Ethics are the set of values that shape the decisions and create organization. “Keen ethics in marketing” this shown the applying creating of principles that were intentionally, place a into of that offenses in an or moral values, and wrongs, for marketing resolution, and behavior, Ethics practice philosophy, organization. branch which

addresses questions about honesty, that all will be about concepts that were good or bad, right and wrong, fairness, and good worth. Marketing and the Ethics addresses or marketing the as direct ethical ethical which questions, though misunderstandings important challenges,


activity (Murphy, 2002). Marketing ethics was some like a field which could be seen as on the way under the area, of so that the ethical issues were frequently near to linked, with the official ones and also the procedure of public policy, got with the marketers that annoyed to unethical behavior. This research was required to cross the point between ethical and societal questions. This was the major assessment, of the marketing effort to society.


The criticism and problems they recognized, and then they gave a file of the of the topics, which were given product could to the marketing ethics, that were the values of the marketing structure, personal delineated the consumer Marketing which privileges scholars were safety for the selling. help within



business and society ground (Ferrel, 2005). Ethics was an area of interest which was among researchers, within the business follower, investor, many years. In these marketing researchers, that have been studied ethics to describe, and explained, to the predicted behavior. So the ethics were distinctions between the right, and wrong. Businesses are confronted with ethical decision making, every day and whether employees decided to used ethics as a guiding force, when conducting business that was something, that business leaders such as managers. Marketers are ethically responsible for the marketed image, and also the image that a product portrayed. So the marketers had to understand, that what good ethics were, and how to practice those good ethics in different marketing campaigns, and had to reached a targeted audience and to gain trust from customers (Smith, 1999). Fundamentally of the life, marketing and the ethics most were not limited, to the of

ground of marketing only this had control over the fields importantly, structure socially leading identities for people, and the influencing the people, is the morally important perceptions of other people, and if they can give to those perceptions or interactions, going seriously wrong those activities had 2

behave on basic ethical questions (Paul, 2009).

Problem Identification

The previous research studies are conducted to find out the role of organization, in creation of consumer’s awareness, regarding their ethical rights, in promotional activities but its role in Pakistani context is ignored. In Pakistan, ethical marketing is a very new endeavor, as most of the companies/organizations, comprehend, the and consumers of ethics, as in well the do field not of importance

marketing. On one hand the consumers are unaware, of their ethical rights, and on the other hand companies do not know their ethical responsibilities. This research thesis is an attempt, to know consumers perception, about the promotional activities as (are they affected or not).

Problem Statement





identify rights,


consumer’s the







responsibilities, towards their customers.


Research Question

what is the level of consumer awareness of their ethical rights in product consumption?

Are the organizations fulfilling the responsibility towards their customers with reference to the ethical business practices?

Rationale of the study


business, can

Honesty rely, on

and the



information provided honesty

is by

of the help

critical importance. he/she business

The customer needs to be sure that information promotion,

company, if there is any chance of having a good clientrelationship. In can negate, bad publicity. Instead of falsely denying claims against it, a business can patch up its image by changing what’s wrong and letting its customers, know about these positive changes. There has been no general issue, but this study will try to make an opinion ,that how an Organization can improve their promotional activities, with adding up with the ethics the major Benefit of this research, is to aware their about consumers, culture, their as that well what and are aware their ethical rights, towards the Promotion of different products according to different Organization their ethical responsibilities, regarding

customers and also the promoters should be aware of the ethical issues towards marketing Of promotional activities. 4

Objective of the study The key objective of this research is to recognize the role of organization in creation of consumer’s awareness regarding their ethical rights in promotional activities. The brief objectives of this study are penned as below:

To evaluate the level of consumer awareness regarding their ethical rights.








responsibility towards customers. • To evaluate the role of ethics in promotional

activities in Pakistan.

Scope of the study This study is associated with the role of organization, in creation of consumer’s awareness regarding their ethical rights, in promotional activities. So this research paper is focusing on the employees, & customer of various advertising,agencies,Interflow,JWT,Ericson,M.comm,advertisi ng,Midsa,Add flow, Add, group, orient, media, channel 7, having age group ranging from 20 years to onwards.


