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• • • • • • • Movement Respiration Sensitivity Growth Reproduction Excretion Nutrition
Mrs Gren – or –many naughty rabbits eat green rhubarb stems
Plant and Animal Cells
Cell specialisation .
Cell organisation system organism .
Transport In and Out of Cells • Diffusion – from a high to a low concentration until they are evenly spread • Osmosis – from a region of high water concentration to a region of low (weak to a strong solution) through a semi permeable membrane • Active transport – from a low to a high concentration across a cell membrane .
Balanced Diets • • • • • • • Carbohydrates Protein Lipids / Fats Vitamins Minerals Fibre Water .
The Duodenum Amylase Starch Maltose Protease Lipase Proteins Amino acids and polypeptide s Fats Fatty acids and Glycerol .
The Ileum Maltase Sucrase Lactase Peptidase Lipase Maltose Sucrose Lactose Polypeptides Fat Glucose Glucose and Fructose Glucose and Galactose Amino acids Fatty acids and Glycerol .
Absorption and Assimilation Glucose and amino acids are absorbed into the blood Fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed into the lacteal .
• Excess food is mostly stored as fat. respiration. . repair.Assimilation • All digested glucose and amino acids pass into the liver in the Hepatic Portal Vein. • Fats enter the lymphatic system which enters the blood and returns them to the liver. • The food is used for growth.
Food Testing • Starch – add iodine – turns black • Glucose or reducing sugar – add Benedict's solution and boil – turns brick red • Protein – Biuret test – add NaOH or KOH and then 1% copper sulphate – a violet colouration .
Aerobic Respiration • With oxygen • C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy .
Anaerobic Respiration • Animals Glucose • Plants Glucose Lactic acid Ethanol and carbon dioxide Oxygen debt – the amount of oxygen needed to breakdown the lactic accumulated .
Structure of Thorax .
The Thorax .
• When we breathe in the intercostal muscles contract and the ribs move up and out.Breathing in • Is controlled by the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. . The diaphragm contracts and moves down. • This increases the space inside the chest and air rushes into the lungs.
. • This reduces the space inside the chest and pushes air out of the lungs.Breathing out • The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm relax. • The ribcage drops down and the diaphragm moves upwards.
Breathing Rate and Depth • Rate .how many breaths per minute • Depth – how much air is being taken in. normally ½ litre per breath • Measured with a spirometer .
% of different gases in inhaled and exhaled air Gas Inhaled air (%) 20 Exhaled air (%) 16 Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Water vapour 0.04 4 79 Variable level 79 100% saturated .
Gaseous exchange .
What makes the lung good at gaseous exchange? • Large surface area – greater volume of gases exchanged • Good blood supply – O2 and CO2 exchanged more quickly • Thin membranes – allows diffusion • Moist lining – for the gases to dissolve .
bacteria and other particles stick to the mucus secreted by cells lining the airways • Cilia attached to these cells waft the mucus and dirt out of the lungs and it is swallowed. • Acid in the stomach kills the bacteria .Keeping the Lungs Clean • Dust.
Effects of Smoking •Tar causes cancer •Nicotine is addictive •Smoking removes the hairs that keep the lungs clean .
Photosynthesis light carbon dioxide+water glucose+oxygen chlorophyll 6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 .
Leaf Structure .
• The palisade layer contains the most chloroplasts as it is near the top of the leaf. • The epidermis is a protective layer of cells and contains no chloroplasts.• The leaf has a waxy cuticle to stop it losing water. The chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll. This means the light has to pass through the cell lengthways and so increases the amount of light absorbed. • The palisade cells are arranged upright. . It is here that photosynthesis takes place.
Stomata Guard cells stoma Water moves into the guard cells by osmosis and the stoma opens .
Day During the daytime the rate of photosynthesis is greater than the rate of respiration .
Night During both the day and night respiration occurs in plants. .
light intensity. how much CO2 is available. . Increasing the light intensity will make photosynthesis faster. its rate depends upon temperature. even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide. • Without enough light a plant cannot photosynthesise very fast. amount of chlorophyll or water.Limiting Factors • Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction.
If it gets too cold the rate of photosynthesis will slow right down. • Temperature can be a limiting factor too. Even if there is plenty of light a plant cannot photosynthesise if it has run out of carbon dioxide. . plants cease to be able to photosynthesise if it gets too hot.• Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the level of carbon dioxide. equally.
