6 End effects in packed columns As is evident from Fig. for absorption at standard temperature and pressure. 6.00-3. ceramics. H < Htj suffices to allow the shape of the curve to be described.75 1. plastics.1. and carbon dioxide-water/air.95 2-3. the materials also differed in some cases. as would be expected. for desorption at standard temperature and pressure. as follows: N=i(H)H<Hi (6-21) 6. The conditions under which the various experiments were performed can be derived from Table 6.35 0-1. ammonium-air/water and sulfur dioxide-air/water.75 50 600 Hiflow ring Metal 20 0. Conditions and systems investigated in the experiments in which the results shown in Figs. i.5.95 2. The systems chosen for the experiments were ethanol/water for rectification at atmospheric pressure.25-4 Diameter ds [mm] System No.40 0-1. differences in the inlet effects could be achieved. Types of packing of extremely differing geometry were thus investigated.3-1. with the consequence that. in which the main data are listed. Table 6.33-3.

8 represents a case in which no internal inlet effects occur. 6.3 Experimental results 155 The characteristic relationship between the efficiency and the bed height is shown qualitatively in Fig. Other results of experiments on desorption. 6. 6. The packing was metallic Hiflow rings. Z = 1650 1/m2 Raschig ring ceramic — o — 25 mm. Figure 6.9-6. The system was an ethanol/water mixture that was rectified at atmospheric pressure under total reflux. to the type shown in Fig.7 shows the results obtained in desorption experiments with a water-carbon dioxide/air system at standard temperature and pressure. d s = 100 mm. 6. which is poor in the inlet zone of the column. absorption. It can be deduced from the shape of the curves that maldistribution and the attendant formation of an inlet zone with variations in efficiency can be prevented by a corrugated shell and uniform liquid feed. Raschig ring ceramic — A — 8 mm. 6.| / z s" 1 kg i i I j 2 Packing height H i m ] 3 Fig. the local efficiency per unit height. The measurements were performed in beds of ceramic Raschig rings in the one column with a smooth shell and in another with a corrugated shell.6. By virtue of the bed's own ability to distribute the liquid. d s = 750 mm.3 and was determined by experiment. is progressively improved until it attains the same value as that in the zone of completely developed flow. as would be expected.6. and rectification systems are presented in Figs.15.4.6. Z = 425 1/mz Ethanol/Water 1 bar. dn t /dH f nt/H Fv = 1-32 m. 6. Efficiency of a packed rectification column as a function of the height . Since the liquid distributor had a comparatively low droplet density. L/V = 1. The example given in Fig. the shape of the curve corresponds. The results of some of these studies that were carried out in the 1950s and 1960s are presented in Fig.

6.77-10"3rn3/m2s gj c 0 0.156 6 End effects in packed columns 25-mm Hiflow ring met. dNTUov/dH 3 3 uL = 8. dNTUL/dH \ 17> S \ 777 — ^ .543-1 [1/n nz CO " ^ uL = 8315-10" 3 m 3 /rn 2 < ' — • • — — — •§=5 dNTU( LU > 3 ^ • *<— — ^ L uL=5. Efficiency of a packed desorption column as a function of the height 25-mm Hiflow ring met.5 1..7.015 m ^ s " 1 kg 1/2 NTUL/H. 41 I31 2 ! iL = L --' 2.0 Fig.0 o £ 1. Efficiency of a packed absorption column as a function of the height . 6. Z=123 1/m2 S0 2 -Air/H 2 0 at STP. FV = 1 rn^s"1 kg 1 ' 2 NTUov/H..8. 5 Fig.315^10" rn /m 2 s V CD \ \ < \ CD 1 -^ m 3 /m z s J3 I rv* r *> \ uL=5. Fv = 1.0 Packing height H i m ] 1 .5 0. d s =288 mm. d s =288mm .. III V TTT.5 £ Packing height H [ m ] 1. 543 • 1 0 " 3 m 3 /m 2 s^ i 0 0.5 1.^ 6 ^ rm-. Z =15 1/m2 C0 2 -H 2 0/Air at STP.

9O •10" m 0. . FV = 0.5 1.95 •10' m 3 2 s _ e 0 0E — — ~ 6 -£ 4 -S 2 ^ -Q ^. c .9. 6.0 3 3 ^ b 1 .94 m-^s-'kg" 2 NTU L /H. plast.4 Column design and scale-up It is evident from the relationships discussed above that it is absolutely essential to make allowance for end effects in designing industrial-scale separation columns. Thus the figure for a pilot column is given by . 5 Packing height H [m] Fig. d s = 288 mm. experimental data on the efficiency of the intended packing and the relationships derived from them must be checked in order to determine under which conditions they are valid.— " " " " " • * a> o 2 0 0 ^\ r ?. In the first place. * UL = — — - — - _ 4 E o 2 5. — • — • 4 2 = cz — u L =: 3. Efficiency of a packed desorption column as a function of the height 6. generally differs from the value (N/H)T for a technical-scale column of height HT = HP.97 •10" ^ n L /m 5 =3 ^•>. as determined in pilot-plant experiments in a column of effective height HP. Z = 490 1/m 2 C0 2 -H 2 0/Air at STP.. CJNTUL/CJH 6 *v »——• -—• ^ — — • • .4 Column design and scale-up 157 32-mm ENVIPAC. An efficiency of (N/H)P.6.

ds = 288 mm Z = 490 1/m2 CO2-H2O/Air at STP. 6.10.0 1. 0 Efficiency of a packed desorption column as a function of the height . io . -H 4 2 . ' 2 •10" 3 m3/m2 Q n 0 0.94 rTr l / 2 s-'kg 1 / 2 NTUL/H.5 Packing height H t m ] Fig.158 6 End effects in packed columns 47-mm DINPAC. Fv = 0.g • L_U u . dNTUL/dH "^ 6 ~ 4 ^-— ' — -— - I 2 a 3 3 2 UL=J5 97 in~ m /m Z 0 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i .5 1. plastics.

— — • • • O Y — OO CD c cz 0 .1 kg l / 2 NTUL/H.9^ o t_LJ CJ • — — 4 2 3 3 2 m / in 1.5 — .—^ »—-—. Fv = 0.0 1 .—— —•» ^—— 1 4 — • 2J 10" U L = 5.4 Column design and scale-up 159 70-mm DINPAC.6.1 / 2 s.97 s "CD 1 . d s =288 mm Z = 490 1/m 2 C0 2 -H 2 0/Air at STP. plastics . 50 Packing height H [ m ] Fig. (JNTUL/CJH D • 4 — — •^ — — ^ 2 Y0*0* ' — I — — -— —— • — — — ^—* 1 UV 4 =i95 1 • •••H s 6 ^ g \ £ 4 *^ ^il _ _ ! _ •• — — - — * — jQr k.94 m.90 •10" 0 0.11. Efficiency of a packed desorption column as a function of the height . — — — .## ^^ _^ —^^ Z. 6.

nt/H QJ I8 1. by N_\ =(AN_\ +{Nd HJT \dHJT>H>Hi Combining Eqns (6-22) and (6-23) gives Nd + ANt \ _lNd + ANA }_\!dN_\ H jp \ H j T \ [\dHJp _IJN\ \ dHJT (6-24) + (6-23) HlT \HjP \\ 50-mm Pall ring.12. (6-22) and that for a technical-scale column. Z = 600 1/m 2 Methanol/Ethanol 1 bar L/V = 1 .5 2 Capacity factor F v [ r r r 1 / 2 s " 1 k g l / 2 ] 2. 6. d s = 500 mm.5 m.5 6 «= -o 4 > Fv = 2. 1 2 Packing height H i m ] 3 Efficiency of a packed rectification column as a function of the height .metal.160 6 End effects in packed columns [H/p H\ dN -i \ \dHlp Nd \ Hp ip H>H. dn t /dH.1 / 2 S"1 k g 1 / z 0 0 Fig.

for the zone of fully developed flow: (6-26) id///p Eqn (6-24) can then be simplified to give \d///r (6-27) . d s = 800. Efficiency of a packed rectification column as a function of the height The end effects in the technical-scale column can be regarded as identical to those in the pilot plant if the phase distributors and support plates are of the same design in both cases. 6. Z = 490 1/m 2 . the following applies for the inlet Nd H Nd H (6-25) and the following.metal. or if the packing has no tendency to maldistribution.13.4 Column design and scale-up 161 50-mm Pall ring. nt/H 15 2 Capacity factor F v [ m~ 1 / z s" 1 k g 1 / 2 C D r _Q U 4 F v = 2 5 . In these cases. 0 7 5 m'm s" 1 kg 2 0 7 . 1 5 . L / V = 1 Ethylbenzene/Styrene 130 mbor dn t /dH.9* o 0 1 2 Packing height H [ m l 3 o Fig. if the column diameters dSj and ds>P do not differ significantly from one another.6.

i.e.metal ds = 500mm. 1 2 Packing height H [ m ] 3 Efficiency of a packed rectification column as a function of the height Hence the efficiency ratio r\T for columns of different height. i.5 2 Capacity factor Fv [rrr 1 / 2 s"1 kg 1/2 1 0 CD 8 I l l Ethylbenzene / Styrene 130 mbar dn t /dH. Z = 600 1/m2 o 2 1.Q e 6 0 0 Fig.162 6 End effects in packed columns 1 2 1 0 35-mm Pall ring.16. in which it is presented qualitatively as a general function. is given by H N_ 1 N_ H IP J (6-28) H ip The significance of this equation is clearly illustrated by Fig. HP and HT. 6. 6. (6-29) . n t /H . e.14.

1 / 2 s " 1 k g 1 / z Packing height H i m Fig. dn.5 Capacity f a c t o r F v [ m ~ 1 / 2 s " 1 k g 1 / 2 ] F v =15 m.16. Z = 490 1/m2 ~a> o 1. n.5 Ethytbenzene/Styrene 130 mbor L/V = 1.6./H I I I i i i i \ i r 2 2. Ratio of the efficiency in an industrial-scale plant to that in a pilot plant as a function of the column height Packed height HT .metal ds=800 mm./dH.4 Column design and scale-up 163 1 2 10 I I I I T 35-mm Pall ring. Efficiency of a packed rectification column as a function of the height Fig. 6.15. 6.

HP1 and HP2 > HP]. the value obtained would be too small by an amount AH/HT. (Tlr)/fr->//. AHIHT can be expressed as a function of the total number of theoretical stages NT. which is given by NT=Nd + ANt + HT .-> 1 (6-31) Under the given conditions.e. the height of bed HT required to achieve a separation efficiency corresponding to a value NT can be obtained direct from the results of a pilot-scale experiment in which (dN/dH)H> Hi has been determined. in which case the one experimental point Np for the case of HP > Ht suffices. e.164 6 End effects in packed columns The curves shown in the diagram apply for experimental beds of different height.NP) -r—\ (6-33) = NT-Np HT-Hp _ AN AH K } Hence.^ \ an / (6-36) . Theoretically. i. They tend towards a theoretical limit at a height HT^> °°. If the height HT of the bed is to be determined from the efficiency per unit height (N/H)P of the pilot column. i. as defined by Eqn (6-29). the limit is unity. the following relationship must apply in the zone of completely developed flow: ldN_\ \dHJH>Hi Rearranging to solve for HT yields HT=Hp + (NT . which is given by NT (N/H) NT (NIH)P AH HT T NT (N/H)T (6-34) AH/HT can also be expressed in terms of the efficiency ratio r\T. i. (T\T)HT^X^> \ N d + ANl (6-30) If HT — » HP.e.

e. (6-38). the height of the packed bed would be given by (6-38) The figure thus obtained is less than that derived from Eqn (6-36) by the following amount: The term AH/HT can be expressed as a function of NT by combining Eqns (6-37).4 Column design and scale-up The requisite height of bed HT can then be determined by rearranging Eqn (6-36). 165 (6-37) dH lH>Hj If the efficiency of the pilot plant were to be taken into consideration.and for the limiting case of an infinitely large number of theoretical stages NT I AH \HT 1 + 1 HP I dN\ \ dH ) H> Hi If there are no end effects. and (6-22).for the limiting case of NT — » NP. < • N + ANj N Nd d NT \dHJH>Hi The values thus obtained lie between the following limits: . (6-41) T I Nr -+ NP . i.6. and (6-39) or by combining Eqn (39) with Eqns (6-33). (6-38). Thus. Eqn (6-40) would be reduced to f] "• T f{Nd -0 + A Nt) -+ 0 (6-43) . ^ HT 1 ' 1 N + AJV 1 HP IdN\ (6-40) .

— \ .3 — —— —— — — m »——-— — i r/ / — & 0. if dN Q\H =£ const. (6-44) If the differential coefficient were thus to change over the entire height of the column. the relative increment of height AH/HT would have to be determined from the following relationship.32 m-1/2s-1kg1/2Jds=750mm. — \— ^— »—<—. which can be derived from Eqns (6-29) and (6-35): N AH = 1. 6.Fv=1. 0.1 CD / * .Z=425 1/m2 Ethanol/Water 1 bar.13 —— 20 / 10 15 No. L/V=1 1 > s s.= HH) (6-45) In this case.2 CD i0. .Fv=Q. Raschig ring. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height as functions of the number of theoretical stages .166 6 End effects in packed columns A special case arises if Eqn (6-7) does not apply.e. i.Z=l65O 1/m2 — 25mm.Hp ^^ — — I 0.8 0. of theoretical stages n t Fig.17..9 s 1^ .ceramic 8mm. the relationship N = f (H) would have to be determined experimentally.7 1 3 Packing height H i m ] 0.84 m-l/2s-1kgl/2ids=1OOmrn.

1 «| — — ^ • ^ - ^ — — 0. Fv = 34 m" 1/2 s -1 k g l/2 — uL = 290 m 3 /m 2 s 1.3 o *—' " ~— —~Z -ism —• ' — — " — — - — —— — .— .1 / / y 10 15 Number of transfer units NTUL 20 Fig.6. plastics. 6. by the number of transfer units NTUOv o r NTUL.17 to 6.—- . In the diagrams for rectification systems.8 to 6.0. 5 0. N is represented by the corresponding number of theoretical stages nt\ and in those for absorption and desorption systems.6 2 3 Packing height H i m ] 0 .18. M • ^ 0.4 CO §0. ds= 288 mm.0 \ —uL=8. — ^ — . 6.— — -— — — — - - — •S.5 Examples of scale-up 167 6. 6.6 and 6. ' .9 f/p- y-2m ^^— — | • — ^ .5 Examples of scale-up The results of evaluating Eqns (6-28) and (6-40) along the lines indicated in Figs. 32-mm ENVIPAC. • * ^ . Z=490 1/m 2 C0 2 -H 2 O/Air at STP. — —•—. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height to be allowed for in scale-up as functions of the height of the bed of packing or the number of transfer units . These diagrams convincingly demonstrate the necessity of allowing for end effects in scaling up.2 a> A / f 5 y p ^ 5—— — — — - — — — . Ib m * * * * * * * ^—.12 are presented in Figs.22..95 mVm 2 S s Vv \ F0.

543-10"3.*—— — — — • • ^ — - —• • • — Up=2 m 1 5 NTUQV 5 10 Number of transfer units Fig.=5. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height to be allowed for in scale-up as functions of the height of the bed of packing or the number of transfer units . 6. 8.1 CD — — Ill to s 0 0. 1 0. metal.1 / s ? 1 ~~I 3 3 u L =ww-iu " m /nx s / / / / J y ^^ i ^iii'-* — ' — — V\ P =r5 m .9 . d s =288mm .3 0.315"i0~ 3 m 3 /m 2 sI I I 2 3 Packing height H i m ] .7 0.19. Z =123 1/m 2 S0 2 -Air/H 2 0 at STP. Fv = 1 nr 1 / 2 s.1 k1/2 10 i0.2 0.168 6 End effects in packed columns 25-mm Hiflow ring.8 0.315 •10" 3m Vm / 2 » 1" •" s-— 1^' _— — " ~ ~ 0.2 — L u.

70 mm C0 2 -H 2 0/Air at STP Fv = 0.90 m 3 /m 2 s 0.5 0 . .94 m.•• • - — — — — — - — — • • — — — • HP-2 m —• — — 10 15 Number of transfer units NTUL Fig.5 Examples of scale-up 169 DINPAC. X / — — — — — -— — — — *~— . — — — ' — — • — — .3 / / f 0. 6.6 2 3 Packing height H i m ] 0. Z = 490 1/m2 47 mm.20. uL--2.1 CD / / / i 't / /.plastics d s =288 mm.. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height to be allowed for in scale-up as functions of the height of the bed of packing or the number of transfer units 20 .2 / / / ~° 0.6.1 / z s" 1 kg1'2. 4 0.

S =1 0-9 J I I 1— I 175.4 HZ C D 0.1 | ^y t—1—1—M 10 nt It _ **^- T M 1 5 No. Z=600 1/m2 Methanol/Ethanol 1 bar. L/V=1. Z = 490 1/m2 Ethylbenzene/Styreng 130 mbar.2.170 6 End effects in packed columns 50-mm Pall ring. d s = 800 mm.metal. —*1i——_.-0..22. 6.0 .i 10 15 Theoretical stages nt Fig. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height to be allowed for in scale-up as functions of the height of the bed of packing or the number of theoretical stages 50-mm Pall ring. metal. of theoretical stages Fig.7 4 Packing height H [ m —• .9 O > •^^-^ 4J^S -1 I1 1 l/nl/2 I 0 .^ o.. Efficiency ratio and relative increase in height to be allowed for in scale-up as functions of the height of the bed of packing or the number of theoretical stages .2 ^0. 8 UJ ' kg" 2 — — 3 0.1 _ ^ 0 0 1 1 / _ _ _ _ _ 5 I m" 1 / 2 S .§0. 1/z . d s =500 mm. L/V = 1 .3 CO S y V AH k.21. — — _ — — _B__i f 0. — — 3 4 P a c k i n g height H i m ] . 6. HP = 2 m 1. HP = 2 m —• ^ —• —1 — — >~ .

^Li (. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 .e. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. the more efficient the mass and heat transfer within the bed of packing. and (p is the diameter ratio as defined by Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. General theoretical considerations and the results of pinpointed experiments allow a relationship to be derived between the number of distributor outlets and the maximum efficiency for a given packing under given conditions. It will thus be seen that the efficiency decreases with the distribution density. each with a hydraulic diameter dh that is given by dh = 4 -jj- (7-1) where a is the surface area per unit volume of the packing and e is the void fraction. 7. because it governs the quality of liquid distribution at the inlet cross-section and thus the extent to which the packing is wetted. by (7-2) t .1 Theoretical considerations It is permissible in theory to represent a bed of packing as a number of parallel flow channels.-3) 7* Since e < 1. the total number of flow channels nh is always less than the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the column to that of an individual channel. The void fraction in a packed column of diameter ds is related to the cross-sectional area of an individual channel Ah by (f) and to the number nh of flow channels. 2 — ri 4 s nh < — = -Y d2 = cp2 = nb (7-4) where nb represents the boundary case.7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns It is evident from the results presented in the last chapter that the number of liquid distributor outlets greatly affects the inlet efficiency at the upper part of a packed bed.e. The higher the degree of wetting and thus the greater the phase contact area. the maximum towards which nh tends if e — » 1. i. i.

e. the number of outlets Z required to feed all the flow channels lies within the following limits: Z. 7.1. However.1. In practice. as illustrated in Fig. is given by Zh = (7-7) 7* In the boundary case of 8 -» 1. and arranged packing with triangular and rectangular flow channels and vertically staggered elements. Zh tends towards a maximum Zb. The number of these points Z7 thus represents the minimum theoretically required. the number of distributor outlets ought to be equal to the number of channels Zh.172 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns Eqn (7-4) can therefore be rewritten as 'd' 16 (7-6) nh < = nb Examples of the feasible geometries for the inlet cross-section of a packed column are shown schematically in Fig. i. 7.1. 7. the only points at which the liquid need be fed are those at the flow channel intersects. Zh< 4 it d} 1 7l=z» (7-8) If the liquid is to be distributed evenly over all the flow channels. < Z < Zh (7-9) Dumped packing Regular packing q= 6 1 6 Fig. Dumped toroidal packing is illustrated on the left. on the right. Schematic graph illustrating the inlet geometry of random and geometrically arranged beds of packing . The number of flow channels per unit area of column cross-section Zj.

there ought to be an optimum value qopt that corresponds to the number of outlets Zmax at which the packing inlet efficiency is a maximum and cannot be improved by a further increase in Z. less than Zh. which is given by 173 This factor. i. The experiments concerned were the rectification of a chlorobenzene/ethylbenzene mixture at 67 mbar and the absorption of an ammonia-air/water system at 1 bar.2. i.4. e.5 and 7. above which the rate of increase is negligible. the number of distributor outlets that is equal to the number of flow channels. Some results of studies along these lines on random beds of packing are submitted in Figs.2 Effect of inlet liquid distribution on the efficiency of packed columns The value of qopt for various types of packing and for distribution densities of Z < Zb can be obtained experimentally by determining the mass transfer efficiency at various load factors below the flood point.3. Fv < Fv. The curves thus obtained confirm that the efficiency increases with the number of distributor outlets Z until a point Z > Z max is reached. if Z > Zmax. in Figs. qopt can be regarded as the performance parameter for the inlet liquid distribution. In the light of the above considerations.7. can be taken to determine the number of outlets required to feed all the flow channels in the inlet cross-section of the packing. 7. In this case.6. referred to as the feeder coefficient. Zmax is less than the boundary or limiting value Zh\ and normally. i. Logically. It can be derived from Eqns (7-2) to (7-4) that Zh is defined by The corresponding total number of flow channels n^ is given by ds 16 a2 s (7 12) " 7.e. and on systematically stacked beds.2 Effect of inlet liquid distribution on the efficiency of packed columns Now let Z differ from Zb by a factor q.Fh a n d at constant liquid-vapour ratios LIV or constant liquid loads uL. 7.e. . The efficiency in this case can be expressed as the number of theoetical stages per unit height of bed ntIH or as the overall height of a transfer unit HTU0. 7. and 7.

6 2 2.4 2.4 1/2 2. 600 V .5m 1 Glitsch CMR 2 " metal 1— i= —c i— — — —— In 2.8 s" kg 1 ^.2 ] 3.8 s" kg 1 1/2 3. H =1. 7..4 0.> -a 10.8 1. —i \ •• z 0. 2036 • 2 3. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on the rectification efficiency 4 3 _ 2 i I 0-mm H iflow rings r eramic s / ••t i — — 3 7 \ [V m ] 2 27 • 80 • 2036 • ZL 1 Chlorobenzene /Ethylbenzene 67 mbar L/V = 1 d s .2.107 0 .3. 1560 O i i i i i i i 0.0 2 2 m . H=1.6 Capacity factor F v I m Fig.8 1.2 ] 3. 7.2 1.4 0. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on the rectification efficiency .22m .2 1/m2 ] = 27 B.5 m — 25-mm Hiflow rings metal .174 7 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns i i T r I ] T - 50-mm Hiflow rings PVDF e H 0 ^ 4 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar L/V = 1 d s --0. 107 a .6 4 Capacity factor F v [ ( T r Fig.

1560 v UJ 1 0 0. uL = 10 m 3 /m 2 h 25-mm Hitlow rings. — • IT" -•^ £ 0.8 1. 730 • .5.4 I1 y Z = 135 0 1/m ^ 4 2 7 s. 7.4 1 2.28 ft m -1 U =1 . 5 "iln _—^ £• 3 jt—< Z [ 1/m 2 ]--2250 TT .5 1 3 1/z 3.5 § 0.4 1 i 1 1 i I 175 Z [ 1 / m ] . 2150 v .2 Effect of inlet liquid distribution on the efficiency of packed columns 0.5 ^ 0.8 kg ' ] 12 3. 400 • . Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on the absorption efficiency Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on the rectification efficiency .5 ] 4 Capacity factor F v [aT s" kg Fig.2 NH 3 -Air/H 2 0.3 0.4.2 1..5 1 1. 2400 • 2 *~— <-< \<*>— »-— ^ ^ 't H Z °-3 E: Z3 L ). = 0. L/V = 1 MBllapak 250 '/ rlc.7.6 0.4m i i i i 2 2.6 Capacity factor Fv [ m ^ V Fig.1 bar. 7.5 2 1/2 2.1 5 5 O .4 y 0.2 3. H = 1.6 d s = 0 3 m .6 I 0. •s = C H = 2m £ GO 0.45(T1.2 0. metal ^ Z = 15 1/m2 g 0.

H = 1..4 -1. In rectification studies. 2036 e M 2 Z [1/m ]-n Montz B1 300 3 "•. I hv—^ Z 11/m2] = 6 0 0 o 2150 • . it is defined by nA j nA ) (7-13) . i 1 Capacity factor Fv [ m ' 25 1/z 1 3 s kg ] "' ll 1/? l/nl/z 1 35 " 4 Fig 7-6> " Effect of t h e n u m b e r of liquid distribution points on the rectification efficiency 7.3 Maximum packing efficiency in inlet zones A term introduced to evaluate experimental results is the relative efficiency e of the packed bed. Ralupak 250 Y .22 m .176 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar L/V d s = 0.5 m 7 6 5 4 Ij V\ r • Sulz 3 fl DV c n n DA JUU \^ ^ — Z [1/m 2 2036 D 80 • 27 0 5 QJ 3 —e•y— —o— 2 r^ i NT B 4 e — o — o O.• — <>—**j—0—|K> 1 .

Once qopt is known. (7-16) in which fvis the relative vapour load factor and is kept constant.75.7 in the form of the function described by Eqn (7-16) with fv as parameter. 7. by (NTU/H)Z<Z max HTUZ^Z HTUz<Z K } Solving Eqn (7-10) for q gives / e \2 V ) ) (7-15) Zb a I qopt can then be obtained by plotting the following function: e = f(q)fv = const.1 that the value of qopt depends primarily on the packing geometry at the inlet and that a difference thus exists between the figures for random and those for stacked packing. Zmax can be determined from the following equation: — \<Zb a'2 * (7-18) It is demonstrated in Fig. the liquid runs off the walls of the packing.1 were determined in rectification experiments in which the number of liquid distributor outlets was varied.e. between random and stacked beds are discussed below. . In Fig. qopt is the value on the axis of abscissae at which e tends to unity. in turn. i.3 Maximum packing efficiency in inlet zones 111 and in absorption and desorption studies. 7. It can be seen that hardly any relationship exists between the relative efficiency e and the vapour flow rate at relative load factors of fv < 0. At this point. as determined by experiment. 7.7. i. The results were evaluated by the procedure described above and are presented graphically in Fig. In this case. fy = ( T H \ zr = V L Below the loading point at which its flow rate is practically unaffected by that of the vapour.e. The packing geometry.75.7. determines how the liquid spreads out and is distributed over the cross-section of the packing and therefore greatly influences the inlet efficiency. the packing efficiency is a maximum and cannot be improved by a further increase in q or an increase in the number of distributor outlets above Zmax. The associated differences in Zmax. it can be assumed that qopt and thus Zmax are independent of the vapour load factor Fy. Zmax for dumped beds of packing The efficiencies of the types of dumped packing listed in Table 7. at relative load factors of /y<0.

The horizontal parameter shown as dashed lines in the diagram is the hydraulic diameter dh. The evaluated results are presented in Fig.dumP = 0.4 >-.7.388 • 10" (7-20) -1max. Zmax can be determined graphically from Fig.6 o i •B—^ • — — • 1 jfJ a_ • - SI pas. dump Hence. I ] EH J. It can be seen that they agree well with those plotted in Fig. ? • i n •" 1 = i — — n C u 7J ° 0. Thus = 2. 7. £ 0.8 0.e.8 in the form described by Eqn (7-16).3 (fore = 1. which is related to a and 8 by Eqn (7-1).9. 7. the greater the number of outlets Zmax required to ensure the maximum efficiency.8 " 0. JU Relative 2 3 4 6 8 10 2 3 4 6 8 10" 2 3 Distribution coefficient q Fig. Thus the value calculated for qopt is the same in both cases. i.7. It is evident from the diagram that the smaller the value of dh. .6 n 1 capacity f y = 0 . qopt.178 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns Rectification Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar L/V = 1 1 0. 7. L/V = 1) (7-19) The maximum number Zmax of liquid distributor outlets for random beds of packing can be obtained by substituting this numerical value for qopt in Eqn (7-18). in which it it has been plotted against the area-to-volume ratio a with the void fraction e as parameter. Relative efficiency of packing as a function of the distribution coefficient in rectification The types of dumped packing listed in Table 7.2 were the subject of absorption and desorption studies. 7.

971 0.600 0. 2036 80.973 0. 400.887 0. 27.1.994 0. 122. 107. 2036 104.9189 0. 27.22 0. 490 15.288 0. 27. 730.2. 2036 27.5" 25 20 35 25 50 mm mm mm mm mm a[m2/m3] 223 225 357 233 182 156 78 203 261 108 194 118 E 179 z[l/m 2 ] 107.66 m"1/z s" 1 kg 1 / z m O A -.288 0.3 Maximum packing efficiency in inlet zones Table 7.988 0.8.779 0. 2150 Symbol O • B 0.5" 2" 2. 2036 27.1/2 Desorption C02 -H 2 0/Air.7.962 0. 2036 80. 600 107.918 0.962 0. 600.965 0.450 0. L/V =1 " 2 3 4 6 8 10"2 2 3 4 6 8 10"1 Distribution coefficient q 2 3 Fig.925 m • • O Metal Ceramic Ceramic PVDF PVDF • o <> Table 7. Fv = U 7 nr 1 / 2 s"1 kg A V mmm *— I S1 0. 2036 27.9143 0.955 0.9286 m O A A V Plastic PP 25 mm 50 mm Absorption NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 J Fv = 0. List of packings (together with their geometrical data a and e) investigated in the rectification experiments with the different numbers Z of liquid distributor outlets Packing Pall Rings Glitsch CMR Cascade MiniRings Hiflow Rings Material Metal PVDF Metal Size 25 mm 25 mm 0. 1350 155. Relative efficiency of packing as a function of the distribution coefficient in absorption and desorption .954 0.8 a —-* — • _ — — rr TT 1 bar. 2400 45 15. 490 Symbol 0. 107. 27.971 0. 2036 107.288 a[m2/m3] 233 199 182 201 229 233 112 E z[l/m 2 ] 122. 1360 15. 7. 2150 27. 2036 27. 107. 2036 104.962 0.5" 1" 1.833 0. List of packings (together with their geometrical data a and e) investigated in the absorption and desorption experiments with the different numbers Z of liquid distributor outlets Packing Glitsch CMR Hiflow Rings Material Metal Metal Size 1" 25 mm ds[m] 0. 107.

10. 7. 7. 7. Maximum number of liquid distribution points as a function of the dimensions of a bed of packing Zmax for arranged beds of packing The results of the corresponding studies on arranged beds of packing are presented graphically in Fig. As can be seen.7 and 7. Hence irregularities in the flow pattern at the inlet can be compensated .180 2000 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns Z3 T3 ID 50 75 100 150 200 2 3 300 Area per unit volume a[m /m ] Fig. LIV = 1) (7-21) The fact that this numerical value of qopt is lower than that for random packing can be ascribed to the superior self-distribution characteristic and the staggered arrangement of the stacked packing.9. the slope of this log-log relationship is less than that of the corresponding relationships shown in Figs. Thus the value of qopt calculated in this case is = 0.15 (fore = 1.8 for random packing.

7.3 Maximum packing efficiency in inlet zones

181

Rectification Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar L/V = 1 1 0.8 5-0.6
a,
CD

s

•S

v=

0.75 ys 1

,

• | 0.8

c

#

-2
— Relative capacity f v = 0.5

1 0.6
0.4 10 1.5 2 3 4 6

8 10"2 15 2

3 4

6

8 10"1 1.5

Distribution coefficient q Fig. 7.10. Relative efficiency of packed columns as a function of the liquid distribution coefficient in rectification

more rapidly than those in random beds. The optimum number of liquid distributor outlets calculated from this value for the stacked beds of packing listed in Table 7.3 is therefore given by

Zmax,arr=

1.195 • 10"2 ( ~

(7-22)

It can be read off in Fig. 7.11 against the area per unit volume a and the void fraction e for an arranged bed with flow channels of dh hydraulic diameter.

Table 7.3. List of packings (together with their geometrical data a and e investigated in the rectification experiments with the different numbers Z of liquid distributors Packing Mellapak Ralupak Montz B l smooth Montz B l perforated Size 250 Y 250 YC 300 350 500 300 350 500 500-60 Sulzer BX 500 a[m2/m3] 250 250 300 350 500 300 350 500 500 500 e 0.96 0.963 0.972 0.965 0.96 0.972 0.967 0.96 0.96 0.95 z[l/m2] 27; 2150 600; 2150 27; 2036 27; 80; 2036 27; 107; 2143 27; 2036 27; 80; 2036 27; 107; 2143 27; 80; 2036 27; 80; 2036 Symbol V

O •

o
A

182

7

Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns

100

™n ™n mn tnn 200 300 400 500 » -L , r ? / 11 Area per unit volume a [ m / m J ] 150

Fi

g - 7 1 1 - Maximum number of liquid distribution points as a function of the dimensions of a bed of packing pacing

Desorption C0 2 -H 2 0/Air. 1 bar, Fv=1.47 m'V2 s"1 kg1'2 50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic, ds = 0.288m

• * - — .

0.9
£ 0-8

— « '—^. D *—,

1
• - — .

—o

!

^ 1.6 m
k

-

1— —

OA_

k ^

0.6
^—«

08
* * — .

A

-


m

"

• — ^ ,

1

——»

—c

10-7
0.6

.

—•

^ .

n=

Z-- 1 5 1/m

•——«,

^

'

-

5
10 15 3

6

7

9

10

11

12

10 uL [m 3 /m 2 -s] 20 25 30 Liquid load uL [ m 3 /m 2 h ] 4 5 Liquid/gas ratio L'/V

35

40

Fig. 7.12.

Relative efficiency as a function of the liquid load in desorption

7.4 Effect of phase ratio on relative efficiency

183

NH 3 -Air7H 2 0. 1 bar, F v =lfTT 1/2 s' 1 kg 1/2 50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic, d s = 0.45 m

i.o
7 o
10 L = U d CD
1
_ — —» /
r«/

1/ III

>

0.6
U.ifim

T7-"

"a

0.4

6
0
0 1

8

1 0

12

14

103uL[m3/m2s] 10
2

20 30 40 Liquid load u L [m 3 /m 2 h]
3 4 5 6 7 Liquid/gas ratio L/V

Fig. 7.13. Relative efficiency as a function of the liquid load in absorption

7.4 Effect of phase ratio on relative efficiency
Values for the relative efficiency calculated as described above are, strictly speaking, valid only for columns that are operated at a phase ratio of L/V = 1. The results of further studies that were performed to determine the effects of other values of L/V are shown in Figs. 7.12 and 7.13. The gas flow rate uv and thus the capacity factor Fv were kept constant, with the consequence that the effect of the liquid flow rate uL was readily apparent. It was thus established that the following equation applies:
(7-23)
Uy QV Qv

=

V

The relationship between the relative efficiency e and the L/V ratio or the liquid flow rate uL is shown in the diagrams. It applies to both desorption, in which the resistance to mass transfer is on the liquid side, and absorption, in which resistance is predominantly on the gas side. The extent to which the relative efficiency e deviates from the values for L/V = 1 can be expressed quantitatively by the relative efficiency ratio, i.e.
(7-24)

The corresponding results obtained in desorption and absorption experiments are presented in Figs. 7.14 and 7.15 respectively. The relationship shown in Fig. 7.14 can be repre-

184

7

Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns

sented by the following equation, which has been confirmed for LlV < 15 in systems with resistance in the liquid phase but only for LlV < 7 in systems with resistance mainly in the gas phase:

JLp

(7-25)

Desorption C0 2 -H 2 0/Air, 1 bar, d s = 0.288 m. HP=1.4 m - ^ - a = 229, £ = 0.914; Z--15 l / m 2 ; q = 3-10' 3 -vQ--H2; £ = 0.928; Z=15 1/m 2 ; q = 1310' 3

i 0.9
o 0 0.8 0.7

s

1

•—su — —

—;

/-» -—« —V-

"tfV1 — ..

'•

1 0.5
o

A 25-mm Hiflow rings, PP, Fv = 0.66m' 1/z s"1 kg 1/z v 50-mm Hiflow rings, PP Fv--147 m" 1/z s"1 kg 1/z 0.8 1 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 Liquid/gas ratio L/V 15

£ 0.4

Fig. 7.14. Efficiency ratio as a function of the liquid-gas ratio in desorption

Absorption NH 3 -Air/H 2 0,1 bar, d s = 0.45 m, HP = 1.6 m a = 112; £ = 0.928; Z = 13 1/m 2 ; q--!4-10" 3

3 (19 - 0.8

'

^ « - f4^
K

_

i—

\—i

E °'6
•2 07

Absor ptio n

^THT-L

DesorDtion

I" 0.5
^ 0.4 0.8 1

50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic, F v =1 m"1/2 s"1 kg 1/2 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 Liquid/gas ratio L/V 1 5

Fig. 7.15. Efficiency ratio as a function of the liquid-gas ratio in absorption and desorption

7.6 Estimation of relative efficiency

185

7.5 Effect of height of packing on relative efficiency
The relationships established in the experimental studies described above allow the relative efficiency of the packing to be estimated whenever the number of liquid distributor outlets is less than the maximum and the packing height is about H = 1.5 m. Owing to inlet effects and the packing's self-distribution characteristic, the average relative packing efficiency, as defined by Eqns (7-13) and (7-14), depends on the height of the bed. This is strikingly illustrated in Figs. 7.16, 7.17, and 7.18. A change in the reference height H « 1.5 m entails a corresponding change in the relative efficiency. As would be expected and is evident from these diagrams, the effect of reducing the number of distributor outlets on the efficiency per unit height becomes less as the height increases. In other words, the lower the value of //, the less the value of e and vice versa. The relative efficiency ratio in this case is defined by
* L
(7_26)

It is shown as a function of the bed height H in Fig. 7.19. Allowance must be made for this aspect in order to avoid misinterpretation in evaluating the efficiency of column packing. In particular, the effect that the number of liquid distributor outlets has on the inlet efficiency must be taken into account in scaling up as described in Chapter 8.