Limitations During the study several limitations were observed, by the researcher. In this survey the time is too short, which may leads to the respondent The sample bias, size was while small filling and only the few questionnaire.

companies are targeted in Islamabad. The respondents were reluctant, to give honest and open feed back where their manager can feel offended. Religious aspect has also not been taken, into account. And that research can’t be generalized on the whole country, as different respondents from other parts of country may respond on a different manner.


Theoretical Framework

Independent Variables

Dependent Variable

Organizational responsibility towards consumers Consumer awareness towards their ethical rights Promotional activities




Organization’s impact

responsibility on creation of







regarding their ethical rights.

H1: Organization’s responsibility towards consumers has no significant impact on creation of consumers’ awareness regarding their ethical rights.









activities of the organization.









activities of the organization.



NO. 2


Marketing ethics were some what that practices the ethics which deals with, ethical values that were at the back of the systems, and the rules of the marketing. The various areas of the marketing ethics, that promote promotion cover with media ethics. So the Marketing ethics were the ethical principles, which narrate the marketing. The Marketing ethics came under age of the 1990s , This was the important attention that was loyal to this topic (gilberts, 2000). In the last decade the academic and the business press was not longer extraordinary to observe, those published articles, which were examined by the academic details, and experimental results, from the topic. This field then moved from the earlier thought as on oxymoron stage, to one of academic power. So that association occurred on the excess of the fairly short period of time. Previously articles on the ethical issues in a marketing showed up, in the 1960s and also the work part to be of thoughtful with the that essays of .This the premature process, empirical which deals decision-making




foundation. So in this Research the belief of the marketing ethics decided, to be sustained in the 1970s that is with another work on this subject (Lyon, 2002). 9

In the time of 1980s a most important research was devoted to the exploratory of ethics in marketing (Laczniak, 1993). Experiment on the state of the marketing ethics research at the time when it was completely lift up characterized, as that they having a broader of treatment greater educational visibility, and the expanding theoretical, and empirical foundation. These are the reviews which were came under to had same captured the rank of the marketing ethics, that were the focal spot, on this .This were all about the completion of the research, and the practices in marketing

in surplus of the last decade. The relative in need of normative the articles, reflected the





ethical valuation, of marketing decisions and practices’ so for the both of these was consistently significant. This was Consider to be the considerable, physical, and fiscal spoil truth that in could and be the knew and consequence about fair the from in the the unethical the The or decisions, reviews of also product as safety, pricing. ethical

promotion, those

dealing, were


unethical, in the result by individuals, that inflated by the decision, and the public policy makers, that may be improved informed by echo theories, Of normative marketing ethics (Cahill, 2005). The positive developments in marketing ethics, in recent years contained appreciation, of the variation between the both of the normative/descriptive and analytical work, in this position. This ethics concerned with formulating the 10

vital ethical values, that where the descriptive ethics, concerned with the logical studies, of ethics by communal scientists, with usual and business press treatments, of marketing issues. And By this it includes with the purpose of the works, which look at the vital ethical marketing, concepts and the values that were the marketers that should be aware about being ethical. For this it would be classify a number of this hard work as normative. The variation between these both empirical and theoretical were a normal definition of ethics study and one of which had lead to be important argument in exacting of the pages of Business Ethics periodically which will not be the openly examined here (Singhapakdi,2008). Normative ethical theories had the correct based ethics

that have been restricted from some of the debates in the earlier years; where as huge theoretical paradigms appeared in the 1990s. A model of marketing ethics that based upon the job and it claims that the adopting the more gentle scope reading for this marketing was an opportunity that had to be an ethical, organizer in organization (Thompson, 1995) When in this field the stakeholders came into a discussion, that to resolved the ordinary dilemmas that were more in positive outcomes that were apparent. The majority recently integrative social contracts, theory that had planned as the giving that of logical structure for resolving that ethical multiple proposals 11 issues, came which up from could and the be occurred as cross wise in communities, where the theoretical that



they had broadened the normative base for marketing ethics. Normative awareness, mix ethical during were theory the that was expected virtue for considerable ethics. selling, This the

