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Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

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Published by: H R A K Kulathilaka on Apr 14, 2009
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Epithelial Tissue

Epithelial Tissue

Four Primary tissues of the bodyEpithelial Connective tissue Nervous tissue Muscular tissue

Epithelial tissue can be divided to 2 main groups – • Covering and lining membranes • Glands that develop from epithelial membranes • Epithelium may be defined as layered collection of adherent cells with very little intercellular substance usually covering or lining external and internal surfaces.

• Epithelial membranes may be derived from all 3 germ layers. Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

• Epithelium lining body cavities, derived from mesoderm (mesenchyme)mesothelium eg. Pericardial Pleural Peritoneal membranes Lining of blood vessels-from mesodermEndothelium

Functions of an epithelium vary. These include • Protection against abrasion and drying- in skin • Diffusion- in capillaries and lung alveoli • Secretion- GI Tract (Stomach,Intestines) • Absorption- GI Tract • Response to changes in surface area – urinary bladder • Smooth gliding- mesothelial lining of closed cavities

• Special typesMyoepithelial cells – contractile Around ducts Mammary gland Neuro-epithelium- sensory receptors taste buds

Common features – • Formed entirely of adherent cells • Fitted closely by cell junctions • Avascular • Nourished by diffusion • Very little intercellular substance

• Epithelial cells have luminal( Apical), basal and lateral surfaces. • Apical surface shows specializations like microvilli, cilia • Basal surface rests on a basement membrane and underlying connective tissue. • Lateral surface shows interdigitations.

• The structure of an epithelium is adapted to its function and would differ by variation of • Cell shape • Number of layers • Type of adherence • Mitotic activity • Secretory or absorptive potential • Adaptation to sensory perception

• The number of cell layers * Simple (single layer) * Stratified(several layers) • Shape of component cells reflected in the shape of the nuclei * Simple columnar * Simple squamous • Classification and terminology- based on • Specializations on apical surface such as Cilia, Keratin, Microvilli (brush border)

• Functional polarity is demonstrated in some epithelial cells. • Substances pass through the cells in both directions and this requires the polarity in the arrangement of the cytoplasmic organelles and contents • Maintenance of a specific shape is important for its functional and mechanical integrity. • Examples: 1. Golgi between the nucleus and the apical surface

2.Mitochondria in relation to basal infoldings (ion transport) 3.Cilia and microvilli only on apical surfaces 4.Mitotic activity and cell proliferation from deep to superficial • Mechanical intergrity is provided by the cytoskeleton and by intracellular attachments.

1.Cytoskeleton- internal scaffolding, terminal web, tonofilaments 2.Intercellular attachments- desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, junctional complexes and gap junctions

Types of Epithelia Simple squamous (pavement) irregular shape little cytoplasm nucleus bulge in the lumen. pinocytotic vesicles are present single, thin flat scale like cells

A – cell membrane B – nucleus C - cytoplasm

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1simpsqua.jpg

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1lung.jpg

• It lines surfaces involved in passive diffusion as in alveoli of lung, * blood capillaries(endothelium), • lining body cavities(mesothelium). • found in subarachnoid and subdural spaces and in the chambers of the eye.

• Simple cuboidal epihtelium • lines small ducts. • Sections cut at right angles appear as cubes. • Nuclei are rounded. • Functions: secretion excretion, and absorption

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1cuboidal.jpg

Simple columnar epithelium •The height of the cells may vary. • •Nuclei are elongated and located at the base of the cell and at right angles to the base. •They are found in highly absorptive and secretory sites. •In the lining of the small intestine. •Numerous microvilli, if present form a brush border that increases the absorptive surface.

B – Nucleus A – columnar cells C – cell Membrane

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1simpcolum.jpg

Simple columnar epithelium •Sites where chief function is – protection Eg. ducts of glands bronchioles •Sites where cells can both secrete and absorb. Small intestine

•Sites where the cells are specialized to secrete surface lining of stomach cervical canal **In such sites cells appear frothy in H& E Simple columnar ciliated epithelium Uterine tube ciliated - cilia beat in such a way, move mucus along the surface. Cilia are found on the luminal surface of most of the lining cells and facilitates transport of the ovum

• Pseudostratified columnar epithelium. • is a simple epithelium where the nuclei are found at different levels. • All cells rest on the basement membrane but all cells do not reach the lumen.