• If you plot the rate of photosynthesis against the levels of these three limiting factors you get graphs like the ones below. .
Maximising growth • Understanding the factors that limit photosynthesis enables greenhouse farmers to maximise the conditions for plant growth. They may also use artificial light to enable photosynthesis to continue beyond daylight hours. . They often use paraffin lamps inside the greenhouse because burning paraffin produces carbon dioxide as well as heat. and so makes photosynthesis proceed faster.
Uses of Glucose • Turned into starch for storage • Converted into lipid/fat for storage – energy rich • Nitrogen can be added and turned into protein • Stored in fruit • Used in respiration .
Mineral Requirements Magnesium for chlorophyll Nitrogen for growth Phosphorus for cell membranes and DNA Remember how to test leaves for starch .
The Heart .
• Pumps blood around the body The Heart • Pumps blood to the lungs • To pick up oxygen • Remove carbon dioxide .
Heart Lungs Heart Body Heart
better oxygenation, faster flow
Arteries Veins and Capillaries
Thick walls, oxygenated blood, away from heart
Thin walls, deoxygenated blood, to the heart, valves
Link arteries to veins, site of exchange of metabolites and waste
Red blood cells, transport oxygen, biconcave, no nucleus,
White blood cells, defence, engulf bacteria, produce antibodies
They dry and form a scab .Platelets • Used in the clotting of blood • Damage cause them to clump and they begin the conversion of soluble fibrinogen (blood protein) into insoluble fibrin which meshes over the wound and traps red cells.
Blood Cells .
Tissue exchange Glucose Waste PLASMA .
The lymphatic system • Transports excess fluid from the tissues • Transports digested fat • Contains white blood cells that fight infection .
William Harvey • • • • 1578-1657 Observed blood flow around the body Noticed existence of valves in veins Concluded blood pumped via veins round body • Major medical breakthrough! .
000 years before Harvey • Did not use the scientific method – Observation and experimentation • Thought blood went from side to side • Did not realise transport existed round body through capillaries .Galen • Lived 1.
Transport in Plants .
thick pipes called xylem vessels.strong. often also referred to as the vascular bundle. The cells of these vessels are modified to make them suited to performing their special functions Together xylem and phloem form the vascular tissue. and thinner tubes called phloem vessels. .The Plant Transport System A plant's transport system is made up of two types of tubes .
Xylem consists of dead cells with no end walls. which contain lignin to form stiff tubes. They are impermeable. .
and are surrounded by companion cells. . They are permeable. with walls made of cellulose and perforated end walls.Phloem consists of living cells lined with cytoplasm.
Food (the product of photosynthesis) is taken from the leaves and moved up and down the plant to any part which needs it (for growth or for storage) .in xylem vessels .in phloem vessels. Minerals dissolved in the water are taken up the plant to the shoots and leaves . .in xylem vessels.Water is taken up the plant from the roots to the leaves (for photosynthesis and transpiration) .
Transpiration •Temperature •Humidity •Air movement •Light .
Ecology – Competition and Adaptation Keeping warm Keeping cool .
Plant adaptations Not being eaten Reducing water loss .
Predators. Prey and Co-operation Snowshoe hare Arctic fox .
Food Chains .
Woodland Food Web .
Pyramid of Numbers Remember not always pyramid shape .
Pyramid of biomass fox rabbit grass Biomass is dry weight – water has been removed .
ammonium compoundsnitrite-nitrate .Decomposition Decomposers are bacteria and fungi Organic matter.
The Carbon Cycle Plants and animals die and decay .
Nitrogen Cycle .
Food Production and farming methods • • • • Monoculture Hedgerow removal Biological pest control Pesticides and herbicides and insecticides .
will not use up the resources or pollute the planet . oil or gas • Greenhouse effect • Sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxides are formed which dissolve in water to form acid rain • Reduce the demand for energy so it reaches a sustainable level.Energy and Waste • Burning fossil fuels such as coal.
Global Warming and Acid Rain .
Conservation To prevent habitats and organisms from disappearing Limit or ban hunting. Zoos and captive breeding programmes. Gene banks of frozen eggs. sperm or embryos. Preserve habitats .
The Nervous System Stimulus Response Receptor Effector Sensory Neuron Motor neuron Central nervous system .