1990s, that

elaborated on the applicability of good value .marketing variables using theory formula in that developed countries .Their they Projected a structure, to put together good value ethics into marketing theory, and established its applicability in case study (Kirk, 2001). Focus on the While difficult to operationally, the focus on the good value that were showed, a theory that notify the marketing’ in view of the fact that personal decision were significant, in making appropriate ethical decisions. There can be an vital call for to change, the priority and also to accept those services that supported the wealth, over the worldwide interests and as to strengthened the primary values, that came form the starting point of human civilization, that every one over the planet concerned and had high vision for everyone, and also for the natural environment, patience and harmony, and even the search of peace. The world agreement was welcomed as peoples’ paper on condition that to an ethical the framework choices of similarly the the appropriate guiding persons,

companies and states. Marketing the area which regularly viewed as fundamentally, unethical but this was the fact that governed by rule, and values of behavior just like any other field. People who actively work in the marketing field, were projected to 12

study also

and looked

put at

up how




standards, In of



industry, and academics concerned in the study of marketing ethics were in applied. region this two study most marketing ethics focused the

important concerns, that one was from political philosophy, and the other one was from business dealings practice. The view from the political side, it was argued that ethics in marketing was growing the profit, for the depositors and where as it argued that market was responsible for all of the consumers. Here The ethical concern of the targeting sections were for the spending of outmoded, or risky products, and also for that services, which were seeing through the basis of labor statement, regarding reasonable treatment, and reasonable pay to all of the employees and see-through about the environmental risks, of the ethical issues that related to product ,or service, which being clear regarding the ingredients that were being used, in the products or service, and they use appropriate category, which hereditarily adapted organisms ,at ease source coded in the case of software the ethics of statement of the risks in using the product, or services, health risks or in financial risks and protection risks etc . The ethical responsibilities research, that of any marketers in from




the ethical research agreemented. This research was for a marketing purpose, which wants to be seen to hold to exact ethical practice, due to the direct border which had with the public. even and though which there were a with accessible ethics of frameworks, codes deals

research which had a new technology. That makes gaps in 13

procedure, Marketers’



for had

marketing to defend

researchers. stakeholders,


exaggerated by their actions, that were recognized but the most of the service employees were uncovered stakeholders, who were frequently ignored by ethical guidelines. ethics in marketing research in relative to retail observational research, the conflicts, and challenges , ethical responsibility, presented to be continue, in the extended

run as well as efficient and effective may be ensured. In general the most unkind accuses regarding this lack of ethics which were were to be advertising the highest from the group which of of marketing communication techniques and with degree this was the one of treatment

consumer’s awarded. This was used by organization, to send messages with the use of moving some answers of perceptual in the targeted public. The advertising had exact functions, it informs the public inspiration, in primary demand, that had persuades consumers, next to creation of a selective demand, and it creates comparisons, with the goal of providing for the advantage and and to maintain And consumer’s this had a interest, trademarks products.

series of characteristics that present certain specificity and make known controversies about the ethics. The literatures and of between this the marketing both of approaches. ethics the far as were the

differentiating, approaches,



Descriptive approaches takes various attempts that which to clarify the all ethical decision makings, and the empirical studies of the ethical attitudes, and behaviors of unlike 14

population’s .Normative approaches make out proper values, and the methods that offer reason for the judgments, that what was the right one and wrong. Normative marketing ethics concerned with the prescribed, what managers “should had to perform” and when they faced with the ethical issue. So The Reviews of the marketing ethics literature explain that there were significant quantities of descriptive contributions but far-off less normative contributions. The Ethical questions arises here, because the sales

presentation was the most usual system, by which marketing council could evaluated performance , pressures which could be existed in dilemmas of the ethics. where as the pressuring vendors holded to purchased extra, than their wants and approaching stuff, that resulted in higher commissions that were temptations, where all of the Marketing ethics overlaps, with the natural ethics, in respect of desecrated problems that linked with covering of products. On the increasing number of people they created their use decisions on the source of ethical values, such as environmentally friendly products, and production methods, Ethical consumerism were growing fact that underpins the ethical trade activities. In the market place the Marketers should be alerted with the ethical principles, and the acceptable behavior. So by that, the knowledge means marketers must be famoused, with the viewpoints of those three groups of actors, the firs will be the company then the industry, and then society. These 15 more or less had a diverse need and wants, and