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1pseudostr.jpg

Line A cuts through the epithelium. B- Cilia C - Nuclei

• It is ciliated in the respiratory system lining the large airways respiratory epithelium Function: trap and move "pollutants" to the mouth where they are swallowed. In parts of the male genital system it has large microvilli or stereocilia on the surface. • has an absorptive function.

Stratified squamous epithelium serves mainly a function of protection. The basal cells are columnar, divide and and become cuboidal as they pass to the surface Surface cells are squamous. They are degenerated, are shed, are replaced by the cells by dividing cells of the deeper layers.

Non keratinised stratified squamous (wet) epithelium • is found in the upper part of the GI tract • A- is the epithelium

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1stratsqua.jpg

• A is the thickness of the epithelium • B – surface nuclei
file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1stsq.jpg

Keratinized type (dry) • is found in parts of the body exposed to the atmosphere • is covered with waterproof coating or keratin. • on the palms and soles, the keratin is thick and protects the skin from abrasion and dessication.

• Stratified cuboidal / columnar epithelium • this is 2-3 layers thick • found in large ducts of exocrine glands (salivary glands, sweat glands) • when more protection than that given by a simple epithelium is needed. • It has no significant absorptive or secretory function.

Transitional epithelium •is found in the urinary tract. •It is specialized to stretch and also to withstand the toxicity of urine. •It is made up of 5-6 layers of cells. •In a relaxed state (when the surface is contracted) the superficial cells are large, rounded and pale stained with the luminal surface presenting a scalloped outline.

• The cell membrane on the epithelium appears thinner with the superficial layers flattened. • Tight junctions between the surface epithelial cells prevent intercellular diffusion. • In the deeper layers desmosomes are fewer but there are numerous interdigitations and infoldings.

Four Primary tissues of the bodyEpithelial Connective tissue Nervous tissue Muscular tissue

Epithelial tissue can be divided to 2 main groups – • Covering and lining membranes • Glands that develop from epithelial membranes • Epithelium may be defined as layered collection of adherent cells with very little intercellular substance usually covering or lining external and internal surfaces.

• Epithelial membranes may be derived from all 3 germ layers. Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

• Epithelium lining body cavities, derived from mesoderm (mesenchyme)mesothelium eg. Pericardial Pleural Peritoneal membranes Lining of blood vessels-from mesodermEndothelium

Functions of an epithelium vary. These include • Protection against abrasion and drying- in skin • Diffusion- in capillaries and lung alveoli • Secretion- GI Tract (Stomach,Intestines) • Absorption- GI Tract • Response to changes in surface area – urinary bladder • Smooth gliding- mesothelial lining of closed cavities

• Special typesMyoepithelial cells – contractile Around ducts Mammary gland Neuro-epithelium- sensory receptors taste buds

Common features – • Formed entirely of adherent cells • Fitted closely by cell junctions • Avascular • Nourished by diffusion • Very little intercellular substance

• Epithelial cells have luminal( Apical), basal and lateral surfaces. • Apical surface shows specializations like microvilli, cilia • Basal surface rests on a basement membrane and underlying connective tissue. • Lateral surface shows interdigitations.

• The structure of an epithelium is adapted to its function and would differ by variation of • Cell shape • Number of layers • Type of adherence • Mitotic activity • Secretory or absorptive potential • Adaptation to sensory perception

• The number of cell layers * Simple (single layer) * Stratified(several layers) • Shape of component cells reflected in the shape of the nuclei * Simple columnar * Simple squamous • Classification and terminology- based on • Specializations on apical surface such as Cilia, Keratin, Microvilli (brush border)

• Functional polarity is demonstrated in some epithelial cells. • Substances pass through the cells in both directions and this requires the polarity in the arrangement of the cytoplasmic organelles and contents • Maintenance of a specific shape is important for its functional and mechanical integrity. • Examples: 1. Golgi between the nucleus and the apical surface

2.Mitochondria in relation to basal infoldings (ion transport) 3.Cilia and microvilli only on apical surfaces 4.Mitotic activity and cell proliferation from deep to superficial • Mechanical intergrity is provided by the cytoskeleton and by intracellular attachments.

