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Rules-of-Thumb.pdf

Rules-of-Thumb.pdf

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Published by Mirosha Navaratna
Rules-of-Thumb

Rules-of-Thumb
Rules-of-Thumb

Rules-of-Thumb

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Published by: Mirosha Navaratna on May 18, 2013
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Structural

Engineering
Design Notes
&
Rules of Thumb
- 1 -
- 2 -
1 GENERAL .......................................................................... 4
2 LOADING ........................................................................... 5
2.1 RULES OF THUMB - SIMPLE MATHS ........................................ 5
2.2 GENERAL NOTES ................................................................... 6
3 STEEL ............................................................................... 11
3.1 RULES OF THUMB ................................................................ 11
3.2 FORMULA ............................................................................ 12
3.3 DEFLECTIONS ...................................................................... 13
3.4 COMPOSITE DESIGN ............................................................. 13
3.5 GENERAL NOTES ................................................................. 14
4 CONCRETE ..................................................................... 17
4.1 RULES OF THUMB ................................................................ 17
4.2 FORMULA ............................................................................ 18
4.3 GENERAL NOTES ................................................................. 20
5 MASONRY ....................................................................... 22
5.1 GENERAL NOTES ................................................................. 22
6 TIMBER ............................................................................ 23
6.1 RULES OF THUMB ................................................................ 23
7 GEOTECHNICAL & FOUNDATIONS ......................... 24
7.1 RULES OF THUMB ................................................................ 24
7.2 GENERAL NOTES ................................................................. 25
- 3 -
1 General
o Tension (-ve) --->-----<---
o Compression (+ve) ---<----->---
o Always check wind load paths reach
the foundations
o 1 Pascal = 0.001 kN/m
2
o 1 Tonne = 1000kg = 10kN
o 1m
2
= 10,000cm
2
= 1,000,000mm
2
- 4 -
2 Loading
2.1 Rules of Thumb - Simple Maths
1. 10  Gravity; Institutional Office DL +
LL
2. 8  General Office Floor DL + LL
3. 3  Deafened Timber Floor DL + LL
4. 2  Timber Roof DL + LL
5. 1.5  Average Load Factor
6. 2.5  Reasonable Zone A Wind Load
7. 2.0  Reasonable Zone B Wind Load
8. 1.0  Reasonable Zone C Wind Load
9. 4  4 x M
x
≈ Z
xx
(S275)
10. 3  3 x M
x
≈ Z
xx
(S375)
- 5 -
2.2 General Notes
o 3 Main combos
a. 1.4DL + 1.6LL
b. 1.2DL + 1.2LL + 1.2WL
c. 1.0DL + 1.4WL
o Don’t combine NHF with wind loads
o Wind Loading- Suction
o Wind Loading- Pressure

- 6 -
-
1.3
-
0.3
+0.6
-
0.5
-
1.3
+0.
2
+0.6
-
0.5
o Roof Loading
 Trocal & Outer Sheet = 0.05 kN/m
2
 Insulation = 0.02 kN/m
2
 Inner sheet = 0.03 kN/m
2
 Ceilings = 0.15 kN/m
2
 Services (Typical) = 0.25 kN/m
2
 Services (Plant) = 0.5 kN/m
2
 Timber = 1.0 kN/m
2
 Slate = 1.0 kN/m
2
 Snow (min) = 0.6 kN/m
2
 Snow Fresh = 0.94 kN/m
3
 Snow Compacted = 3.14 kN/m
3
- 7 -
o Floor Loading
 Raised Floor = 0.5 kN/m
2
 140mm Multideck = 2.5 kN/m
2
 Ceilings = 0.15 kN/m
2
 Services (Typical) = 0.25 kN/m
2
 Services (Plant) = 0.5 kN/m
2
 Finishes = 0.15 kN/m
2
 Partitions = 1.0 kN/m
2
 SW Steel = 0.3 kN/m
2
 Blockwork = 3.02 / 2.5 kN/m
2
 Plant Room = 7.5 kN/m
2
 Brickwork = 2.16 kN/m
2
 Construction = 1.5 kN/m
2
- 8 -
o Other
 38mm Asphalt = 0.85 kN/m
2
 Cladding = 0.15 / 0.2 kN/m
2
 Curtain Walling = 1.0 / 0.5 kN/m
2
 Windows = 0.8 kN/m
2
o Tenement Rehabilitation Contracts - Floor
Loading
 Joists (265x63 @ 450 c/c) = 0.25
kN/m
2
 Boarding (25mm T&G) = 0.15 kN/m
2
 Plaster Ceiling = 0.35 kN/m
2
 Deadening (100mm Ash Fill) = 0.75
kN/m
2
 Total Dead = 1.5 kN/m
2
 Imposed = 1.5 kN/m
2
o Tenement Rehabilitation Contracts - Roof
Loading
 Slates = 0.5 kN/m
2
 Felt & Sarking = 0.10 kN/m
2
 Trusses = 0.15 kN/m
2
- 9 -
 Plaster Ceiling = 0.35 kN/m
2
 Total Dead = 1.1 kN/m
2
 Imposed = 0.6 kN/m
2
 Storage = 0.25 kN/m
2