ethical clashes, that were expected to occur. The Ethical variations between those three needs that were mentioned, was the company, the industry, and the society, so by those the conflict may arised. And then that ethical conflict take place, when one’s private value clash with the organization. On the other hand the other case of the clash of concern is a possible outcome. The most commonly clash arised with the organizations seeks private occurs, achieve, when from an organizer in the company vital fake advertising. The

diseases were of one type product, which falls under that category of ethical clash i.e. In their abandon to create a maximum profit, and a marketer influence those, who may be vanished from not curable disease, and should to buy a product, that cannot a heal, but a serious one may decided to buy an attempt to place aside that dying family member despair. Ethical three issues categories. were in front Standards of for the the marketing ethical

professional’s that were in this time falls under one of Those marketing, the guidelines in the effort of the business, were too ended with the right thing. So they were indulging in ethical marketing. As for the ethical marketing this should be the reminder for all marketing decisions, and hard work, that were important for gathering and came up with the desires of the customers, suppliers and business partners. So the Ethical behavior pushed up all throughout the company cultured, and in the course of company practices. Ethics are our belief about what is right and 16

wrong. Although these beliefs may vary from one individual to another or one company, to another ethics and business responsibility.


Sample The sample size selection was random with an aim to achieve the most satisfactory results. The human characteristics were evenly balanced to reflect the fair result produced by the study. The design of the questionnaire allowed the respondents, to participate in the research process easily. The sample population for this study was the consumer’s organizations and the promoters. The sample size for the study was 155. The questionnaire was submitted directly to employees Islamabad. and customers of different companies in

Instrument and Measures Primary research and secondary research was the two key research sources for this research. Secondary research was comprised of already published research papers, books and magazine articles. The questionnaire was adopted from an already reliable express published (flipo, stiff research 2003) to A make and it convenient of and and ethics marketing ant academics facilitated science).

critics). Science,




The questionnaire was related from the literature: ethics in the marketing. The instrument that was used by this questionnaire is a five-point Likert scale. It was distributed among the consumers and different organizations 18

involved by means

in of

promotional a

activities. Likert to




expressed their perceptions on a wide range of statements five-point scale. strongly Their responses The ranged from strongly agree disagree.

questionnaire will be divided into two parts. The first part asked participants that are about the ethics in the product consumption. The second part of the questionnaire is related to the issues of ethics. It asked customers about the importance of ethics in the marketing and promotion of different products.

Procedure Upon acquisition of data from the various organizations, the analysis was carried out in the statistical package for social sciences program (SPSS). The feedback of the respondents was quantitatively analyzed by assigning the numerical values and these were specifically added to the statistical tool for management Sciences Software (SPSS). This software helped to analyze different statistical inferences and analysis. This study was taken into account the hypothesis testing and other statistical tools related to research. Based upon the discussion of these statistics a conclusion was drawn and a recommendation was proposed. Regression was used to analyze the variables and their impact on each other.


Descriptive statistics Std. Mean Deviation Customer_Awareness_reagrding 2.4710 0.40283 Org_Res Pro_activi 2.6086 2.5729 0.55166 0.59743

N 155 155 155

The above table shows that customers are aware regarding their ethical rights with the mean 2.47 and with standard deviation of 1.40. The mean is closed choice number 2. The above table shows that organizations are aware about their ethical responsibilities with the mean of 2.6 and standard deviation of 0.55. The third variable is the promotional activities actually are made keeping in view the ethical part.