7.6 Estimation of relative efficiency
If the number of outlets in the liquid distributor of a packed column is reduced to a value of Z < Zmax, the anticipated decrease in efficiency Ae can be described by Ae - ( ^ > r r ( ^ < ^
(nt/H)z > zmax
(7.27)

This equation can be solved if the relative efficiency e is known. The value can be obtained from Figs. 7.7, 7.8, and 7.10. If the reference height is H « 1.5 m ± 5 %, the curves plotted in these diagrams can be described by a function of the following form: ez<zmax = C ql/v=\;H=\.5 (7-28)

The dashed-line curves in the diagrams represent the most adverse conditions and have been taken for determining the values for C and n in Eqn (7-28). Relative efficiency of dumped packing The following values of C and n apply for random beds: Cdump = 1.13
ndump =0.1

(for LIV = 1; H = 1.5)
(for L/V = U H = 1.5)

(7-29)
(7-30)

186

7

Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns

50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic

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Height of packing H i m ] Fig. 7.16. Relative efficiency as a function of the bed height in a packed desorption column

50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic 0.9
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1.6

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1.8

Height of packing H [ m ] Fig. 7.17. Relative efficiency as a function of the bed height in a packed absorption column

7.6 Estimation of relative efficiency

187

Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar; L/V ^ 1 Rolupcik 250 YC metal; ds-- 0.22 m
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0.8 £ 0.6
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0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Height of packing H t m ]

1.4

1.6

Fig. 7.18. Relative efficiency as a function of the bed height in a packed rectification column

50-mm Hiflow rings, plastic; Z = 15 1/m2 o • ; Z = 131/m 2 v _[m 3 /m 2 h] = 38.4 O; 2 3 * | C0 2 -H 2 0/Air 1 bar, Fv= 1.47 m' 1 " s" 1 kg 1 / 2 d<= 0.288 m \
o

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n /(Ti

ii

2.5

Fig. 7.19. Efficiency ratio as a function of the bed height in a packed desorption and absorption column

valid for a reference height of H « 1. In this case. 0 04 C= 1. C and n will depend on LIV. Eqn (7-30) for n. and Eqn (7-15) for q in Eqn (7-28) gives rise to the following expression for the relative efficiency in random beds of packing: ( f o r L / V = \\H= 1. i.20.9 0. If the relative efficiency ratio. 7. 7. e. as defined by Eqn (7-25).8 75 100 150 200 300 400 500 750 1000 1500 2000 Number of distributor outlets Z [ 1 / m 2 ] Fig.5) (7-31) This relationship between e and Z is.5) (for//=1. 7. the relationship shown in Fig.21 would apply. strictly speaking. Relative efficiency as a function of the dimensions in a packed column and the number of liquid distribution points . substituting Eqn (7-29) for C.5) (7-32) (7-33) Surface area per unit volume a [rn 2 /m 3 ] 50 100 150 200 250 Dumped packing 0.13 - (for/f = 1.188 7 Liquid distribution at the inlets of packed columns If the number of liquid distributor outlets is Z < Zopt. is taken into consideration to allow for different values of LIV and the value of qopt remains unchanged.20.5 m and LIV = 1 and is presented graphically in Fig.

Eqn (7-33) for n. and Eqn (7-15) for q in Eqn (7-28) yields the relationship that corresponds to Eqn (7-31) for random beds. as defined by Eqn (7-25). i. Relative efficiency as a function of the distribution coefficient in packed columns with the liquid-vapour ratio as parameter . and Eqn (7-15) for q in Eqn (7-28) and allowing for the relative efficiency ratio.5 1 0 10 10 Distribution coefficient q Fig. Thus.5) (7-37) Although insufficient experiments have been performed to reveal the effect of the phase ratio LIV on the relative efficiency of stacked packing. 0. I 8 L \0. it is reasonable to assume that Eqn (7-25) can be applied for rough estimates.21.13 -rV / \a 01 /f\ 0 .5) (7-35) (7-36) Thus. substituting Eqn (7-35) for C. 7.6 Estimation of relative efficiency 189 Substituting Eqn (7-32) for C..7.361 [ — i a (for L/V = 1. 2 5 W (for H = 1.5) (for LIV = 1. yields an expression for the relative efficiency in random beds for the case in which LIV > 1.5 are as follows: Carr = 1. Eqn (7-36) for n. H = 1.04 4JIZ e = 1.5) (7-34) Relative efficiency of arranged packing The corresponding values for C and n in systematically arranged beds of packing of the types investigated for the case of LIV = 1 and H = 1. e.07 (for LIV = 1. if Z < Z op .14 narr = 0. / / = 1. earr = 1. H = 1.

.

1. Otherwise grave errors may occur in scaling up on the basis of these measurements or relationships derived from them.288 m Fv = 0. It is only in the lower zones that the efficiency can be expected to remain in equilibrium. Typical curves plotted from the results of systematic studies will again be taken as an example to explain this fact.2 1. The conclusion can thus be drawn that the development of two-phase flow is complete in the zone of constant local efficiency and depends 1 1 I 1 MH3-Air/H20.25-mm Hiflow rings PP. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 .8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution In Chapters 6 and 7. It is also evident from the diagrams that the increase in NTU is independent of the number of liquid distributor outlets Z.e.4 Packing height H i m ] 1. In other words. 'i i I I I . in which the local efficiency continuously changes. 1 bar JL= 5. The necessity arises because the most pronounced changes in efficiency can generally be anticipated in the upper zone of the column immediately below the inlet. increases almost linearly with the height H. NTUi in desorption or NTUOv m absorption. there are two main zones in the bed of packing: the inlet zone.1 and 8. 8. ds= 0. it was demonstrated that the evaluation of measurements to determine the column efficiency in a pilot plant must allow for end effects and the initial distribution density realized by the liquid distributor. the NTU = f (H) curves for Z = constant are practically parallel in the lower zone.8 2 Fig. i A C O d \ o 4 i —i - ~ CD _O o 6 4 ZD ° .4 rcr/m2h _ U |1 s—' k .2 and strikingly demonstrate the extent to which the inlet efficiency of a column is affected if the number of liquid distributor outlets is greatly reduced.. They are reproduced in Figs.66m" 1/2 s" 1 kg 1/2 • ' E co2 -H20 /Air £ i i —i—i—• : *—•—- ^ 1 bar 38. Efficiency as a function of the height of bed with the number of liquid distribution points as parameter Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. --- . the number of transfer units. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. and the lower zone. 1 2 i u • 1 m ^——« Ai '—i _1 — — \5 - i 0 0. 8. in which the local efficiency remains constant.4 m 3 /m 2 h \ J .2 0.4 0.8 1 1.6 0. l r— . According to the diagrams. i.—•—' .6 1.

e.2.e. 8.g.e. reflux distributors and support plates. A qualitative impression of the relationship between end effects and the relative efficiency can be obtained from Fig.2 0. and the local separation efficiency is theoretically constant over the entire height of the column. It can be ascribed to external end effects. and in the other. i.2 1. i.2 Fig.8 1 1.4 m J /rrh 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 50-mm Hiflow rings. Thus the flow pattern that is characteristic of the packing's self-distribution effect already exists in the inlet zone. plastic •I 6 =3 * * * - r t—" ^ * . Fv = 1 firms' 1 kg1/z. Two cases of efficiency.4 Packing height H [ m ] 1. Efficiency as a function of the height of bed with the number of liquid distribution points as parameter solely on the packing's self-distribution characteristic and no longer on the effects of the inlet current distribution. the inlet efficiency is negative. .192 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution Absorption NH3-Air/H20. the average dN/dH is higher in the inlet zone. but this has already been mentioned in Chapter 6. that are embraced by the measurements under certain sampling arrangements and are thus normally included in the evaluation of packing efficiency.8 2 2. i.6 1. - . deducted {Eqn (8-2)}. Yet another fact that arises from the diagrams is that the relationships tend towards a finite value at H = 0. The associated relative efficiency is represented by the set of curves in the upper part of the diagram. in which N = NTUOv and N = NTUL. Another fact that is known from Chapter 6 and can also be derived from the diagrams is that there is a certain number Zo of liquid distributor outlets that gives rise to hardly any inlet effects. — — • E d s = 0. — - .2. if Z < Zo. are shown: in the one. e. 8. An explanation to this effect has already been given in Chapters 6 and 7.3.4 0. uL = 38. 8. — ii * . because the surface of the packing in the inlet zone is only moderately wetted. the average dN/dH is comparatively low. the end effects Nd have been included {Eqn (8-1)}. However.1 and 8. The N = f(H) curves in the lower part of the diagram qualitatively represent the efficiency determined by experiment and were derived from the quantitative curves presented in Figs.45 m i i 0 0 0.6 0. The inlet efficiency is improved if Z > Z o . because the liquid distribution at the head of the column allows more effective exploitation of the area available per unit volume. e and e.1 bar.

and the relative efficiency e. it can be appreciated that a knowledge of the experimental conditions is essential in scaling up separation columns from experimentally determined values for the efficiency. QJ Fv = const. . u L or L/V = const Nd Packing height H Fig. the relationship between the efficiency and the inlet characteristic. which depends on the number of liquid distributor outlets. and (7-38) in Chapter 7. 8. design calculations must be based on known values for the height HP of the pilot column. Efficiency as a function of the height of bed with the number of liquid distribution points as parameter (qualitative) N = f(H) (8-1) (8-2) In the light of these relationships.8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 193 Assumption: Nd independent of Z CD O a a. the end effects Nd.3. Relationships of this nature assume the form of Eqns (7-32). In other words. (7-35).

the height is HP. It allows a qualitative comparison of the relationship between the number of separation units and the height of the bed of packing that exists in a pilot plant (Case a). 8. the model shown in Fig. 8. Graph for modelling the effect of the number of liquid distribution points on the efficiency and in scale-up . the minimum bed height required is HT>min\ and if Z < Zmax. it is merely NP.194 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 8. and the number of transfer units pertaining to Zmax liquid distributor outlets is NPjmax\ in Case c. If the number of distributor outlets is Zmax. and an industrial-scale plant with fewer liquid distributor outlets (Case c). The limiting value for the efficiency at a bed height of if = 0 is the contribution made by the end effects Nd.1 Scale-up model Once a sound basis for planning has thus been established.4 can be derived.4. in which Z < ZmflJC. The number of separation units that must be realized in Cases b and c is NT. the height required would be HT > HTjmin. In Case a. an industrial-scale plant with the maximum number of liquid distributor outlets (Case b). The quantities AN{ and ANi>max are characteristic of the effect exerted by Industrial-scale columns Pilot column Packing height H Fig.

(«)*.5. the increase in bed height that is necessitated by nonoptimum liquid distribution is given by JN\ 1 H. depends on e = f (Z).min ^ TW\H (8 7) \ " I P. In scaling up by the method illustrated in Fig.= (f) lip \tijpjmax ( 85 ) - In this case and if Z > Zmax.max <3W \ This equation was evaluated in the light of studies on random beds of metallic and plastics rings. HT is always greater than HT>min by an amount that is equal to the second summand in Eqn (8-6).e. It is fixed by the efficiency ratio that corresponds to the height of the pilot plant HP. In other words. 8. The results are presented in Fig.8. identical to the following ratio: dtf \ dH)H> = (1-e)^. = —^ (8-4) The maximum efficiency per unit height that can be achieved by the optimum number of liquid distributor outlets Zmax and a height HP is given by nr. The qualitative T V = f (//) diagram in Fig. in turn. owing to the geometry of the model. allowance for potential end effects can be made by means of the quantity Nd.4 is based on the assumption that the height HP in the pilot plant and the heights HT>min and HT in the technical-scale plant are greater than that of the inlet zone Hi. tl H n T. i.1 Scale-up model 195 the inlet current and therefore depend on the number of liquid distributor outlets Z and Zmax respectively. The effect of the inlet current ANt on the relative efficiency e depends on the number of liquid distributor outlets Z and is defined by . the requisite height of an industrial-scale column would be r" Hr-fhnun_n ( 1 e ) ( 86 ) " " Hence. 8. which convincingly demonstrates the effect exerted by the number of distributor outlets Z on the height of the packed bed. 8.^ HTHTj ( g 3 ) Hi The relative efficiency e in this equation is defined by Eqn (7-13) for rectification systems and by Eqn (7-14) for absorption and desorption systems.4. The value taken for e was obtained from Eqn (7-34). and this summand. dN/dH is constant and. In the H > Ht zone. in which the local efficiency dN/dH is subject to continuous change.

5 I I 1 0.8 0. i <U 5 a 0 1 0.3 0. of feeders Z [ 1 / m 2 ] for 50-mm Pall ring metal 200 400 600 800 1000 1250 No.5 0.9 > 0.e) (8-8) = N0-Nd-HP[ — \ (l-e) The imaginary quantity No is the sum of Nd and Ni>max and is obtained from the maximum number of distributor outlets.196 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution AiV.2 5 . i.1 0. Effect of the number various types of packing: 50-mm metal Pall rings 25-mm PP Hiflow rings 47-mm PP Dinpac of liquid distribution points on the efficiency and in scale-up for rectification system desorption system desorption system .4 5 0. No = Nd + ANl>n (8-9) 0.NPiBUX (1 .e. of feeders Z [1/m z ] for 47-mm Dinpac PP 1500 500 Fig.2 .5 0 .5.2 0.4 0.7 0.7 nfi 0 0 0 0 0.m m Hiflow ring PP L/V =2 X • 47-mm Dinpac PP L/V =2 I o . 8.9 1 50 100 150 200 250 300 No.Nd . 0.6 Feeder ratio Z/Z ma x.3 0.m m Pall ring metal L/V = 1 . = No . of feeders Z [ 1 / m 2 ] for 25-mm Hiflow ring PP 100 200 300 400 No.

All that is then required is the numerical value of ANt. the system concerned. or at the best. the inlet effect ANt tends to zero.2 Inlet and end effects in industrial-scale plants identical to those in pilot plants The relationships discussed have emphasized an important point to observe in scaling up and thus in avoiding setbacks in column operation. .e. 8.e. viz. because it governs the packing efficiency in the inlet zone. the efficiency per unit height NT/HT in an industrial-scale column differs from the corresponding efficiency NP/HP in a pilot plant column of HP < HT height by a certain ratio \\Tj which is given by NT/HT T. The experiments also revealed that the number of liquid distributor outlets for which the local efficiency does not alter with the height in the inlet zone is usually less than.4. and the phase ratio..max (8-10) = ANi. ANt = ANi>max-(l-e)NP. the quality of the initial liquid distribution must be taken into consideration. This can be ascribed to the geometry and hydraulic diameter of the packing. i. For it demonstrates that. the number of distributor outlets is not the only factor that may influence the inlet efficiency. equal to the maximum.e. Others are the design of the outlets and their spacing relative to the inlet cross-section of the packing.2 Inlet and end effects in industrial-scale plants identical to those in pilot plants 197 Substituting for No in Eqn (8-8) yields an expression for the effect of the inlet stream on the efficiency. at H = 0 for the determination of Nd and at Hj > Ht and H2 > Ht for the determination of No and (dN/dH)H > H. which can be obtained by three measurements. i. if end and inlet effects occur. Thus. The figure for the spacing in the experiments was about 150-200 mm. the local separation efficiency in the inlet zone ought to be practically constant and independent of height if the distribution brought about by a given number of outlets Zo corresponds to the self-distribution characteristic of the packing.8. ^ ^ " NP/HP T8 ( 8 121 12) ( 8" 12) According to the model. However. In this case. i.max-{l-e)HP[-—\ According to the model. Convincing evidence of its importance is given by the model presented in Fig. (ANdzo^O (8-11) The inflow length Ht is of no significance in calculating the height of the bed of packing as long as it is less than HP and HT. this efficiency ratio applies for a certain value of Z and thus of e. 8.

and if the values for Z and thus the values for the relative efficiency e also differ. the height of the pilot plant HP.e) NP. Eqns (8-14).7 and 8.n Hp Hi r ) r = l - (8-13) Inserting Eqn (8-5) in Eqn (8-13) results in the following relationship: ~m— prmax Nd + ANiitnax 1 HP 1 HT (8-14) The relative difference in the required height A H/HT corresponds to the difference generally caused by inlet effects between the efficiency per unit height in pilot plants and that in industrial-scale columns. Nevertheless.4 are satisfied. According to Eqn (6-40). if the value for dN/dH when H ^ Ht also depends o n e . Other information is essential. Obviously.8. 8.the end effects Nd. If this is not the case. This applies to the assumption that the local efficiency dN/dH is constant and independent of Z in the section below the inlet zone. However. i..4. a corresponding correction must be made to the equations in the model. (6-40) and (8-10) are valid if the number of liquid distributor outlets Z per unit area of column cross-section in the pilot plant is the same as that in the industrial-scale column and if the end effects Nd are also the same in both cases. which define the effect of the relative efficiency.e. if the end effects differ. (6-40) and (8-10). i. 8. the relative efficiency e that defines the characteristic value for the inlet stream in Eqn (8-10)}. and . 8.e. for H ^ Hh Numerous investigations have verified that this assumption is adequately satisfied in a bed of packing with good self-distribution. It is thus convincingly demonstrated that values for (N/H)P measured in a pilot plant do not suffice by themselves for calculating the bed height required for efficient separation. Nd>T ^ NdjP. are accurate only in as far as the conditions relating to the model in Fig.last but not least . viz. 8.e.e. The results are shown in Figs.max .198 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution Nd + AJV.(1 . the relationships that have been derived here can be applied with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes to most modern types of packing. i.e.3 Inlet and end effects in industrial-scale plants different to those in pilot plants Eqns (8-14). eT ^ eP. of the number of liquid distributor outlets. 8.e. the relationship can be expressed as follows: AH dN (8-15) = f Nd + ANh NT HT Ht A column packed at random was taken as an example for solving Eqns (8-14).6. The extent to which scale-up is influenced by end and inlet effects is very obvious in these diagrams. (6-40) and (8-15). the number of liquid distributor outlets Z {i. i. i. the efficiency ratio r\T will be given by . It can be derived for a given value of Z and thus of e from the model depicted in Fig.

e.p + A ^ .9.4 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets 199 1 T|r=lep -U2SL _ ( 1 _ ep) Hp | N ANi max HT ' " ^ " « (8-16) Likewise. Those that apply to the pilot plant are valid for a value of ZP = Zmax that was kept constant. The end effects were the same in both plants.P HP 1 IdN \dH ) H > H i (81?) irmax . the following equations can be derived for the relative difference in the required height of bed: 1 _ NdJ + AJVi>r NT | JVrf. there is no inlet effect if AN/ \ 1 Hp *-viv i. 8.(1 . 8.8 is obvious.4 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets The only conditions under which the efficiency per unit height in the industrial-scale column will be the same as that in the pilot plant are those that permit a value of r\T = 1 to be attained. this equation gives rise to the condition that the efficiency per unit height is practical identical to the local efficiency and remains unchanged over the entire height of the column.11.max. It follows from Eqn (8-13) that the requisite number of distributor outlets is that that would allow the relative efficiency to reach the following limit: e = e0 = 1 Hp j-—T (8-2U) } p.Nd = 0 . 8. i. and those that apply to the industrial-scale plant.eT) HP [^-\ (8-18) (8-19) Results of numerical evaluations are presented in Figs.7 and 8. The difference between the curves shown in these diagrams and those shown in Figs. for a value of Z = ZT that was varied.6.max \~Rl \ tl If Nd = 0. max (eo)Nd = o = l - ( 8 2 1 /o Tt\ ) \~R) \ M I P.10 and 8.8. 8. 8.

5 Packing height H T l m ] 0. 5 2. L/V = 1. Fv = 1.6.5 s" 1 kg 1/2 R o 2 d 0.85 1 .90 / LLJ —.5 3.5 m Methanol/Water 1 bar.7-max —— »——"200 0.200 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 50-mm Pall ring. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up.metal. 0.25 CD .15 ^3 CD 10 1 / m 2 / . 0.95 i 0. ds= 500 mm.20 0. HP= 1.30 g 0. if the number of distribution points in the cross-section of the pilot plant is the same as in that of the industrial-scale plant and if the end effects are of the same magnitude .10 1 15 25 Number of separation units 35 Fig. 8.

85 0.20 •W 0.66m-1/2s-1 kg ' Nd=0.5. 5 2.5m 12 NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 NTP. " A {/. 1 .8.5 Packing height HT [ m ] 1 4.15 o 0.mox=1. uL = 5.5 500 ^ ^ — • — — — 0.5 3.3 m 0. HP = 1. 150 — —— — " • • • ' — — • — • — . (N/H)P max -4.75 0.4 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets 201 25-mm Hiflow ring. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up.85 0.7.05 / / / " " " A^.30 \ ——.95 ° 0. if the number of distribution points in the cross-section of the pilot plant is the same as that of the industrial-scale plant and if the end effects are of the same magnitude .92 m-)(dN/dH)H>Hi=3.88. Lr-"" 1 1fy _— ^ 35 1 15 25 Number of separation units Fig. ANi.4 m 3 /m 2 h. 8.PP. d s =288mm.25 0. Fv--0.90 0.10 0.

.20 0. Fig.—•5- 4.95 j 0.202 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 47-mm DINPAC. Fv = 0. 8.30 0. **" .5 3.uL=10.10 { 2.15 0.4 m 3 /m 2 h. HP=1.8. if the number of distribution points in the cross-section of the pilot plant is the same as that of the industrial-scale plant and if the end effects are of the same magnitude .PP.5 m C0 2 /H 2 0-Air NTP.90 ficienc^ CD CO N V "v Z= 1 Dr\ L ^10 < LJJ 0. b -«.. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up.94nf v kg1/2 _ 0.80 % ^ . ^ ^ • " ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 .5 Packing height HT [ m ] ^« ^ ..25 0. 5 0.5 W O ^ E // y If A / "20 1 15 25 Number of separation units 35 f. ds= 288 mm.

Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up.4 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets 203 50-mm Pall ring metal.20 0. L/V = 1. V. HP= 1.5 3.10 -— ' ^^ h 1.8.5 125—h+ . if the number of distribution points in the industrial-scale plant differs from that in the pilot plant . • « - | m » .5 m"1/2 s" 1 kg 1/z 2.30 <\ 4.5 m Methanol/Woter 1 bar.5 Packing height Hj [m] 0.15 0.9.»^ 7"" - — | i 1 15 25 Number ot separation units NT 35 Fig. 0. ds= 500 mm. Fv = 1. 8.

85 £ O UJ ^ -" ~OO0.. 0. HP = l 5 m NH 3 -Air/H 2 0 NTP. JU U.204 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 25-mm Hiflow ring..70 U. uL--5.ANiimQX=l88-(N/H)pimQX=4. N 1 0. d s =288mm.5.10.75 ~~~ % % 7 ——«.80 _ 150.95 ^ 0. if the number of distribution points in the industrial-scale plant differs from that in the pilot plant .PP.5 3. 8.90 \ \ \ \ Nd N T'= Nd't = Nd \ ^_ P ./b 0.4 m 3 /™ 2 ^ Fv^OBBm-^s" 1 kg 1/2 Nd=0. .20 0. — — • — 0. n ^n U.5 Packing height Hj [m] .max.15 5 / / / y 15 25 Number of separation units Nj 35 Fig.X) 2. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up. .3m-1 \ 0.92m1(dN/dH)H>Hr3..

' • * % LiJ ~JOn 0. 8. F v ^ .15 / ]_ t 15 25 Number of separation units NT 35 Fig.90 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ INd M ' Zp" : Zmax.75 0.75 =E 0.= 3. ^ m ^ QX.(dN/dH)H>H|= 1 I kg11/z \ \ ii 0.5 3. PP.4 m 3 /m 2 h.73 m-l.5 Packing height H. Effect of the number of liquid distribution points on scale-up. uL = 10. HP = 1.30 _ 0.11.5 m C0 2 /H 2 0-Air NTP.4 Determination of the limiting number of liquid distributor outlets 205 47-mm DINPAC. 1 0.5 i / \ 0.85 1 0.95 _ 0. ds= 288 mm.8.25 CT) QJ •••V/fi - ^ - * • •—• — 1 . [m] 1 4. 5 2.35 S 0.80 o \ N . if the number of distribution points in the industrial-scale plant differs from that in the pilot plant .20 0.

6 1 1.1 (L/V)0-25]-1 An (8-23) 1. and to an efficiency per unit height of N p. as has been confirmed in practice. Thus. an impairment in separation efficiency NIH is likely. This limiting value Zo corresponds to a relative efficiency of (eo)Nd = o.13 Values of Zmax and Zo determined in two different beds of packing are listed in Table 8.. [0.e. A comparison of these figures gives an impression of the great extent to which Zo is less than Zmax.5 Effect of phase maldistribution The efficiency of packed columns is affected not only by the number Z of distributor outlets per unit area but also by the uniformity with which the phases are distributed over the column cross-section. List of characteristic operating values in a pilot plant for determining the number of liquid distribution points that is unlikely to give rise to either positive or negative end effects Packing L/V AN. If the degree of liquid maldistribution M is 0 < M < 1. it would be logical to assume that NP/HP < NT/HTj i.5 5.951 0. metal 50 mm DINPAC.6 135. Table 8.max -Nd HP (8-22) Zo can be obtained by substituting e = {eg) Nd = o for £ m Eqn (7-34).3 0.07 335 516 92 73 1 8.8 0. This applies particularly to the liquid phase.Nd =0 iP.206 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution If e < e0. that the inlet effect is negative. PP 47 mm 112. there is a certain number of liquid distributor outlets that gives rise to a situation in which no positive or negative inlet effects occur.1.67 3. As has already been mentioned.max. Nd N H [1/m T7 Pall. the deterioration in separation efficiency AE can be estimated from the column efficiency Ec by means of the following equation: ' N\ IN H H (8-24) AE = = \-Ec N . If it is not uniformly distributed and if the ratio of the column diameter ds to the size of the packing d is djd > 10.max NP.3 0.921 1 2. as defined by Eqn (8-21).1.

3 0.2 0. The mass transfer experiments described in Chapter 5 were performed in pilot columns to evaluate the characteristics of packed beds. According to this diagram.5 Effect of phase maldistribution 207 According to the Huber and Hiltbrunner theory.1 ^' •IT . uniformly dumped or geometrically stacked beds of packing with no tendency to channelling. It can be seen from Fig. 8. 8.8. hardly any significant loss in efficiency need be anticipated in columns with the diameter ratio mostly encountered in pilot plants. viz.5 3 0. Hence the quality of liquid distribution depends not only on the number Z of the outlets but also on the uniformity with which they are fed.13 that the number of distributor outlets is a not inconsiderable factor and is generally much higher in pipe and related types of distributors than in simple box types. The liquid phase was uniformly fed in accordance with the aspects mentioned above. In modern. which was derived by evaluating Eqn (8-25). even if the values of M are comparatively large. 8.4 Vapour /Liqijid ratio L/V =1 * &0." • y > \^ _4- — — — 46 50 10 Fig. An idea of the extent of the theoretically feasible loss in efficiency can be obtained from Fig. the column efficiency Ec is given by the following equation if the maldistribution M takes effect over the entire height of the column: Ec = 1 r + 1 where djd is the ratio of the column diameter to the size of an element of the packing and r is the reflux ratio. the distributor characteristic largely governs the degree of maldistribution M in the inlet zone and the extent to which the surface of the packing is wetted. The ratio of the column diameter to the size of the packing was about djd = 10 or less.12. Eqn (8-25)}. (8-25) 14 18 22 26 30 34 38 42 Ratio column diameter/packing diameter rjs/d Efficiency as a consequence of maldistribution and calculated from Eqns (8-24) and . (8-25) 0. in other words. and the number Z of distributor outlets was sufficiently large to ensure the utmost efficiency. the likelihood that liquid maldistribution M could affect the packing efficiency could be almost ignored {cf. djd < 10.12.

the greater the loss.2 apply over the entire packed height. 8.14 were plotted from the results obtained on rectification systems in columns of various diameters packed with metal Pall rings. For instance. d = 15 .1 ZJ •JU ]/ — -- • 10 12 14 16 Liquid load UL in m3/m2h 1 8 Fig. Eqn (7-17)} in the column as well as on the quality of the distribution at the inlet.35. if djd = 50 and M = 0.4 h-Water STP—N ID I 0. Maldistribution caused by trough-type and perforated-pipe distributors At ratios of djd > 10.14. They show the column efficiency Ec as a function of the diameter ratio djd with the relative vapour load factor fv as parameter. Thus = t(fy) = i(FvIFy. 8. the loss in efficiency may be theoretically as high as 50 %. maldistribution M is likely to occur and effect a loss in efficiency. it may depend on the vapour load fv {cf. 8. 25. The corresponding equation is Pall rings.13. Column efficiency of beds of metal Pall rings as a function of the diameter ratio of the column and the rings . L/V = 1 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Ratio column diameter/packing size d s /d Fig.50 mm. Maldistribution M over the height of the column is undoubtedly a characteristic of the packing. Consequently.metal . The higher the ratio.208 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution 0.Fl) (8-26) The curves shown in Fig.2 •XD \ — —— 0. The liquid-to-vapour ratio was LIV = 1.

15.4 m diameter. . 1. no dimensional corrections are necessary in scaling up columns packed with Norpack rings or comparable types of packing. Figs. which defines the pressure drop per unit efficiency (cf.0 and 1.ds=i.4 0. Efficiency of Norpac rings in columns of various diameters 0.3 0.6 1 2 3 Gas capacity factor Fv [m"1/2 s"1 kg 1/z ] The fact that the quality of liquid distribution is independent of the column diameter was confirmed by evaluating Eqn (5-32).o . ~ \d'Tv It can be seen from the diagram that the larger the value of fv and thus the greater the load. A proviso is that the Schmidt number. Norpack rings.O m . i. It can therefore be concluded that the liquid distribution in beds of Norpack rings is uniform regardless of the column diameter. In measurements on an ammonia/air-water system in columns of 0. as defined by Eqn (1-30). Fig. 8.5 Effect of phase maldistribution 209 (8-27) _ f tds_ .3. the efficiency can be expected to remain constant over the entire height of the bed.8.e. Consequently.16). e.g. (8-28) 1 1-M 1 1+M If the liquid is uniformly distributed over the inlet cross-section of the column and the quality of the distribution is retained throughout its entire path. If the stripping factor \. no loss in efficiency was observed in beds of modern reticulated packing. 8. 8. i.I ban M O m W h 50-mm NOR-PAC ring plastic. The yardstick adopted for the efficiency was the HTU. and the Marangoni number of the liquid phase in negative systems do not undergo any significant change along the concentration profile.4 0.15 and 8. the quotient of the kinematic viscosity and the diffusion coefficient.4 m - 0. Ec can be estimated by the Schliinder equation. and the points plotted for these 25-mm and 50-mm rings all lay on their respective curve (cf.2 Fig. NH3-Air/WQter<293 K. the higher the efficiency and the less the effect of the djd ratio.—o— ds=1.3 J <: T .16).e. H = 1m \ 0. is I ~ 1.

4 ni 0. 8.3 m • —c> . Modified specific pressure drop in beds of Norpac rings in columns of various diameters / 0.ds=1. however. Fig.0 m • > . in the form of a . < CD t_ / • CO a / 25-mm NOR-PAC rin g plastic H= -1.5 Capacity factor Fvln A pronounced relationship between the efficiency and the column diameter in the range between 0.18). and local differences in pressure drop may occur in the stream of gas flowing through the bed.16.g. Fig.22 m and 1.17).210 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution NH 3 -Air/Water. optimum gas distribution in the inlet zone is an absolute necessity for high packing efficiency.6 1 1.4 m - I 9 1 0 s a Y / Q.5 m~1/2 s"1 kg1/2 (cf. local differences in pressure may exist in the horizontal cross-section of the column immediately below the bed of packing. 8.0 m was also not observed in rectification experiments with Mellapak 250 Y (cf.29i KJ bar uL=10 m 3 / m 2 h 30 20 15 —<> . be expected at higher loads corresponding to Fv ~ 2. at the most. Under these circumstances.8 i i i 2 X 1 y Fig. It can be achieved by baffles. maldistribution of the gas phase may occur in columns of large diameter. A slight decrease in efficiency with an increase in column diameter could. As a consequence. particularly if the bed of packing is of comparatively low height and the gas is admitted radially into the column.6 Gas or vapour distribution In pilot-scale packed columns. 8. e.d s = 0. In industrial practice. These conditions lead to an increase in pressure in the vicinity of the wall on the opposite side of the column.ds=1. gas distribution can be regarded as uniform. 8.

00 m.6 Gas or vapour distribution 211 Mellapcik 250 Y.5 m ^ s ' 1 kg1/2 1 4 -50-100 mbar 400-1000 mbar metal 0.5 1 1. L/V= 1 Mellapak 250 Y.1 .8 1.H=.2 1.17. data of Sulzer 0.8.2 3.4 0. L/V=l.25m 2 s CD Q.5 2 Column diameter dstm] HI £ 3 9. CO 0 0. ds=1.ids=0.8 3.25 0.22m. H = U 0 m 1 /m 7 -S 1 / . Efficiency of a structured packing in relation to the column diameter and pressure. 8..4 2. Performance of a structured packing in columns of various diameters Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. 2— Fig. Fv=2. 6 h / -T 1/ r Irop « > CO ( 4 ibar 2 Q.6 2 2. )ec. Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene. 8.18. 67mbar _ 4 7 I 2 0 10 8 v LA/ V A/ n ^ m etal 1 ^ Z —o-Z=1350 1/m J —•— Sulzer plant.6 Vapour capacity factor Fvtnr 1/2 s"' kg1'2] Fig.

to be calculated. and the relationships discussed in Chapter 8 should be taken into consideration in scale-up.5 m height. this wall effect does not have a great influence on the efficiency in packed columns of large diameter and in beds with a large effective void fraction. and liquid distributors with Z > Zmax outlets. beds of packing of HP ~ 1. attention was drawn to the constants CL and Cv for the determination of volumetric mass transfer coefficients and the height of a transfer unit. {NIH)P>max. The column shell influences the lie of the packing in the vicinity of the wall and thus causes an increase in the effective void fraction. They were derived from the results of experiments in pilot columns with relative diameters of djd < 10. 8.212 8 Scale-up for end effects and phase distribution pipe bend with a central downward outlet or of an inlet pipe with the lower side open. However.7 Effect of mass transfer coefficient on scale-up In Chapter 5. i. If severe demands are imposed on the uniformity of gas distribution.e. distributor plates may be installed. Hence the corresponding equations given in Chapter 5 allow the maximum attainable efficiency. .

In other words. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. the efficiency per unit height may vary considerably. Consequently.1. optimization must be resorted to in determining the bed height Hr at which it would be advisable to instal them. 9. 9. and planning is usually based on the experience gained in industrial practice. Consequently. redistributors cannot be economically justified unless the improved efficiency that they effect leads to savings in packing and column shell costs that exceed the costs of their installation and maintenance.9 Phase redistribution in columns A question that continually arises in planning packed columns with large diameters and great heights is the spacing of the redistributors. which represents two columns that have to perform the same separation task . the most favourable bed height at which redistributors should be installed is subject to great variation. Within this length. No recommendations on the subject in general can be found in the literature.1 Estimation of optimum number of phase redistributors Effective liquid distributors make a substantial contribution towards the costs of a separation plant. redis- ]L — distributors Fig. Column sketched with and without redistributors to supplement the model shown in Fig. especially those for the liquid phase. This fact is evident from the schematic diagram in Fig. This applies particularly to the flow pattern in the inlet zone and to the extent of maldistribution. if the inlet distribution is the same but the packing differs. For this reason.2 Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. If packings differ in geometry.1. it is very likely that their fluid-dynamic characteristics also differ. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . 9.the one with. and the other without. 9. great differences may still occur in the length of the path traversed before flow is completely developed.

9. i. Consequently. e. Rearranging Eqn (9-4) and substituting Hr(nr + 1) for H {Eqn (9-2)} then gives Hr = = ——— — d}cP + nds cs If the column diameter ds is given. Therefore. H = ^Hr If the individual zones are of the same height.214 9 Phase redistribution in columns tributors -. (9-5) — d? The factor K represents the redistribution costs that can be attributed to the costs per unit height of the packing and the column shell. HT=H+AH (9-3) The criterion adopted for the optimum number of redistributors is that the costs in each case should be the same. Fig. i. and cr [DM] is the costs for one redistributor in a column of diameter ds. it is a material constant for a column of given diameter ds. — d?(H + AH) cP + nds(H+ AH) cs = — ds2HcP + nds H cs + nrcr (9-4) where cP [DM/m3] is the costs per unit volume of packing. The first part of Eqn (9-6) can be rewritten to give l + — nr r . The effective height H in a column with nr redistributors is the sum of the heights Hr of the individual packed zones. H=(nr + l)Hr (9-2) (9-1) The effective height HT in a column without redistributors is greater than that in the corresponding columns with redistributors by an amount AH (cf.e. i.e. the third term on the right of Eqn (9-5) is a constant.1). cs [DM/m2] is the costs per unit area of column shell.

if the bed of packing is of very great height. However. in which the number of separation units N is shown as a function of the height H of the packing.e. i. (9-10) Application of the above equations necessitates a knowledge of the function AH/H = f(H) for the packing concerned.2. 9. the flow can be regarded as practically constant. e. the local separation efficiency of the packing in the inlet zone of height Ht at the head of the column. e. on how the packing itself distributes the phases and whether it has a tendency towards maldistribution. The upper diagram applies for packed columns without redistributors. Eqn (9-11)}. The case illustrated in the diagrams is that in which the efficiency of the distributor and the redistributors is very high. i. The term AH/H depends on how uniformly the phases are distributed at the inlet. An expression for AH/H can be derived from the qualitative relationships illustrated in Fig. H ( 9 B ) . on the efficiency of the distributors. for columns with nr distributors. i. or in that immediately below the redistributor. It also depends on the geometry and texture of the packing. e. if nr distributors are installed in the column. i. i.9. a bed of height HT is needed to realize an overall efficiency NT. Eqn (9-7) becomes (9 9) - The number of redistributors nr from the aspect of optimum costs can be obtained from Eqns(9-2) and (9-7). is better than the efficiency in the packed zone below the inlets. Chapters 6 and 8).1 Estimation ofoptimum number ofphase redistributors 215 If there is only the one single redistributor. In the latter case. e. N Nd + ANt In a column without redistributors. the height of the bed required is merely H=HT-AH (9-12) Since the efficiency per unit height in the zone below the inlet or redistributor is constant {cf. Eqn (9-7) can be simplified to In the theoretical limiting case of nr — » °°. the following relationship applies: N\ H L Nd+ ANt Hr (N \ \H T Nd + AiV. and the lower. as has been observed in many experiments (cf. Consequently.