- 10 -
3 Steel
3.1 Rules of Thumb
1. Grade  S355 for major structures
2. Beams  Light Loading – Span/25;
Medium – Span/20; Heavy – Span/15
3. Frame Form  Economics and ease of
calculation
4. Stanchions  Portal Leg D ≈ H / 10
5. Columns  D ≈ No Storeys * 100 / 4
(rnd 50) NOT < 203
6. Economics  Deeper the Beam the
more economical?
7. Eurocodes  As above
- 11 -
3.2 Formula
o Tension Capacity, Pt = ρ t A
e
o Steel Required =
fy
Ac
95 . 0
σ
o For quick element sizing based on δ
criteria

L
req
E
wL
I
δ 384
5
4
·
o Torsion Moment,
2
FeL
M
T
·
o Natural Frequency,
δ
18
· f
where δ =
Self weight + dead + 10% imposed
load
o Stress, σ = M*y / I
- 12 -
3.3 Deflections
o Portal Eaves – Metal cladding δ ≤
h/150
o Portal Eaves – Masonry δ ≤ h/300
o Portal Apex – δ ≤ S/200
o Dead Floor δ ≤ 15mm
o Imposed δ ≤ S/360
o Total δ ≤ S/250 (S/300 Mangan Factor)
3.4 Composite Design
o In composite design for 19mm ∅ studs
then minimum size of reinf is 10mm
bars
o Composite beams
 Slab Perpendicular ∴Studs per
trough
 Slab Parallel ∴Studs @ 200mm
c/c
o Effective Width
 Secondary = Spacing or Span/4
 Primary = 0.8*Spacing or Span/4
 Edge Beams – Half of above
values plus projection of slab
beyond the C/L of beam
- 13 -
3.5 General Notes
o Buckling – Intermediate restraint be
careful of effective length
o For cellbeams 8 out of 10 engineers
use 1.0L for effective length
o For a cantilever beam connected to the
flange of a column use the distance
from the point load to flange face as
lever arm and not the middle of
column. Use the middle when finding
the moment on the column itself.
o Hit & Miss Welds – generally 150mm
weld then 400mm gap. Generally used
for angles on box sections as full weld
would damage the box.
o When there are moments about the
minor axis of a UB section. Better to
adopt a box section instead.
o For long span rafters the top flange is
restrained sufficiently by the purlins. Be
more careful of bottom flange for uplift
loads i.e. add rafter stays
o Check angle for load P2. Check RHS for
load P1 & P2. P2 will cause a moment
about axis y-y therefore check RHS for
torsion.
- 14 -
o If a channel has multiple point loads it
would be advisable to switch to a UB
section.
o For beam end shears ≤ 50kN state on
dwgs as 50kN.
o Capacity
 Columns = 80% (MF)
 Beams = 75% (MF)
 Beams = 90% Non composite
 Beams = 85% Composite
o Fabsec Beams
 Flange Max 60mm wide, 100mm
thick
 Web max 1500mm Deep, 75mm
thick
o Small λ
cr
i.e. < 4 carry out a 2
nd
order
analysis
o Box section cost twice as much to
manufacture than UB/UC’s
o For holding down bolts the tolerance is
25mm in all directions
o Metsec says spans of side rails &
purlins are not efficient until 3 – 3.5m
lengths
- 15 -
d
P2
RHS
P1
Y
X
o Purlins – Small projects generally single
or double span. For Large buildings use
HEB system
- 16 -
4 Concr ete
4.1 Rules of Thumb
1. Beams  Simple span – Span/20;
Continuous – Span/26
2. Slabs  Span / 26 – generally
continuous – span / 20 if not
3. Columns  D ≈ No Storeys * 100 / 3
(rnd +50) NOT < 200
4. Walls  Keep D > 200mm
5. Economics  Deeper the Beam more
economical?
6. Eurocodes  As above
- 17 -
4.2 Formula
o
2
6
10
bd f
M
K
cu
×
×
·
o
1
]
1

¸

− + ·
9 . 0
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
d Z ≤ 0.95d
o
Z f
M
A
y
s
95 . 0
10
6
×
·
o K’ = 0.156 when redistribution <10%
o
( ) ( )
2
4 . 0 18 . 0 4 . 0 402 . 0 ' − − − ·
b b
K β β
o
ution rredistrib Momentafte
bution reredistri Momentbefo
b
· β
o M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
o
1
]
1