Customer_Awa reness_reagr ding 1.000 0.505 0.341 . 0.000 0.000 155 155 155 Org_Res 0.505 1.000 0.549 0.000 . 0.000 155 155 155 Pro_a ctivi 0.341 0.549 1.000 0.000 0.000 . 155 155 155

Pearso n Correl ation Sig. (1tailed ) N

Customer_Awareness_ reagrding Org_Res Pro_activi Customer_Awareness_ reagrding Org_Res Pro_activi Customer_Awareness_ reagrding Org_Res Pro_activi

The co-efficient of correlation between the dependent and the independent variable shows the following trends. 1. There is a positive regarding relation their between ethical the customer and awareness rights

organization responsibility towards their customers, the exact value i.e. (.505) shows a weak but positive relationship. 2. Positive towards relationship their ethical between rights customer and awareness promotional

activities and the exact value that is (.341) shows weak but positive relationship.


Model Summary(b) Adjuste dR Model R R Square Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .505(a) 0.255 0.251 0.34874 a. Predictors: (Constant), Org_Responsibility b. Dependent Variable: customer awareness regarding their ethical rights. The standard error of estimate regression line active by drawing dependent and independent variables is 0.34. Which shows less scattering of the data points around the regression line? So the data is not disperse as the value is closer to zero R square is coefficient of determination. The value of r square is .251 which shows that the regression line is not a perfect estimate of the variable. Mostly ‘R’ square lies between 0$1 and actually it measures only the strength of the linear relation between variable.


ANOVA(b) Sum of Mean Model Squares df Square F Sig. 1 Regression 6.382 1 6.382 52.473 .000(a) Residual 18.608 153 0.122 Total 24.990 154 a. Predictors: (Constant), Org_Responisibilty. b. Dependent Variable: customer awareness regarding their ethical rights The critical value alpha is generally set at 0.5 the value coming under sig column , it indicates .000 which is less then the critical value. Which implies that the effects are found to be significant .this simply implies that the mean .differences more then would be expected by chance.


Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Std. B Error (Constant) Org_Res 1.508 0.369 0.136 0.051 0.505 Standardized Coefficients Beta T 11.107 7.244 Sig. 0.000 0.000 0.505 0.505 0.505 Part Correlations B Std. Error

Model 1

It determines which of the values of independent variables are most important for determining dependent variable are most important for determining dependent variable as per the results the standard cooefient (beta)come out to be (.50). Which shows the moderate positive relationship between dependent and independent variables.


Residuals Statistics(a) Minimum 1.9389 -0.93888 -2.614 -2.692 Maximum 3.1074 1.03734 3.126 2.975 Mean 2.4710 0.00000 0.000 0.000 Std. Deviation 0.20357 0.34761 1.000 0.997 N 155 155 155 155

Predicted Value Residual Std. Predicted Value Std. Residual

a. Dependent Variable: Customer_Awareness_reagrding

This is the observable estimate of the statistical error. The table shows the value, residual standard statistic predicted regarding the predicted

value and the standard residual value. There is no residual standard observed in mean.









deviation and



Variables that are Organizational responsibilities towards their customers, Promotional activities, Customer Awareness regarding their Ethical rights which is 0.997, and combined mean of all variables, that is 2.86. If we measure up to ± 2 sigma ,it will cover 95% of the responses and if measured up to ±3, standard deviation from combined mean of all variables, more than 99% of the responses are covered. It further reveals that most of the respondents up to 95% were agreed that the organizations are responsible and the promotional activities enable and aware the consumer regarding their ethical rights in consumption and purchase of the products being advertise and offer for sale. FIGURE 4.2 26

The the

Figure residual


reveals which

that proves

this that

is the


commulative i.e

probabilty graph,most of line

the respondants are lies near to hypothesis

dependent variable,organization responsibilty towards their customers, has a significant impact on independent variable thatisconsumerawearness.



The figure towards lies

4.3 reveals that are their customers, -2,and +2

Organizational Promotional the

responsibilities activities, deviation and is

Customer Awareness regarding their Ethical rights ,the data between ,so standard acceptable and the confredence interval, That is more than the 95% and more than the 95% of respondents are agree. so the H1 and H2 both are acceptable.


This research has successfully led towards comprehensive analysis consumer’s of the role of organization their in creation rights of in awareness regarding ethical

promotional activities.

Majority of customers agreed to the point that they are aware of their ethical rights in terms during the marketing campaigns. On the other hand organizations are also responsible towards customer rights and treat the customers with ethical responsibility.