1.Cytoskeleton- internal scaffolding, terminal web, tonofilaments 2.Intercellular attachments- desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, junctional complexes and gap junctions

Types of Epithelia Simple squamous (pavement) irregular shape little cytoplasm nucleus bulge in the lumen. pinocytotic vesicles are present single, thin flat scale like cells

A – cell membrane B – nucleus C - cytoplasm

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1simpsqua.jpg

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1lung.jpg

• It lines surfaces involved in passive diffusion as in alveoli of lung, * blood capillaries(endothelium), • lining body cavities(mesothelium). • found in subarachnoid and subdural spaces and in the chambers of the eye.

• Simple cuboidal epihtelium • lines small ducts. • Sections cut at right angles appear as cubes. • Nuclei are rounded. • Functions: secretion excretion, and absorption

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1cuboidal.jpg

Simple columnar epithelium •The height of the cells may vary. • •Nuclei are elongated and located at the base of the cell and at right angles to the base. •They are found in highly absorptive and secretory sites. •In the lining of the small intestine. •Numerous microvilli, if present form a brush border that increases the absorptive surface.

B – Nucleus A – columnar cells C – cell Membrane

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1simpcolum.jpg

Simple columnar epithelium •Sites where chief function is – protection Eg. ducts of glands bronchioles •Sites where cells can both secrete and absorb. Small intestine

•Sites where the cells are specialized to secrete surface lining of stomach cervical canal **In such sites cells appear frothy in H& E Simple columnar ciliated epithelium Uterine tube ciliated - cilia beat in such a way, move mucus along the surface. Cilia are found on the luminal surface of most of the lining cells and facilitates transport of the ovum

• Pseudostratified columnar epithelium. • is a simple epithelium where the nuclei are found at different levels. • All cells rest on the basement membrane but all cells do not reach the lumen.

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1pseudostr.jpg

Line A cuts through the epithelium. B- Cilia C - Nuclei

• It is ciliated in the respiratory system lining the large airways respiratory epithelium Function: trap and move "pollutants" to the mouth where they are swallowed. In parts of the male genital system it has large microvilli or stereocilia on the surface. • has an absorptive function.

Stratified squamous epithelium serves mainly a function of protection. The basal cells are columnar, divide and and become cuboidal as they pass to the surface Surface cells are squamous. They are degenerated, are shed, are replaced by the cells by dividing cells of the deeper layers.

Non keratinised stratified squamous (wet) epithelium • is found in the upper part of the GI tract • A- is the epithelium

file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1stratsqua.jpg

• A is the thickness of the epithelium • B – surface nuclei
file:///D:/My Documents/2740 epithelial tissues_files/1stsq.jpg

Keratinized type (dry) • is found in parts of the body exposed to the atmosphere • is covered with waterproof coating or keratin. • on the palms and soles, the keratin is thick and protects the skin from abrasion and dessication.

• Stratified cuboidal / columnar epithelium • this is 2-3 layers thick • found in large ducts of exocrine glands (salivary glands, sweat glands) • when more protection than that given by a simple epithelium is needed. • It has no significant absorptive or secretory function.

Transitional epithelium •is found in the urinary tract. •It is specialized to stretch and also to withstand the toxicity of urine. •It is made up of 5-6 layers of cells. •In a relaxed state (when the surface is contracted) the superficial cells are large, rounded and pale stained with the luminal surface presenting a scalloped outline.

• The cell membrane on the epithelium appears thinner with the superficial layers flattened. • Tight junctions between the surface epithelial cells prevent intercellular diffusion. • In the deeper layers desmosomes are fewer but there are numerous interdigitations and infoldings.

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