Now let Y\T be the ratio of the efficiency of the column without redistributors (N/H)T to the efficiency (N/H)r of an individual zone in a column with nr distributors. Hf Nr | With nr redistributors 0 Packing height H Graphical model to illustrate the effect of redistribution on the column efficiency Fig. i. ' (9-15) .e. + i U .2. 9.216 9 Phase redistribution in columns AN T Hr 'H r >H. N T[T = (9-14) and let Nr «.

- 1 1 1 I + (9-18) I Eqn (9-17) can be further rearranged to give ^W = ^W~l (9 19) " The term HT in Eqn (9-19) is the height of a bed without redistributors and can be defined by substituting NT for N and HT for H in Eqn (9-11) and rearranging. Fig. 9.1). which is essential for the evaluation of Eqns (9-5). (9-6). (9-7).\ (9-20) The term H is the effective height of a bed with rcr redistributors and is given by (9-21) H)r Substituting Eqn (9-20) for HT and Eqn (9-21) for H in Eqn (9-19) then gives rise to AH / Nd + AAM/jV\ ^ . Nd + ANt I 1 1 \ .1 Estimation of optimum number of phase redistributors 217 Substituting y\T from Eqn (9-14) and (N/H)r from Eqn (9-15) in Eqn (9-13) then gives .r lV "1/J Hence. if the height of a column without distributors exceeds the effective height of a column with nr distributors by an amount AH (cf.9. Nd + ANt I Hr H)r The ratio AH/H.(Nd + AW.)] — . and (9-10). the relative increase in height AHIH is given by AH H 1 (N/H)r Nd + ANt 1 1 1 Hr HT I -1 NT Nd + AN. can be related to T)rby rearranging Eqn (9-12) and expanding to give AH _HT-H_ H H NT/(N/H)T-NT/(N/H)r NT/(N/H)r _ I r. Thus HT = [NT .

i.218 9 Phase redistribution in columns Alternatively. Eqn (9-2)} in Eqn (9-7). and from Eqn (9-24). follows from Eqn (9-18). corresponding to HT-> oo. K nr NT 1 N )\H)rldN (9-25) 1 The total bed height H in a column with nr distributors can be obtained by substituting H for (nr + 1) Hr {cf. AH\ 1 (N/H)r Hr Nd + ANt (9-27) I It also follows from Eqn (9-22). which gives rise to Eqn (9-28).e. Thus H = nrK —) 1 ) / Eqn Eqn (9-22) (9-26) The limiting case of a very large number of separation stages NT. a relationship can be found for the height Hr of the one section in a column with nr distributors. Thus AH cUV\ 1 -1 (9-28) AH H Nd + ANt Hr (9-29) . i. which gives rise to Eqn (9-29). e. and the following expression can thus be obtained for Nr: Nr = + Hr 6N\ t J (9-23) Inserting this relationship in Eqn (9-22) then gives Nd Nr Nd Hr dN\ -1 (9-24) If the expression on the right-hand side of Eqn (9-22) is substituted for AH/H in Eqn (9-7). Eqn (9-11) can be rearranged to solve for N.

In this case. and the acquisition costs for the redistributors. Rectification and desorption experiments to verify these relationships were performed in pilot plants on packing produced in various shapes and sizes from various . this relationship is valid if the following applies: One incontestable fact that emerges from these considerations is that the bed height Hr at which redistributors can be economically installed cannot be determined by a simple rule of thumb. as defined by the expression on the right-hand side of Eqn (9-6). If the costs factor K.2 Costs relationships 219 Equating Eqns (9-27) and (9-28) or Eqns (9-28) and (9-29) yields the following relationship for the height of one section if the number of separation stages tends to infinity: ^ N_\ _ldN\ (930) Since NT.9. the costs for columns with redistributors will not be on the same level as those for columns without redistributors unless the costs factor K tends towards the following limit: K ^T Nd + AJV. 9. is greater than the value calculated from Eqn (9-32). Eqn (9-25) becomes A comparison of Eqn (9-30) with Eqn (9-31) leads to the conclusion that.2 Costs relationships The spacing at which redistributors can be economically installed between sections of packing of Hr height is governed by the costs factor K. Hr must be higher than the figure obtained from Eqn (9-30). Eqn (9-32) clearly states that the limiting value KNT _+ ^ for this costs factor is fixed by the ratio of the end effects and efficiency in the inlet zone to the efficiency in the zone of completely developed flow. (932) According to the model. if very great values of NT are realized. which is defined by Eqn (9-6).. The factors that really count in its determination are the end effects at the inlets. the efficiency in the zone of completely developed flow. it follows that nr also tends to infinity.

According to Eqn (9-4). as defined by Eqn (9-6). 1 bar Z) CI a CDCD 0 1 Packed height H [m] 3 Fig. are reproduced in Figs.220 9 Phase redistribution in columns materials. the costs for a column with nr redistributors is given by C = H\— d} cP + JT dscs) + nrcr = HcPs + nrcr (9-34) where cPs are the costs per unit height of column for the bed of packing and the column shell.1. Number of theoretical stages as a function of bed height in rectification .e. the costs C remain constant as long as Hr is greater than Ht.4. In other words. 9. 9.3. 9.3 and 9. i. The values required for the determination of the limiting costs factor KNT _ o o can be read off from the curves in this diagram in conjunction with the qualitative diagram presented in Fig. These values are listed in Table 9.2. It can be easily proved that the number of redistributors nr and their spacing Hr are irrelevant if this condition applies. An important outcome of the studies is that the costs for a column with redistributors cannot be the same as those for the corresponding column without redistributors unless the factor K defined by Eqn (9-6) is identical to a limiting value that depends on the efficiency in the inlet zone and is defined by Eqn (9-32). The results of these experiments. The main dimensions of the columns in the pilot plants and the distribution density of the liquid distributors were varied. = ~7 ds cP + Jt dscs (9-35) 14 12 10 A o Ethanol/Water. 1 bar Ethylbenzene /Styrene. 130 mbar Methanol /Ethanol. which have already been discussed in Chapter 6.

2 Costs relationships 221 DINPAC plastics. Packing Material H [1/m2] 600 490 900 Nd 0.53 2.5 0.65 1.05 1.94-10"3 m 3 /m 2 s 47-mm racKing " —C D to — — • ——' a ? « § "2 no ~ n r n 11 n f Uc l i f Jr — — * — —— — I — s- ^ ^ ^-— 70-mm Pac king — i i 0.5 0. 9.125 3. 9. Empirical data for describing inlet effects in packed columns.805 Desorption jctifica & .9.526 o 1. ds--288 mm Z = 490 1/m2 C02-H20/Air.9 2.176 0.8 0. 5 Table 9.9 1.1. Used to evaluate the diagrams in Figs.97 m 3 /m 2 s.6-9.5 0.10.5 1. STP uL=5. Fv=0.4.64 Plastic Plastic 288 288 490 490 1 1 0. Number of transfer units as a function of bed height in packed desorption columns 1 .5 ANi [m] Pall ring 50 mm Pall ring 35 mm Raschig ring 25 mm Tellerette 70 mm Tellerette 47 mm Metal Metal Ceramic 500 800 750 (if) 1.5 1.129 0.125 K lim System 0.0 Packed height H [m] Fig.

(Nd dN (9-37) The relationship between NT and Nr is obtained from Eqn (9-15). the result is the same as that given by Eqn (9-32). e.e.e. .222 9 Phase redistribution in columns cPs is related by the factor K to the costs of the redistributors cr as follows: cr K (9-36) Cps = Rearranging Eqn (9-23) to solve for Hr gives Hr = [Nr .0 dHr (9-42) Again. (9-34). dC = 0 dnr (9-40) The result is the same as that given by Eqn (9-32) and is independent of the number of redistributors nr and thus of their spacing Hr. i. (9-35). NT = Nr (nr + 1) Hence the total costs are given by (9-38) = cPt\[NT-(nr 1 in ldN nrK\ (9-39) The limiting value for the costs factor K can be found by differentiating Eqn (9-39) with respect to nr and equating the derivative to zero. Thus. dC_ . The following relationship can be derived from Eqns (9-23). i. The case in which no distributors are installed can be represented by substituting nr = 0 for nr in Eqn (9-39). and (9-36): C = cPs NT Nd + ANt + Hr K dN dH K NT (9-41) The limiting value for the costs factor K can again be found by differentiating this equation with respect to Hr and equating the derivative to zero. i.

the relationship to apply would be that derived from Eqns (9-23) and (9-41). it can be seen that Eqn (9-43) is identical to Eqn (9-20). The various parameters represented as functions of the spacing Hr between redistributors are defined as follows: c o ZD CD T = packed height without redistributors o "a a Fig. i. 9. HT — CpstiT — Cnr (9-44) Eqns (9-39) and (9-41) apply for Hr > H(. costs.5.e. Qualitative relationship between packed height.2 Costs relationships 223 (9-43) 1 1 dN\ dH L H. e. for the range in which the spacing Hr between two redistributors is equal to or greater than the height Ht of the inlet zone. Therefore. in which the efficiency dN/dH generally changes. C = cPs N7 1 1 + K Hr K NT (9-45) The functional relationships between the characteristic costs and design parameters are illustrated qualitatively in Fig. and the number of redistributors Packed height between redistributors Hr .5. 9. If Hr < Ht. Since Hr = HT in this case. i.9.

and the relative reduction in bed height by (9-49).8 Klim I 1 25-mm Raschig ring. costs.6 2.4 2.2 HT-9 m i i CD Q.2 X Packed height between redistributors Hr Fig.4 C_3 O o "a 0. in which case Nr is obtained from the relationship T V = f(//) or from Eqn (9-23) if Hr > Ht.2 0. 0.8 0. Qualitative relationship between packed height.6.0 2. the number of liquid distributors by (9-48).3 CD S g. 0. the various costs factors by -lim < K < Klin (9-47). 9.0.4 o O ZD CD . and the number of redistributors in a column with 30 separation stages and packed with 25-mm ceramic Raschig rings .6/0.8 3. ceramic 1.5 £ .4 0.4.^ \ AH/HT NT= 30 I ~° ^ CD I_ 0. 0.1 0.2 1. — j — 0.6 <J CJ) 1 1 2 <= j y 0.224 9 Phase redistribution in columns the costs ratio per separation unit by C 1 (9-46).

9.1. if the redistributors occupy a height hr. efficiency improvement in the inlet zone with correspondingly developed flow and efficiency stabilization below the inlet zone. i. Thus.3 and 9. a reduction in column height may suffice by itself as a criterion for the installation of redistributors. the model discussed is invalid. because the conditions for its compilation no longer apply.9. Under these circumstances. The results of the evaluation are presented in Figs. They were determined by experiment and were used to calculate the values of Knm listed in Table 9.6-9. however.10. 9. the savings in column height that they can effect are given by If) =^ ^ ^ =l l-±lH(n. Columns with redistributors are always more expensive if the costs factor K is higher than Klim • Redistributors must always be installed if there is a tendency towards liquid maldistribution or if the stream of liquid is likely to be destabilized over the height of the column.3 Examples 225 9. even if the costs are thus higher than those for a column without redistributors. nM l H r ( n .4 serve as an example to demonstrate the dependence of the relationships derived above on the inlet effects exerted by the packing. + +1)1) M ++n (9-50) In many cases. They confirm that the costs per separation unit in columns with redistributors need be no higher than those in columns without redistributors if a theoretical costs factor Klim applies. redistributors allow the height of the columns to be reduced. In this case.e.3 Examples The functions N = i(H) shown in Figs. .

costs. 9.7.4 0.—.? "a ct: 0 0.2 Packed height between redistributors H r Fig. 0.8 3.8 m 0 0.4 (1 / HT=12.6 Phase redistribution in columns \ N T = 30 1 2 \ I ^ AH. Qualitative relationship between packed height.-n?K.0 2.6 N T = 30 1 2 0. red o a a. "/fir"" HT .4 r&_ "§ g.4 (_> 0. CL> CO tini — a) _> 0. 9.2 0.226 =E 9 0. and the number of redistributors in a column with 30 separation stages and packed with 50-mm metal Pall rings . metal 0. "a _co e 0.6 2.2 q •— HT = 12.8 1.4 0.5 0.5 a °^ —OfiKugi n 2.: —lim ^ -.7 \wiwr I f 1 °6 (_) --- {= o .4 2.2 1. and the number of redistributors in a column with 30 separation stages and packed with 35-mm metal Pall rings 0.2 1.8 m 1 \ ~ > "I "* 1 ^ Ifi a CO a Q.3 0.6 2.2 Packed height between redistributors Hr Fig.4 0. cz 0. costs.3 35-mm D all ring.8 50-mm Pall ring.2 4 — *—• z.8 3. metal 1 1.6 0.0 2. Qualitative relationship between packed height.8.

Qualitative relationship between packed height.2 HT n "r r = 4 ID = 18.imn- 'Im: a CL 0.6 0.6 \ \ \ — /'• i"i s CO 00 Q_ QJ CO t_ a 05 0.8 1.9. 9.4 2.8 Pocked height between redistributors Hr 3.7 0.3 47-mm DINPAC..41=^ 70-mm DINPAC.8 1.2 Packed height between redistributors H r Fig.6 1 2.8 \ 0.0 2.0 2. 2K.9.8 3.4 0.8 m 0 0.3 0.3 Examples 227 0..2 1.4 m 0 0. Qualitative relationship between packed height.g7 30 0.4 0.5 • nr •" Ktim n . plastics 0. 9.2 1. and the number of redistributors in a column with 30 separation stages and filled with 70-mm plastics Dinpac packing .4 0. and the number of redistributors in a column with 30 separation stages and filled with 47-mm plastics Dinpac packing 0.6 \ 0. costs. Hr=13.4 2.2 0.6 \ N 1 2 = Ni = / AH/H < . costs.10.4 0.6 2. plostic| cu o CL 0.2 o Fig.4 /AH/HT 12 NT= 30 cz o co <_ o cu t=.

.

It merits great importance because distributors serve to overcome maldistribution. because it is obviously more difficult to distribute small than large amounts of liquid (cf.according to Eqn (8-25) . Their design is governed by the principle on which they operate (cf. Fig.1.1). which . Allowance must be made in design for differences in liquid load.may greatly impair the efficiency of large-diameter columns. The principles of liquid distribution .for distributing either the liquid at the head or the gas at the bottom of the column or for redistributing the phases at given heights -. Table 10.10 Design of distributors Chapters 6 to 9 have shown how indispensable distributors are in packed columns . 10. 10.1). Distributor Principle Liquid transport Design Capillary by capillary forces Profiled slot qp Y///A ' X/////1 passage as liquid jets CL) CL •o ID Sieve or tube Liquid discharge as jets ^SZ_c3ir Overflow Slot as liquid jets 30°-160° Liquid distributed as droplets Nozzle Perforated Fig.

5-200 m 3 /m 2 h. viz.e. Fig. the head ho is higher than 5-10 mm. uo = yJ2gho (10-1) Usually. According to H. uL > 1 m 3 /m 2 h. Since the cross-sectional area a of the outlet is known.2. and thus the number of outlets required. Geipel. Together with the head ho (cf. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . q can be easily determined. and the flow rate through each outlet is higher than 2 1/h. the usual equation for flow through orifices applies. the volumetric flow rate / can be obtained from 1 = auo (10-2) If the outlets are of the shapes shown in Fig. Perforated-plate and trough-type distributors with liquid discharge are recommended for moderate liquid loads. A crucial parameter in the selection or design of a distributor is the liquid load uL required for the separation process. the following equations apply for outlets in troughtype distributors: (1) For filleted rectangular slots: 2 I = X — b \[2~g}Q (2) For triangular notches: o (10-3) ^ = X — yJ2gh$ tan 6 (10-4) Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. it allows the flow velocity at an outlet uo. and allow flow rates of about 0.1.05-0. They should be fitted with drip edges. Deeke and W. Ranges of liquid loads for various distributors and the flow rates per outlet Liquid load uL [m3/m2h] 510. 10. The volumetric flow rate / through an outlet in a trough-type distributor is higher than 10 1/h.1 Fundamental design aspects and relationships Distributors must be accurately finished and correctly installed to avoid differences in liquid level. i.5 10.10 Type of distributor tube or box perfor.5 m 3 /m 2 h.5 1/h through each outlet. plate or box profiled slot capillary Liquid per feed point 103l [m3/h] > 20 > 10 > 2 0. which prevent coalescence of the liquid on the underside and thus ensure trouble-free operation.5 large medium . viz. In this case. to be determined in distributors with liquid discharge or overflow. Capillary plates are suitable distributors for very low liquid loads. Profiled-slot distributors permit liquid loads of uL = 0. W.05-0. Ulrich. 10.very large .230 10 Design of distributors Table 10.5 0.2). uL > 0.

it is the amount by which the pressure at the outlet exceeds the pressure at the surface of the liquid. 10. allowance for the effect of surface tension o on the constriction factor X can be made by means of a characteristic value Nz for the number of feeders. and dh is the hydraulic diameter. Ulrich et al. .e. a is the surface tension.1 Fundamental design aspects and relationships 231 -Liquid head Width of slots I = Liquid flow rate per feeder Notch angle Fig.9-1.. which depends on the outlet's effective cross-sectional area a and wetted periphery P. Schematic graph of distributors with outlets for liquid discharge where Xh the constriction factor (for vena contracta).3. a (10-6) Values of Nz for open box-type or trough-type distributors can be read off against the constriction factor in Fig. According to H. the constriction factor is X = 0. 10.2. which is given by Nz = — QLg dh hn (10-5) where Q L is the liquid density. The term Apv allows for the pressure drop in the vapour as it passes through the distributor.10. The flow rate / of liquid through a circular outlet with a diameter d on the lower side of a perforated-plate or trough-type distributor is given by jt T gho- QL I (10-7) If the outlets have been carefully rounded off. i.

005 m 3 /h per notch. the notch angle 2 6 was 90°.232 10 Design of distributors 0. 10.4 Liquid (Dutlet slots // 1 1 0. However. and the head was varied between 20 and 40 mm. Consequently.8 3.3. as defined by Eqn (10-5). Deviations from the tolerances specified in manufacture and assembly are responsible for differences in the head ho and flow rate /. Once / is known.2 can be quite easily designed with the aid of Eqns (10-3) to (10-8) and Fig. 0.2 have verified the relationships expressed in Eqns (10-4) to (10-7) and Fig. .6 Fig. differences in head of Aho = 1 mm between the lowermost and uppermost ends of the distributor would lead to maldistribution of about 10%.1 I1 \y / y / / / / / 1. 10.2 1. Experiments with the various types of distributors illustrated in Fig. It is evident from Eqns (8-25) and (8-28) that the associated reduction in column efficiency Ec represents the borderline case that can be barely disregarded.6 0.1. This figure corresponds to a liquid flow rate of / = ca. differences in head of Aho = 4 mm simply cannot be tolerated.e. as can be easily proved. 10. M = 0. or more depending on the design. and of / = ca.2 Experiments have shown that all the outlets in distributors with liquid overflow will be reliably fed if the feeder characteristic. 0. 3 0.8 / ^^ y I 0 . 10.4 2. it would be an advantage to instal some means of adjustment in the components of a distributor.5 >< b 0. is Nz > 2. in those with triangular notches.4 0.2 Characteristic for No. Diagram for the determination of the constriction factor for the outlets in distributors of the type shown in Fig.01 m 3 /h per slot in trough-type distributors with rectangular slots of 5-mm width.2 0. For instance. The breadth b of the slots was varied between 4 and 6 mm. the number Z of distributor outlets per square metre of column crosssection that is required to cope with a liquid load uL in m3/m2h can be obtained from z< I (10-8) Liquid distributors that operate on the principles outlined in Fig. 10.3. 10. i. of outlets Nz 3.3.6 2 2.

If the liquid load is less than 5 m 3 /m 2 h. Chapter 3) are recommended. The few that have been selected for discussion here are characteristic of those used in industrial-scale columns. 10. capillary-plate distributors would account for the highest number of outlets. 10. packing retainers.10.2 Types of phase distributors 233 Obviously. The dimensions entered in Fig.75 m 3 /m 2 h in columns of any given diameter. 10. Thus. It is general practice to predistribute the liquid in the designs described above. and liquid collectors for product withdrawal are shown schematically in Fig. If the liquid loads are small. uniform distribution can be achieved more easily at high rather than at low liquid flow rates. the number of liquid outlets Z required per square metre of column cross-section would be Z = 150 in a plate distributor with perforations of d = 3 mm diameter. liquid distributors for columns of very large diameter should be subjected to experiments on a test rig in order to determine the standard deviation in liquid distribution (cf. If they are properly designed.8). Plates with spouts or trough-type distributors with liquid overflow that permit flow rates of 20 1/h per outlet are suitable for liquid loads ranging from uL = 5 m 3 /m 2 h to very high values. perfect hydrodynamic functioning of the distributor itself and thus optimum liquid distribution over the column cross-section can be ensured. Fig. These distributors are suitable for liquid loads ranging from low to very high.5) or distributors with spouts (cf.10. The trough-type distributors shown in Fig. The same applies to distributors consisting of spray nozzles. Devices for liquid redistribution are advisable in many separation tasks.2 Types of phase distributors There are numerous designs of phase distributors. and phase distributors (i. Fig.g. 10. if the liquid load is uL ~ 1 m 3 /m 2 h and the head is ho = 1 mm. Perforated-pipe distributors (cf. 10. bolts should be installed to allow alignment of the individual troughs. in which the liquid is discharged either through perforations or by nozzles. 10. the number of outlets required would be Z = 200/m2. Predistribution is unnecessary in pipe distributors. liquid collectors.6 m diameter or larger. the number required would be Z = 80.9 are useful for arranging distribution within a column. Distributors consisting simply of spray nozzles fitted above the bed obviously have a comparatively restricted operating range in which the sprays can be uniformly distributed over the column cross-section.7).6) still give satisfactory performance at liquid loads of 0. they also allow very low liquid loads of about 25 m 3 /m 2 h to be uniformly distributed. An integrated structure consisting of support plates. At such low loads. for the liquid and gas phases) can be used for this purpose (Fig. 10. support plates.4 are suitable for average to high liquid loads in columns of 0.e. In the same column operating at the same load but under a head of ho = 3 mm. e. perforated plates (cf. Other column fittings. . but these are not depicted here. 10. If the column were fitted with a profiled-slot distributor. Before they are installed. By this means. Fig.

5. Box-type liquid distributor Liquid feed box Fig. 10.I 1 30° VT7 0 2600 at-H+l lil Fig. design of Raschig .4. Sieve plate Gas channel View of a sieve plate liquid distributor.1 • 160 140 1.234 10 Design of distributors 22 —i 21 18 15 1 0611 i. 10.

6.2 Types of phase distributors 235 Fig. Pipe-type liquid distributor .10. 10.

7.236 10 Design of distributors Fig. Montz liquid distributor of large diameter under test for measuring the distribution accuracy . 10.

9.120-270- Fig. 10. 10.8. Characteristic dimensions for the arrangement of phase distributors . including support tray and liquid collector Fig. Drawing of a redistributor for both liquid and gas phases.

10. Schematic diagram indicating the location of internals for packed towers .238 10 Design of distributors Vapour Reflux Liquid distributorCover plate Packing Support tray Liquid collector Distributor Cover plate Packing Redistributor Packing Support tray n nnn Vapour ^ Fig.10.

Yet another advantage of plastic packing is a significant reduction in down time. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. with the consequence that packing produced from them is almost unbreakable under operating conditions and that the likelihood of wear can be practically excluded. however. The process engineering characteristics of the packing are greatly influenced by these geometric factors and also by other properties that can be ascribed to the material of construction. the wettability of the surfaces and the apparent density of random beds (cf. in the event that the acquisition costs of plastic packing are higher. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . i. 11. in air purification and effluent treatment. and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF).1). plastics have gained a growing foothold in thermal separation processes. e. Hence. however. Formerly.e. In practice. One of the main reasons for this is the steady improvement that has been made in their resistance to heat and chemicals and their mechanical strength. In practice. g. the difference can be made good by the savings achieved in reducing the down time. considerable care must be devoted to the choice of packing during the planning stages of economic thermal separation plant. ceramics and plastics. polypropylene (PP). the operating conditions can be regarded as optimum.g. and the packing must be immune to fouling and corrosion. It must permit high loads. and allow low gas-side pressure drops. should be taken into account in assessing packing performance. The fact is that one of the first questions usually raised in planning a given separation process is what would be the most suitable material for the task.1 Materials of construction The ease with which the material of construction can be shaped. have good separation efficiency.11 Overall evaluation of packing In view of the spiralling costs of energy. Even the thickness of the material differs to a not inconsiderable extent. These plastics have a very high tensile strength at break. Fig. because it obviates the precautions that have to be observed in charging ceramic packing and thus allows the column to be filled more rapidly. the residence time of the liquid. 11. Their low density allows reductions in column costs and facilitates handling. i. The ease with which they can be moulded is exploited in the production of packing of optimum geometry for two-phase flow. packing was produced predominantly from metals and ceramics. e. Thus the basic geometry of a metal Pall ring is not completely identical to that of a ceramic or plastics design. In the last twenty years. The plastics primarily used for the production of packing in industrial-scale absorption and desorption plants are polyethylene (PE). A field in which plastics packing has been adopted on a particularly wide scale is ecological engineering. poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). the time required for charging plastic packing is only one-tenth of that for ceramics. must be small. The dynamic liquid holdup. they are fulfilled to different extents by different types of packing. Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. If all these requirements are entirely met. e. processed or machined greatly influences the geometry of a packing. steel. It is therefore obvious that the properties of the materials mostly used in process engineering.

0 2.2 02 04 05 08 i 5 U U 16 18 W Vapour capacity factor Fv [m 1/2 s~ 1 kg 1/2 l 12 2. Efficiency and pressure drop for 25-mm Pall rings produced from various materials Experience has shown that more deposits.240 11 Overall evaluation of packing Methanol/Ethanol 1 bar.8 2.6 0.4 Fig. . Nowadays.1.0 1. plastic packing predominates in most of these columns.8 1. beds of packing produced from them can be cleaned within the column by flotation and washing with water and steam. Since plastics have a lower density than that of water.6 Vapour velocity u v im/s] 1. H=2m 25mm Pall ring Plastic o Ceramic v Metal D < 60 I [1/m 3 ] 57000 43000 47500 I -i- A 20 0. This advantage has been exploited in potash and diethanolamine columns. Thus great differences exist in the down times required for cleaning.2 0. Other cases in which the low density of plastics can be conveniently exploited concern the retrofitting of plate columns that were previously preferred to columns with ceramic or metal packing simply because they weighed less. which were formerly charged almost exclusively with ceramic packing. 11. d s = 500mm.2 1. are formed on ceramic than on plastic packing.4 1. L/V = 1. There is no doubt that plastics packing can be successfully used in many more fractionation tasks than they are today. which cause an increase in pressure drop. particularly in the separation of systems that do not affect the plastics' resistance to heat and chemicals.4 0.

i.e. Thus. i. and the only basis on which the optimum column could be designed would be a comparison of the total costs. the operating costs will also differ. the term nt can be determined from the theoretical column efficiency r\c (cf. Since the contribution made by the shell towards the costs per unit volume decreases with an increase in diameter. one of the mostused types of packing for random beds in industrial-scale columns.2. and C is the costs per unit volume of the packed column. . e. If the number of theoretical stages ntfiso in an isobaric column is known.2 Capital investment The capital investment costs CQ for a packed column designed for a separation task at a given liquid-to-vapour ratio LIV can be calculated from the following equation: Cc = vv nt V C = — vv nt>iso V C (11-1) where Vy is the column volume per unit of separation efficiency and per unit of vapour volumetric flow rate. its performance data are often taken as a reference in evaluating new developments. it will be found that r\ c. over the last 35 years. V is the volumetric flow rate of the vapour through the column. Comparatively low values for the pressure drop per unit theoretical stage Ap/nt are achieved by metal packing with thin walls. The Pall ring is regarded as one of the best and. i.e. An idea to this effect can be obtained by comparing packings with different efficiency/pressure drop/load characteristics but operated at the same vapour load per unit cross-section. the differences in the pressure drop per theoretical stage will give rise to differences in the ease with which the mixture can be separated into its components and therefore to differences in not only vv but also r\c. by gauze packing. one of the criteria adopted is the ratio Cs of the costs of the packing to be evaluated to those of a random bed of 50-mm Pall rings. However. nt and V are the same in each case and that the costs of the column will be influenced solely by vv and C.77. Chapter 1). In this case. It can thus be seen that the costs C per unit volume of a packed column do not constitute the only criterion that decides the choice of packing. For this reason. The engineering performance data for these types of packing lie within the ranges depicted in Fig. The costs for the shell and the bed of packing in a column are usually fixed by the manufacturer in accordance with the supply schedule. the corresponding values of C are less. if the comparison is based on equal pressure drops per theoretical stage Ap/nt. It can be easily proved that r\c is of no significance except in vacuum separation processes involving a large number of theoretical stages. the specific column volume nt is the number of theoretical stages required to separate the system into the desired products. Consequently. The relevant figures for metal Pall rings are listed in Table 11-1. a column in which there is theoretically no pressure drop.2 Capital investment 241 11. and thus nt and V as well. 11. and extremely low values.

81 F V . costs. Process engineering ratings.3° 0.7 vv Cs Ap nt 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 Fv VV Cs 15-15-0.30 3.40 2.4° Dimension Material Fv n r m k g 1 / 2 s x n t /H 1/ni Ap/n t mbar ° Stainless steel vv m3/m 3 /s Carbon steel .02 2.77 1.3° l.59 2. the value for Cc is determined by inserting nt = 1 and V = 1 m3/s in Eqn (11-1).2° 25-25-0.2. However.0 80-80-1.13 0.4 2.4 X 1.66 0.16 1.4 2.09 0.4X 1.83 2.0° 50-50-1.5 1.09 0.9° 0.17 2.9 x 1.47 2.61 2.9 x 1 1 l.1° 1.09 0.4 0.2 delineate the range of performance data for almost all modern types of packing with moderate pressure drops per theoretical stage.4 2.0x 1. 11.09 1.lx 0.2 and the values listed in Table 11.89 2.11 0.18 1 1.6X 1.lx 1. 1.49 2.08 0.09 0.65 3.F Ap nt 2.6 2.5 2.2° 1.1° 35-35-0.4° 1.5X 2.13 0.11 0. The criterion on which a selection would be based from the economics Table 11. It can be seen that the only separation processes in which the gauze packing incurs less costs than the 50-mm Pall rings are those in which specific pressure drops of less than 1 mbar are specified.71 2. and costs factors for columns packed with random beds of metal Pall rings Size Fv H 0.09 0.11 2.10 1.11 0.76 2.1.02 3.lx 1.8 2. The curves plotted in Fig.1° X 1.242 11 Overall evaluation of packing = Cc (packing x) Cc (50-mm Pall ring) _ ^ In this case. the higher reflux ratio r will entail that both nt and V will be greater in beds with a high value for the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt than in those with a low value.6 l.0x 0.0° 1. An example of a comparison between a random bed of metal Pall rings and a gauze packing is presented in Table 11. If the comparison is based on the assumption that the vapour capacity factor Fv is the same in both cases.18 1.6.47 2.6 0. if the rectification process involves a large number of theoretical stages. this simplification can apply only if the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt is the same in each of the beds of packing compared. This is evident from the qualitative diagram shown in Fig.

2 Capital investment 243 ^ Packin g Dumped Regular • 1 2 • • Pall ring Gauze . .4 r -1/2 -1 i 3. — —. 2..8 Pall ring 50 Sulzer BX 2.4 0. 11.3 3 Fv vv 0.2 Capacity factor Fv[m s kg ] Table 11.08 Cs 1 3.0 . r 2. 50-mm metal Sulzer BX / / > p —Ethylbenzene/Styrene 133 mbar / cz CO J CL 0 0.11 Dimension Material Ap/n t mbar Fv m"1/2 kg1/2 s-1 3 3 v> / m /m /s Stainless steel . •.6 .2 CD .2.06 Cs 1 0.. Graphical comparison of random beds of packing and a structured packing 1 1.15 2.69 2.11 0. Engineering and costs comparison between a random and a geometrically arranged bed of packing Column Internals Specific pressure drop Ap/n t 1 vv Cs Fv 1. t 2.65 3.06 1 1.2 1..7 0.22 0.8 1/21 0 Fig.— — — (V.2.5 Fv 1.4 0.2 0.77.32 0.

the layout of the equipment. a fundamental distinction must be drawn between cases in which Fv = 0.e. i. i. Eqn (11-4) can also be writen in the following form: ^. The latter is important for evaluating all separation processes in which a limit is imposed on the pressure drop. the average total residence time of the liquid in the bed is a function of parameters that depend on the load.244 11 Overall evaluation of packing aspect is the costs as determined from Eqn (11-1). however. Frequently.= hL-^LVV=KhVy nt uL (11-5) In other words. and those in which Ap/nt is a constant.e. (11-4) nt uL \ ntIH It attains its lowest value in column internals for which the term hL/(nt/H) is a minimum when uL remains constant. i. the decision in favour of a particular type of packing is based on an analysis of the total costs with due regard to specific local conditions. e. Hence. The constant of proportionality Kh is a dimensionless hydrodynamic quantity that is specific for a given type of packing and is given by h L L ^ L Thus. the number of theoretical stages nt and the volumetric phase ratio.g. the tendency to fouling would be another factor to be taken into consideration. The specific residence time tjnt is defined as the period during which the liquid is held up over a bed height that corresponds in terms of efficiency to a theoretical stage. From the engineering aspect.by the liquid holdup hL. If different types of column internals are compared on the basis of Eqn (11-1). hL and vv. the specific residence time tjnt is directly proportional to the column volume per unit of efficiency vv. The latter is governed by the volume of liquid / retained in the bed of packing and the liquid flow rate VL or .e.if the liquid velocity uL and the height H of the bed are given . i. . the bed of packing with the shortest residence time will be that in which the liquid holdup hL is lowest for the load factor concerned. and parameters that are defined by the separation task.8 FFh where Fm is the capacity factor at the flood point. 11.3 Evaluation for the separation of thermally unstable mixtures The parameters that influence the thermal stability of a substance are the operating temperature and the residence time. i.e. for a given column volume per unit of efficiency vv and a given liquid/vapour ratio L/V.e.

h'L = hL vv (11-9) Consequently. Eqn (11-10) relating to plastics packing is presented graphically in Fig. 11.C = j . renewed increase . — = f(FV) LI V.11. i.pT = const The terms (tLlni)um and (Ap/nt)um define the maximum permissible limits for the specific residence time and the temperature at the foot of the column. If they are known. it can be determined which of the columns under investigation represents the most favourable costs. The condition that must be satisfied in this case is (11-13) Another condition that must be met is that the choice should be in favour of the column with the lowest costs per unit of column efficiency and unit volumetric flow rate. as defined by v. It can be seen that the minimum residence time coincides with the vapour capacity at the loading point.e.e.3. above which the liquid holdup rises considerably with an attendant. i. the suitability of column internals for the rectification of thermally instable mixtures is essentially defined by two equations.3 Evaluation for the separation of thermally unstable mixtures tL = Kh vv nt = hL vv nt —— 245 (11-7) uL The volumetric phase ratio in this case is given by The product of hL and vv is identical to the liquid holdup h'L per unit of separation efficiency and vapour volumetric flow rate.PT = const (H-10) nt — = f( The following relationship can be obtained by combining these two equations: ) t (11-12) I L/V.^ Kh nt (11-14) where C is the costs per unit volume of the packed column.

a=173rn 2 /m 3 - Metal^ ^\ —.3.2 1. In this case.2 mbar. 11.8 1 Spec.4 2.8 3.3 0. This minimum corresponds to a pressure drop per theoretical stage lS.1 0.6 Vapour capacity factor F v [m" 1/2 s"1 kg 1 ' 2 ] Fig. Specific residence time of the liquid phase as a function of the specific pressure drop in a random and in an arranged bed of metal packing 3 0. L/V--1 1 0 X CMR 1.5 Turbo . 11.3 and 11.6 0.2 3.a = 200m 2 /m r 7^1 — . 11. pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] . the example taken to plot the curve was metal packing in the range below the loading point. Another fact that can be derived from Figs.8 1. Eqn (11-12) is presented graphically in Fig. L/V=1 -CD 0. Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar.246 11 Overall evaluation of packing in the residence time.4.4 is that the residence for the liquid is less in beds of packing with a large area per unit volume a than in beds with smaller values of a. 11.4.0 2. Specific residence time of the liquid phase in a column packed with plastics Hiflow rings as a function of the capacity factor 20 i i i i i i Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar. ^ — Fig.plnt = 2.6 2.4 0.2 0.» Gempak2AT.