Pakistan are ethically correct in Islamabad reigon and the customers are made aware of the ethical issues regarding advertising and promotional activities.

The variable “Customer Awareness of their Ethical Rights” is directly related This with the “Promotional that Activities in Pakistan”. Awareness Promotional deduction their shows the Promotional If the the

Activities in Pakistan have a direct impact on Customer regarding Activities Ethical Ethical Rights. depict Awareness,

customers are going to be directly affected by the result.


The that

Organization’s the


towards in

Customers Pakistan

show are



representing “Responsible Organizations” which are keen to depict that their customers are important to them and they are ethically bound to be giving them the correct inputs.

It is also realized that if Organizations in Islamabad are more responsible towards their customers then the customers in return become more aware of the ethical issues related to a certain product on which the promotional ativity is based upon.


organizations have as a

which greater customer a


responsible of

towards the to


customers scenario very

understanding is very

“Ethical various in the

Limits” of the customers. This is very important in said the sensitive input ethnic, demographic and sectarian issues and might react abruptly towards particular shown advertisement and promotional campaign.

So from all the above discussion it is now revealed that customers treating creation rights. are well aware of their and ethical rights role and in organizations on the other hand are very responsible in customers of ethically, playing their their consumer awareness regarding ethical



****** Method 1 (space saver) will be used for this analysis ****** _





(A L P H A)

Reliability Coefficients N of Cases = Alpha = .8350 155.0 N of Items = 21



Anusorn Singhapakdi, (2008. Antecedencts and consequences of perceived, importance of ethics in marketing situation.








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“Role of organization in creation of consumer’s awareness regarding their ethical rights in promotional activities” The study is being conducted by Haleema Wazir BBA, Iqra University Islamabad Campus. The research is being conducted on The Impact of Job Insecurity require a high participation rate in order for the results to be statistically meaningful. The questionnaire is short and will require less than ten minutes of your time. I wish to assure you that any response you make will be strictly confidential. If you have any query, you can contact at or cell: 92-333-5117363 Please Tick ( ) your responses using the following scale: 1. Strongly Agree 2. Agree 3. Neither Agree or Disagree 4. Disagree 5. Strongly Disagree
1. Gender Male ) 2. Organization Name 3. Age ( ) Female (


Some advertisements are even more enjoyable that other media contents. agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

Strongly agree 2.

Sometimes I take pleasure in thinking about what I saw or head in advertisements. agree neutral contains neutral a disagree lot of Strongly disagree excitement and

Strongly agree 3.

Advertising surprises. agree

Strongly agree


Strongly disagree


4. Most of the time advertising contains funny characters and is enjoyable. Strongly agree agree neutral promotes neutral disagree undesirable disagree Strongly disagree values of

5. Advertising consumers. Strongly agree agree

Strongly disagree

6. Most of the advertising distorts the values of consumers. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

7. Some products/services promoted in advertising are bad for consumers. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

8. Advertising persuades consumers to buy things that they should not buy. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

9. Advertising insults the intelligence of the average consumers. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

10. Advertising tends to make people live in a world of fantasy. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

11.Advertising tend to make people live in a world of fantasy. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

12.Advertising makes just to show off. 36





Strongly agree




Strongly disagree

13.According to the principle of the invisible hand any marketing decision than can increase profit is god? Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

14.The concept that the customer is always right is more an ideal than a reality. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree 15.Maximizing profit rather than satisfying the consumer is the ultimate objective of Marketing. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

16.As a technique marketing is neutral, but the organization that uses it can transform it into a nonethical practice. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

17.These are reasons behind marketing, validated by its practice, that by their very nature is not ethical, whatever the situation. Strongly agree agree ethical neutral practices neutral of disagree marketing disagree Strongly disagree remain the

18.The non exception. Strongly agree


Strongly disagree

19Competitive pressure can sometimes mean the boundary of what is and what is not ethical. Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree

20.In an economically developed world, in which marketing creates demand the persuasive tools are increasingly.


Strongly agree




Strongly disagree

21.The objective of marketing is high’ short-term profit that can lead to unethical practices Strongly agree agree neutral disagree Strongly disagree


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