¸

− + ·
9 . 0
'
25 . 0 5 . 0
K
d Z ≤ 0.95d
o
( ) ' 95 . 0
10
'
6
d d f
M M
A
y
u
s

× −
·
&
'
95 . 0
10
6
As
Z f
M
A
y
u
s
+
×
·
o Shear,
bd
V
3
10 ×
· ν ≤
cu
f 8 . 0
or 5N/mm
2
o
3
1
4
1
3
1
25
400 100
79 . 0
,
_

¸
¸
×
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
·
cu
m c
f
d bd
As
γ ν
o Modification Factors for deflection
- 18 -
 Tension Reinforcement:
 Mod F =
( )
2
9 . 0 120
477
55 . 0
2

,
_

¸
¸
+

+
bd
M
fs
 Where
( )
b prov
req
As
fyAs
fs
β
1
3
2
×
×
·
 Compression Reinforcement:
 Mod F =
5 . 1
' 100
' 100
1 ≤

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+
bd
s A
S
bd
s A
prov
prov
- 19 -
4.3 General Notes
o Stair checks done as simple beam for
simplicity
o Factor of Safety
 Uplift = 1.4
 Sliding = 1.5
 Overturning = 2.0 (1.5 GS)
o Foundations
 Sizing, Bearing capacity & Uplift
calcs use unfactored loads
 Area of steel use factored loads
o Steel reinf strength, f
y
= 500N/mm
2
o Min area of steel = 0.13(bh/100)
(b=1000)
o Concrete Grade
 Foundations – C35
 Internal Slab – C30
o Design ground beams as continuous
 Span min. = clear span +
effective depth
o Columns
 Biaxial bending min. moment =
0.05xdimension but ≤ 20mm
 Min. steel = 0.4%
 Longitudinal bars ≥ 12mm and
max spacing = 250mm
o If M
u
< M then compression reinf
required
o Also if K > K’ then compression reinf
required
o Reinforcement Spacing
 Min Spacing = h
agg
+5mm
- 20 -
 Max Spacing ≤ 47000/f
s
≤ 300
o Pre-cast stairs ideally need 180-200mm
bearing. Minimum of 165mm. Creagh
say 100mm min.
- 21 -
5 Masonry
5.1 General Notes
o Freestanding walls and wall panels are
2 different things
o Typical Masonry Values
o Brick
 102.5mm thk
 Density = 20kN/m
3
 Mortar Type 3
 Water Absorption = 7%
o Block
 140mm thk
 Density (H) = 18kN/m
3
 Density (M) = 15kN/m
3
 Mortar Type 3
 Compressive Strength =
7N/mm
2
o Partial Safety Factor = 2.5 (Special)
o Blockwork does not have a good lateral
strength in comparison to brickwork
o Wall Panels with H/L < 0.3 then wall will
tend to span vertically
o Wall Panels with H/L > 1.75 then wall
will tend to span horizontally
o Stress, σ = Load / Wall Area
- 22 -
6 Timber
6.1 Rules of Thumb
1. Roof Joists  Span (mm) / 20 – RND +
25mm
2. Roof Joists  Span (mm) / 20 +25 mm –
RND + 25mm
3. Racking  Model to suit published
tables
4. Hybrids – Steel & Timber go well
together
5. Section Stability  Engineered products
vs. natural products
6. Creep / Settlement  Engineered
products vs. natural products
- 23 -
7 Geotechnical & Foundations
7.1 Rules of Thumb
1. Cu  Cohesive approx SBC = 2*Cu
2. N  Granular approx SBC = 10*N
3. Concentric  Find ways to remove
eccentricity
4. Getting Close  Foundations & Adjacent
Buildings – Cantilever so you don’t
undermine
5. Piles  Size & capacities approx SWL =
2*D (mm)
6. Tension Piles  Friction only – surface
area, surface texture, method – big & fat
7. Vibro  Know its limitations – not for tall
buildings
8. Pile Settlement  Take care – Clean holes?
Friction Failure? FOS – Make sure your spec
is clear
9. Mass Footing  Min Depth = width =
breadth – 45° spread
- 24 -
7.2 General Notes
o Overburden pressure is the existing
load on the soil
o Gross Pressure is the new load on the
soil
o Net pressure is the change in load
o Secant piled walls are 3x more
expensive than contiguous
o Large diameter bored pile are required
when retaining 6m + to get enough
rock penetration
o Typical density, γ = 18 kN/m
2
o Ø’ = 30°
o Ka = 1-sin Ø’ / 1+sin Ø’
o Kp = 1 / Ka
- 25 -

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