11. The following two general relationships then apply: QV. system) (11-18) vv = f (p. system. internals) (11-19) The term (r + 1) governs the energy consumption.e. this minimum value increases with the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. This product passes through a minimum at a certain reflux ratio r. materials. It is also obvious from the diagram that modern packing is . the volume Vc of the enrichment section in a rectification column of height H through which vapour with a molar mass \iv and a density QV flows at a velocity uv and a molar flow rate V is given by VC = V— QV —H Uy (11-15) The molar flow rate V is given by V = D (r + 1) (11-16) where D is the molar flow rate of the overhead product and r is the reflux ratio. The terms nt/H and vv associated with the vapour capacity factor Fv can be introduced by means of the relationship expressed in Eqn (1-36). nt = f (/?. tF = tb. i.11. The planning stage involves thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analyses of the design.4 Evaluation in terms of minimum column volume Rectification is the most energy-intensive thermal separation process. and the separation term (r + l)nt exerts a great influence on the column volume. The only means of ensuring optimized energy consumption and minimum column volume is to instal efficient high-performance packing with a low inherent pressure drop. r.5.min n = f (Ap//Ir) (11-20) If the rectification process involves a large number of theoretical stages. Strictly speaking. as is clearly evident from the example shown in Fig.e. Eqn (11-15) then becomes yc = D iiv — vv (r + 1) nt Qv (11-17) Other parameters that affect the volume Vc are the operating pressure and the nature of the system to be separated. Considered from this aspect. Eqn (11-16) applies to the entire enrichment section of the column if the individual components of the mixture have almost the same vaporization enthalpy. i.4 Evaluation in terms of minimum column volume 247 11. and operating parameters and a knowledge of the process engineering parameters required for the evaluation of the intended column internals. VC. it applies to the stripping section only if the mixture to be separated flows through the column at its boiling point.

pj =51 mbar. There must be a value of v that corresponds to the minimum volume Vc.992 . Since a decrease in the value of Ap/nt entails a reduction in the reflux ratio r {cf. According to Eqns (1-48) and (1-49).0035 60 \ \ \ X » 55 \ \ s -^ r I S O ^ 45 o X 1 —.591 . — T 400 iI O fV J 380 X / / g 360 340 /' •K > — — ^1 i 320 300 rpi ^ —~* re "-'^ rr.in turn . Eqn (1-49)}. \ N _ _ _ \ H 1 —i • . —-» 40 460 440 420 cT \ ^ .exceeds the minimum rmintiso by a factor v. the reflux ratio in a real column r exceeds that in a theoretical isobaric column riso by a factor vG. rr -yn bU °^ '-^ ReflUX ratio r 7r ' ^ pn "^ Fig.min . 11. Effect of the specific pressure drop on the column dimensions in the vacuum rectification of an ethylbenzene/styrene mixture definitely superior to traditional fractionating plates from the aspect of the volume Vc of the enrichment zone. x B = 0. x D --0. because it gives rise to much lower values of Ap/nt and vv. tp = t b x F --0.248 11 Overall evaluation of packing Ethylbenzene/Styrene. which .5. another great advantage of lower pressure drops in separation processes that involve a large number of theoretical stages is a substantial cut in the energy consumption.

4 1.0035 -S " 5 X 1 8 ^ — - h r c 'm n.3 [(r*1)nt]min .4 Evaluation in terms of minimum column volume 249 and the separation term [(r + l)nt]min and to which Eqn (11-20) would apply. pT = 51 mbar . s • « 3 1 .2 J-s _ — .1 < | a o Specific pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] 0 * Fig.2 -ci - AQ /QIS0 \ 0. Effect of the specific pressure drop on energy consumption and the number of theoretical stages . 11. It can be expressed as follows as a function of the presssure drop per theoretical stage: / Ap \ = ff (H-23) Ethylbenzene / Styrene .i. —• 03 a a c CD GU .1 —— — — ^ • \ 0 — <^ . — 1 2 3 4 NA 5 6 0.2 0. The relationship to the pressure drop per theoretical stage would then be / Ap\ [(r + \)nt]minVG = f — \ n ]> V t (11-21) The additional energy consumed by this pressure drop is given by vGQiso riso + 1 v 1 (11-22) rmin. t F = t b x F : 0.x D = 0.0591 . xB--0. CD C 3 C/) <1 O CD O 0.11.992 .6.0.

2. 3 that there is no single type of packing that can provide a perfect answer to all the demands that are encountered in practice: high outputs. Many aspects on separation efficiency have to be considered in addition to the operating requirements and the properties of the system. l(r + l ) n l ] m i = fH t. In other words. low pressure drops. 1 HTU uNTUIH u ' $aPh (11-26) . they need not necessarily correspond to the operating conditions under which the minimum total costs. 5). The curves apply to the case in which the column volume Vc is a minimum. short residence times. Most importance is attached to the basic geometry and dimensions of the packing. i.e. can be introduced in this equation. It is defined in terms of the phase load u in a horizontal cross-section of the column and the height of a transfer unit HTU (or the number of transfer units NTU per unit column height H). the product of the mass transfer coefficient p and the area of contact aph at the phase boundary. 11. The extent to which the two cases agree depends on the local costs for energy and the materials of construction. as is evident from the designs discussed in Chap. and low costs.6. i. immunity to corrosion. The effect of the pressure drop on the energy consumption and the number of theoretical trays is immediately evident. 11. in analogy to Eqn (1-36). the sum of the capital investment and running costs. Chap. Consequently.250 11 Overall evaluation of packing The associated increase in the number of theoretical stages Antlnt>iso can also be expressed as a function of the pressure drop per theoretical stage. resistance to fouling. 11. The materials of construction represent another important design factor. e. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient. The specific column volume. i.e. can be expected.iso \ n (H-24) I n t These relationships are presented graphically in Fig.e. The data taken as an example were derived from Fig. i.5. a logical procedure in selecting packing would be to apply Eqns (11-1) and (11-2) in order to determine which would be most economical of the types that have previously been screened for compliance with process requirements.e.5 Theoretical considerations in the design of column internals Modern manufacturing and finishing techniques allow column packing to be realized in multitudinous geometrical forms with a wide variety of surface structures. It is obvious from the preceding sections of this chapter and the remarks on the experiments discussed in Chap. e.g. is a useful performance criterion (cf. short residence time and low pressure drop in the rectification of thermally unstable mixtures. i. Thus great scope is available in varying the hydrodynamic and performance characteristics.

The value for the liquid phase is given by L ( ) UL - d} The value for the vapour phase can be obtained from this equation by introducing the terms for the effective void fraction ee for the gas {Eqn (4-55)} and the superficial gas velocity uv. through which the phase in question flows at a volumetric rate V {cf. and regularly stacked packing with interrupted flow channels. P = . c The duration of contact can be reduced by design measures. with the consequence that both the specific column volume v {cf. = £eVc tv = -^-H Uy (11-31) J T 2 — ds Uy The residence time tL is related to the duration of contact xL through the liquid holdup hL. x is small. The average liquid velocity over this path is given by uL = — (H-32) . Eqn (11-17)} of a column of height H and diameter ds. i. it is known that small packing separates more efficiently than large. i. Eqn (11-29)}. For instance.\ / - (H-27) where — = constant = 2jt~ 05 . In both cases.11. Eqn (11-28)} and the total volume Vc. the liquid load uL. more efficiently than falling-film. the mass transfer coefficient |3 for the phase concerned depends on the corresponding diffusion coefficient D and the period of contact required for renewal of the phase boundary. which depends on the length lx of the path of contact over which the surface of the liquid is renewed in the bed of packing concerned. It depends on the liquid holdup {cf. Eqn (11-3)}. and the volume Vc {cf.e. are also small: — Vc = vVNTU (11-28) (11-29) A knowledge of the residence time in the column is particularly important in planning the rectification of mixtures that are sensitive to heat.e.5 Theoretical considerations in the design of column internals 251 According to the theory of nonstationary diffusion.

It is an unambiguous statement that must be observed in designing packing geometry. rL and tL are related by the following equation: Substituting for tL from Eqn (11-30) then yields the following relationship between the duration of contact and the liquid holdup: xL = . the less the duration of contact xv. which is related as follows to the residence time tv: (11-38) Substituting for tv from Eqn (11-31) gives rise to Eqn (11-39). the average superficial velocity of the gas or vapour phase is given by Uv=— xv (11-37) In other words.^ uLnc Finally. substituting for nc from Eqn (11-33) gives xL = . that is permitted by the geometry of the packing is given by «c = 71 (H-33) Therefore.252 11 Overall evaluation of packing The total number of paths of contact per unit height of column. In analogy to Eqn (11-32). and combining Eqns (11-33) and (11-39).^ (11-36) (11-35) This equation states that the less the product hLlx of the liquid holdup and the path of contact for a given liquid load. the vapour traverses the path lx in a period of time xv. for H = 1. to Eqn (11-40): TV = —^— (11-39) uvnc Uy . i.e.

the area of contact at the phase boundary aph. i. and for the gas phase. the duration of contact of an entire phase depends on the local phase velocity and the number of paths of contact per unit of effective column height. Hence. the liquid holdup hL and the superficial gas velocity uv. and the height of the bed. i. a definite relationship exists between the residence time. by Eqn (11-44): tL = -¥UL (11-43) (11-44) tv=-^Uy According to these two equations and to Eqns (11-30) and (11-31).e. the void fraction 8 and the length of the path of contact / t . the load.5 Theoretical considerations in the design of column internals 253 These equations relate geometric parameters for the packing. which is derived from Eqns (11-33) and (11-37): xL = ^J— uLnc uvnc (11-41) (11-42) The corresponding residence time for the liquid phase is given by Eqn (11-43). from Eqn (11-42).e. the shorter the residence time tL. and for the gas phase.77. the shorter the residence time tv. If the liquid load uL is given: the smaller the product of the liquid holdup hL and the height H. Rearranging Eqn (11-28) allows the duration of contact e to be expressed in terms of the specific column volume v. (11-45) It follows from this equation that if the duration is short. The figure for the liquid phase can be obtained from Eqn (11-41). to certain operating conditions. If the vapour load uv is given: the smaller the product of the effective void fraction ee and the height //. and the coefficient of diffusion D. which is derived by combining Eqns (11-32) and (11-37). Its value for the vapour {Eqn (11-46)} and liquid {Eqn (11-47)} phases can be obtained by further rearrangement of Eqn (11-45). the product of the specific column volume v and the area of contact aph must be small. Thus aph = c Vj±- (11-47) . i.e.

which is obtained by combining Eqns (11-36) and (11-47). The area a per unit volume and the area of contact aph at the phase boundary can be best exploited by packing that permits high vapour velocities and can be uniformly wetted. low values for the specific column volumes vv and vL can thus be attained. in which the specific column volume Vy for a random bed of Pall rings is compared to that for stacked Pall rings operated at the same pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. have a beneficial effect on mass transfer and therefore reduce the specific colume volumes.180 1 0.244 0. The liquid holdup hL also depends on the design and the loading conditions. and the advantageous effects that can be achieved if its value is low are evident from Eqn (4-73). Difference in specific column volume between random and geometrically arranged beds of Pall rings. Consequently.5 0. It can be seen that the column space occupied by the stacked bed is only about 40 % of that of the random bed. Analogous information can be derived from the corresponding equation for the specific volume vL relating to the liquid phase.254 11 Overall evaluation of packing According to Eqn (11-1). the price of a rectification column is governed by the product of the specific column volume and the costs per unit volume. i. An illustrative example is given by Table 11. development work must be aimed at selecting design parameters that involve the minimum outlay on materials of construction and machining. Table 11. According to Eqns (11-48) and (11-49).3.e. ring size 25 mm Ap/nt [mbar] -» vv^ [m3/m3/s] Dumped Stacked 0.080 5 0. and thus their redistribution. the specific column volume vv relating to the vapour phase can be reduced by shortening the length of the path of contact lx.093 0.036 .453 0. V L = — \ ITT-li (H-49) Design measures aimed at frequently interrupting the flow paths for the two phases.3. Comparison based on the specific pressure drop Metallic Pall ring packings. Combining Eqns (11-40) and (11-46) gives rise to (11-48) It follows from this equation that. if the void fraction 8 is given.

the less this tendency. particularly since the pertinent empirical values derived from laboratory or plant studies are not always available. The criterion that is generally adopted in evaluating various types of packing is: the greater the area per unit volume a. on the liquid/vapour ratio and the pressure. Thus the liquid loads in vacuum rectification are usually much less than those encountered in rectification at atmospheric or higher pressures or in absorption and desorption processes. and the maximum load. Moreover. the liquid/vapour load ratio in a column may vary considerably from the one process to another. Thus a measure for the efficiency is the specific column volume vv {cf. that necessary to achieve a specified capacity and overall efficiency. The more that these requirements are met. foil. The wide differences in the thermodynamic behaviour and physical properties of the various systems to be separated by thermal techniques entail corresponding differences in the operating conditions. engineers responsible for planning thermal separation plants often have difficulty in selecting the optimum packing for a given application. i. Experience has shown that the simpler the geometry of the packing and the smoother its finish. evaluation of the results presented in various publications permits the performance of packing of different geometries and textures to be assessed in outline. The only means of finding out the extent to which the performance of random and stacked beds of packing can be improved is to determine by experiment the parameters that specify the geometry and texture. or plastics film are stacked crosswise in a regular geometric arrangement. the less the pressure drop and the larger the bed capacity. Another criterion is: the greater the effective void fraction. the packing is eminently suitable for the separation of mixtures that are sensitive to heat. this applies only if the yardstick for packing performance is the specific column volume vv. The operating characteristic for the packing is another criterion for selection. It can thus be seen that there is no one type of packing that gives optimum performance in each and every industrial application. In many cases. An example of suitable geometry is honeycomb packing. . However. yet the minimum possible pressure drop in the stream of gas or vapour. Eqn (1-34)} that is required to cope with a given liquid load or a given phase ratio. Some of the numerous products that have to be separated on an industrial scale tend to foul or corrode the packing in a column. it also entails a reduction in capital investment costs.e. A criterion that is frequently adopted for evaluating packing is the pressure drop per unit of efficiency.77.6 State of the art in the development of packing 255 11. the less the volume of the internals that are required for a given separation task. Hence the specific column volume and the specific pressure drop decisively govern the economics of column packing. In view of these facts. Consequently. However. particularly for vacuum rectification processes that involve a large number of transfer units. Its reciprocal can be regarded as the volumetric efficiency of the packing. This also explains the numerous designs of packing on the market.6 State of the art in the development of packing The properties expected of packing are great separation efficiency and a high superficial velocity. the efficiency of most beds of packing depends on the load and pressure. If it is low. in which parallel rows of sheet metal. because it allows operation at moderate product temperatures. the better the mass transfer. Packing with a low specific pressure drop is essential for the realization of optimum energy consumption in separation equipment. which is referred to as the specific pressure drop.

the area required to realize the one theoretical stage and unit vapour volumetric flow rate can be obtained from the function a' = f(fl) (11-52) These conclusions have been verified by the results of comprehensive studies of recent and later date that were performed under comparable conditions on various beds of packing and that embraced different design principles. It represents the area per unit efficiency and unit vapour volumetric flow rate.4). 11.e.7). 11. Symbols for traditional types of packing as illustrated in Fig. corrugated and performated Sheet metal. — a s vv = — a' s = (1 .8. smooth Packing Sulzer GHH Dimensions BX Symbol T Square Fine Course 25 mm 25 mm 25 mm 35 mm 50 mm 15 mm 25 mm 50 mm 80 mm 25 mm 50 mm • • • A O Glitsch Glitsch Raschig ring BASF ring Raschig ring A A A O O Sheet metal. 11. rough Plastic. fabrics. expanded metals.e) vv (11-51) If vv has been determined for various beds. discontinuous Pall ring o 6 e e- . which shows the performance-related area a ' a s a function of the area per unit volume a for some packings of completely different geometries and textures (cf.4. g. discontinuous Pall ring Expanded metal. e. The results obtained in evaluating the less recent studies are presented in Fig. and is given by a — a vv (11-50) The volume of packing material v' present in a bed can be expressed in terms of the separation efficiency and the flow rates. folded and perforated Metal grid Metal grid Ceramic. different materials.8 Structure Metal gauze Sheet metal. i. and different surface structures.256 11 Overall evaluation of packing A measure for the degree to which the area available per unit volume in the bed of packing can be exploited is the performance-related area a'. Table 11. The points plotted Table 11. and smooth surfaces (Fig.

a random bed of traditional metal Pall rings. Examples of traditional packing for geometrically arranged and random beds metal Pail ring. met in the diagram were derived from experiments performed in the same pilot plant. say. Gutsch 3no.iS. more area a' has to be installed per unit efficiency and unit flow rate. According to the diagram. Figure 11. . the degree of exploitation of the available surface decreases with an increase in its area a. 11. and under the same conditions. metal gauze packing is less efficient per unit area than. In qualitative terms.". It allows the limits to be estimated within which the separation efficiency can be influenced by design measures. with the same test system.77. the area per unit volume of the gauze packing required to realize this .7. this entails that. i.8 also permits the conclusion that changes in the surface structure of packing of given basic geometry merely lead to a moderate change in the efficiency per unit area. exp.!*. bfiCl.6 State of the art in the development of packing 257 PacMiam- b!. Despite the very expensive material of high interfacial activity that is required for its production. if the one theoretical stage is adopted as a measure for the efficiency under conditions that correspond to about 80 % of the maximum possible capacity.jjor-jc Fig.e.

Relationship between the performance-related and the geometric areas of traditional random packing and arranged packing as listed in Table 11.— -* -— . As a consequence. high-performance column packing offers many advantages.258 11 Overall evaluation of packing Is* *E e on o/) — c max. . Since gauze packing is very expensive and tends to foul in a number of applications.it governs the pressure at the bottom and thus the product temperature and energy consumption. technical and economic limits are imposed on development work aimed at improving the efficiency of packing of given basic geometric configuration.e. In addition. individually or combined. a pronounced trend set in towards stacked and random beds with a moderate pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. to improve upon the process engineering characteristics of existing designs and thus the economics of separation plants and processes. because . Comprehensive experimental studies over the years have also confirmed that physical. 11.^.— — c^ « «— ^-* ^ — . This fact must be regarded from the aspect of the target set in all new and further developments. pressure droP 3 m c f ar i 100 180 220 260 300 340 380 Area per unit volume a [m 2 /m 3 ] 420 460 500 Fig.—-. — • -—• .if the pressure at the head of the column is given .— A .8. zu a in g 1 0 " S 40 a CD < Ethylbenzene/Styrene 133 mbar Liquid/Vapour ratio L/V = 1 . to improve packing effectiveness. Consequently. It will then be seen that there is a limit to the number of design measures that can be adopted. the total pressure drop between the head and bottom of the column determines the economics of the separation process.4 one stage would be about 50 % more than that required for a random bed of 25-mm metal Pall rings. An important factor in the selection of packing is the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. By virtue of its low pressure drop in vacuum rectification with a large number of theoretical stages. loac . The first energy crisis triggered off a growing demand for column packing with a low pressure drop. if the principle of the heat pump is considered. the compelling idea arose to .—«• -— S 30 a o •2 20 CD CU • 60 ^ — m -o 140 • o c Spec. i. the specific column volume vv should be adopted as a criterion if the packings to be compared have the same pressure drop per theoretical stage.

02 0 1. 11.6 State of the art in the development of packing 259 replace the gauze by structured sheet metal yet to retain the beneficial features of a wellknown type.10 reveal that the efficiency of a perforated structured surface is somewhat higher than that of a smooth unperforated surface but no better than that of an unperforated structured surface.9. Equally convincing evidence is given in Table 11. Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67mbaf\ L/V = 1 0.10 0.5 2 2.5 / — . Sulzer Packing BX. which represents the function a' = i{a) {cf. 1 ontz pack.77.Gauz( Fig. A1 S alzer pack.06 I V 0. The curve demonstrates. the decrease in the degree of exploitation of the available surface that occurs with an increase in its area a. The evaluation of results of experimental studies on some of these packing variants is presented in Fig. BX . Unmistakable evidence for the efficiency at the surface of some modern packing elements shown in Fig. The results of the experiments presented in Fig. 11. B1-300 / •alupak 250 YC J f 0. 11. 11. just as convincingly as those in Fig. e.5 3 Specific pressure drop Ap/n. despite the differences in surface structure and the completely different basic geometry. 11.5 to the effect that. They also gave rise to new structures and designs with and without perforations. Specific column volume as a function of the specific pressure drop for sheet-metal and metal-gauze packing 0. The aim was to achieve a higher efficiency than that attainable with smooth sheet metal.08 0.g.hoc \ lellapak 250 Y lontz pock.[mbar] . 11. It can be seen that the question of which surface structure on the sheet metal should include perforations is practically immaterial from the aspect of the attainable minimum specific column volume.12 \\ 0. These considerations led to Mellapak 250 Y and other designs of similar basic geometry.06 CD •V \\ \ V \\ \ <.08 ^ 0. the surface efficiency of random beds of modern packing may be just as good as that of geometrically arranged beds operated under the same conditions.12.8.9.04 i 0.11 is provided in Fig. Eqn (11-52)}.

75 2.6 3. 1.68 0.5. Process engineering ratings and data on the surface effectiveness of selected types of metal packing System: Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar.078 19.101 9.134 12.260 // Overall evaluation of packing Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene L/V-1.02 0.10.087 17.46 0. 11.067 16.025 0.8 0.04 0.5 1.048 9.1 0. PT*67mbor ~ 25 CO m -uII* 20 I• a. Effect of the surface structure on the specific column volume as a function of the specific pressure drop in a bed of arranged packing Table 11.46 3 3.082 14.3 0.18 2.055 11.5 3.137 23.25 3. liquid/vapour ratio 1 F v vapour capacity factor v v specific column volume a area per unit volume a' performance-related area Packing Mellapak 250 Y a = 250 m 2 /m 3 Gempak 2 A T-304 a = 200 m 2 /m 3 Glitsch No.5 3 3. 15 E ig o Montz-pock B1-300 o Structured a Structured+perforatecl a Smooth \ > 10 q> o c: 1 0 0 c? •LJ.70 2.5 T CMR a = 173 m 2 /m 3 Hiflow ring 50 mm a = 92 m 2 /m 3 Ap/n t [mbar] F v [m 1 / 2 s 1 kg1/2] v v [m3s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] F v [m 1 / 2 s"1 kg1/2] v v [m3s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] F v [m 1 / 2 s 1 kg-] v v [m3s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] F v [m 1 / 2 s 1 kg1/2] v v [m3s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] 1 2.5 0.5 Specific pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] Fig.39 .86 2 3.24 0..053 13.0 2.6 0.5 1 1 .56 0. iCL- " 0.69 3. 5 2 2.056 9.192 17.

Hence.11. highrings other allow Fig.11. that have been developed to keep pace with the growing demand and an interesting alternative in certain processes. plastics Hiflow in columns of 9 m diameter and 35 m height. there are many types of packing. than structured. random beds of performance packing are now also used for very large capacities.g. 11. e.6 State of the art in the development of packing 261 By virtue of their outstanding process engineering characteristics. Examples of recent types of packing .

262 11 Overall evaluation of packing Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar. Relationship between the performance-related and geometric areas for recent types of packing 11. pressure drop. They depend on the basic price for the materials of construction. which depends on the costs per unit area Cp of the packing installed. i. Kp = a'Cp = avvCp The area as of the column shell per unit flow rate and unit efficiency is given by as = Jt (11-53) ndsH 2 4 = -r vv "J (11-54) — ds uvnt l .12. and capacity.13. but an economic study lays emphasis on the costs-to-performance ratio. The first step is to determine as a function of the area per unit volume a the costs Kp of the performance-related area a'.7 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing Economic evaluation of column packing entails that the efficiency must be weighed up against the costs involved in its realization. In general. 11. If the shape of the packing is given. 11. and the running costs. the volume of materials per unit volume of product. the process engineering aspects are confined to the efficiency. this necessarily raises the question of the optimum area aopt per unit volume. which can be derived from costs considerations by the procedure outlined in Fig.e. liquid/vapour ratio L/V=1 Specific pressure drop 3 mbar 60 100 140 180 220 260 300 2 3 340 380 420 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.

^ ^ ^ —mS-\ • """ Kmin 1 1 a opt.18. . one of them structured. The specific column volume vy..•••*" Costs ^ shelf ds = const. which is given by Ks) da = 0 . is shown as a function of the area a per unit volume in Figs. The relationship can be described by an equation of the following form: .> aopt (11-57) If the column is of large diameter. The sum K of the costs items is js js . 11.7 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing 263 costs K .11.14 to 11... 11. "^- Area per unit volume a [mz/m3] Fig. Four types of metal packing.^ ^ . the effect exerted by the costs Ks corresponding to the area as is reduced. K passes through a minimum. -ty- Cs =i (a) (11-56) At the value for aopt.13. will now be taken as an example to illustrate these relationships. Graph for the determination of the area of a packed column that permits minimum costs The column shell costs Ks corresponding to as are (11-55) where Cs is the costs per unit area of shell. as defined by Eqn (1-34).

6. The total costs K are therefore given by —+ B a a(C + Da) 4[^ + F (11-62) Numerical values for the factors A and B (derived from Figs.4571). cc CO . and E and F are the corresponding factors for the column shell. D. and 11. rings 7 400 Relationship between the specific column volume and the area of beds of metal Raschig .80 f^eto 1 R DSCflio rino 1 5 F hyl "IPfTIGDG \ kH i 1 0 100 200 300 Area per unit volume a [m 2 /m 3 ] Fig. s = 10 mm and the material of construction is stainless steel (18 Cr 10 Ni 2.21. and the costs Cs per unit area of column shell.19. 11.264 11 Overall evaluation of packing VV= W-A+. 11. 11. -t V ipac it v ma>:. Eqn (11-62) is presented graphically in Figs. 11 14. The curves are valid for traditional random packing (represented by Pall rings). by Eqn (11-61): Cp = C + Da Cs = E + Fds (11-60) (11-61) where C and D are costs factors that apply to a specific packing. modern random packing Nominal ring size d [mm "e 13 50 35 25 yre le ' 33 nba r. and 11.German steel number 1.18) and for C. (11-59) The costs Cp per unit of packing installed are given by Eqn (11-60).15. (11-58) where A and B are constants. The costs function follows from Eqns (11-56) and (11-58). s = 8 mm to ds ^ 3 m. s = 6 mm through ds ~ 2 m. 11. Eqn (11-61) applies if the column diameter ds and thickness s lie in the range ds < 1 m. i.20. E and F (estimated from manufacturers' data) are listed in Table 11.5 Mo .17. e.

It can be seen that the total costs K depend greatly on a and ds and that the optimum area aopt per unit volume is a function of ds.= 1 \\ 0% max.15. 11. Relationship between the specific column volume and the area of beds of metal Pall rings .7 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing 265 (represented by Glitsch Cascade Mini-Rings). and stacked packing (represented by Montz Bl).11. Relationship betwen the specific column volume and the area of beds of metal Pall rings Nominal ring size d [ m m ' 50 35 1 2 25 1 1 1 5 9 \ _ O Methanol/Ethc nol i 1 11 i_ ir. 11. capacity c :a.80°/«3 mo* r.thy Iben zene/ o tyrene 133 mbar. 50 35 Nominal ring size d [mm ' 25 1 5 3 1 3 CL> t 1 2 \ 11 ' ' I r Q /C> t . DC L -' V 10 \ r:a. -.16.nn acity N i \ — «1etc I Pall f"innc 1 200 300 2 3 400 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.8 "i 1 0 100 200 Metal Pall rings r i 300 — 400 Area per unit volume a [m 2 /m 3 ] Fig.

17.5T 1 1T / C 1L . Lh —^ f^lontz niGta [ I pprl^inn •a i 200 300 400 2 3 500 Area per unit volume o [m /m ] Fig.5 2 1. 11. Relationship between the specific column volume and the area of arranged beds of packing . 8 0 % max.Chlor Dbenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar.5 PL c ^\ \ Ihiuruuenmi e/t thylDenzene o/ muui. capacityI \ 1 e\ o 7 ^"•^^ IB S. Relationship between the specific column volume and the area of beds of Glitsch CMR packing 1 0 i I I I : • .266 11 Overall evaluation of packing Nominal ring size d[inches] 2.4.1 U _. V 1 : a . _ 0. .5 1. 11. 8 0 % max. capacity ^ 7 > ° 6 "o 5 ) Mellapak 250 Y S.= 1 / c a . 5 letal Gl tsc ) C 3SC(ide Mini Ri igs 1 1 1 n 100 200 2 — — •o 300 3 400 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.18.

+ F\= alpt (AD + BC) + 2 BDalpt (11-63) If the numerical values for the factors A to F listed in Table 11.5 m < ds < 4 m 180 for 0 . 11. the optimum area aopt per unit volume is governed by the costs ratio CJCp and the column diameter ds. Costs function factor for some types of packing Factors for cost functions A (m2/m3/s) B (m /m /s) C (DM/m2) D (DM/m) E F (DM/m2) (DM/m3) 3 3 Ethylbenzene/ Styrene 133 mbar Pall ring 7 Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar Glitsch CMR Montz packing Bl 4 16 0. as is indicated by Eqn (11-57). and 11. 11.04 6 0. Table 11.7 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing 267 Differentiating Eqn (11-62) with respect to a gives rise to aopt.22.07 14 0 0.11.6 are inserted in Eqn (11-63). If D = 0. the value of aopt corresponding to a shell diameter of ds > 2 m is aopt < 120 m 2 /m 3 .23.24 can be obtained by plotting the optimum area aopt per unit volume against the column diameter ds. 11. Thus ^.6. Eqn (11-63) is simplified to Substituting Cs for (E + Fds) {Eqn (11-61)} and Cp for C {Eqn (11-60)} then gives In other words.5 m < ds < 4 m .018 22 + 6/ds 0 0. and the associated optimum diameter of the Pall ring is d > 50 mm. the graphical relationship illustrated in Figs. According to the curves reproduced in Fig.077 640 for 0 . The value for stacked Montz Bl or packing of similar geometry and efficiency is aopt = 200/300 m 2 /m 3 .22. The dashed lines in the diagrams apply for the case in which the costs of the packing may vary by ± 25 %.

20. 11.5 2 1.8F Vmax Nominal ring size d [mm] 80 50 35 25 Area per unit volume a [m 2 /m 3 ] Fig. Effect of the diameter of a column packed with metal Pall rings on the total costs and the area that permits minimum costs Chloro-/Ethylbenzene 67mbar.268 11 Overall evaluation of packing Ethylbenzene/Styrene133 mbar. Effect of the diameter of a column packed with metal Glitsch CMR on the total costs and the area that permits minimum costs . Fv--0.5 1 800 700 en \ v \ V \\ \ \ 15E i Kmin 1 E \ A 7 ^— > y/ y / / 7 / _E 600 500 400 300 200 costs Kit s / ^\y / \ \ / / -^ i i i /> Metal Glitsch CMR 100 200 Area per unit volume a [m z /m 3 ] 300 Fig. Nominal ring size d [inches] 2. Fv = 0. L/V=1.19. 11. L/V=1.8F Vmax.

L/V=l 1100 1000 4? 900 \ \ 0 \ \ ?5rr) ——. n m " — — - ° 600 500 — .11.0 2. * — —• 35 •* — ^•— m '75 •cP 1. —— — [ r-7 — — — - - — — L II ietci I 1 ne PIjcki Bl400 300 2 3 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.7 Optimum area per unit volume in beds of packing 269 Chloro-ZEthytbenzene 67mbar. 11.— — * 1 700 a .5 Column diameter d s Im] Fig.5 5. - Kmin \ y / \j \ . - m - — — — — d— Ann. 11. Optimum area as a function of the diameter of columns packed with metal Pall rings .0 50 M CD 2.0 4.5 — — —— . 7 = 800 at 7.22.5 ? 1 4 200 — — — . Effect of the diameter of a column packed with metal Montz Bl on the total costs and the area that permits minimum costs 250 \ 200 s \ \ \ Stainless Steel Pall ring *** 25 o CD 150 100 50 0 s • a ° ^ — • • ' —«.0 1.— __ _ 4.21.5 3.0 3.

* — — >-—- — • - * ^"7— 3.24.5 Column diameter ds [ m ] Optimum area as a function of the diameter of columns packed with metal Glitsch CMR 400 \ \ \ \ \ 1 1 • Stainless steel \ 350 °° 300 O QJ .5 50 • 1.^ 5 200 0. — —.25. —.0 - r 5. the enlargement of the area per unit volume always leads to a reduction in the specific column volume vv and thus to an increase in the volumetric efficiency Ev.Montz packings B1- I r •cP• — — — .5 3 0 .0 3. As is evident from Fig.0 1.y — — (11-66) vv a .23. 11. o 1 1 V r — Stainless ste el Glitsch-C MR a £ 150 I p ~~ a "a 1— '——. 1 3.0 -c P z — — • • — — .0 2. 11. the improvements that can be achieved are no better than moderate.5 2 2. regardless of whether they are applied individually or combined for modifying existing packing or for developing new types. — * — • 2.5 4.5 4. In many cases. 5 Fig. Optimum area as a function of the diameter of columns packed with metal Montz Bl 11. 11. which is defined by E -J---2t.270 11 Overall evaluation of packing 300 ^ " 250 200 1 1 a. — — I ° 250 .5 2.8 Limits to the further development of packing It is evident from the above analysis that the design measures that can lead to a noticeable improvement in efficiency per unit area are restricted in number.5 1.5 Column diameter ds [ m ] Fig.

and the design parameters are the packing's area per unit volume a. the operating parameters are the volumetric flow rates uL and uv and the liquid/vapour ratio L/V.10 and from the following relationship: (11-67) Vy = They reveal the limits that are imposed on the development of column packing. These parameters also govern the packing performance from the economics aspect. the pressure drop Cp.11.25 were derived from those shown in Figs. i. •—--. 'olu metr eff (_> . the vapour flow rate at the loading uVjS and flood uv>Fi points. The limit to which the volumetric efficiency Ev tends corresponds to an area per unit volume a — 350 m 2 /m 3 . and the design. and the empirical factors that define the packing's shape and surface. because they decide the specific column volume vv.8 and 11. •—— _ — ===== 7 8 9 10 12. P" — — 1 180 220 I rQdit'mr)nl •—«. and cannot be significantly improved at higher values of a.8 Limits to the further development of packing 271 _ 28 1 1 \ \ Ethylbenzene/Styrene 133 mbar \ 20 16 1 • \ \ \ Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 mbar \ L/V-1 Specific pressure drop 3 mbar \ \ u \ QJ O "-V ckino •—«. 11. the relative void fraction 8. and the volumetric mass transfer coeffients in the liquid |3Lap^ and vapour ^yaPh phases. The system parameters are the phase densities QL and QV and dynamic viscosities r\L and r\v. 11. The relationships for their determination are dealt with in Chapter 4 and 5. Specific column volume and volumetric efficiency as functions of the area for beds of traditional and modern packing The curves in Fig. the flow rate at the load Cs and flood Cpi points. the operating conditions. and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients on the liquid CL and gas Cv sides. the pressure drop per unit height of bed Ap/H. the factors in the relationships for the liquid holdup Ch. The other parameters in these relationships concern the system to be separated. The process engineering criteria adopted for the technical evaluation of column packing include the liquid holdup hL per unit column volume. 11.e.25.5 1 5 20 25 20 60 100 140 260 300 340 z 3 380 420 460 500 Area per unit volume a [m /m ] Fig.

(5-13) and (5-16) that the design parameters that affect mass transfer on the liquid side are the area per unit volume a and an empirical constant CL. i. /F/ = Another factor that affects hydrodynamic evaluation is the pressure drop per unit height of bed (Ap/H)s at the loading point.hLiS) A/ ^f ~ uv. JAp. e.The relationship for the theoretical design factors that influence the pressure drop at the loading point in the model can be obtained from these two equations.272 11 Overall evaluation of packing The relationship for the liquid holdup (hLS)P follows from Eqns (4-73) and (4-74). it is described by Eqn (4-58). i.s (H-69) The corresponding relationship for the vapour flow rate at the flood point can be derived from Eqns (4-35) and (4-41). i. i.e. with 5L = ^s/w> and Eqn (4-26) with uv = uvs.e.hL). e.e.S '• It can be concluded from Eqns (5-4). i. mass transfer on the gas side depends on the area per unit volume a. Thus differences in the liquid holdup hL can be expressed by the ratio of the value for the packing concerned to that for 50-mm Pall rings. h L t S = Ch a 0 5 1 6 (11-68) The relationship for the vapour flow rate at the load point uVyS for a given system is obtained from Eqns (4-26) and (4-29). ru hL s = ' h£ hL. a factor Cv that is characteristic for the packing geometry and texture. fs = Cs (e . In the model. which is characteristic for the packing geometry and texture and is given by fL = CLa1/6~?>LaPh (11-72) Likewise.e. i.s (Pall-50) = fhis !h±± (Pall-50) K (U 1 . and the void fraction available for the flow of vapour (e . (H-73) Pall rings have been used successfully in industry for more than 35 years and are a convenient reference for comparing the hydrodynamic parameters selected for evaluation.

8 Limits to the further development of packing 273 Differences in the flow rates at the loading and flood points can be expressed by the corresponding ratios.s p '> (Ap/H)s (Pall-50) fAp>s (Pall-50) (11-77) The corresponding ratios for mass transfer on the liquid rL and gas rv sides are given by the following equations: h $LaPh (Pall-50) ftyflp/.005 0.2 -10.030 0.28-lO" 28445 180 0. Two of them are Table 11.11.958 319 3 0.975 200 3 0. Characteristic data for some types of metal packing Glitsch rings P-Modifications 30 P 30 PmK No. i.7. Uy.030 0. 0.S fs / 5 (Pall-50) fViFt (Pall-50) uvs (Pall-50) Uv Fl (11-75) (11-76) ' uv>Fl (Pall-50) The ratio for the pressure drop at the loading point is hP.030 0.955 348 w [kg/m ] . fy fL (Pall-50) (11-78) (11-79) rv = § a (Pall-50) " f (Pall-50) v Ph v Three types of packing have been chosen to demonstrate the application of Eqns (11-72) to (11-79) in the light of the results of experimental studies (Table 11.5-1032509 169 0.7).030 0.e.5 CMR 304 Shape in metallic version d[m] h[m] s [m] N [1/m ] a [m /m ] 8 3 2 3 3 0.015 0.3 560811 357 0.

4 0. 0.0 1. the 30 P metal and the 30 PmK Glitsch rings. The pronounced rise in pressure drop with an increase in the liquid load. in other words.274 11 Overall evaluation of packing similar.26.31.5. 0. Liquid holdup as a function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch 30 P packing as listed in Table 11. The corresponding pressure drop measurements have been plotted in Figs.293K . Z=1013 m-2 cr r cr £ F v =1nH' -1 kgi/2 1— 15 1 1.7 . 11. is clearly evident. and thus in the holdup.3fDm.1bar.N=32509m-3 .29 to 11. The third packing to be discussed is the CMR Glitsch ring No. The values measured for the liquid holdup are shown as a function of the liquid and vapour loads in Figs.0 1/2 Gas capacity factor F v [nr s" kg ] Fig. After the loading point has been exceeded. in the bed of CMR Glitsch No. PT 10 ^ 8 .5 rings.5 2.26 to 11. the liquid holdup rises rapidly until. 11.3 0.28. it attains a value as high as 30 % of the void fraction at the flood point. They differ from one another in wall thickness s and in the fact that the ends of the former are smooth and those of the latter form a collar. whose shape and size differ completely from those of the other two.H=1. viz. the parameters that differ are a and 8.6 08 1. 11.Glitsc h 30P metal 6 lm. Air /hl 2 O.0 1/2 1 3.5 2 3 4 3 6 3 8 10 2 Liquid load 10 -U|_[m /m s ] 0.

4 —ok>—•opcoo 10 1. at any given value of Ap/nt. Both the efficiency and the pressure drop of the Glitsch ring No.8 Limits to the further development of packing 275 Figure 11.N=284< H=l.e.27.33 shows that.7 0. i.11.-ol — o30 •UL= r 1 10 r \ J i I i 3.Z=10 13m-2 1.5 2. The Glitsch 30 P and 30 PmK rings have practically the same efficiency.6 0. Eqn (11-51)} at a given pressure drop per theoretical stage. -Glitsch 30 Pm K ds=0.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 Liquid load 103-uLlm3/m2 s] 1 5 I 15 4u -o •V.5 CMR 304 are decidedly higher than the corresponding figures for the other two packings. o . 0. 0. The diagram includes the corresponding curves for the specific mass of the packing vv'. which is related to v' through the weight per unit volume w of packing. The relationship between the specific column volume Vy and the pressure drop per theoretical stage lS. 11.8 1.5 CMR 304 is also superior to the other two in respect of the volume of packing required to achieve unit efficiency and unit volumetric vapour load v' {cf. Liquid holdup as a function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch 30 PmK packing as listed in Table 11. but the associated pressure drops differ considerably over the packed bed. Figure 11.o -oc o .5 CMR 304 than for the other two packings.34 demonstrates that the Glitsch ring No. i— i I B •s ZD -1/2 z=1 m h s -1 kg n i jj S1 CJ Air/H20.32m. 293 K .0 Gas capacity factor F v l n r 1 / 2 s-1 kg 1/z ] .0 0.0 20rriVm2h CKXX 53 Fig. the value of vv required to achieve the one theoretical stage and unit vapour capacity is significantly less for the Glitsch ring No.1bar.3.plnt is given by Qv Vy = Fv (nt/H) (11-80) Figure 11.32 shows the results of the separation efficiency experiments and the corresponding pressure drop measurements.

5 2.33.5 CMR 304 packing as listed in Table 11.-°n >— 0- 4 >o-oc JH1 n V0 \J 5 yet* o ! ZOmVmZh I 0.1 bar.6 0.0.35.3m.8 1.2 =2 10 5 6 15 2 3 4 3 6 3 8 10 2 15 Liquid load 10 -Ui [m /m s] 40 30 20 ZD -CD n 15 o10 8 6 u .293K bl tsch No.5 F v=1m-' 1kCVI jy >n .0 3. Eqn (11-5)}.11m. 11.=0. the thickness of an element of packing s. which is an important factor in the separation of thermally unstable mixtures. 11.A ir/H 2 0. Z=101: 1m.3 0.7. 11. which in this case is given by QV (11-82) _ 20 f §• n .4 0. the separation efficiency nt/H. 0. and Eqns (11-51) and (11-52) were evaluated with values of vv taken from Fig. Yet another feature that underlines the superiority of the Glitsch ring No.7 .0 Gas capacity factor F v [rrr 1/2 s"1 kg 1/2 ] Fig.5C ^IR3U4 dc. 0. Factors on which the residence time depends are the liquid holdup hL. The relevant functions are presented in Fig.0 1. and the liquid flow rate uL.28.5 CMR 304 in this comparison is the average liquid residence time per theoretical stage tLlnt {cf. and the weight of unit volume of packing w are presented in Table 11.N=560 811m-3 H =1. Liquid holdup as a function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch No.276 11 Overall evaluation of packing w = v w (11-81) Numerical values for the area per unit volume a.

6 OS 1.5 2.7 0. Again.0 1.9 lists the results obtained in evaluating Eqns (11-73) to (11-79).0 4.8 Limits to the further development of packing 277 Characteristic geometrical data and (separately determined) model parameters for the three Glitsch packings discussed above are listed in Table 11.36m. Pressure drop as a function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch 30 P packing as listed in Table 11. According to Eqn (2-4). the relative void fraction increases with a decrease in the thickness s of the packing element.1bar. Table 11.29.11. The above relationships for the performance of column packing give an idea of the limits within which packing elements of given basic geometry may be developed.0 s~ kg V2 ] Gas capacity factor . 50-mm Pall rings were taken as reference. 293K Glitsch 30 P metal ds=0./H 2 0. N=32509m-3 H=1.3m. Z=1013m-2 Fig.4 0. 11.8 together with the corresponding values for 50-mm Pall rings.0 F v [nr 1/2 j 3. Substituting this relationship for in Eqn (11-69) gives rise to the following for the design parameters that influence the loading point: (11-83) Air.

694 2.30.1S 10 8 6 5 w / /j • / ft m Sk MA 0 « y A ir /I 1/ Air/t^0.951 2. Characteristic data for packing as listed in Table 11.6 .2 1 . 3m.6 0.1 bar 293 K .580 cP 1.955 0.725 0. N=28445 H=1.851 0.056 0.0 Gas capacity factor Table 11.0 Fv[rTr1/2 Fig.0 180. Z=1013m.3 2m. 11.8 1.5 0.450 0.7 compared to those for 50-mm Pall rings Packing 30 P 30 PmK 0.410 552000 356.900 2. Pressure drop as a 4.495 0. filter h ulllSL 2 4V v/ f 0.278 200 150 11 Overall evaluation of packing i ] 0 1 0 20 30 40 i? A „ o 100 h -o 0 © 60 • 50 ffffi A / m & I'Kr / I° QJ I 40 Wi i 'A 3 1 .192 Cv 31100 29200 164.760 1.564 2.920 2.8.784 Cs cF1 1. 20 <3 a.975 0.644 2.5 CMR 304 50 Pall ring N a E ch 0.930 1. 5 2.4 30 PmK d s =0.0 0.038 1.763 cL 1.0 function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch 30 Pmk packing as listed s~1 kg1/2] in Table 11.7 3.882 0.178 1.8 6242 112.577 1.959 0.398 0.851 0.338 0.

s Uv.72 Reference packing: 50-mm metal Pall rings m3 m2h hL.90 0.11.8 Limits to the further development of packing 279 400 300 200 150 100 — U|_[m3/m2h o 0 -o10 0 20 e 30 • 40 )— i 1 80 (JD l\ •?rr) «f 4A / _ 50 ^ 40 e JL'p/ J 'OS/ / 1 30 e | | 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 f-— m J •J 7/ w. uL = 10 nr7m2h Packing 30 P 30 PmK 0.074 rv 0.3m.96 0.5 CMR 304 r h.9.227 131 1.74 2.6 0. (11-75) and (11-76).0 s" kg 1/z ] 1 Gas capacity factor Table 11.0 3. Pressure drop as a function of load in a random bed of metal Glitsch No. and volumetric mass transfer coefficients in the liquid and gas phases.4 0. Eqns. Reference system: water/air at STP.04 • 10"3 s"1 PvaPh 6. i p ¥ Air/H 2 0.0.83 0.677 r uVF1 r Aps 1.38 1.36 1.11m.45 Uy.Fl uL = 10- m/s 2.14 1.2 15 2.747 0. 0. pressure drop at the loading point.0 4.N=560811m-3 H=1. loading and flooding flow rates.5CMR 304 ds=0.5 MPH s"1 7.23 m/s 2.7 with 50-mm metal Pall rings with respect to liquid holdup. (11-77). Comparison of the metal packings listed in Table 11. Eqns. Eqn.s rUvs 0.90 0. 11. (11-78) and (11-79).1 bar.86 . Eqn.s m 3 /m 3 2.41 1. 293 K Glitsch No.465 2. (11-74).8 1.31.851 rL 1.0 F v [m1/2 7 — — 3 Fig.5 CMR 304 packing as listed in Table 11.98 (Ap/H) s mbar/m 32.928 1. Z=1013m.7 0.

4 Fig.5m " ds= 0. They govern the resistance factors | 5 and §F/ at the loading and flood points {cf.2 1. I .280 11 Overall evaluation of packing The corresponding relationship for the flood point can be derived from Eqn (11-70). H = 1.22m.36 and 11. 11.5 CMR 304 o N = 552037m-3 Glitsch 30 P metal a N -. Z=600m"2 Glitsch No. Eqns (4-29) and (4-41)} and thus the associated vapour and liquid flow rates uV}S and uVtFl {cf. Despite the fact that the packings concerned are of the T* 4 -o— o ULJ — — '_-o • — •o— r i £1 I "1 0 240 200 160 CZL " - ' _ Chloro-/Ethylbenzene 67mbar.0 2. It is also evident from Eqns (11-83) and (11-84) that the factors that decidedly affect the load are Cs and CFt. i.1. metal v N = 29151m"3 / / 120 80 < dI // // -4 1 7 / /I / / f 1 CD r- 7? / / / 40 — S S =— 0.7 0. The importance of these factors and parameters is impressively demonstrated in Figs.6 Efficiency and pressure drop as functions of load for the various metal packings listed in . 0. which were plotted from the solutions to Eqns (4-28).8 3.4 Vapour capacity factor F v [nr 1/z 2.6 2. 11.2 3. e. Table 11.37.31968 m"3 Glitsch 30 PmK.8 1. L/V= . Eqns (4-28) and (4-35)}.32. (4-29) and (11-82) and the values listed in Table 4.— as fFi — Cfi -hL)Fi (11-84) Hence the potential allowed for increasing the load by decreasing the wall thickness is limited.

Specific column volume as a function of the specific pressure drop for the various metal packings listed in Table 11. pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] 3 .11.— as-hL In theory. .V2 as) {cf. which has been derived from Eqns (2-4) and (11-73): (11-85) . particularly plastics. . 11. significant differences exist even between packings of the same material. - - I 5 Fig.33. which applies to conditions at the loading point and can be derived by substituting (1 . . as is evident from the following relationship. mass transfer on the liquid side is unaffected by wall thickness.8 Limits to the further development of packing 281 same size. A reduction in the thickness of the packing element may also give rise to a decrease in pressure drop to an extent that can be determined from the following relationship.5 Spec. —i — — 1 0. an exception may arise if a change in wall thickness effects an attendant change in the packing density of a random bed and thus in the area per unit volume a and liquid holdup hL. However. it can be demonstrated Metallic Glitsch packings Chlorobenzene/Ethy(benzene 67mbar.5 1 15 2 2. the wall thickness also exerts a comparatively slight effect on gas-side mass transfer. Theoretically. . Eqn (2-4)} for 8 in Eqn (11-71): (11-86) .7 • — * .— as-hL If the Glitsch 30 P and 30 PmK rings are taken as an example. L/V=1 20 •3 10 > I \ \ \ \ \ ^ > ^ N \ °° \ - .

in this case an alteration in the ring collar .38.7 .5 1 1. 11. and finish are the main packing factors that influence the process. shape. pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] Fig. numerical values of which are listed in Table 11.5 Spec.8 for some types of packing. Structuring the surface of the packing may have a beneficial effect on mass transfer if it allows better liquid distribution and thus an increase in the phase contact area.may effect an increase in the void fraction and thus a substantial reduction in pressure drop at all flow rates. particularly the capacity factor. however moderate. which was plotted from experimental data. 11. Metallic Glitsch packing Chiorobenzene/Ethy[benzene 67mbar.. L/V=1 \ \ 60 cp CD \ \ N JOP \ < % — — 40 20 0 10 CD > I \ \ \\ \ \ \ 0 > ^ s \ tyfi \ ^ • * • — * . The figures give an idea of the technical limits that are imposed on improving the efficiency. The effect of the packing's surface area on process engineering parameters.5 2 2.— ^ — . may also be achieved by this means. They are expressed in the equations by the empirical C factors. is evident from the above equations and is demonstrated in Fig. as functions of the specific pressure drop for the various metal packings listed in Table 11. The size.34. •—» — — CD CO 0.282 11 Overall evaluation of packing that a decrease in wall thickness in conjunction with a minor design change . both expressed in terms of the efficiency and the volumetric vapour flow rate. An increase in load at the flood point. Volume of material and mass of packing.

Relationship between the specific liquid residence time and the specific pressure drop in rectification columns with the metal packings listed in Table 11. In further experiments. The yardsticks adopted for the material requirements are the specific column volume vv and the weight w' and area a' of packing per unit of separation efficiency and throughput. b . It is obvious from the above remarks that fluid dynamic and efficiency studies are absolutely essential in the design of column packing and that they necessitate well-equipped pilot plants. it was ascertained that the deformation in rings with spot-welded joints was only one-quarter of that in unwelded rings. The applied pressure in terms of bed height was calculated from theoretical considerations. The assumptions made in plotting the graphs were that the load is always applied in the radial direction and that the open joint lies in the centre of the ring. the liquid residence time per theoretical stage tLlnt.^ % Loading capac ty 13 2 05 n ^ 1. Significant factors in evaluating packing for systems that are sensitive to heat are the liquid holdup h'L per unit of efficiency and throughput and.39 for 50-mm Pall rings illustrate this point.1 0.11 list process engineering parameters required for the global evaluation of random and stacked beds. 11. As would be expected.6 0.1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 Specific pressure drop Ap/n t [mbar] Fig.5 ~ A D O 2.2 [ m i/2 s-i ka V 2 l rtr LMfx " ^ 1 0. 11.3 2. S 6 'tsch ? Op-. Another factor to which consideration must be given in the design of random and stacked beds of packing is the mechanical strength or the physical constants of the material.8 Limits to the further development of packing 283 Tables 11. which is responsible for differences in the load factor Fv and the column diameter ds.35.11.8 1 1.7 . the thickness of the ring exerts a considerable effect on the load under which plastic deformation occurs.9 0. h Chlorobenzene/Ethylbenzene 67 IT bar.10 and 11. as a consequence. The idealized stress-strain diagrams shown in Fig. L/V = 1 1 0 61 Itr. 11.40 20 15 . The reference value selected for the comparison is the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. Some of the author's pilot plants are illustrated in Chapter 3 and in Fig. ' 30.4 0.

99 10.969 N = 169930 nr 3 Glitsch No.154 60.972 N = 64495 m-3 Glitsch No.40 15.64 18.18 1.70 1.18 12.845-10"3 6.924 1.53 31.49 2.87 2.83 10.35 1.47 9.03 • 10"3 7.127 26.44 1.173 kg/m 3 a = 92 m 2 /m 3 e = 0.42 2.334 • 10-3 8.041 15.48 0. 1 CMR w = 390 kg/m 3 a = 249 m 2 /m 3 E = 0.419-10" 5.942 N = 6358 irr 3 Hiflow rings 50 mm w .¥ k g 1 / 2 l v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] h[ [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] Fv [m-¥kg1/2] v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] h' [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] 1.236-10' 4.92 0.623 2.8 0.966-10' 3.02 2.05 2.66-10"3 5.970 N = 62432 nr 3 Pall rings 25 mm w = 390 kg/m 3 a = 215 m 2 /m 3 e = 0.32 2.127 49.032 Fv [m^'VV' 2 ] F v [m^'Vkg 1 ' 2 ] v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] h[ [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] F v [m^'V'kg 1 ' 2 ] v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] F v [m-^V'kg 1 ' 2 ] v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] .92 25.5 0.5-10"3 4.67 14.89 3.28 0.101 17.1327 41.04 9.072 28.46 23.26 0.5 T CMR w = 215 kg/m 3 a = = 173 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.656 2.39 1.86-10-3 6.056 12.2 1.74 0.542 1.977 N = 4739 nr 3 Ap/n t [mbar] Fv [ m .192 33.63 14.1 0.055 16.75-10"3 6.56 0.209 0. Parameters for comparing random beds of high-performance metal packing Dumped packing Glitsch No.18 1.8 0.284 11 Overall evaluation of packing Table 11.076 29. 1.08 28.55-10"3 5.1-10"3 3.58 1.02 0. 1.134 23.22 17.48 1.23 1.082 17.68 0.137 29.04 0.773 • 10"3 9.372 2.832 2.10.147 • 10~3 7.22 1.96 0.083 25.171 35.46 1.69 1.384 2.797-10"3 6.06 33.248 52.595-10"3 5.12 23.942 N = 53200 nr 3 Pall rings 50 mm w .277 2.4 0.88 0.832 3.210 kg/m 3 a = 113 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.5 CMR w = 306 kg/m 3 a = 186 m 2 /m 3 e = 0.48 1.6 0.34 0.927-10" 6.985 1.108 42.612 2.86 2.11 1.91 19.14-10"3 4.08 15.

4 mm Ap/n t [mbar] F v [m s kg v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] Fv [rn^Vkg v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] Fv [nr^Vkg v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] Fv [ m ^ V k g v v [m3s/m3] w' [kg s/m3] a' [m2s/m3] hi [m3s/m3] t L /n t [s] 0.84 mm Montz packing BI . = 0.96 d.057 2 3.3 0.075 11.75 0.432 • IO 5.098.300 w = 242.5 1.048 13.962 10" 3.17 18.125 .3 3.24 0.894 2.46 0.133 22.8814 103.078 3.56 16.965 dx = 0.0 1.8 Limits to the further development of packing 285 Table 11.923 • l O 3 3.24 14.078 15.259 3.048 11.862 10~3 3.6 13.919.839-10-3 6.l O 3 3.31 2 0.69 1.92 12.439 1.077 18.96 mm Ralupak 250 YC w = 290 kg/m 3 a = 250 m 2 /m 3 8 .053 10.76 0.059 3.888 3 3. = 1.0 2.048 7.3 0.0 2.63 mm Mellapak 250 Y w = 200 kg/m 3 a = 250 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.1 0. 11.067 13.6 0.4 0.056 16.35 15.966 • 10 3 3.135 2.7 0.4 16.25 0.11.086 17.522 3 0.02 26.5 1.073 21.5559.92 9.6 0.304 w = 165 kg/m 3 a = 200 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.06 14.979 dr = 0.6 19.5-10 5.152 3.414 2.25 0.35 0.8 0.2 0.055 9.0.8143 • 10-3 2.271 1 2.93 d. Parameters for comparing types of high-performance structured metal packing Packing Gempak 2AT .285 10 4.087 14.1 kg/m 3 a = 300 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.62 14.025 0.098 • l O 3 7.64 23.064 18.1 0.2 21.25 2.44 17.012 107.0 0.55 2.5 1.5 0.53 18 0.889 • 10"4 3.051 12.io.56 0.425 3.22 0.

' /.2 2 6 8 10 0 2 Liquid/Gas ratio L / V /I M etal 6 8 10 Fig.36. / f o cz o 1.0 11 Overall evaluation of packing INTALOX sa jdle 1./_ V* • * / — Pall ring ^ /. L Plast ic 1 i 0.4 Bialecki ring V / / / .286 2.8 / 1: / /. / / / > /x /. y > / . / 0 0. / .8 1.' I y.* Bialeck i N0R-PAC ring ri .• / / / > / / / Packing size 50 mm / Hiflow r ng. 11. 4 1 / . f / / / / / V / / 1 1.0 0. system air /water at STP . yep V jr ^ Pall ring ririg - / .4 u> 7^ / •y.6 1.6 0.2 i / / ^. Resistance coefficient at the loading point as a function of the liquid-gas ratio in packed columns.

Pali ring 1 .Hiflovn ring ' / Packing size 50 mm s.4 i\ I ji ~T 1 = 5 2.2 1 . 0 ^^ ] NTALOX saddle / / Pall ring 8 10 0 2 6 8 10 Liquid/Gas ratio L/V Fig.11.8 Limits to the further development of packing 287 2. system air/water at STP .6 ^ 2. 11.Plastic \ M etal \ \ 2. Gas velocity at the loading point as a function of the liquid-gas ratio in packed columns. > / 1.4 .37. 8 1.8 i \ .2 N O R-PA C ring\ \ \ /VSP r iT \ \ ing 6 2.6 \ \* V ^^ *^ \Bialecki ring \ \ \ \ / Biaiec <i r ng \ \ CO CO a <i / 1.0 3 3 V .

8 mm 25 = 1 mm 1 2 1 0 I I I I I I I 50-mm metal Pall ring with open joint Ingot steel 0 12 16 20 24 Load per packing element P[kg] 28 32 Fig.39.288 11 Overall evaluation of packing 50 Pall ring nominal diameter d [mm] 25 35 1 5 CMR ring nominal diameter d[inches] 2 1. 11.7 mm 20 s = 0. Effect of the area of random beds of packing on the capacity factor Equivalent bed height H [m] 5 5 10 10 10 1 5 1 5 15 20 s= 0.5 E 200 300 Area per unit volume a [ m 2 / m 3 ] 400 Fig.5 1 0. Stress-strain relationship for 50-mm metal Pall rings .5 1.38. 11.

Pilot plant installed in the author's laboratories for thermal separation processes .11. 11.40.8 Limits to the further development of packing 289 Fig.

.

At the present time. Known parameters are the molar enthalpy of the feed hF and h'F at the inlet and boiling temperatures. the mean value am is less than that in theoretically isobaric rectification aiso. The procedure outlined below permits calculation of the savings in energy and the reduction in the number of theoretical stages that can be achieved by retrofitting and makes due allowance for the specific pressure drop Aplnt. The steps (a)-(p) can be deduced from Figs.7. As is evident from Figs. (b) The relative volatility aIjiso of a molar mixture with a concentration x*tso. The aims of substituting modern. yfjso at the intersect / of the equilibrium curve and the g-line can be determined by iteration from phase equilibrium equations.1 Advantages of retrofitting The relationship between energy costs and the expenditure on equipment is evident in Fig.7. are now losing ground to structured sheet-metal packing. the reflux ratio as well.8. the following applies for an ideal binary mixture: Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. and rmin > rmin>iso. and the molar condensation enthalpy Ahv of the vapour stream in the inlet cross-section. (a) The nature of the task implies that the mole fractions of the more volatile component in the feed xF. This applies particularly to separation processes in refineries. and bottom product xB are given. thus nt>min > nt>minyiso.7 and 1. 12. and to food processing. high-performance packing with a low pressure drop for the former column internals are to save energy. 1.12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing On the strength of the advantages that they offer in process engineering. Thus. The pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt causes the relative volatility to decrease in the direction from the top to the bottom of the column. A well-known example is the industrial-scale vacuum separation of ethylbenzene/styrene mixtures. increase the capacity. packed columns are progressively encroaching upon territory that was formerly the exclusive domain of plate columns. Hence the factor / that describes the thermal state of the feed can be calculated from Eqn (1-12). for which purpose bubble-cap plates were initially used in compliance with tradition. In other words. The minimum number of theoretical stages ntymin and the minimum reflux ratio are correspondingly greater. in the boundary case when Ap/nt = 0. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . to chemical and petrochemical production plants. overhead product (distillate) xD. is also greater.e. The pressure pT at the top of the column is also given and can theoretically be optimized to allow minimum separation costs. when Aplnt > 0. in turn. and improve the product quality. respectively.8 and 12. 1. and these. 1. They were subsequently superseded by special slotted-sieve and valve plates. i. i. packing is attracting attention not only for new installations but also for retrofitting existing columns. i. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. r > riso. nt > nt>iso. the number of theoretical stages in real rectification.1 and the thermodynamic fundamentals and relationships that describe rectification processes.e. and. 1. e. according to Eqn (1-52).

12. The phase equilibrium concentration of the more volatile fraction x*iso can then be obtained from the following equation. Qualitative diagram representing the minimum number of theoretical stages and the enrichment curve required to obtain the minimum reflux ratio in isobaric and real rectification where Au A2. which is valid for a = aI>iso. y = y*iso. x = x*iso and a pressure /?/ = pT: f xUso (a[Jso ' • / _ ! XF (12-2) (c) Once aItiso and x*iso have been obtained.1.292 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing 1 X F /f Xp Liquid mole fraction x xn1 Fig. Bj. the phase equilibrium concentration of the less volatile component y*iso can be calculated from the following equation: (12-3) xUso (aUso - . and C2 are the Antoine constants for a given boiling point T and the corresponding pressures of the more volatile Pj and less volatile P2 components 1 and 2. C7. B2.

enr. as being sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. n. in which case x*iso = xF. without reservation. iso ' $ . e. . (f) The term nt>min>iso in Eqn (1-45) applies to the minimum number of theoretical stages in isobaric rectification. a*wo = a*.8.7.e.1 Advantages of retrofitting 293 There is no need for iteration if the feed is admitted into the column at the boiling point.1 that the minimum reflux ratio in isobaric rectification is given by (12-4) (e) Thus the reflux ratio r in real rectification can be obtained from Eqn (1-49) by assuming a value for the factor vg\ and the energy parameter e can therefore be calculated from Eqn (1-47). It can be defined by the Fenske. and thus yfJso = yFJso. the stage-number parameter.. (12-9) . In Fig. This step is demonstrated in the qualitative diagram shown in Fig.iso XD l-XF -xD xF . Under these circumstances. i. i.iso l-xB xB J . A knowledge of the parameter s is essential for determining the number of theoretical stages in real rectification from Eqn (1-45).min.min. 12.iso = xD . can then be read off on the axis of ordinates against this value of e and the corresponding pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. i.xD J In a.12. Thus In nt. in which the mean relative volatility is am}enr!iso.1 (12"5) The minimum number of theoretical stages required in the enriching zone of the column. equation if the mean relative volatility amJso in the range of concentrations under consideration can be accepted.1 (12-6) (g) Eqn (1-45) can be rearranged to give the total number of theoretical stages nt in real rectification. the value of s. (12-7) The number of these stages that is accounted for by the enriching zone is given by ^ t. if hF = hF and / = 1.m.corresponding to pt = pT and T(xF) can be determined direct from Eqn (12-1)._ . is given by In ^t.enr = \ s (12-8) (h) The pressure pF in the cross-section of the feed inlet can now be obtained from nlenr. from Eqn (12-3).enr. 1. (d) It is evident from Fig. min. e. 1.

1.(«. (k) The minimum reflux ratio rmin for the real column can then be obtained from -y* The following relationship ought to exist between rmin and the minimum reflux ratio in an isobaric column rminjiso . iso / 1 /-» 1 A \ riso = r = vrmin>iso (12-14) The factor v in Eqns (1-48) and (1-50) can then also be determined.e. it can be determined by means of Eqn (12-1). Thus Fmin. 1. because the terms in these equations are now also . Alternatively. but applies in this case to real rectification. (n) The value for siso corresponding to eiso on the isobaric (Apfnt = 0) curve in Fig. the phase equilibrium concentration yf can be determined from Again. x7*can be obtained from the following relationship: r im /-i /-I (1210) i+*.-!)*' (j) Now that Jt*and a7 are known. i. the energy parameter for isobaric rectification eiso. nUlso = H t ~ 1 + Siso (12-15) $iso (o) The values obtained for nt and nt>iso in steps (g) and (n) can be taken to calculate the theoretical column efficiency r\c from Eqn (1-42). Rearranging Eqn (1-44) and inserting this value for siso then gives the number of theoretical stages in the isobaric column.7. (m) Since rmin>iso and v are now known.8 can be read off on the axis of ordinates. As described in step (b).iso ^ l) * Xl iso ' * i ^ Xl iso > * ±L i * — 1 n? ITl V 1 ^" 1 " 3 / (1) The reflux ratio in isobaric rectification can be obtained by rearranging Eqn (1-52). because x*= xF and a 7 = aF at /?7 = pF and T(xF). Therefore. iteration is unnecessary if the mixture is at the boiling point when it flows into the column.294 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing (i) The relative volatility a7 applies to the intersect of the curves that are valid for the feed inlet cross-section. r\c can be calculated from Eqns (1-53). can be calculated from Eqn (1-46).(r • i \ y*'™ r 'mm ~ \rmin. (1-54) or (1-55). as represented on the axis of abscissae in Fig.

The two lower curves represent the case in which the intention was both to save energy and to reduce the . i.12. is given by = n. the theoretical column efficiency.1 Advantages of retrofitting 295 known. e. Thus riso + 1 riso + Ar + 1 1_ Ar riso + 1 u = = l + v . i. 1 + An. The upper curve was plotted from the sole aspect of achieving the utmost savings in energy.) 1 T\C (12-20) (12-21) An. i.nt>iso = ^1 _*~i"° S) {L T Km. the energy consumption in a theoretical isobaric column to be expressed as a ratio of that in a real column. the number of theoretical stages in a theoretical isobaric column.riso = * ~ 6iso yi .1 = f(Ap/nt) Both relationships are presented graphically in the numerical example given in Fig. and the parameters that were taken into consideration were nt>min>iso.e.Mo + An. Relationships for the relative increase in the energy consumption QIQiso and in the number of theoretical stages Ant/nt)iso can be obtained by following the steps (a)-(p) in the procedure outlined above. Yet another means by which r\c can be obtained is to determine the increase in the number of theoretical stages Ant that is caused by the specific pressure drop Ap/nt. expressed as a ratio of that in a column with pressure drop. i.eiso) (rminMo + 1) (12-18) It allows an expression to be obtained for the efficiency in terms of energy r\e. e. nt. riso and s. they can be expressed as functions of the pressure drop per theoretical stage Aplnt.iso .*™ + 1) Siso) (12-16) In this case. for a constant number of theoretical stages (nt = const. 12. Ant = nt.8. 1. (p) The amount Ar by which the reflux ratio in a real column exceeds that in an isobaric column is defined by Ar = r. 4^ Qts — .e. i. With the aid of Fig.e.e) {i .). The diagram convincingly demonstrates the advantages that can be derived from installing packing instead of plates.1 = f (Ap/n.2.

e.08 0.2 that the energy consumption and the number of theoretical stages in intensive-rectification columns can be substantially reduced by substituting low-pressure-drop packing for fractionating plates. 12.iso=52 v = 1.02 0. The headings on the diagram indicate the ranges of pressure drops that apply to arranged packing.is o=27. 12.3 / k -. Increase in energy consumption and in the number of theoretical stages as a function of the specific pressure drop in vacuum rectification involving a large number of theoretical stages. Regular or corrugatedsheet packing 0. ntMnMo and ntJso. random packing. the minimum reflux ratio factor was constant (v = const.30 0.8. 1.2.s0-4-4 s .06 0. In this case.20 0.5.10 0.20 e 0.? / 3—/ y 3—- / si y y — / y/ j y y y / y 0. 12.04 0.02 0. .15 0.10 0. and purer products can be obtained.03 CD y / / / y / / / y / ! / / / A y )\ ft y y -i min. the severity or the fineness of the cut can be increased.) and the parameters were rminJso.15 :D CO Dumped pack ag Trays -^ 11M Tt1 r t min.08 0.03 0.015 6 Specific pressure drop A p / n t [mm WG ] Fig.015 A / y s W 0.296 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing number of theoretical stages.iso = y A /+ 3 4 / / ^- " J nt m i n .2 Potential for retrofitting with low-pressure-drop packing It is clearly evident from Fig. 8 10 15 20 40 60 80 0. it is also feasible to retrofit the column so that the number of theoretical stages remains unchanged.0.04 0. i. and plates.30 0. i s o " L11 '-Q nt. Theoretically. Evaluated with the aid of Fig.06 0.4 n t = 58 r.

iso ' p 1 -e (12-25) Consequently.8 for retrofitting estimates Energy parameter .8: CD a ID C= Hnin. 12.1) a.3. on the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt. Application of Fig. and it can be evaluated with the aid of Fig.72. the minimum reflux ratio rmin is given by (cf. according to Eqn (12-9).iso t V g " " i ) Fig. 12. 1. Another means of determining the effect of Ap/nt on Q arises from the following equation. Fig. ^"min (12-22) a7 1-x? (12-23) The rate of heat emission Q is described by Q = xD .xB h'B-h'F (12-24) where v is the factor for the minimum reflux ratio {cf.2 Potential for retrofitting with low-pressure-drop packing 297 The condition for equilibrium at the point y = yt\ x = xj is — Consequently. 1. Eqn (1-50)} and rmin depends on the pressure pF in the feed cross-section and thus. the following relationship can also be derived from Eqn (1-57). which can be obtained by rearranging Eqn (1-47): • • -\c 'r min.

On the other hand. The percentage reduction in the number of theoretical stages that can be achieved by installing the internals denoted by the subscript 1 instead of those denoted by the subscript 2 can be determined from the following equation: 100 = ^ nh nt. the distillate flow rate D in a real column can be compared to that in a theoretical isobaric column Diso by means of the following equation: V = Diso (riso + 1) = D (riso + 1 + Ar) (12-31) . i. and the savmgs in energy are less than those in Case (C).iso + 1) (12-27) In Cases (A) and (C). i. The two types of column compared are denoted by the subscripts 1 and 2. e. 100 (12-29) The corresponding savings in energy can be calculated from the following equation: Ql ~QQl 100 = y ^ y y 100 (12-30) In Case (A). In Cases (A) and (B).3 and 12. and the method permits a comparison in the following five cases: (A) The minimum reflux ratio factor v. the difference in the number of theoretical stages is given by An't = nh .h'F (12-26) The significance of the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt in retrofitting and designing separation columns is further demonstrated in Figs. (Ap/nt)j and (p/nt)2. V = const. remains constant. and no reduction in the number of theoretical stages is effected in Case (C). the difference in reflux ratio is given by Ar' = r2 . (E) The column is operated at a constant pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt.nh = ^ " ^ (nt.. 12.4.8. If the vapour flow rate V is the same in both cases.e.n = e 2 (1_ e 2~^_ei) (rminjso + 1) (12-28) Eqns (12-27) and (12-28) can be solved numerically with the aid of Fig. In Case (D).h'B\ + h'B . no energy is saved in Case (B).298 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing XF XB -*- 1-e Ahv + h'D . (B) The reflux ratio r {Eqn (12-25)} and thus the energy parameter e remain constant.min. as defined by Eqn (1-50). (C) The number of theoretical stages nt {Eqn (12-7)} and thus the stage-number parameter s remain constant. the reduction achieved in the number of theoretical stages is less than that in Case (B). (D) The product vapour load V remains constant. the opportunity of retrofitting with stacked packing with a low pressure drop can be exploited to increase the capacity F. 1. These diagrams represent a method of comparing column internals with different pressure drops per theoretical stage.

e. Vj = V2 = const.F r x iso = 1 -x\F = i(Ap/nt) (12-35) F ISO Hence. The lower the value of Ap/nt.2 Potential for retrofitting with low-pressure-drop packing 299 The inlet capacity in the isobaric case is given by Eqn (12-32). CO Capacity factor Fv . as defined by Eqn (12-19). AF F iso F r . by Eqn (12-33): F 1 =D J-^lSt XD XF ISO -xB -xB xB (12-32) (12-33) F= D xD- xF-xB The efficiency in terms of capacity is therefore given by F 1 1 1 + (12-34) ISO where Ar is as defined by Eqn (12-18). 12.4. 12. (cf. the efficiency is the same in terms of capacity r\F as it is in terms of energy r\e. i.4): = D2 (r2 (12-36) Product vapour rate V < O Fig. the greater that of v]F. As a consequence of the pressure drop in a theoretical stage Ap/nt. Qualitative comparison of column internals with various specific pressure drops Case D: if the vapour load is kept constant Case E: if the specific pressure drop is kept constant C D d.)/ and the vapour flow rate is assumed to be the same.e. the following equation applies if column internals with a specific pressure drop (Ap/nt)2 are replaced by internals with a lower value (Ap/«.72. Fig. the capacity in real rectification is less than that in theoretical isobaric i. In other words. and that in the real case.

i.4 that the increase in capacity in this case is given by Fi ~ F2 FVi .D xF- ~ -xB • X B (12-37) The percentage increase in capacity is therefore Fj-F2 i 100 (12-38) F2 r2 + 1 in which Ar' is as defined by E q n (12-28). There is no mistaking the considerable improvement that was achieved in the economics of the process by the installation of packing. the energy consumption Q. . It is evident from the qualitative diagram shown in Fig. an increase in capacity F can also be achieved by retrofitting. It is evident from the table that advantages can be obtained in the number of theoretical stages nt and thus the column height i7. and the capacity F. . because the loads permitted by modern packing of appropriate dimensions are higher than those obtained by plates of equivalent Ap/nt.— 100 r2 — tv2 100 (12-39) where FVl and Fy2 are the vapour capacity factors at which the value Ap/nt = constant in packings 1 and 2. to improved product quality. The benefits offered by high-performance packing with small values of Ap/nt are reviewed in Table 12. Hi < H2l full exploitation of the available height H2 will give rise to more clean-cut separation.e.300 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing The inlet capacity F2 in Case 2 and that Fj in Case 1 are given by ~ -xB • X B F2- D XD xFXD F. i. If the calculations reveal that the height of the column to be retrofitted Hj is less than the original height H2. In Case ( E ) . The example taken was the vacuum rectification of a mixture with a thermally unstable bottoms product. They apply to both the planning of new and the retrofitting of existing columns. The principle of the heat pump was applied by compressing the overhead vapour to heat the bottoms.e. the reflux ratio r and thus the column diameter ds.2.Fy2 — P .1. 12. An impression of the advantages that modern packing has over conventional sieve plates can be obtained from Table 12.

( v ) An. H.2 Potential for retrofitting with low-pressure-drop packing 301 Table 12. = 0 Hi < H2 Ap/n t = const.0 <dS2 d S i = ds2 dSi < dSi (v) Ar' :> Ar'(v) ds. cooling water 0. Characteristics for planning new columns and retrofitting existing columns with lowpressure-drop packing (Ap/nt)i -< (Ap/n t ) 2 V = = const. (v) ri = r 2 r. steam 12 SFr/ton.5 60 60 -d-d >S(v) F2 Fi > Fi > F 2 E c D . < r. Winterthur Operating data Pressure at head of column [mbar] Temperature at head of column [°C] Number of theoretical stages Reflux ratio Pressure at foot of column [mbar] Temperature at foot of column [°C] Reboiler temp.72. Economics of applying the principle of the heat pump. (v) Ar' = 0 dSi = ds2 dSi < d sl (v) Q.9 100 30 Mellapak 67 58 54 6.2. n t i < nt2 n t] > ntl (v) An . = 0 Hi < H2 n tl < n t2 An . > An|(v) <H2 = r2 < C r i (v) s = const.6 SFr/kWh (SFr = Swiss Francs). -: d s 2 dsi -> d S i (v) Qi < Q 2 <S(v) Q.(v) r H. (Vj ri < r2 ri > ri (v) Ar' > Ar'(v) d S i < d s2 dSi > dSi (v) H. n tl = n t2 n t i < n tl (v) V = const. < H 2 TT ^ - IT / \ ' '< r 2 ri Hi < H. = n t2 n tl <: n t . = F 2 A F. With the courtesy of Sulzer AG. < Q 2 Qi > Qi W Fi = F2 F. difference [°C] Compression ratio Compressor costs Energy savings [%] Sieve tray 67 58 54 8. = 0 H.5 127 81 15 4. : = F 2 B P-P\/ » Table 12.25 310 106 15 9. > Q 2 Qi < Qi(v) Ar dsi Ar' 1 . e =.06 SFr/kWh. < H 2 r An. < H.1. Based on the following prices: electricity 0.const. n tl = n t2 nti < n tl (v) An. Valid for the separation of a mixture consisting of equal parts by weight of ethylbenzene and styrene fed at a rate of 30 tons/hour into the following columns: (a) fitted with perforated plates (b) packed with Mellapak 250 Y. (v) i < r2 ri > r. < H.

Even if this demand is met and even if the vacuum applied is justifiable from the engineering and economic aspects. the corresponding partial vapour pressures can be calculated from Pa = la xa Pa (12-41) . Hence. the pressures at the boiling points of the pure components Pi. the temperature above which Near East crudes may thermally decompose is about 390 °C.3 Advantages of packing in steam rectification Even if a vacuum is applied. Thermally unstable substances that are encountered in thermal separation practice include higher fatty acids.3 mbar can be lowered by about 19°C. For instance.5): c=n Pv. In separation tasks of this nature. unsaturated and high-molecular-weight organic compounds. They can be separated under very favourable conditions by rectifying with an inert vapour as carrier. substances that are unstable to heat cannot always be separated under conditions that preclude thermal decomposition. An example of the reduction in temperature that can be achieved by this means arises in the distillation of palmitic acid.e. if the mass fraction of steam is about 15%. and at a pressure of 133 mbar.i.6. and an example is the separation of palmitic and stearic acids in industrial-scale rectification columns equipped with 20-40 plates. and essential oils. Rectification with an inert vapour under vacuum is also resorted to for crude oils that may undergo thermal decomposition at elevated temperatures. by about 36 °C. The advantages of steam or inert vapour rectification are offset by the high steam consumption and the extent to which the column cross-section must be enlarged to accommodate the steam fraction additionally imposed.i. Thus.302 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing 12. This applies particularly to mixtures of fatty acids. the boiling point at a pressure of 13. pressure drops of 43-85 mbar occur under normal operating conditions and are responsible for boiling points of between 267 °C and 279 °C. If the vapour pressure curves for the individual components Pc = f(t) are known.i can be obtained as is indicated by the qualitative diagram presented in Fig. it is absolutely essential to restrict the residence time of the products and the pressure drop to the minimum possible values. must not exceed a given value th Then the equilibrium pressure corresponding to this temperature th i.Pn. If the pressure at the head of the column is 7 mbar. it is not always possible to separate unstable mixtures at temperatures that are low enough to avoid thermal decomposition. This is evident from the following theoretical considerations. 12.Pc. Steam is mostly used for this purpose. is given by (cf. Fig.xcj. because many of the organic substances that have to be separated in practice are insoluble in water. the sum of the partial pressures of the mixture's components c = 1 to c = n in the product vapour with a molar flow rate V.i = 2 Pa = const c=l (12-40) This equilibrium pressure can be attained and maintained at a constant value if the molar flow rate of steam S is correspondingly large. 12. if the composition of the liquid product phase Xjti. as counted from the head of the column.xn>i leaving the /'th theoretical stage is given. Let a mixture's instability to heat entail that the temperature at a given theoretical stage /.

S'V L T o p Pressure p Stage j tj Ap Stage n t Fig.V [ pB=f(pT(ntlAp/nt) tB=f(S/V.e.3 Advantages of packing in steam rectification 303 p T =const.pp) T o p Pi PHJ Pvj'Pcj H V (xc) Stage j Boiling temperature J Fig. Stage 1 m PJ. and considerably simplifies the calculation of phase equilibria. It is valid for most hydrocarbon systems subjected to steam rectification. 12. i. Scheme for describing the product temperature within the column in steam rectification m Botto S.5.12. The value thus determined for the equilibrium pressure pv. .6.i of the product vapour at a total pressure pt above the f th theoretical stage allows the partial pressure of the steam at this stage to be determined as a function of the pressure pT at the top of the column and the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt for the type of packing concerned under the given loading conditions. Qualitative boiling pressure curves in steam rectification A simplifying assumption that can be made for mixtures that obey Raoult's law is that the activity coefficient y is unity. 12.

> Hence.i = Pi ~ Pv. the partial pressure pVi exerted by the molar volume above the f th stage must remain constant.i (12-49) The partial pressure of the steam pSi can be regulated by means of the steam molar flow rate S.i (12-42) The total vapour flow rate is the sum of the flow rate of steam and that of the product vapour. (yv) v = const = const (12-47) In this case.i =PT+ (i .i + Pv.t = yvPt = yv (12-48) Consequently. e. i.1) — \ fi I . i. Thus. S = V^~ Pv. the temperature tt laid down for the fth stage. Now suppose that the thermal instability of the substances to be separated entails that a certain upper operating temperature limit may not be exceeded. the molar flow rate V of the product vapour and thus its molar fraction yv in the total vapour mixture must be constants. if the molar flow rate of product vapour V is known.Pv. Ap Pv. e.304 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing Ps. the molar fraction of steam will be given by Eqn (12-44). and that of the product vapour. the molar flow rate of steam can be calculated from the partial vapour pressures pSi and pVi. In this case.e. i. Vtot = S + V (12-43) If it assumed that the modified Dalton's law of partial pressures applies. by Eqn (12-45): <12 44 . the partial pressure of the product vapour can be determined at any given theoretical stage. .e. its relationship to the total pressure is given by Pi = Ps.t (12-46) If the individual components each have roughly the same molar vaporization enthalpy. the phase equilibrium temperature corresponding to the composition xc>i in the liquid phase at that particular stage can be obtained. g.

i (12-51) The following relationship must apply for the partial pressure of the steam: S (12-52) It therefore follows that the volume flow rate of steam required per unit flow rate of product vapour is given by The condition for steam rectification must be adhered to.3 Advantages of packing in steam rectification 305 The total pressure pt at the /'th theoretical stage is fixed by the pressure pT at the head of the column and the pressure drop per theoretical stage Ap/nt for the packing concerned (cf. the pressure drop in an actual column must be compensated by admitting steam at a higher flow rate.t (12-55) If Ap/nt > 0. Since AS is directly proportional to Ap/nt. in which case the following applies: % . the less the flow rate S of steam required. i.i=Pr+(i-l) — -Ps.i)ti = const. (12-50) The partial pressure of the product vapour pVi can be derived by combining Eqns (12-49) and (12-50). Fig. the less the amount of steam that has to be admitted in steam rectification.12.= -£ZL-l y Pv. Pv. = const. for Ap/nt = 0. 12.e. Thus. The lowest steam flow rate occurs in an isobaric column. Thus. i. Siso must be increased by a corresponding amount AS.5). This additional rate of steam is given by It follows from this equation that the lower the pressure drop per theoretical stage. the lower the pressure drop per theoretical stage Aplnt for the packing. (Pv. (12-54) Consequently. . e.

i.7 — = ds>iso 1 + \ / —T— V Ps. and the density of the steam is thus directly proportional to the pressure. It also clearly reveals the advantages of replacing existing column internals by lowpressure-drop packing. the case in which the pressure drop per theoretical stage of the existing internals is greater than that of the packing intended as a replacement.dtt = const. i. (12-63) nt /2 . is equal to the ratio of the squares of their diameters dSyiso and ds. and Eqn (12-58).iso)ti = const. provided that the vapour load is constant in the column. ISO ds. ~ PS. l Hf (12-62) This equation states that the amount Ads. Consider.i PS.i \Qs.is (12-59) Another fact to be taken into consideration is that the ratio of the steam partial pressure in isobaric rectification to that in nonisobaric is equal to the corresponding ratio of their molar flow rates.306 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing The ratio of the cross-sectional areas of steam rectification columns. i. for instance.iso (12-57) (12-58) Therefore.i.e.iso)2 Ps. Eqn (12-57) applies for steam rectification with Ap/nt > 0. for Ap/nt = 0: (Qs. is directly proportional to the square root of the pressure drop per theoretical stage Aplnt. The temperature is the same in both cases.i. the increase in the column diameter necessitated by the pressure drop within the bed of packing can be described by ds "•S. (12-60) Rearranging Eqn (12-59) to solve for ds and substituting from Eqn (12-60) yields d5 = ds>iso + Ads = dS}iso + d5>iso \ —lhH£. In other words. ~ Ps.e.i Siso V S Substituting from Eqns (12-52) and (12-53) then gives (12-61) \/ „ T> S lS '° \l ps. the one with Aplnt = 0 and the other with Ap/nt > 0. by which the diameter dStiso of an isobaric rectification column has to be increased.

. and Eqn (12-65). = —r S2 k-1 = . ^ = Pvj pT+(i-l) . the savings ASIV in the molar flow rate of steam is directly proportional to the amount (k -1). can then be obtained by substracting Eqn (12-64) from Eqn (12-65).l ) ( ^ V .72.. and C\ is the cost per unit volume (m3) for Column 1. It can be easily verified by dividing Eqn (12-65) by Eqn (12-66) that the corresponding relative savings in steam is given by AS ^2 S2-S. Eqn (12-64) would then apply for the original internals 2. the reduction in column diameter that can be achieved by substituting the packing 1 for the existing internals 2 is given by a s2 A reduction in capital investment entails that the costs per unit column volume (cf. PT-PVJ (12-67) If the total vapour load is kept constant in both cases.^ ^ -pVJ (12-64) d2-65) The molar flow rate of steam. i. expressed in terms of the molar flow rate of product vapour. In other words. as expressed by Eqn (12-69). . this replacement would result in a savings of AS in steam. for the replacement packing 1: P T + d . C2 is the cost per unit volume (m3) for Column 2. by which the pressure drop per theoretical stage of the replacement packing 1 is less than that for the existing internals 2. Chapter 11) for Column 7.3 Advantages of packing in steam rectification 307 According to the previous remarks. e. are also less than those for Column 2. as expressed by Eqn (12-70): = (dS2 df2 -Adsf (12-70) CS2 = vV2 C2 where vV2 is the column volume per unit of separation efficiency for Column 2.

if the costs for the shell and bed of packing are very high. capital and running costs. the separation efficiency was increased from 3 to 4. are less than those for the original internals 2.However. i.e.308 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing Packing 1 is considered to be more economical only if the total costs CT>1. CTJ may exceed CTa. The advantages achieved from the . 12. Crude oil inert steam rectification plant Fuel ? oil The five valve-ballast plates in the distillation zone of a FCC fractionating column were replaced by a bed of Montz Packing Bl/250.9.2. i. Utmost care in stacking the packing is essential in order to maintain the efficiency throughout the height of the bed. even if dsJ < dSy2A flow chart for an oil refinery is shown in Fig.7 to illustrate steam rectification. yet the total costs may still be less. Data characteristic of a plant for the distillation of fatty acids before and after changing over from plates to packing are presented in Table 12. As a result. Cj ^> C2. Column 1 may involve the higher acquisition costs.3. 12.60 of 2. e.7. The packing was arranged in parallel layers. CTJ < CT.5 theoretical stages with an associated improvement in the product quality. 12. Water High-pressure steam Vacuum station Vacuum column / Saturated steam Heater Fig.6 m total height. It is quite feasible that. if the costs for the shell and packing are extremely high.e. i. as is shown in Fig. despite the smaller diameter ds>1. 12. A schematic diagram of the upper section of the column is shown in Fig.8.

Data relating to the rectification of coconut oil fatty acid in a column formerly fitted with bubble-cap plates and after retrofitting with Mellapak packing.3 Advantages of packing in steam rectification 309 change-over are immediately evident: the reduction in the pressure drop per theoretical stage allowed a 40 % increase in capacity. Example for retrofitting a FCC fractionating column by substituting Montz packing for five valve-ballast plates in order to improve separation I I I I I I I I I I Liquid collector Table 12.6 5 Mellapak 23 32 40 . 12. a reduction of 25 °C in the temperature at the foot of the column. In addition. Liquid distributor Distillation zone Fig.12. Winterthur Characteristic data Column diameter ds [m] Effective column height H [m] Pressure at head of column pr [mbar] Pressure at foot of column pB [mbar] Temperature at head of column tD [°C] Temperature at foot of column tB [°C] No. the column could be operated without carrier steam.8.5 18. of theoretical stages nt Capacity increase AF [%] Carrier steam S [%] Energy savings A Q / Q [%] 10 15 255 26 90 173 230 Trays 2. and 15 % savings in energy. With the courtesy of Sulzer AG.3.

if the heat content of the bottoms in the one column is utilized for the indirect condensation of the overhead product in the other. undesirable limits may be imposed on the separation efficiency and thus on the purity of the product in plate columns. In cases of this nature. in coupled columns with an integrated heating system. The beds of packing were charged through manholes 12. 12.4 Improvement in product purity caused by restricting the pressure drop in beds of packing The total pressure drop between the head and the foot of the column will obviously be high in rectification processes that involve a large number of theoretical stages. Examples of the limits that may be set by the process conditions arise in the separation of thermally unstable mixtures. 12.10. or if the overhead vapour in the one column is used to heat the bottoms in another that operates under reduced pressure.g. According to this. Hence. more theoretical stages can be realized by substituting lowpressure-drop packing for the plates (trays). i. nuP > ntJ. nt IT \ nt JP (12-71) In other words. e. Ap = f-^-1 ntJ = \^2-\ nttP = const.e. the pressure drop must be the same in both cases. Montz Pak Bl-250 packing elements for a column of 4-m diameter. i. the ratio of the number of theoretical stages to the specific pressure drop in the packed column {Eqn (12-72)} is greater than that in the plate column {Eqn (12-73)}: . e.9.310 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing Fig. This is evident from the qualitative diagram in Fig. if it may not exceed a given value owing to the product or the process conditions.

P 1 M X Ap= const. and A p = const. Likewise.4 Improvement in product purity caused by restricting the pressure drop in beds of packing 311 uv = const.I 1 888 B.p = 7——r— nuT (12-72) AEA nt Jp AE] r App = const. A measure for the fraction of high boilers AB remaining in the overhead product D is *B • _ ^l _ *>D)xB = const. n t. (12-76) . Information can thus be derived on the improvement in product quality that can be achieved if the plates are replaced by packing. Ap = const.x B X p ) > (xD D. — n t p > n t T — .P X B. nt IT nt.I Trays Packing Vapour load u v Fig. Schematic diagram demonstrating the advantages of packing over plates for improving product quality in separation processes with constant total pressure drop .10. the fraction of low boilers AD remaining in the bottoms B is given by (XB)XD B A — = const.12. 12.. Ap = const. to obtain the minimum number of theoretical stages from Eqn (1-60). (12-74) It can be expressed in the following form: (12-75) This function can be evaluated in the light of the above remarks.T X D.. nt JT AE) nt jp (12-73) Thus the degree of separation is also increased.( x D P .

200 ioJ 10" 50 s\ 100 150 Number of theoretical stages nt Fig.5 4 s e s N i 10o =3 10'1 2 10-3 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ N \ " i \ \ 1%. in which xB(l . The advantage of low-pressure-drop packing in improving product quality by the scheme illustrated in Fig. if the relative volatility is given. xB is given by 1 xB « 1 -x D 1 a n. from the following function: (12-77) If the overhead and bottom products are of very high purity.xD) is shown as a function of nt and r^p with a as parameter. In other words. 12.312 12 Retrofitting columns by the installation of packing and information on the improvement in the quality of the bottoms can be derived. xD is given by X D ~ 1 - xB a' (12-79) or. the term xD(l . 12.5 3 3. if xD = const.xD) xB • Thus if xB = const. 12. The following linear relationships are obtained by plotting on semilogarithmic paper: 1 (12-78) . + (12-80) 1 Ratio of specific pressure drops r A p ( n t I = 5 0 ) 1.10. This is clearly demonstrated in Fig.5 1 0 2 • \ 2..x^) decides the minimum number of theoretical stages nUmin.11. the term xB(l .xB) tends towards unity. ..11. by analogy.

Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . The process with the extraction stage may require much less energy. 13. 13. 13. Condenser Q) b) Waste water Extractor' Extract Condenser Rectification column T I Purified Recycling « ^ _ water Reboiler water of solvent Fig. A typical example of the latter case is the recovery of organic compounds from aqueous solutions in the treatment of industrial effluents. Flow charts for both methods are presented in Fig. Liquid-liquid extraction processes for the recovery of organic compounds from effluents can be successfully carried out in packed columns.1.13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems Depending on the geometry of their elements and the materials from which they have been produced. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. but the high energy costs involved are a major deterrent. rectification stage. 13. An alternative on which current attention is focused is to extract the organic compounds from the waste water by means of a solvent and to recover the solvent from the extract in a second. Recovery of organic compounds from production effluents (a) by rectification (c) by liquid-liquid extraction and rectification of the process solvent Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology.1. This is clearly demonstrated by Fig. random and stacked beds of packing give good results in liquid-liquid extraction as well in gas-liquid separation processes.2. because the vaporization enthalpy of organic substances is three to five times less than that of water. This has been confirmed in numerous systematic studies performed in the author's laboratories. A physical method that can be adopted for this purpose is direct rectification.1 General aspects More energy is required to separate mixtures by rectification if the differences in the relative volatilities of the components are slight or if the fraction of the one component is small.

.5 Fig. and in others again. The diameter of the column was varied up to 0. and the height of the packing. The types of dumped packing tested are shown in Fig. Thus the packing performance is affected by the extent to which the two phases are intimately mixed and uniformly distributed over the entire cross-section of the column.5 Solvent/feed ratio C/F [kmol/kmol] 3. Another packing system that was included in the studies is illustrated in Fig. up to 3.5 2. It is known as a tube column and consists of vertical tubes in which the packing elements have been systematically stacked beforehand. in the continuous phase C only. from the continuous to the dispersed phase C — » D or from the dispersed to the continuous phase D — > C.1) 13. In some of the systems. by "Dispersed phaseTransfer component/Continuous phase".to be taken into account over a wide range.0 Water . 13. In the diagrams.2 m. 13. 13. and of arranged packing.25 m. Fig.0 2.e. because they strongly influence the extraction efficiency and the maximum load.0 1. in others.density Q.Methanol/ 2. 13.2. in both phases.3. Energy saved by combining liquid-liquid extraction with solvent recovery instead of direct rectification (cf.6. 13. a C — » D system is denoted by "Dispersed phase / Transfer components-Continuous phase".4.314 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems 1.5. and a D — » C system.0 3. The effect exerted on the performance by the direction of mass transfer was also investigated. 13. in Fig.Octanol 0. i.1 allowed the effect of the main physical properties . the resistance to mass transfer was in the dispersed phase D only. diffusion coefficient D. dynamic viscosity r\ and surface tension o .2 Experimental The flow chart for the experiments is shown in Fig.5 1. The systems listed in Table 13. The derivation of a generally applicable model to describe mass transfer and flooding in extractions columns filled with these types of packing necessitates a fundamental investigation into the hydraulic characteristics of the packing.

2 Experimental 315 V16 VK V15 Fig.3. 13.13. plastic Bialecki ring 25 mm. metal Fig. 13. Packings investigated in dumped beds Hiflow ring 35 mm. metal Hiflow ring 25 mm. ceramic . Flowchart for one of the pilot plants used in the experiments Pall ring 25 mm.4.

Extraction-tube columns with stacked Bialecki rings . 13.6. Packings investigated in geometrically arranged beds Tubes filled with packing elements Fig. 13.5.-25 mm metal Montz packing B1-300 metal Montz packing B1-300 plastic Fig.316 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems Stacked Bialecki rings.

075 0.926 0.C D D D D.703 1.586 0.Acetic acid / Water Isobutyl alcohol (D) .Acetic acid/Water D D D CD CQD<QC Carbon tetrachlor.C Toluene (D) .Acetone / Water Toluene (D) .2 279 1315 0.2 998. (D) .6 998.586 351 445 280 28 351 Dichloroethane (D) .88 - 1.Acetic acid/Water Isobutyl alcohol (D) .Acetic acid / Water c c c c c D.2 0.353 1.46 999.154 998.Table 13.Acetone / Water D .1.2 252 1472 0.Acetic acid / Water 1315 5958 2538 1485 985. 0 0.88 235 1 . 0 1.835 4.969 0.075 1 . Physical properties of the systems investigated in the studies on liquid-liquid extraction Transfer direction D QD<QC QD>QC QD>QC QD<QC Extraction system Transfer resistance Density difference AQ kg/cm 3 QC kg/m 3 D D • 109 D c -10 9 m 2 /s m 2 /s r] c -10 3 " \]D • 103 kg/ms kg/ms o-10 3 N/m Toluene (D) .

10.318 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems 13. i. 13. the dispersed-phase liquid holdup hD is independent of the continuous-phase superficial velocity. according to the results obtained by experiment. and the location of the resistance to mass transfer.3 Fluid dynamics of dispersed and continuous phases A typical relationship that was established between the phase loads uc and uD and the dispersed-phase holdup in liquid-liquid systems is shown qualitatively in Fig. the holdup hD has been plotted against the continuous-phase column load uc with the dispersed-phase load uD as parameter.7. Thus. The former applies for dumped 25-mm plastics Hiflow rings. 13. at continuous-phase loads uc of up to 70% of that at the flood point M C J H .8 and 13. 13. Likewise. the physical properties of the system. and the latter. It can be seen that. 13.Fh t n e relationship between hD and uD is linear. r ^=0 Flooding J TD O L UD. e. the phase loads and the dispersed-phase holdup. The results obtained in experiments on dumped 35-mm ceramic Hiflow rings have been plotted in Fig. linear relationships were .4 Dispersed-phase holdup The relationship between the dispersed-phase holdup hD is evident from Figs. Dispersed-phase load UQ Qualitative description of the hydraulics in packed column extractors The efficiency of extraction in packed beds is mainly influenced by fluid-dynamic parameters.FI Continuous-phase load u c Fig 13. and. it is merely a linear function of the dispersed-phase superficial velocity uD. the geometry and material of construction of the packing elements.9. in this capacity range. the direction of mass transfer. for arranged Montz B 1-300 sheet-metal packing with elements of 50-mm height. It can be seen that it is analogous to the corresponding relationship in gas/liquid systems. In both diagrams. if uc is kept constant at a value of u c < 70% Uc.7.

i. Dispersed-phase holdup as a function of the continuous-phase load for Montz B1-300 packing established in similar experiments but on stacked 25-mm metal Bialecki rings (Fig.55-10"J 0 0 4 8 12 16 0 4 8 12 load 16 Continuous-phase load u C 'i0 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig. The holdup measured in the C —> D direction was greater than that in the D —> C direction. Yet another item of information that was gained from the experiments was the effect of the transfer component fraction in the phase under consideration. 13.7' UC. and the results thus clearly demonstrate the effect of the system and that of mass transfer. a.7 UC. H = 2.e.2 m 48 40 . Thus. N = 43888 1/m3 ds= 0. 293 K / 24 16 8 U u—• 5. The relationship between hD and uD for continuous-phase loads of Uc < 0. and was associated with the existence of smaller droplets. 16 "8 CO CD CDCO m 3 /m 2 s 32 — Toluene (DVWater ~ 1 bar.uD=9. In this case.11).FI) (13-1) in which Cs is a characteristic factor for the packing and depends on the system.62-10 32 24 a sz.1 0 " 3 m 3 / m 2 s 1 l \ ifnli minn 1 DVWate r 1 bar.8.21 m 1 1 1 ' 1 uD= 2 .9. H-2. The resultant increase in efficiency was about 30 %. 13. 13.FI can be expressed by the following simple equation: hD = Cs uD (for uc < 0. the tests were performed on four different systems. . it is mainly a function of the densities of both phases QC and QD and the surface tension a.154m. an increase in the concentration of the transfer component reduces the holdup when the mass transfer is in the D -» C direction.154 m. The experiments also indicated the effect exerted by the direction of mass transfer.13. Dispersed-phase holdup as a function of the continuous-phase load for plastics Hiflow rings Continuous-phase u c 10 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig. 7 8 . 293 K i Montz packing B1-300 Sheet metal d s = 0.4 Dispersed-phase holdup 319 25-mm Hiflow ring Plastic.

N = 16800 1/m3 d s = 0. i.320 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems 35-mm Hiflow ring Ceramic.25 m 40 25-mm stacked Bialecki rings Metal.2m 40 -a Uc-103 [ m3/i —o— 0 —D— 3.11.1m. ds= 0. If w c a n d uD tend to zero. H = 2. The velocity of an individual droplet u is described by the Levich function. Dispersed-phase holdup as a function of the dispersed-phase load for ceramic Hiflow rings Fig. which is defined by U K — (13-4) . Q P 0 4 (DVWater 293 K 1 6 2 4 6 8 3 n 8 Dispersed-phase load UD-103 [m3/m2s] 10 Dispersed-phase load u D [m /m 2 s] Fig. 4g AQ O\T Q2cCf (13-3) in which Cf is a friction factor and is equal to unity. 13.37 64 a. 13. Dispersed-phase holdup as a function of the dispersed-phase load for stacked metal Bialecki rings The double-layer model described by Gayler et al. H=3. the droplet velocity u tends to a characteristic value uK. the holdup hD.154 m.10. and the relative velocity uR of the dispersed-phase droplets as follows: uc UR z\hDz\h \-hD (13-2) where 8 is the void fraction of the packing.e. ZD 32 24 " —£r— LA f / / f / r CCU(D)-Acetic acid/Water 12 co co 1 6 A / IP /6 Toluene bar. and Thornton relates the phase loads uc and uD.

(for hD < 0.25) (13-7) This hD range corresponds to uc < 0. u = Ch uR (13-6) The factor Ch in this equation is characteristic for the packing geometry.e. i.13.25 range is merely ± 1 0 % .7 UC. its deviation in the hD < 0.nD (for /*D < 0.nD uR (13-5) The droplets attain their terminal velocity in the operating range under consideration. i. . Allowance for the kinematic energy that is lost when dispersed droplets collide with the packing can be made by expressing the velocity of the individual droplets u as a function of the relative droplet velocity.4 Dispersed-phase holdup 321 Thornton proposed that this characteristic velocity be related as follows to the relative velocity uK = -—— i .Rearranging Eqn (13-6) to solve for uR and substituting for u from Eqn (13-3) then gives Qc Rearranging Eqn (13-2) to solve for hD gives icf=\ in which the following applies in the hD < 0.25) (13-10) Thus the term within square brackets in Eqn (13-9) becomes lluR.FI) (13-11) The holdup factor Ch in this case must be determined by experiment. Systematic investigations have shown that it can be considered as a constant only within a range of comparatively low holdups hD\ for instance.e. Ch = const. Substituting the right-hand side of Eqn (13-8) for uR in Eqn (13-9) then gives the following approximate expression for the determination of hD: ( -j-T 2 \ J_ 4 (for uc< 0.25 range for the right-hand term in the denominator: -^ 8 — i — «£ iiu I .7 UC.FI.

976 3.43 0. Numerical values are listed in Table 13.565 0. 13.60 50 38 18.94 0.45 0.45 0. and phase inversion occurs.928 0.151 2.924 0.128 2.151 2.105 1. 13.667 2.22 0.521 2.5 Phase throughput In the uc > 0.27 Plastics packing Montz Cl-300 Systematic studies have revealed that the holdup factor Ch is independent of the system and is characteristic for the packing geometry. 13.94 0.12 confirm this relationship.37 0.hD %-!.94 0.93 0.58 0. the position of the continuous-phase flood point can be defined by .8 and 13.27 0.60 0.151 2. Combining Eqn (13-13) with Eqn (13-2) allows the continuous-phase load uc to be expressed in terms of the velocity u of the individual droplets and the holdup hD.eu . e.67 0.{ uDluc h (13-14) v (1 -hD) + hD ' According to Figs.322 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems Table 13.897 2.8 50 135 60 0.29 0.2 alongside other packing parameters.FI range of continuous-phase superficial velocities.83 0.924 0.7UC.32 0. the dispersed-phase holdup increases rapidly with w c .621 0.57 0.2.9.61 0. uc =CF.32 0. The hydraulic characteristics in this range thus differ from those in the main operating range. i.29 0. Values for characteristic packing constants Packing 25-mm dumped metal Pall ring 25-mm dumped metal Bialecki ring 25-mm dumped plastic Hiflow ring 35-mm dumped ceramic Hiflow ring 25-mm stacked metal Bialecki ring 50-mm tube column 25-mm tube column Sheet-metal packing Montz B1-300 8 Ch CF1 M03[m] (C m ) c _ D 0. It has been demonstrated by experiment that the following function applies to the loading range in which flooding can be expected: uK = CMu (for uD -* hD)Fl) (13-12) Substituting in Eqn (13-5) then gives the following equation for the relative droplet velocity UR\ uR = CFlu(l-hD) (13-13) The experimental results shown in Fig.

4 Sheet metal h = 50mm Montz packing B1-300 0.2 0.4 0.8 0. 1 0. and the corresponding equation for the determination of the dispersed-phase capacity uD>F/ at the flood point is .8 0 0.12.25m Metnl 1 IT | 0.2 (1 -h D )(flooding range) 0.6 0.8 1 0.m m Bialecki ring I I I -5 0.2 1 0.8 0.4 r2 f ^eraniiL .2 ^ 3 5 . 293 K. H=2. Relationship between droplet velocity and holdup of dispersed phase due Hhr = 0 (13-15) Differentiating Eqn (13-14) accordingly gives the following equation.FI at the flood point: uc.2 Dispersed-phase holdup h 0 Fig. d s = 0.13.2 a 1 1etal I I 5 O U " 25-mm Pall ring ^ 2 5 .6 0.2 hDjFl) (13-16) The corresponding dispersed-phase superficial velocity uD obtained by combining Eqn (13-13) with Eqn (13-2) is hD(l-hD)2 w uD = (13-17) uDluc The corresponding position of the dispersed-phase flood point is defined by duD dhD }FI (13-18). 13.6 0.5 Phase throughput 323 T o l u e n e ( D ) / W a t e r t 1 b a r .n = Cm e u (1 .154m.hD>Fi)2 ( 1 .m m Hitlow ring 0 0.6 0.4 0.4 0. which can be applied for the determination of the continuous-phase capacity UC.

The bed of packing in this case consisted of stacked 25-mm Bialecki rings. the following applies: HTUoc = HTUC + 1/E(HTUD) (13-24) The extraction factor E is governed by the process conditions. e. and represent operating conditions without mass transfer. as indicated in Fig. and the phase density ratio QDI Qc. If mass transfer is in the opposite direction. from the continuous to the dispersed phase. Fig. the slope m of the equilibrium curve for the extraction system.NTU model described by the following two equations has been found suitable for predicting the efficiency and effective height H of a packed extraction column. i. the HTU . the phase ratio UDI uc.2. In this example. They are valid for a 50-mm tube column.hD>Fl) hlFl (13-19) Evaluation of Eqns (13-16) and (13-19) requires a knowledge of the dispersed-phase holdup at the flood point. Figures thus determined are listed in Table 13.13. 13. .6 Mass transfer in the dispersed and continuous phases From the aspect of industrial applications. 13. 13. 13. Typical curves for the capacity at the flood point are presented in Fig.14 indicates the effect of mass transfer.12. . the limiting load would be the same as that without mass transfer. e. = (Ij-ZUJ 4(l-uD/uc) Numerical values for the flood-point constant CFi for various types of packing can be obtained by plotting the results. which can be obtained by combining Eqns (13-17) and (13-19).e. the height of an overall transfer unit HTUQD will be given by HTUOD = HTUD + E(HTUc) (13-23) where E is the extraction factor.6 and stacked with metallic Bialecki rings.Thus. If mass transfer is in the opposite direction. H = HTUQD ' NTUQD (13-21) (13-22) H = HTUoc • NTUQC If mass transfer proceeds from the dispersed to the continuous phase. h [(uD/uc)2 + __ SuD/uc]m-3uD/uc . The agreement between the theoretical curves and those plotted from measurements is quite good.5. as illustrated in Fig. the load at the flood point was increased by about 25 % when mass transfer proceeded from the dispersed to the continuous phase as a result of rapid droplet coalescence.324 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems uD>Fl = 2 CFl 8 u (1 . which are illustrated in Fig. i. 13. i. 13.

rLI cu (D)/ H20 k -1 on' ^ A Z: ^ \ 1/ bar.4m \ i r i i i Toluene(D)-Acetone/H 2 0Toluene(D)-Acetic acid/H20 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Continuous-phase flood load uc. 13.13. Influence of mass transfer on the capacity of a column packed with stacked metal Bialecki rings . H = 2.H = 1.3j r\ 0 4 "ISO Dutanol D)/l n 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Continuous-phase flood load u CFr 1O 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig.R-103[m3/m2s] Fig. 13.0532 m.14. z.6 Mass transfer in the dispersed and continuous phases 325 50-mm tube column.5m 2 1 ) 1 6 -Tc)lue ie([))/H 2o1 2 V Q • > k. Characteristic capacity diagram for a tube column packed with metal Bialecki rings for various liquid-liquid systems without mass transfer 25-mm stacked metal Bialecki rings ds=0. metal Bialecki rings d s = 0.154m.13.

Mass transfer can be adequately described in both directions by the theory of nonstationary diffusion.^ Pc aph where aph is the phase contact area per unit column volume and (3O (or |3C) is the mass transfer coefficient. The time x is defined by x = /e — uD Substituting Cs for hDluD {cf.The former is related to mass transfer in the dispersed phase {Eqn (13-26)}.^ (13-26) (13-27) PD aPh HTUC = . to mass transfer in the continuous phase {Eqn (13-27)}: HTUD = .326 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems E = m »!L OS. the duration of contact x or the length / of the path of contact. (3 = -= \ — V jt y x The Fourier number is defined by Fo = 4 . which Higbie expressed in terms of the diffusion coefficient D in the phase under consideration. i. uc Qc (13-25) The expression for the height of an overall transfer unit.^ Clys (for Fo < 100) (13-28) (13-29) If the duration of contact x or the length / of the path of contact is short and the Fourier number is less than 100. the diffusion coefficient D can be used to determine the mass transfer coefficient |3. Theoretically. and the Fourier number Fo. a bubble of the dispersed phase remains in contact with the continuous phase over a path of length / and for a time x until it collides with the packing and renews its surface. HTUQD or HTUoc •> contains the term HTUD or HTUC. and the latter.e. The product of aPh and |3 D (or |3C) is referred to as the volumetric mass transfer coefficient. Eqn (13-1)} gives (13-30) x = Cs I e (13-31) .

the droplet diameter increases by about 20%.FI loading range. Another parameter that governs the extraction efficiency is the interfacial area aPh. dvs is independent of load and can be calculated from the droplet constant Cd. from the dispersed to the continuous phase.8 Q=1. In other words.16). Fig.15). a geometrical relationship exists between / and the characteristic size of the individual packing elements.g. e. However. If mass transfer is in the C —> D direction. sheet-metal types or in tube columns. test results and derivation of model 327 The characteristic length / depends greatly on the packing geometry. which depends on the interfacial tension o at the surface of the droplets and the phase density difference AQ. Fig. and differences in the direction of mass transfer. e. It is defined by aPh = 6 e -ydyS (13-32) where dyS is the mean Sauter diameter of the droplets.2 Q (13-36) If mass transfer is in the D — » • C direction.7 Extraction efficiency.e.FZ = 1. the droplet diameter dvs decreases with an attendant significant improvement in mass transfer (cf.0 (if QD > Qc) (if QC>QD) (13-34) (13-35) At the flood point. if the packing is systematically stacked. 13. The only means of determining its value if the packing is dumped is by experiment.7 Extraction efficiency. mass transfer area per unit volume of packing.7 UC. i. e. as is evident from Table 13.2. The experiments embraced systems with different physical properties. i. (13-33) V s ^y where Q is the droplet constant. i.e. 13. on the assumption that the duration or path of contact is short. differences in the resistance to mass transfer.13. test results and derivation of model It has been confirmed by experiments on dumped and stacked packing that the theory of nonstationary diffusion {Eqn (13-28)} can be applied to describe mass transfer efficiency in beds of packing. the droplet diameter dvs can be expected to increase with an associated decrease in efficiency (cf. the droplets remain stable. i. for which the following numerical values have been obtained by experiment: Q = 0. . In the main uc < 0. 13. Q.

H=2. X=1. It is evident from the diagrams that the types of packing concerned hold out good prospects in industrial applications. 13.o .1 m. uc = ( 2 4 6 8 10 Fig.43 £ CD 9 a AT 3 0 Toluene (DJ/Water. and their performance can be considerably improved by stacking (cf. Toluene(D)-Acetic acid/Water.0. .20.328 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems 25-mm Bialecki rings. A=0.1m. metal d s = 0.0. Mean droplet diameter as a function of the transferred component concentration for stacked metal Bialecki rings Mass transfer in the D — > C direction The packing efficiency.18). Pall and Bialecki rings have almost the same efficiency in extraction columns.2 . metal d s =0. The extent of the improvement depends on the shape of the rings.1 .15. When dumped.Toluene(D)/Acetone^4J 1 j \\<^\—i—(J 1 hnr 7Q1 l^ 1 m 5 -^ 4 I 6 I I 8 10 i 12 Concentration of acetone in water x [ % w t ] Fig.95 m.© . Mean droplet diameter as a function of the dispersed-phase load for stacked metal Bialecki rings Dispersed-phase load iiD-103[m3/m2s] 25-mm Bialecki rings. stacked.16.0. 13. stacked.17 to 13.372 m 3 /m 2 s uc 103 =2. 13. 13.17 and 13.36 m 3 /m 2 s ^^ -^ -D I 0 2 4 .3 Toluene(D)-Acetone/Water. expressed as the height of an overall transfer unit (HTUOD in the dispersed phase or HTUoc m the continuous phase) is shown as a function of the dispersedphase load UD at a constant phase ratio uD/uc in Figs.95 m 6 ug-103 =3. H--2. the curves for the Bialecki rings in Figs.3-9 c tkmol/m 3 ] i n l e t -o.

13.0 1 .18. .2 5 . dumped —a—25-mm Pall rings. 13. dumped 1 °-8 _u /u =0.6 .154mJ H = 2. 1 bar. test results and derivation of model 329 Metal packing. 1 bar.4m Toluene(D)-Acetone/Water. 293 K c= i i I i i I i 25-mm Pall rings. This fact can be explained by the theory of mass transfer in liquid-liquid systems. H = 1.2 /25-mm Bialecki rings.429 < 1. damped 1. ds=0.20 demonstrate that an increase in efficiency can be obtained by reducing the height h of an element of stacked sheet-metal packing. These studies also revealed that. stacked 1. Thus a reduction in height from h = 135 mm to h = 50 mm improved the efficiency in this case by a factor of 1.10 m.13.4 D-C uD/uc=1.6 0.19 and 13.7 Extraction efficiency.64.6 m IsobutanoKDl-Acetic acid/Water. Height of dispersed-phase transfer unit as a function of the dispersedphase load for metal packings Dispersed phase load UDlO3[m3/m2s] Figs.0 O u u 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Fig. stacked i 1 2 3 4 5 2 6 Dispersed-phase load uD-10 [m /m s] Fig. 13.m m Bialecki rings. ds = 0. if the resistance to mass transfer is only in the dispersed phase.85 D c o = CD CD D-Co i i i I 1 I 3 3 0.— • .4 i 25-mm Biaecki rings. the efficiency (HTUOD) of 50-mm Montz Bl sheet-metal packing hardly differs from that of 25-mm metallic Bialecki rings. Height of dispersed-phase transfer unit as a function of the dispersed-phase load for metal packings Metal packing . 293 K „ _§ I— 2. 8 D 1 / ~ CD c/> cz o CD CD 1.17.

330 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems Montz Bl-300 packing Sheet metal.0.8 1 1-6 / h-.8 — * h =0. 293 K o cp 1. 6 0 ^ h = 0.lMO" m /m^ 3 0.To luerie(D )-Ac .157 m.uc=2. Height of dispersed-phase transfer unit as a function of the dispersedphase load for metal packings .0.4 m 1. H = 2.20. 8 1 .13 5 m Z 14 C cr a y .05m —n / 3 DI .etic ac id/V\/ate .135 rr H / 7 1 o/ J 1 . 293 \( o 5 2. 13.0 •s CJ> CD h -.157 m.Acetcinp/Wnt Ibar.4 2.0 0.6 l 0 8 1 2 16 3 2 20 Dispersed-phase load U0 10 [m /m s] Fig.19.1 bar.4? 12 3 16 3 2 20 Dispersed-phase load u D 10 [m /m s] Fig. ds=0. H=2.4m 2.'05m • 4 8 . Height of dispersed-phase transfer unit as a function of the dispersedf Montz Bl-300 l 3 0 0 packing ki phase load for Montz Bl-300 packing Sheet metal d s = 0.u D /u c = 1. 13.2 o ! Tnluen e ( D ) .

In Figs. and for stacked metallic and plastics packing.25. and by Eqn (13-38).24 and 13. 13. 13.7 Extraction efficiency. The curves thus plotted for dumped ceramic and plastics packing are presented in Fig. in Fig. 13.13. It is evident from the relationships discussed in Sect.25 also clearly indicates that large differences may exist between the efficiency of stacked Bialecki rings and that of Montz sheet-metal packing with extraction systems of this nature.5 (Cm)D^c (13-40) . the resistance to mass transfer is distributed between both phases. Their product is referred to as the volumetric mass transfer coefficient pfl/v. (13-28).38) was adopted to plot the linear relationships shown in Figs. It is thus given by Eqn (13-37) for the dispersed phase. 13. the height HTUOC of an overall transfer unit in the continuous phase is shown as a function of the continuous-phase load wc for a constant phase ratio uDl uc.23. and can be obtained by combining Eqns (13-11). and (13-33). The diagrams are self-explanatory and need no further explanation. which was determined by experiment: (Cm)c^D = 1. Fig. 13. test results and derivation of model 331 The studies also embraced the determination of the relationship between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient $DaPh and the dispersed-phase load uD. for tube columns with metallic packing of different sizes.6 that the two factors that largely govern the efficiency of a liquid-liquid extraction column are the mass transfer coefficient |5 and the interfacial area aPh.21 to 13. Allowance can be made for the effect exerted by the direction of mass transfer by means of the following relationship.22. (13-32). The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results is satisfactory. in Fig. Mass transfer in the C —> D direction Similar results were obtained when the direction of mass transfer was from the continuous to the dispersed phase C -» D. The two systems studied are representative of resistance to mass transfer in the dispersed phase and of the direction of mass transfer from the dispersed to continuous phase. for the continuous phase: (a ArTl 3 / 8 r» 1/4 D 1 / 2 igAQ C D P z > an = CmuD Pc aph = ^mUD \£ ° (13-37) (13-38) ^ in which Cm is a mass transfer constant that is representative for a given packing and is given by c-*£][* Eqn (13.23. (13-30). 13.21.The high extraction efficiency of both dumped and stacked beds of packing in this case is evident from these diagrams. In these systems. An almost linear relationship also existed between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (3/)flp/j and the superficial velocity of the dispersed phase uD in all the other cases investigated. 13.

293K| 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Dispersed-phase load up •10 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] Fig. 1 bar.22. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the dispersed phase as a function of the dispersed-phase load for random beds of ceramic and plastics Hiflow rings Tube columns pocked with metal Biolecki rings 12 Dispersed-phase load uD 10 [nr/m s z 14 Fig. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the dispersed phase as a function of the dispersed-phase load for tube columns packed with metal Bialecki rings .21. 13. 13.332 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems [Toluene(D)-Acetic acid/Water.

13.23.ob 1 5 3 2 no 6 Continuous-phase load u c l0 [m /m s] .13.4 cp n * * > 2 5-mm bioiecKi rings>. dijmp^ Kic •Si " i 0.6 0.6 m lsobutanol(0)/Acetic acid-Water. I bar.8 .2 Fig. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the dispersed phase as a function of the dispersed-phase load for geometrically arranged beds of metal and plastics Montz packing 0 2 4 6 8 10 3 12 14 3 Dispersed-phase load uD10 [m /m 2 s] Metal packing.2 5-m Tl PCill rings . test results and derivation of model 333 Toluene(D)-Acetic ocid/H20. 293 K 0. si uik ?d U i 3 el 0.l bar.24. Height of continuousphase transfer unit as a function of the continuous-phase load for metal packings 0 1 2 4 3 /uc= O.293K Fig. 13. H=1. ds = 01 m.7 Extraction efficiency.

8 0. 13. i. stacked y o 0. This fact can be explained by the corresponding difference in the droplet diameters. Height of continuous-phase transfer unit as a function of the continuous-phase load for metal packings Continuous phase load uc-iO 3 [m 3 /m 2 s] In other words. D — » C.39) implies the following requirement: {Cm)c(QV (13-41) Applying Eqns (13-11) and (13-33) to this equation yields the following proportional or approximate relationship: (Cm)c (dys)p{dvs)c{hD)c{hD)D(13-42) Substituting the numerical value derived from Eqn (13-40) for the left-hand side of Eqn (13-41) gives (13-43) .6 0 2 4 6 8 10 t 12 14 Fig. C -* D.8 1.2 -25"mm Bialecki rings.154 m.2 are valid for the C — » D direction.4 m Toluene(D)/Acetone-Water.2 Montz packing B1-300 v h = 0.25. i. The application of Eqn (13-40) to Eqn (13. 1 bar. 4 25-mm Pall rings. ds=0. 293 K 2. H = 2. dumped i\n a 1.e.e.135m— 1.334 13 Applications for packing in liquid-liquid systems Metal packing . the efficiency of mass transfer in the direction from the continuous to the dispersed phase. is 50% higher than that in the opposite direction. The numerical values of Cm listed in Table 13.6 to a o J ~ 1 .

1 ( 1 . i. Likewise. 1 a UQ I 1 1 Qc The effective height H of the column required for extraction can then be obtained from Eqns (13-21) and (13-22) and the number of transfer units NTUOD and NTUOC- .7 Extraction efficiency.13. e. The following simple equation thus applies: / = 32. the square root term can be equated to unity. m n l/2 QD ~ (13-46) (g AQ) QC UD DC QC Likewise. test results and derivation of model 335 In this case. substituting the numerical value derived from Eqn (13-40) for the left-hand side of Eqn (13-42) gives (13-44) It also follows from Eqn (13-39) that the effective length / of the path of contact is related to the characteristic fluid-dynamic constants Ch (for the dispersed-phase holdup) and Cd (for the droplet diameter in the dispersed phase) and to the mass transfer constant Cm. x3/8 _l/4 n l/2 ' + . i.e.41 Ch 2 (13-45) (Cm Cd) Combining Eqns (13-23) and (13-25) to (13-27) with Eqns (13-37) and (13-38) gives the height of an overall dispersed-phase transfer unit HTUOD for mass transfer in the D -^ C direction. combining Eqns (13-24) .(13-27) with Eqn (13-38) gives the height of an overall continuous-phase unit HTUoc for mass transfer in the C —> D direction.

.

the equilibrium curve ye = f(x) and the operating lines y = f (JC). are given. viz.1 shows a flow chart for a rectification column with a concentration x of low boilers in the feed F. BI in the stripping zone and ID in the enrichment zone. 14. and liquid-liquid extraction shall now be given to demonstrate how they can be applied in plant engineering. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with the principles underlying thermal separation techniques. absorption. Rectification Reboiler B = F-D hF = feed enthalpy hp = feed enthalpy at boiling temperature Ah v =vaporization enthalpy at feed section Fig. 14. rectification. Fig. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . and bottoms B. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Qualitative determination of transfer units in rectification Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. These fractions are presented qualitatively in the ylx diagram. overhead product D. Examples taken from the fields of desorption.14 Examples for the design of packed columns The relationships discussed in the previous chapters are important for the design and operation of countercurrent packed columns. The example concerned is the separation of a binary mixture.1.

particularly at low phase loads. the concentration of transfer components y in the gas. The subscript u indicates the bottom of the column. and the concentration of transfer components x in the liquid. the liquid volumetric flow rate L. and the subscript o.AXn In-^ AXn (14-9) .Ayb In 4 ^ Ayb (14"3) The terms Aya and Ayb in this equation represent the difference between the equilibrium mole fraction ye>a or ye>b and the vapour mole fraction ya or yb. the slopes of the equilibrium curves in absorption and desorption processes can be regarded as constant over the entire range of concentrations between the head and the foot of the column.a . the liquid load X of transfer component is related to the mole fraction x by X = T^ < 14 .2 > The number of transfer units NTUOv required for rectification between zones with molar fractions ya and yb is given by NTUov = /a~y" Aya . The factors given are the gas volumetric flow rate V. &ya = ye. the number of transfer units in absorption processes will be given by where Yu and Yo are the gas loads at the foot and head of the column. if the gas load is adopted as a measure for the concentration.2 illustrates the principles of absorption and desorption.338 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Fig. the head of the column. i. The terms AYU and AYO are then defined by AYu = Yu-mYXXu AYo = Yo-mYXXo The corresponding equations for the liquid load are (14-7) (14-8) NTUOL= f-f AXU .e. 14. In this case.ya An = ye. In contrast.b-yb (14-4) (14-5) The size of the zones should be selected so that the slope myx of the equilibrium curve is practically the same in each. The gas load Y of transfer component is related to the mole fraction y by Likewise.

gas or vapour Slope of the equilibrium line Molar liquid-to-gas ratio or slope of the operating line Load fraction of transfer component in liquid /gas Carrier stream of liquid /gas phase L _ Y 0 -Y u Y Q = 'U + *W~ V A n — A ii Fig.Y L.y m yx L/V X.14 A X M Examples for the design of packed columns Y x 339 (14-10) (14-11) _ 1 mYX AX0 = —Yo-Xo mYX Likewise. Qualitative determination of transfer units in absorption and desorption .2. 14.V r777' Mole fraction in liquid. the number of transfer units required in desorption processes will be given by Eqns (14-12) to (14-14) if the gas load is adopted as the measure for the concentration: Y -Y u ° AY ° (14-12) Absorption Desorption ye- x.

as illustrated in Fig. 14.340 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Yo = mYXXo-Y0 Yu = mYXXu-Yu The corresponding equations for the liquid phase are (14-13) (14-14) 1 Yo (14-16) (14-17) mYX = xu 1 mYX Yu In a rectification process.e.e. 14.2 (right). the total vapour/liquid ratio must be higher than the ratio of the stripping gas to the liquid.m x u . as illustrated in Fig. i. as illustrated in Fig. V V The flow rate of stripping gas in this case is given by Vm = L ^ ^ x (14-23) o.1. i. the reflux ratio is given by r > r-*n = T T T T (14-18) The molar flow rate at the head of the column would then be V= F XF XB X ~ (r + 1) D ~ %B (14-19) In an absorption process. to the vapour.e. 14. the total liquid-vapour ratio must be higher than the ratio of the carrier liquid.2 (left). solvent. Y > T" The flow rate of solvent in this case is given by ( 14 " 2 °) Lm = V lu~*° (14-21) In desorption. i.

as defined by Eqn (14-30).u .3 illustrates liquid-liquid extraction in which the specific gravity of the continuous phase (Subscript C) is greater than that of the dispersed phase (Subscript D). is given by V =V(\ + Y) where V = Vu (1 .x o ) (14-25) The column diameter ds can be expressed in terms of the free cross-sectional area As.Acu Acu (14-29) where Aco is the driving concentration difference at the head of the column. i. uv [m/s]. and Acu is the driving concentration difference at the foot of the column. by L = L(l+X) where L = Lo(1 . e.o . As can be defined by As = ^ Uy (14-26) ^ Qy (14-27) Thus the column diameter can be calculated from the operating parameters V [kmol/h]. as defined by Eqn (14-31). the total number of transfer units NTUOc derived from the HTU-NTU model is given by NTUoc = Cc '°~Cc'u In ^ Aco . consisting of the carrier liquid and the transfer components. i. e. the total molar flow rate of vapour.yu) (14-24) and the total molar flow rate of liquid. consisting of the carrier gas and the transfer components.4 • 1(T3 \l V — — 17 (14-28) p Uy Fig.— cD>u (14-30) (14-31) Another case to consider is that in which mass transfer is in the C — > D direction and the desired separation efficiency is given by ^E = 1-££JL (14-32) . 14.~ . T [K]. e.14 Examples for the design of packed columns 341 In absorption and desorption. ds = 5.cDtO AcM = cc. Aco = cc. ds = \ —As y JI If uv is the superficial gas velocity. i. and p [bar]. In this case.

1 Determination of the diameter of an off-gas absorption column with various types of packing Polluted air flowing at a rate of 105 m 3 /h STP is to be scrubbed with water in a packed column. depending on the degree of contamination. Qualitative determination of transfer units in liquid-liquid extraction Rearranging this equation gives rise to the following: CC.u (14-34) Eqn (13-22) allows the effective height H to be determined from NTUOc and HTUOc\ and.o — UD (cC. the column diameter ds can be obtained from the load uc < 0. if the volume flow rate Vc of the continuous phase is given. .342 14 Examples for the design of packed columns h CQ. The liquid-to-gas ratio must be varied between LIV = 1 and L/V = 10.o ~ c D. the concentration of transfer components in the dispersed phase increases from a value of cD>u at the foot of the column to the following value of cDo at the head of the column: c D.3. FI from the following equation: (14-35) 14. 14.u = (1 - (14-33) from which it can be derived that the concentration of transfer components in the continuous phase decreases from cc>o at the head of the column to cc>u at the foot. The maximum permissible load is that at the loading point.O C Co Fig. If the phase ratio in the extractor is uc/uD.7 uc.

14.2 4. Hiflow rings. Bialecki rings.4 j / Packing size 50 mm / 5. what diameter would the column have to be if 50-mm packing of the following types had to be installed? Plastics packing: Intalox saddles.Bicilec <i ring 4. 14.1 Determination of the diameter of an off-gas absorption column with various types of packing 343 Under these conditions.4.19 kg/m 3 TJV = 18 • 10~6 kg/ms Density and dynamic viscosity of liquid QL = 998 kg/m 3 TU = 1 • 10"3 kg/ms The values of Cs required to calculate the resistance coefficients § 5 at the loading point from Eqn (4-29) are listed in Table 4.adc le 5. loading capacity 5. air 100000 m 3 /h. Liquid: water.4 4.0 •y W Hifl D rOu 11 > / .P last IC 4 6 8 10 0 / 3.I N TALO X 5 .1 .2 .vS P Mr tnl 4 6 8 10 2 Liquid/gas ratio L/V Fig. Bialecki rings.8 1 1 2 H 1 1 fK A ing / Bialecki ring .1. and Norpac rings Metal packing: Pall rings. STP. Pall rings.6 1 If A-Pall ring 4. Gas. Column diameter as a function of the liquid-vapour ratio for the data given in Section 14.0 I ! 0 f ij / / / -NOR-PAC ring / A . and VSP rings Solution Properties of the system Density and dynamic viscosity of the gas QV= 1.8 TD / / / / y my y <y 4.

88-10.5 kmol/h = 4501.116 CL = 0.1.355 Product streams designated as in Fig. It consists of 60 % of the low-boiling component and 40 % of the highboiling and enters the column at the boiling point.5 kmol/h • 58.6 kmol/h = 4801. allow the corrresponding vapour flow rates at the loading point uv = uvs to be determined by iteration as functions of the liquid/vapour ratio LIV from Eqn (11-82).4801.2 Design of a packed column for the rectification of an isobutane/n-butane mixture An isobutane/n-butane mixture flowing at a rate of 500 kmol/h has to be separated in a rectification column.344 14 Examples for the design of packed columns The values of § s calculated from Eqn (4-29) for all the packings.971 Cv = 0.3 kg/s 2 Characteristic data for the packing derived from Tables 4. together with the associated values for a and 8. and 5.2. 14.13078 • 10"3 kg/ms DL = 8. 14.9% mol of isobutane. It can be seen that the column diameter ds required for a ratio LIV = 10 is about 25% greater than that for LIV = 1.124 kg/kmol QV Tjv Dv am = = = = 8.979 m 3 /m 3 Cs = 3.124 kg/kmol = 279088 kg/h .001 0. The packing is of the Montz Bl-200 sheet-metal type.76 • 10~6 kg/ms 1.4.124 kg/kmol QL = 561.2 a 8 = 200 m 2 /m 3 = 0.3 kg/m 3 t\L = 0.390 CP = 0.6-0. which are also listed in Table 4. and the column operates at an overhead pressure of 3.35 3 \iL = 58. and the bottoms may contain only 0 . The evaluated results are plotted in Fig.4.44 • 10~9 m 2 /s oL = 8.6 kmol/h • 58. 4. The overhead product has to consist of 99.398 kg/m 7.17 • 1(T6 m 2 /s 1. Solution Average properties of the system \iv = 58.1 5 D D 5 °° °°ir kmol 0.1 kmol/h • 15 = 4501. 14.001 3 O 3O L = 300.1 kmol/h (15 + 1) .6 bar and a reflux ratio of 15 under the conditions at the loading point.999-0. 1 % mol of this component.124 kg/kmol = 261645 kg/h V = 300. The diagram also shows that the differences in diameter associated with plastics packing are greater than those for metal packing.

131-10.635 = 6.3uv.635 = 0.2 Design of a packed column for the rectification of an isobutaneln-butane mixture 345 Resistance coefficient at the loading point according to Eqn (4-29) 9.59 • 10. Cross-sectional area of the planned column A s = — • 5 2 = 19.514 Relationship at the loading point according to Eqn (4-28) / 9.806^ 0.3 w L 561.3 / \ 7.s = 12 0.398 uL = 279088 ' 561.76 • 10"6 = 0.14.131-10 [ 279088 \ 561.3 \ 1/2 8.s Vapour load at the loading point determined by solving Eqns (4-28) and (11-82) by iteration uv>s = 0.3 • 19.398 • 19.88 = 4.514 0.806 561.m /m s .398 Relationship at the loading point according to Eqn (11-82) for uL and uv = uVtS 261645 8.3 w L 9.806 'U 261645 / 8.979 2001 2001 12 9.3 uv.131-10.489 • 8.88 m2 0.489 m/s Cross-sectional area of column according to Eqn (14-27) As 279088/3600 = 18.9 m Column diameter selected for planning: ds = 5 m.806 0.3 561.635 4 Vapour and liqud loads in the planned column 279088/3600 uv = 8.398 Column diameter according to Eqn (14-26) ds = \—' 18.47 m/s 261645/3600 3 3 2 uL = 561.398 \ 1/2 /0.

346 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Theoretical liquid holdup according to Eqn (4-27) 0.131 • 10-3 L Wetting factor for the packing {Eqn (4-68)} W= exp 141.806 • 561.0422 m 3 /m 2 Particle diameter according to Eqn (4-66) Factor to allow for end effects {Eqn (4-57)} 4 200 -5 -i fs = 1 + = 0.3 .3 HL " I 12 = 0.01958 m .3 n ^ x3 • ~ (0.996 H = 0-564 • .131 • 1(T3 • 6.979-0.979) 7.398 (1 .47 • 0.42 200 • 0.0.979 = 0.996 Reynolds number for the stream of vapour {Eqn (4-65)} 0.59 • 1(T3 • 2 0 0 2 U / 3 ' 9.472 1 T— TTT^T = 128.59 • 10-3 • 561.0422) ' 2 ' 0.63 • 10"3 • 8.76 • 1 C 0-996 = 15 200 Reynolds number for the stream of liquid {Eqn (4-69)} 6.141.42 200 = 2.0. ' Pa/m Hydraulic diameter {Eqn (5-15)} A 0.398 .028 Resistance coefficient for the stream of vapour {Eqn (4-67)} Pressure drop in the vapour stream {Eqn (4-58)} 200 8.

2 Design of a packed column for the rectification of an isobutaneln-butane mixture 347 Area of phase contact {Eqn (5-16)} ^ a 3 0 9 7 9 .999 kmol/kmol {Eqn (1-38)} 1 35 • 0 999 * • = 1 + (1.398 / \ 7.3 • 9.561.999 = °" 93 Vapour concentration corresponding to xb = 0.76 • 10"6 \ 3M /1.999 kmol/kmol to xb = 0.0.045 = XD = 0.806 8.13078 • 10~3 ~ " '(6.8124 kmol/kmol Phase equilibrium concentration = 8438 1 /(OS-I 0.17 • 10~6 • 8.398 \ 1/3 0.045 .3 \ 0 7 5 / (6.( 6-59 -10^.01958 0.8 kmol/kmol on the operating line for the enrichment zone {Eqn (1-13)} yb = — 15 0 999 • 0.1) Calculation for the height of the uppermost zone Xa 1 1.47 • 8.8 kmol/kmol Characteristic concentration in the uppermost zone Phase equilibrium concentration corresponding to ya = xa = 0.8 + -z = 0.00888 -200 / \ 9.59.8 °- .35-1)0.0.1Q-3)2 561.59 • 10' 3 ) 2 200 ^ 0 4 5 0.971 561.806 Height of a transfer unit in the liquid phase {Eqn (5-5)} 1 0.3 \ 200.083 m Height of a transfer unit in the vapour phase {Eqn (5-14)} 200 • 7.14.59 • 10" 200 HTUL = 1.76 • 10~b / = 0.143 m Determination of the concentration zones (Table 14.13078 • 10-3 \ 1/6 / 0.44 • 10 6.

8184 4501. In a control experiment with a bed height of HPb = 2 m. the number of transfer units measured was NPft> = 6.348 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Differences in concentration {Eqns (14-4) and (14-5)} Aya = 0.5 kmol/h Number of theoretical stages {Eqn (1-27)} Height of an overall transfer unit {Eqn (1-62)} HTUov = 0.1) 0.212 • 28. 14.o3i4 ' l n "b^TT = ' Mean slope of equilibrium curve {Eqn (1-66)} yx [1 + (1.3 .ooo3-o.6 transfer units was measured for a height of HPa = 1.999 = 0.867]2 = 0.0.8184 Stripping factor {Eqn 1-30)} X = 0.3 Scaling up measurements performed in pilot plants In mass transfer studies in a column with a new type of packing. Total theoretical height if no allowance is made for end and distribution effects 2 H = 15 m.8438-0.5 m.8 = 6.2.999-0.733 m"1.0003 kmol/kmol A j b = 0.0003 28 o.106 m The results thus obtained for all the concentration zones are listed in Table 14.8.8335 • 0.0314 kmol/kmol Number of vapour-side transfer units {Eqn (14-3)} 0. a total of NP>a = 5.9993-0.8124 NTUov = 0.3 1. What would the error .143 + 0. Hence the number of transfer units per unit height of bed was (NIH)P>a = 3.083 = 0.212 m Height of uppermost concentration zone {Eqn (1-64)} if no allowance is made for end effects H = 0.8124 .

e. i. . 8.| L = 5. i. ) n lH>Hi = 5 . the end effects (Nd + ANt) can be determined by rearranging Eqn (6-8) for the case of H = HPa. 6 . the following applies for Hi < HP dN \ dHJH>Hi NPb-NPa HP>b-HP>a 6. :. Solution If no allowance is made for end effects. assume that the height of the inlet zone Ht is less than HPa = 1.5 m.5 m were to be taken as a basis in calculating the height HT of an industrial-scale column required to realize NT = 20 transfer units on the assumption that the inlet distribution remains unchanged? For the purpose of the calculation.14. 5 • 2. the height of the column would be Hw _ _ g t _ = .4 r" = HT X " °. 7 1 ^ 1+ -2Q JJ'2A According to Eqn (6-35).3 Scaling up measurements performed in pilot plants 349 be if the efficiency determined for a height HPa = 1.1 .6 2-1.4.e.5 „ A -.715 The actual column height required can then be calculated from Eqns (6-35) and (6-39).8-5.4 m According to the model presented in Fig. i. this corresponds to an efficiency ratio of rjr = 1 .4 = 2 The relative difference in height required to compensate end effects can then be obtained from Eqn (8-15).36 m If it is assumed that the separation efficiency remains constant in the H > Ht zone.285 = °. e.

285 • 7.a = 7.4 times higher than the minimum. Hence. AH = HT-HT(P) = 7. The main dimensions of the column.4 Design of an absorber for removing acetone from process air The spent air from a production plant contains 1 % mol of acetone and flows at a rate of 2000 m 3 /h at 27 °C. the height of the bed would be too short by an amount AH HT 100 = 28.36 = 2. if the column design were to be based on the measured value for (N/H)P>a = 3.350 14 Examples for the design of packed columns The same result can be obtained from Eqn (6-28). 14.5%.5 2 3. have to be determined for the case in which the water consumption is 1.49 m 1. the absolute value for the additional height required is AH = 4 ^ " HT = 0.e. Thus P_a Nd + AN(\H 1 jP.49 = 2. Solution Average properties of the gas phase \iv QV T]v Dv Molar mass of acetone 1^ = 58.13 • 10~ 6 k g / m s = 10.96 k g / k m o l = 1 .49-5.8 • K T 6 m 2 / s . 1 6 2 kg/m3 = 18.733 Hence. i. HT This figure agrees with that for the difference between the values calculated for HT and HT(P).13 m. which is operated at the loading point. The acetone has to be removed to a final concentration of 100 mg/m 3 by absorption in water in a column packed with 50-mm metal Pall rings.08 k g / k m o l = 28.733 m"1.13 m.

3 kg/s 2 Slope of equilibrium curve for the acetone-air/water absorption system YYlYx = 2.01) = 79.96 kg/kmol = 0.96 kg/kmol 58.45 kmol/h =ino m3 28.25 kmol/h ft 28.410 CP = 0.4.04 = 256. 4 ^ (0.1) a = 110 m 2 /m 3 E = 0.02 kg/kmol QL = 997 kg/m 3 T) L = 0.857 • 10"3 kg/ms DL = 1.01 kmol/kmol = °^^ = 0.4 Design of an absorber for removing acetone from process air 351 Average properties of the liquid phase \iL = 18.6 and 5.26 u .2.3.4 • 183.1. left) Vu yM yM V = 2 0 0 0 ^ • .01 kmol/kmol = 80.10.192 Cy = 0.725 CL = 1. 14.763 Ch = 0.291 • 10' 5 ) = 3.01 . 1 ^ 2 v ^ m 3 | = 80.291 = 4322 4 2 9 1 kmol/kmo1 "10 3 kmol/kmo1 L x = 1. 4.952 m 3 /m 3 C 5 = 2.291 • 10"5 kmol/kmol 4 291 • 10~5 1 -4.314 Packing characteristics (Tables 4.26 kmol/h = Lo = 0 + T 9 .162 kg/m 3 = 4.08 kg/kmol -1. 4.14.784 Product streams (Fig.087 • 10~3 kmol/kmol 256.25 (1-0.18 • 10~ 9 m 2 /s oL =12.

162 Liquid velocity at the loading point {Eqn (11-82)} for uL and uv = uv.13 • 10~6 2301 \ 997 / Vapour velocity at the loading point {Eqn (4-28)} 9.7 1.96 kg/kmol = 2301 kg/h Resistance coefficient {Eqn (4-29)} 9.6 m Cross-sectional area of planned column As = — • 0.806 0.594 m Column diameter selected for planning: ^ = 0.62 = 0.s 4617.806 1/6/ 997 0.7 kg/h = 79.629 12 9.857 • 10~3 uL 997 1.45 kmol/h = 79.45 kmol/h • 28.857 997 \i/2 uL 0.7252 L162 = 0.291 • 1(T5) = 79.9/3600 1.988 °277 2 ds=\—' 0.s = -no1 12 9.806 2.45 (1 + 4.806 0.26 kmol/h • 18.02 kg/kmol = 4617.2827 m2 .952 1101 uv.352 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Lo Vo = 256.162 • 1.629 \ 18.988 m/s Cross-sectional area of column {Eqn (14-26)} A Column diameter {Eqn (14-27)} 2300.277 = 0.162 Gas velocity at the loading point determined by solving Eqns (4-28) and (11-82) by iteration uv>s = 1.

2 Pa/m .9/3600 1.9429 Reynolds number for gas flow {Eqn (4-65)} 1.162 • 1.857 • 10-3 • 4.9429 = 277.0.7/3600 997 .0387) 3 1.952 .945 • 2.0.2827 = 4 455 55 ' ' 1 10 0 3 2 mm / m S Theoretical liquid holdup {Eqn (4-27)} / 0.4 Design of an absorber for removing acetone from process air Vapour and liquid loads in the planned column 2300.162 (1-0.0 • 876 • 10 u Wetting factor for the packing {Eqn (4-68)} Resistance factor in gas flow {Eqn (4-67)} Pressure drop per unit height in gas flow {Eqn (4-58)} Ap H ()R2 110 (0.55 • I P 3 • 997 -3 " 110.13 • 10-6 v °9429 4 8 1 2 Reynolds number for liquid flow {Eqn (4-69)} 4.9452 2 1 0.2827 = 353 Uv= =1 -945m/s 3 ^ 4617.618 • 10~3 • 1.618 • 10-3 m \"1 = 0.952) 18.14.55 • HT3 • HO2 \ 1/3 ) Particle diameter {Eqn (4-66)} dp = 6 • Wall factor {Eqn (4-57)} / A 1 .162-0.^ p 9 5 2 = 2.

0.4 .13 • IP"6 \ 3 / 4 /l0.55 • 10 \ 110 / \ 0.y 997 \015 ( (4.806 = 0.0346m Phase contact area {Eqn (5-16)} Eh.162 \ 1/3 / 1 \ \ 1.H P 5 2.806 Height of transfer unit in the liquid phase {Eqn (5-5)} -3 0.18. — a .1 0 .291 • 10"5 ^ Stripping factor {Eqn (1-68)} .291 • 10"5 kmol/kmol Overall number of gas-side transfer units {Eqn (14-6)} MTTI NTUov = 0. n QS? 0 .2.55 • 10' 3 ) 2 110 .192 \ 997 • 9.864 • 10~3 kmol/kmol AYO = 4.354 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Hydraulic diameter {Eqn (5-15)} rf.18 .u/^ (4^55 • 1 0 .672 / L 1.0346 9 \ 1/2 /4.5 - a " 3 °-952 1 110 • 0.945 10.857 • 10-3 — U.945 • 1.162 ) \ 18.13 • 10~6 / \ 0.26 kmol/h .456 m Differences in gas loads {Eqns (14-7) and (14-8)} AYU = 0.314 • 3.314 • I9*™1* ^ 0.KT / ^^ (0'952 " °° 3 8 7^) T ^ rnos? n ^ ^ i / 2 0-03461/2 1.8 • IP' 6 • 1.857 • 10 1.807 • 10~3 = 2.01-4.672/ = 0. ^ f = 0.01-2.291 • 10~5 -2.539 m Height of a transfer unit in the gas phase {Eqn (5-14)} HTTJ HTUv = l 0. 2 9 1 .1 0 .5 ' l n 4.291 .8 • 10-6 /IIP .7174 256. = 4 .864 .3 .IP' 3 = U 2 .072 -110 / \ 9.314 • 0 = 4. 8 6 4 .

818 kg/m 3 Average properties of the liquid phase \iL QL r|L DL oL = = = = = 18.856 Cv . Solution Average properties of the gas phase \iv QV r\v Dv Data for carbon dioxide \iA = 44.380 CP = 0.539 = 0. 4.5 kg/m 3 to 0.3.6 and 5.843 m Height of bed of packing without allowance for end and distribution effects H = 0.718 .02 kg/kmol 998 kg/m 3 0.5 Design of a desorber for removing carbon dioxide from process effluents Overall height of a transfer unit {Eqn (1-62)} HTUov = 0-456 + 0.906 nr7m 3 Cs = 2.998 • 10"3 kg/ms 1.654 CL = 0.49 m 355 14.82 • 10~ 9 m 2 /s 72 • 10.14.98 • 10~6 kg/ms 15.4 • 10~6 m 2 /s Slope of equilibrium curve for the carbon dioxide-water/air system rriyx = 1440 Characteristic data for the packing derived from Tables 4.1. The desorption column is to be packed with 35-mm plastics Pall rings.96 kg/kmol 1. The carbon dioxide content of the inlet air is 0.3 kg/s 2 = = = = 28. 4.188 kg/m 3 17..927 Ch = 0. Determine its main dimensions.01 kg/kmol QA = 1.7174 • 0.1 a = 145 m 2 /m 3 8 = 0.03% vol.5 Design of a desorber for removing carbon dioxide from process effluents The carbon dioxide content of a process effluent flowing at a rate of 4 m 3 /h is to be reduced from 1.826 = 12.02 mol/m 3 by desorption with air in a packed stripper column operating at 20°C and 1 bar.0.843 • 14. and that of the air leaving the desorber outlet must not exceed 1 % vol.

77 kg/h 399 .806 1.2 0.80 (1 + 0.356 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Product streams corresponding to Fig.13.188 Lu = 221.02 • 10"3 • —^— = 3.94 • 28.01017) = 13.° • 10"4 k m o l / k m o 1 L = 221.01007 kmol/kmol 4 = 0.02 • 10"4 kmol/kmol . \-™ = 0.614 • 10~7) = 3989 kg/h Resistance coefficient {Eqn (4-29)} 9. right to = 4 • 998 = 3992 kg/h = 4 •~ ^ = 221.96 (1 + 3. 14.94 kmol/h .71 kg/h .80 • 28.53 (1 .7 7 = 336.188 1.96 = 403.13.45 399.02 • HT4) = 399.50 m 3 /h 1.39 • 18.53 kmollh X ° = 1 5 " ' 4408l'02998 = 6154 " 10 " 4 kmol/kmo1 X ° = 1 + 054 1( Vo-4 = 6 15 .02 (1 + 3.652 .998 • 10" 998 / 17.614 • 10~7 kmol/kmol Total mass balance K K = 13.654 3989.2.98 • 10" 2.150 • 10"4) = 221.39 kmol/h y " = = 03 1 3 2 02 °°0 3 10~ 4I01 liiss =°3 -° 2 I • li t kmol/kmo1 Yu 3 02 • 10~ "3 Q 2 1Q_4 = 3.6.77 0.4 1-0.01 • ^ 18 09 = 0.

316 m Column diameter selected for planning: ds = 0.0708 .0804 3989.188 Liquid velocity at the loading point {Eqn (11-82)} for uL and uvs 3989.14.0.0804 m2 Vapour and liquid loads in the planned column 399.806 1/2 357 / 12 \ 9.0804 = 13 8 ' ' 10 Theoretical liquid holdup {Eqn (4-27)} 0.998 • 10~3 uL \1161 998 998 / \ 1.906 1. -163m/s 3 998 • 0.45 399.77 1.188 998 Uy s ' Gas velocity at the loading point determined by solving Eqns (4-28) and (11-82) by iteration uVjS = 1.195 m/s Cross-sectional area of column {Eqn (14-26)} 399.45/3600 UL = Uv= =1 ^rn .77/3600 1.77/3600 1.980 / [ 1451/6 12 9.5 Design of a desorber for removing carbon dioxide from process effluents Vapour velocity at the loading point {Eqn 4-28)} 9.998 • 10~3 uL 998 0.188-0.8 • 10~3 • 1452 \ 1/3 = 0.188-1.998 • 10"3 • 13.806 \ 1/2 [ 0.322 = 0.806 0.32 m Cross-sectional area of planned column As = — .195 As = = Column diameter {Eqn (14-27)} ds = \ — • 0.0739 = 0.

9206 Hydraulic diameter {Eqn (5-15)} dh = 4 • ° ^ — = 0.02499 m 145 Phase contact area {Eqn (5-16)} = ( 13-8 • 10-3 • 998 • 0.906 = 1.0708) 3 1.072 • 145 9.890 • 10~3 • 1.998 0.188 • 1.0.8 • 10" " 33))22 145 \'Q-45 = 0.0.806 .( \ 145 • 0.9206 = 2927 *«• = Wetting factor for the packing {Eqn (4-68)} Resistance factor in gas flow {Eqn (4-67)} o ^-"•"' ^2927 ' 2927 008 M -™-j 0.284 Pressure drop per unit height in gas flow {Eqn (4-58)} Ap H _ ~ 145 ' ' (0.998 • 10"3 p a 3 (13.358 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Particle diameter {Eqn (4-66)} = Wall factor {Eqn 4-57} 6 = 3.188 (1 .906) 17.8 • 10-3 • 998 145 • 0.799 0.906 .998 \ 0 7 5 / (13.163 • 3.890 • 1(T3 rn Reynolds number for gas flow {Eqn (6-65)} 1.98 • 10~6 Reynolds number for liquid flow {Eqn (4-69)} 13.8 • IP' 3 ) 2 .906 .1632 1 = 240Pa/m 0.

516 • 10" NTUoL oL Stripping factor {Eqn (1-68)} 221.856 \ 998 • 9.39 = 6.614 • 10"7 - m ° ' 0 i 0 ^ 7 = 6.774 • 8.14.154 • 10"4 AXU = 3.154 • 10~4 .39 kmol/h Height of an overall transfer unit {Eqn (1-63)} HTUOL = 0.98-10.6 / \o.188 \ 1/3 / 1 \ _ 1.02499 \ 1 .39 \ 1.998 • 1(T 3 \ 1 / 6 / 0.799 / Height of a transfer unit in the gas phase {Eqn (5-14)} 145 • 17.3.806 j = 0. 8 2 • 10~ f 9 \ 1 / 2 /13.188 / 1 17.772 + X • 0.5 Design of a desorber for removing carbon dioxide from process effluents 359 Height of transfer unit in the liquid phase {Eqn (5-5)} _ L 1 / 0.163-1.083 • 10~4 kmol/kmol 1440 3 02 • 10~4 — = 1.774 m Height of bed if end and distibution effects are neglected {Eqn 1-65)} H = 0.083 10-44 .772 m \ 0.494 m .799/~ °'187 Differences in gas loads {Eqns (14-16) and (14-17)} AXO = 6.4 • 10"6 • 1.516 • 10~7 kmol/kmol 1440 Number of liquid-side transfer units {Eqn (14-15)} 6.187 = 0.083 • 10"4 = 8.1 1.614 • 10~7 ~ 6 0 8 3 • 105 1 6 • 10"' lO" 7 6.98 • 10"6 \ 3M /15.516 / 6.8 • 10~3 \ 2 / 3 / \ 145 / 1 \ ~ 0.

806 = . Solution Known values in Section 14.12 Froude number for the liquid phase {Eqn (4-27)} = L HO (4-55 • I C Y 9.718 a = 145 m 2 /m 3 = ^^ = °'m uL = 13.784 • 48.55 • 10~3 m 3 /m 2 s ReL = 48.1 0 2 5 (2.360 14 Examples for the design of packed columns 14. 1Q_4 Hydraulic area {Eqn (4-75)} — = 0.85 • 0.4 Ch = 0.5 Ch = 0.8 • 10"3 m 3 /m 2 s ReL = 95.998 • 10~3 kg/ms Froude number for the liquid.phase {Eqn (4-27)} .0.0387-0.322 • 10~ 4 ) 01 .5 were operated.0322 m 3 /m 3 Calculated difference between the theoretical and real holdups AhL 0.857 • 10~3 kg/ms uL = 4.760 a Real liquid holdup {Eqn (4-73)} = 0.4 and 14.784 a = 110 m 2 /m 3 QL = 997 kg/m 3 i\L = 0.6 Determination of the difference between the theoretical and the real liquid holdup The purpose here is to determine the differences between the theoretical and the real liquid holdups applicable to the loading conditions under which the columns discussed in Sections 14.17 QL = 998 kg/m 3 r\L = 0.0322 "TiT Known values in Section 14.

what would be the additional column height required to compensate the attendant loss in efficiency? Solution The loss in efficiency can be read off from the diagram in Fig. the liquid distributor gives rise to maldistribution of M = 10%.816 • 10~3)01 = 1.718 • 95.0736 = .14. If the maldistribution were to remain effective over the entire height of the column. 8.0.12 against the value 4 _ 2250 _ d ~ 50 ~ 4 5 The numerical value thus obtained is AE = 15%. The phase ratio is LIV = 1.0736 m 3 /m 3 Calculated difference between the theoretical and real holdups AhL hL 0. the relative increase in height required to compensate the maldistribution is given by .039 0.0708 14. the efficiency would be reduced by a factor {Eqn (8-24)} Hence.0708 . In other words.060 a Real liquid holdup {Eqn (4-73)} = 0.0.85 • 0.7 Additional column height required to compensate maldistribution In a column of ds = 2250 mm diameter packed with 50-mm Pall rings.7 Additional column height required to compensate maldistribution 361 Hydraulic area {Eqn (4-75)} — = 0.17 025 (2.

i.^ .362 14 Examples for the design of packed columns 14.e.e.3 4 V " 34 " 7 . the factor k for the difference in pressure drop is given by Ano Ap_\ ~ 70 nt /i l57 The relative savings in steam achieved by the installation of packing follows from Eqn (12-67). How much steam has thus been saved? Solution According to Eqn (12-50).1) ( . After the column had been retrofitted with low-pressure-drop packing (subscript 1).57-1 = 15? L57 + ^T 100-34 = °. $2_ _ 100 + 1 1 0 . i.8 Retrofitting a plate column with packing for steam distillation of crude oil In order to avoid thermal decomposition.l) |-^£-] = 70 mbar The pressure drop before retrofitting is given by -PT= (i . AS 1. the pressure drop was only 70 mbar.1 = 110 mbar p According to Eqn (12-63). Sj_= V ~ 100 + 7 0 . the pressure drop after retrofitting is given by p -PT= {i .3 4 34 The corresponding flow rate before retrofitting is obtained from Eqn (12-65). e. The plates previously used (subscript 2) gave rise to a pressure drop of 110 mbar between the head of the column and the intermediate zone. i. the partial pressure of the hydrocarbon vapour must not be allowed to exceed 34 mbar at the lower end of the intermediate zone in a vacuum column (pT = 1 0 0 mbar) designed for fractionating crude oil by steam rectification.226 ~1Q~ The volume flow rate of steam per unit flow rate of the hydrocarbon vapours after retrofitting is obtained from Eqn (12-64).

^ .(0. How much height would be saved by installing three redistributors? Solution Assume that the inlet effect and the data describing the efficiency are identical to those listed in Table 9.17 The savings in steam achieved by substituting packing for fractionating plates can be determined from the values obtained for AS IV and S2/V.26 The absolute reduction in height is therefore AH = 0.= ^ • • 7 0 (1.26 • 13 = 3. the total effective height of the bed with three redistributors is (HT)nr = 3 = 1 3 .e. (HT)nr o = [30 . 4 . 9. and optimum inlet distribution. Thus.3 . 100 =5. e.5 + 1. i.14.7. 35-mm metallic Pall rings.6 % 14.57-1) = 1. i. AH/HT = 0. .9 Reduction in height effected by redistributors 363 Therefore.9 Reduction in height effected by redistributors It is intended to separate a mixture in a packed column with 30 transfer units.4 m Hence. i.17 v^~ 10 ° = 22 . the effective height of the column without redistributors is given by Eqn (9-20). e.9. In this case.6 m . the savings in steam per unit flow rate of product vapour is as follows: The same figure can be obtained from Eqn (12-66).9)] • y j ^ = 13 m = The relative reduction in the height of the bed can be read off against nr = 3 in the upper diagram shown in Fig.1.

Its purity is higher than 99 % during continuous operation and even higher than 99.4 m. The two latter also incorporate a Hermann Stage process and the associated engineering. the sidestream distillate in the next column downstream (Column 9) contains only 85% of oleic acid (Ci 8 H). 9. Assume further that the height occupied by a redistributor in the column is hr = 0. As a consequence. Since the linoleic acid fraction (Ci8») in the feed is higher than that of the oleic acid (Ci 8 ). Solution Since the feedstock is sensitive to heat.5). The flow chart shown in Fig.364 14 Examples for the design of packed columns and the effective height between the redistributors is r 3 + 1 This value can also be read off on the axis of abscissae against nr = 3 in Fig. If the trans-fatty acid content is less than 0. Owing to the unsaturated Cw fraction.169 • 13 = 2.2 m 14. The plans for process optimization included the improvement of product quality by an appropriate choice of column internals. the oleic acid content in this fraction is higher than that attained in the Henkel or Alpha-Laval detergent processes.169 The absolute saving in the height of the column shell is therefore AHS = 0.7. and the pure glycerol distillation column.5 for a fatty acid fractionating plant includes the continuous cracker. The overhead product in each stage ranging from Column 2 (octanoic acid) to Column 5 (myristic acid) is the pure distillate of the unhydrogenated crude acid concerned.10 Advantages of geometrically arranged packing in fractionating fatty acids A modern plant for processing palm-kernel oil consists of nine distillation stages in tandem.— [2. 14. the remainder consists of 8-10% of linoleic acid (Ci8») and 4 . the glycerol-water evaporation unit. 14. According to Eqn (9-50).5 % of stearic acid. the residence times were very short.5%.4 (3 + 1) + 3 • 0. and the bottom temperatures were comparatively low (Fig. the relative reduction in the total height would then be F^-H = 1 .4] = 0. the distillation stages were designed with structured packing and falling-film evaporators. A Hermann Stage method was adopted for the design. . The effects on the product quality were as follows. the purity of the palmitic acid in the sidestream distillate of Column 8 is only just higher than 97 %.5 % for lauric (Ci2) and myristic (Ci4) acids. The entire plant has been on stream in Malaysia since 1992.

14. the column load may not exceed 35 % of that at the flood point. and the extractant is toluene flowing at a rate of 2829 m 3 /h. The packed column is to be designed and operated for 80 % acetone recovery.11 Recovery of acetone from production effluents by liquid-liquid extraction A production effluent containing 0. The column diameter and the effective height of bed should permit the effluent to flow at a rate of 1557 m 3 /h. The intended packing is 25-mm Bialecki rings.11 Recovery of acetone from production effluents by liquid-liquid extraction 365 O W) 14.241 kmol/m 3 of acetone is to be purified by liquidliquid extraction with toluene. .

31 • 10' 3 m3/m2s Diameter of extraction column {Eqn (14-35)} 4_ 1.151 Cd = 1 Physical properties of the system QD = 857 kg/m 3 T|D = 0.557 (1-822 + 8 • 1. Table 13.31 • 10~3 _ ~ >488 m Velocity of dispersed phase under operating conditions uD = 1.829 = 1.1096 (1-0.026 kg/s 2 Phase flow ratio uD uc Dispersed phase holdup {Eqn (13-20)} u h = QC = 9 9 8 kg/m3 r| c .67 • 0.375) 2 (1 .928 • 0.0.928 = 0.478 • 10~9 m 2 /s a = 0.82 • 2.1 .050 m Cm = 0.67 Ch = 2.35 • 6. 8 2 ) ° ' Droplet velocity {Eqn (13-3)} 9.6 • 10~3 = 2.026 9982 3 7 5 m /m = 0.2) E / .1096 m/s Velocity of continuous phase at the flood point {Eqn (13-16)} uc.366 14 Examples for the design of packed columns Solution Characteristic data for systematically stacked Bialecki rings (cf.21 • 10"3 m 3 /m 2 s .893 • 10"3 kg/ms Dc = 1.64 2.6 • 10~3 m 3 /m 2 s Velocity of continuous phase under operating conditions uc = 0.82 3 3 4 ( 1 .2 • 0.0.m = 0.375) = 6.3 • 10"9 m 2 /s m = 0.82 1.81 (998 .82) 1 / 2 -3 • 1.857) 0.31 • 10~3 = 4.55 • 10~3 kg/ms DD = 2.557/3600 JT ' 2.

241 .0755 n ^ 1? oc Effective height of bed {Eqn (13-22)} H = 1.8) 0. 857 „ „A = 1.14.0755 kmol/m 3 0.81 (998-857)] 3 / 8 • 9981/4' 1.0.0.14 1 (1.478 • 10~9)1/2 998 .0482 kmol/m 3 0.0.1059 kmol/m 3 1.17 = 3.61 m .1059 .82 + 1 0.14 • 3.0482 .0.32 ' [9.0755 .241 .— | — • 0 .3 • 10" 9 ) 1/2 Concentration of continuous phase after extraction {Eqn (14-33)} cCu = (1 .241 .82 Driving concentration difference at the head of the column {Eqn (14-30)} Aco = 0.0.o = ~rzr (0.0265'8 1 Height of overall transfer unit {Eqn (13-47)} TJrTJJ oc 1 ~ 37.11 Recovery of acetone from production effluents by liquid-liquid extraction 367 Dispersed phase holdup under operating conditions {Eqn (13-11)} " * Mass transfer constant {Eqn (13-39)} Cm i v °-o5° 0.0.0.64 Number of overall transfer units in the continuous phase {Eqn (14-29)} 0.0482 ~ 0.64 1 (2.0482 kmol/m 3 Concentration of solvent after extraction {Eqn (14-34)} cD.0482 ' 0.64 Driving concentration difference at the foot of the column {Eqn (14-31)} Acu = 0.241 -—^— • 0.0482) + 0 = 0.

.

hesitation has been shown in the past in adopting it on an industrial scale for packed towers. 15. If the open area of the supporting grid is higher than about 80 %. the bed will start to expand. liquid. Fluidized-bed contactor (left) before onset of fluidization (right) fluidized Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. the bed loosens and the elements of packing are free to flow. Gas outlet Demister Liquid distributor Retaining grid Supporting grid .1 Fluidized beds of packing The design and operation of a fluidized bed consisting of this hollow.1. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . This stage is referred to as the onset of fluidization. ellipsoidal packing on a supporting grid are illustrated in Fig. Further research on the subject has been instigated by the development of a hollow. the performance characteristics of which allow excellent prospects to be envisaged in industrial aplications. 15. Although fluidization allows higher gas flow and mass transfer rates to be realized. The pressure drop in the gas stream flowing in the void fraction is brought about by the shear forces that act between the gas. 15. The reasons for the reluctance were the lack of design correlations and the difficulties involved in homogeneously fluidizing the bed without an attendant high pressure drop in the bottom grid.2). thin-wall. Fig. equal to. or higher than the flooding load in a comparable fixed bed (cf. ellipsoidal packing element.1. When it is in equilibrium with the weight per unit cross-sectional area of packing and the liquid. with the consequence that the interfacial area available for mass transfer is renewed. At gas flow rates higher than that at equilibrium. the density of the packing is the factor that decides whether the phase load at the onset of fluidization will be lower than.15 Recent trends in packing technology Solid particles suspended in the vapour and liquid phases may clog beds of packing in many environmental engineering processes. This likelihood can be overcome by fluidizing the beds.Liquid teed x A ^"^ Liquid outlet Fig. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. and packing. 15.

viz. It is important to note that the values of HTUOV in Fig. 160 kg/m 3 . The actual height of the bed can then be obtained from Fig. The conditions for onset of fluidization. is well below this figure. Effect of the density Q of the packing on the operating mode of a fluidized packed bed Gas capacity factor Fv Qi > Qi > Q3 According to the literature. i.e. An increase in the gas capacity factor normally leads to higher values of the forces that act on the single elements in the bed. . The relationship between the pressure drop in the fluidized bed and the gas capacity factor F v at constant liquid loads is shown in Fig. 15.5. The velocity in the flow channels within the bed and thus the force of friction between the gas and the packing remain approximately constant. 15.6 shows the results of measurements of the mass transfer efficiency.5. the minimum gas and liquid flow rates. packing of density less than 300 kg/m 3 allows scrubbers to operate in the nonflooding mode. The relationship between the extent to which the bed expands and the gas capacity factor is shown in Fig.6 are related to the static bed height. 15. Since the bed continues to expand with an increase in the gas flow rate. Fig. in beds of hollow ellipsoidal packing can be seen in Fig.2 Hydrodynamics of fluidized packed beds The load at which beds of the hollow ellipsoidal packing fluidize corresponds to the flooding load in static beds.370 15 Recent trends in packing technology -a = 5 Fig.288 m diameter. The density of the hollow ellipsoidal packing. 15. 15.3.2. the efficiency remains almost constant as the gas flow rate increases. expressed as the height of an overall mass transfer unit HTUcw. 15. Owing to the movement of the bed at higher loads. and the pressure drop remains almost constant (cf. 15. 15. high local velocities are avoided. 15. in a fluidized packed bed. An increase in the liquid load entails a reduction in the free volume of the bed and thus a lower gas velocity at the onset of fluidization. the performance is similar to that in most static beds of packing.3 Mass transfer in fluidized packed beds Fig. The measurements were performed on an ammonia-air/water system in a packed column of 0.4. Up to the onset of fluidization.3). 15.

288 m s r I D U o q 5 10 15 20 25 3 30 2 35 40 Liquid load u L [m /m h] Fig. J.4. 15.288 m. 15.o20(o30 „ CO 50 }—< •o— > c —D ex. A 0.3 Mass transfer in fluidized packed beds 371 Liquid load : u L [ m 3 / m 2 h ] a10. 6 . Gas capacity factor Fv as a function of the liquid load uL for various ratios of the static bed height to the column diameter Hstat/ds at the onset of fluidization.5 s" kg ] 1 1/z 3. • 0 . 0 i i . H stQt = 0.35 m static height for various liquid loads uL as a function of the gas capacity factor Fv. 3 1 . 293 K J S = 0. 1 1 .75. Pressure drop in a fluidized bed of 0. 293K.3.9 \M 1 .Air/Water V 0.30 I 20 CD Mr & lu \ / L 0 >—(.1 bar .5 Fig. 5 Gas capacity factor F v [rfi 2. / to.3.35 m — 1 bar. Bed packed with plastic 35/50-mm Euromatic ellipsoids . Bed packed with plastic 35/50-mm Euromatic ellipsoids Static bed ratio H s t Q t / d s = • 0.Air/Water .5 1 . 2 1 . o—tr-^ 33u C 10 d s =0.

20 0. a 2 0 . 15. Bed expansion ratio Hexp/Hstat as a function of the gas capacity factor Fv for various liquid loads uL. Height of an overall transfer unit HTUOV for various liquid loads uL as a function of the gas capacity factor Fv.10 0.0 2.•' ^ ^ I 0.6.5.288 m i 2. = 0. 15.5 0.0 H s t a . 5 ya ft A A*Y 2 2. Bed packed with plastic 35/50-mm Euromatic ellipsoids .5 1.15 -^— -^ .5 4./d s = 0.372 15 Recent trends in packing technology Liqid load : u L [ m 3 / m 2 h ] o i o .5 1 .288 m 1 / 0 A 0 —r~i— n u 1. A 30 J 3.6 d<.~A. Bed packed with plastic 35/50-mm Euromatic ellipsoids Liquid l o a d : u L [ m 3 /m 2 -h • 20. dq= 0.5 Gas capacity factor F v lrn s kg ' ] Fig.5 3 1/2 1 3.5 1/ 3 1 12 3.5 2. A 3 7 0.5 1/2 4.25 0. • — — .0 0. - ^ MH 3 -Air/WaterJ bar 293 K.5 Gas capacity factor Fv [ m g ] s kg Fig. 5 A — 4— -A" -A.05 0 / V *-* 0.5 1 .

143 f .ratio 162. fractionation of 364 Feed. 16 Column height.transfer units in 339 Diffusion coefficient 119. 20 Equilibrium of forces.capacity 323 -holdup 318. in packed column 73 f Euromatic ellipsoids 372 Evaluation. types of 23 Column volume .for absorption experiments 32 . 20 Energy parameter 13 Enrichment zone 5. global . vertical 147 . 178. 121 Diffusion.in rectifications 31 . number of 177 Distributors. Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 .estimation of 185 End effects . 166 Efficiency. gas-liquid systems 38 Desorber. design of 229 Droplet diameter 327 . 7 Entrainment 101 Envi-Pac 24 f Equilibrium curve 5f. design 250 Column packing. 241.Index Desorption . 121 Din-Pac 24 f Dispersed-phase .mean 328 Effective area 89 Efficiency .physical 43 .minimum 247 -specific 11.systems 43 . maximum . 241 .improvement of 282 .of packed column 36 Capillary distributor 34 Capital investment 17.external 147 . 185. 264 Continuous-phase load 322 Costs .costs 18 Cascade mini-rings 24 Column .interfacial 128 . design of 350 Absorption -chemical 43.hydraulic 96 .column for 32 .height of 10 Column efficiency 208 .capital investment 241 . design of 355 Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology.of random beds 283 .total 18 D Dalton's law 303 Density.324 Distributor outlets.effective 89 .comparison between random and geometrically arranged beds of packing 243 . 11.of extraction 327 . 189 .for desorption experiments 32 .per unit volume 241 .column for 32 .systems 44 . thermal state of 6 Feeder coefficient 173 Fenske equation 18 Film thickness 75 Flooding conditions 84 Absorber.optimum 267 B Beds.theoretical 13 f.gradient.maldistribution 147 Energy consumption 17. void fraction 28 Bialecki rings 59 Boundary loads 87 Box-type liquid distributor 234 Capacity factor 3 Capacity.of mass transfer 370 . additional 361 Column internals. relative 176.experimental results 154 .for rectification experiments 33 .of stacked beds 283 External effects 147 Extraction efficiency 327 Extraction factor 324 Extraction-tube column 316 Fatty acid.transfer units 339 Area .internal 147 . 9. 141. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. non-steady-state 119.

in fluidized packed beds 370 . 76. 97 Flow . 87. performance of 370 Fluidized beds of packing 369 .at phase inversion point 111 . 82.mass transfer in 370 Forces . 41. 177 .hydrodynamics of 370 Fluidized-bed contactor 369 .turbulent film 78 Flow channels.densities of 38 .relationship with liquid load 371 f Gas distribution 210 Gas-liquid systems . 10 . 360 .model 20 Hydraulic area 96 Hydraulic diameter 171 I Inlet effects -negative 151 .volumetric coefficient 33. 57 H Hackette 24.positive 151 Inlet zone 148 Intalox saddle 25. 182 Number of distributor outlets 172.frictional 74 . 55 N Nor-Pac rings 24 f Nozzle distributor 35 Number of distribution points 150. 39. laminar 78 Liquid holdup 34. 78 . 60 Higbie correlation 119 Holdup .in the continuous phase 324 .shear 74 Fourier number 326 Froude number 124 Funnel distributor 36 G Gas capacity factor .coefficient 8.concept 10 . 365 Liquid-liquid systems 313 Liquid load 76 . 206 .380 Index Internal effects 147 Flood data 66 f Flood point 41. 60 Heat consumption 18 Height . 72.equilibrium of 74 . characteristic data 273 . 207 f Marangoni number 126 Mass transfer 119.theoretical 360 Liquid-liquid extraction 313. 41 .high 139 Liquid-vapour ratio 11 Liquid velocity. 119 . 12 .of dispersed-phase transfer unit 329 Hiflow rings 24 f. 75 f. 103 Loading range 76.dispersed phase 318. 121. 98f.minimum 18 .limiting 199 Number of flow channels 172 Number of theoretical stages 5 f.in the dispersed phase 324 . 37. 62. 96.maximum 180.physical properties of 39. 66. number of 172 Flow parameter 4.laminar liquid 76.comparison of random beds 284 Metallic rings 49 Mixtures.of continuous-phase transfer unit 333 .of gravity 74 . 93.for various packings 69 f . 121 Material balance 6 McCabe-Thiele method 5 Mellapak 27 Metal packing.in geometrically arranged beds 99 . local 74 Loading conditions 82 Loading point 82. 117 f M Maldistribution 147. 84.of an overall transfer unit 20. 324 HTU-NTU .principles of 229 Liquid distributors.real 360 . 370 . 87. 52 f.of a transfer unit 10. 64. 61 Interfacial area 128 L Laminar flow 76 Levich function 320 Liquid distribution at inlets 171 . 120 . systems with 40 Gempak 27.modified 83 Fluid dynamics 73 Fluidization. thermally unstable 244 Molar evaporation enthalpy 6 Montz packing 27. 37.viscosities 38 Gas phase resistance. 102 .per unit height 9 Number of transfer units 8. types of 235 Liquid entrainment 100 Liquid film 74 Liquid flow. 372 . 324. 43.in random beds 98 .

nozzle 35 .in geometrically arranged beds 95 .materials of construction 239 .maximum capacity 36 . 80 .technology. types of 233 Phase inversion 83.mass of 282 . 76. modified 83 .capital investment costs 241 .enrichment zone 7 .overall evaluation of 239 -random beds of 25. 46 Parameters . internals 238 Packing .design examples 337 .column for 33 . 79 f.stacked 26 .development of 270 .capacity factor 3 .Index O Operating costs 17 Operating line .perforated pipe 34 .at atmospheric pressure 41 .liquid 283 .cost comparison of different types of bed 243 .applications for 3 .minimum 18 . 343 .per theoretical stage 12.arranged beds of 85 . 89 f.ceramic 54 .packed column for 344 .geometrically arranged 27 . 106 -coefficient 105. 88.resistance coefficient 286 Packed column extractors 318 Packed towers.efficiency 31 .sheet-metal 26 .per unit height 4.funnel 36 .global evalualtion of 284 . 84.total 5 Pressure drop.experimental results 41 Pall rings 25.stage-number 13 Peclet number 126 Perforated-pipe distributor 34 Phase boundary 8.thickness 28 . 107 Phase maldistribution 206 381 Phase redistribution 213 Physical properties. 102. 371 .applications in liquid-liquid systems 313 .for rectification 344 .surface area 28 .of flow.effect of 216 Redistributors 213.optimum area 262 .equilibrium of forces 73 .profiled-slot 35 Pilot plant 31 Pipe-type liquid distributors 235 Pressure drop 11. 178.condenser 6 .gas velocity 287 .efficieny improvement 282 . modified specific 132 Pressure drop. 113 .stripping zone 7 Packed columns . 41. 15 .vacuum 41 Redistribution 214 .energy 13 .number of theoretical stages 6 .specific 244 Resistance factor 74. 288 . 31.effect on product purity 310 .gauze 26 .characteristic data 278 . distributors 34 .effect of area on capacity factor 288 . 130 Process engineering.capillary 34 . 237 Reflux . of selected types of metal packing 260 Product purity 310 Profiled-slot distributor 34 R Ralu-Pac 27. 103 f Retrofitting 362 .in random beds 94 . gas-liquid systems 39 Pilot colums.in a fluidized bed 371 .types of 23 Packing performance. 92. 108.ratio 14 Relative efficieny 176. 338.density 29 . 189 Relative vapour load factor 177 Relative velocity of droplets 320 Residence time 244 . specific 68. trends in 369 . 86.per separation unit 5 . test systems 37 . 307. 56 Random beds 80.packing for 25 Raoult's law 302 Raschig rings 44 Reboiler 6 Rectification 41.end effects 147 . 185.maldistribution 147 . 124 Phase contact area 9 Phase distributors.transfer units 337 .

model 194 Separation efficiency 10 Shear force 74.of an individual droplet 320 . 120 . nonisobaric 15 Vapour distribution 210 Vapour-liquid ratio 10 Vapour load factor. 157.height of 10.measurements 348 .in absorption 339 .in desorption 339 .potential for 296 Reynolds number 76. 89 Volatility.overall. 37. 36 Stripping zone 5. 78. 191 .of columns 291 . relative 177 Velocity . global evaluation of Stage-number parameter 13 Steam rectification 302 Stress-strain relationship 288 Stripping factor 10.of vapour 76 Vertical efficiency gradient 147 Viscosities.in rectification 337 .examples of 167 . 8 Sulzer packing 58 Surface tension gradient 125 285 Vacuum rectification. height of 72 Turbulent film flow 78 Two-film theory 9 . 21. relative 11 VSP rings 24 f W Wall factor 89 Weber number 124 Wetting.gas distribution 210 . 97 Sauter diameter 327 Scale-up 153. gas-liquid systems 38 Void fraction 75 . degree of 91 Top-Pak rings Transfer units 50 339 .382 Index .effective 28. 89 Sieve plate liquid distributor 234 Solvent recovery 314 Stacked beds.

Chem. on Environmental Techniques Development. 111-126. Heidelberg 1983.-Tech. Eng. 52-60. 455-461. Reinhard Billet Copyright © 1995 VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. 40 (1968) 1/2. Mexico. Portugal 19.04. Recent Investigations on Metal Pall Rings.-Ing. Mackowiak). Industrielle Destination: Verlag Chemie. Mackowiak).-25. Chem. Chem.A. Pusan/ Korea (1984). Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Mendeleev Chemical Society of USSR Baku. E. 9 (1980) 5. 25-29. Eng. 517-520. Grubb). Conrad & C M . Prog.-Tech.F. Bibliographisches Institut. In: Primera Convencion Mundial de Ingeneria Quimica. 63 (1967) 9. 32 (1960) 8. In: /. Symp. Fliissigkeitsseitiger Stofflibergang bei der Absorption in fiillkorperkolonnen und ihr verfahrenstechnischer Vergleich (J. Zum Warme. 6 (1977) 11. Energieeinsparung bei thermischen Stofftrennverfahren. CHEMPOR '81.-Tech. 45 (1973) 13. Belastbarkeit von Laborfullkorperkolonnen. Chem.. 43-51. Packed Towers in Processing and Environmental Technology. Conf. (1981). Chem. Fluiddynamisches Verhalten und Wirksamkeit von Gegenstromapparaten fur Gas-FliissigSysteme bei fliissigkeitsseitigem Stoffubergangswiderstand. Ser. Chem. Investigations of Various Fractionating Equipments in Test Columns and Application of the Results for Optimization of Separators. Brighton (1969) 5.-26. Separation Process Design under the Aspect of Energy Saving Proceedings: XII Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry. Oporto. Mackowiak). D.und Stoffaustausch bei der partiellen Gegenstrom-Direktkondensation. Kolonnen mit geordneten Fiillkorpern in parallelen Rohren fur die Flussig-Flussig-Extraktion (G. 68 (1972). Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-28616-0 . 544-550. Proceedings of Congress: 4th Int. 8 (1979) 1. Neuartige Fiillkorper aus Kunststoffen fur thermische Stofftrennverfahren (J. Chem. Husung & J. 219-226. Eng. 548. Vacuum Rectification in High-Efficiency Equipment (L. Chem. Chem. 558 (1966).References Billet publications that relate to this book (names of co-authors in parentheses) in chronological order Zur Vorausberechnung von Fiillkorpersaulen fur die Rektifikation. 32. Symp.-Tech. Mannheim 1971. Proceedings: 3rd Intern. Anwendungen im technologischen Umweltschutz.-Tech. Chem. 53-65. Industrial Papelera Nacional S. Alfred Huthig Verlag. 68-71.-Tech. Festschrift der Fakultat fur Maschinenbau der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum (1983). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 57 (1965) 4.09. Operation of Thermal Separation Plants under the Aspect of Environmental Protection. Rektifikation in Kolonnen mit metallischen Fiillkorpern. Raichle).Ing.. Weinheim 1973. (1981).-Ing. 887-891. Mexico 1965. New Aspects of Mass Transfer from Rigid Spherical Droplets into the Continuous Phase in an Extraction Column Filled with Orderly Arranged Packing Elements (J. Dr.-Tech. Some Aspects on the Choice of Distillation Equipment (S. Mackowiak). Gauze-Packed Columns for Vacuum Distillation. Chem. 32 (1960) 8. USSR 21.-Ing. "Trennkolonnen fur die Verfahrenstechnik": BI-Hochschultaschenbuch Vol.

No. Am J. 15 (1986) 4. Hochleistungsfullkorper fur Gas/Flussig-Systeme (J. 5th Int. Fluid Dynamics and Efficiency in Countercurrent Flow Equipment. Trends in Development of Packing Devices. Technol.Tech. Chem. 79-87. Chem. Koziol & S. . 329-334. Beitrag zur Auslegung von Fliissig-Fliissig-Extraktoren mit regellosen Schiittungen und geordneten Kolonneneinbauten (J. Korea 1988. 121-134 (1987). a) Inzynieria Chemiczna i Procesowa 1 (1990) 17-30 b) Chem. Technol. Chem.-Tech. FAT Sci. 14 (1985) 4. 91-99. 104. 16 (1987) 5. Schultes). September (1986).-Ing. transf cal. Sen. Symp. Heat Mass Tranf. Theory and Practice of Packed Columns. Inc.-Ing. Extraktion als energiesparende Alternative zur Rektifikation (M. Suder). Untersuchungen der Wirksamkeit von Fiillkorpern aus Kunststoff in Kolonnen groBer Durchmesser (J. Kyongju. 897-900. Chemie-Umwelt-Technik 1. on Separation Technology. Tokyo. Fluiddynamik und Stoffubertragung bei der Gegenstrom-Absorption in Ftillkorperkolonnen. Proceedings: IChemE Symp. 111-132 (1986). Der VSP-Ring aus Metall. Modelling of Fluiddynamics in Packed Columns. A. 93-118. Contribution to Design and Scale-Up of Packed Columns. 92 (1990) 9. Modern Plastic Packings for More Efficient Separation Processes (XL. Chem. Proceedings: The First Korea-Japan Symp. Tokyo 1986. 13 (1984) 12. 14 (1985) 5. 195-206. 57 (1985) 8. Pajak). Planning Thermal Separation Plants from the Economic. on Separation Process Engineering.-Tech.-Tech. ein Hochleistungsfullkorper fur Gas/Fliissig-Systeme (J. 54 (1987) (1-6). Mackowiak. 21. Technol. A171-A182 (1987). 14 (1991) 89-95. Texas 1987. Eng. Relationship between Residence Time. Chromik). VDI Berichte. Chem. FAT Sci. Pajak). Distillation and Absorption 1987. 40-47. Bochum 1989.. Ruhr-Universitat. Removal of Organic Substances from Industrial Waste-Water by Liquid-Liquid Extraction. Mass Transfer in Regular Packing (Z. B255-B266 (1987). mat. 104. latinoam. Uber den Einsatz von geordneten Fiillkorpern bei der Fliissig/Fliissig-Extraktion (J. Comm.-Tech. Eng. No. Mackowiak). Modelling of Pressure Drop in Packed Columns (M. Taejon. Dallas. Proceedings. 58 (1986) 11. 11 (1987) 63-72. Schultes). (1985) 1803-1851.hat. Proceedings: Int.374 References Hiflow-Ring.-25. Performance of Low Pressure Drop Packings. Distillation and Absorption 1987. Eng. Ecological and Product-Specific Aspects. Kim). . Symp. Korea Institute of Energy and Resources. 37-46. Packed Column Analysis and Design GLITSCH. Pusan. Korea DEPRI 11 (1).-H. 91 (1989) 8. 11 (1988) 3. 139-148. Bravo). Proceedings: IChemE Symp. High Performance Absorption Columns (J. Capacity Studies of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Countercurrent-Flow Columns (M. Korea DEPCI 86 (3). Mackowiak & M. Spekuljak). Waseda University. Proceedings: World Congress HI of Chemical Engineering. Rev. (1991) 75-81. 361-370. Technol. 684-685. on Environmental Techniques Development. Mackowiak & R. Chem. Chem. Sen. Japan. Mackowiak).

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