Motor neuron .
The Eye .
ciliary muscle relaxed. suspensory ligaments taut Near – lens short and fat ciliary muscle contacted. suspensory ligaments loose .Accommodation Long distance – lens long and thin.
So do solvents . LSD and nicotine Others block the enzyme that normally breaks down the neurotransmitter Alcohol depresses synaptic activity in the brain and acts as a depressant.Nerves Synapses and Drugs Some drugs stimulate synapses like a neurotransmitter.
The CNS and Reflex Actions .
Hormones • Proteins that are chemical messengers in the body • Carried in the blood to target cells • Response is slower • May last for hours • Can stimulate more than one target .
Controlling glucose. • Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas release insulin. • When blood sugar levels are low the insulin production stops. the glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver. . • The blood sugar level drops . • After eating a lot of carbohydrate blood sugar level rises. • Glucagon is produced by the pancreas allowing glucose release from the liver and muscles.
progesterone allows ovulation but makes the vagina and uterus unsuitable for sperm • Anabolic steroids build muscle – reduce the production of testosterone .Uses of Hormones • Controlling fertility – the contraceptive pill. may contain oestrogen and progesterone and controls the release of pituitary hormones and ovulation • Mini pill.
Uses of plant hormones • Auxins allow plants to respond to the environment – tropic responses • Auxin (IAA) causes • They stimulate shoots to grow rapidly • Stops side shoots growing • Stimulates growth of roots from the base of stems or leaves • Auxin from seeds cause fruit to swell .
5 page 102 for Wednesday .Plant responses and Auxins Hormone rooting powder causes roots to grow from cut stems Seedless fruits –grapes. cucumbers.4. bananas. (parthenocarpy) Selective weedkillers 2-4-D causes weeds to grow too fast and results in death. grass doesn’t take it up well Q 3.
Homeostasis Temperature Control Water Control Salt Balance Sugar control Carbon Dioxide Control Urea .
.Temperature Control •Thermoregulation keeps the body at constant temperature (37oC). •Enzymes work best. •Temperature is regulated by the hypothalamus.
conduction and radiation. . •Evaporation of water from a surface removes heat. •Heat is lost by convection.Temperature Control •Heat is made in most cells but in particular muscle and liver.
evaporation causes heat loss. •Hairs lie flat allowing more heat out.Keeping Cool •Vasodilation. . •Sweating. more blood flows nearer the skin and heat is lost.
Keeping Warm •Vasoconstriction . . •Hairs stand up and trap insulating air.less blood flows to the skin’s surface. keeping heat in. •Shivering generates heat (respiration). You may look pale!! •Decrease in sweat.
Carbon dioxide • Excess carbon dioxide results in a drop in the body’s pH (acidic). • Breathing out removes this excess. . • The rate and depth of breathing will alter to suit the amount of CO2.
The Kidney .
Urea • Urea is produced when proteins and amino acids are broken down in the liver. • The kidneys remove it but so does sweating !! . • It is poisonous.
The kidney .
The kidneys have four functions: • Regulation of blood water levels • Reabsorption of useful substances into the blood • Adjustment of the levels of salts and ions in the blood • Excretion of urea and other metabolic wastes .
Kidneys: how they work .
Kidney transplant • This is when the diseased kidney is surgically removed and replaced by a fully functioning kidney from a deceased or a live donor. . • It is only possible after a satisfactory tissue-match. Even after a successful tissue-match the recipient's immune system has to be drugged or suppressed to stop it from rejecting the new kidney.
the kidney can no longer remove metabolic waste products from the body. • There are two solutions to the problem of kidney malfunction or failure: • Kidney transplant • Kidney dialysis . Excretion of metabolic waste is a vital function and their accumulation will result in eventual death.Kidney failure • In the event of kidney failure due to infection or disease.
Blood from an artery in the patient's arm is pumped into the kidney machine which removes urea and excess salts from it.Kidney dialysis • In the absence of a suitable donor kidney. the alternative solution is for the patient to be hooked-up to a dialysis machine every 2 . • The blood is checked for air bubbles before being returned to a vein in the arm. • A dialysis machine mimics the functioning of the kidney. .3 days.
•Is keeping the water and salt levels constant in the blood. •They are regulated by the hypothalamus. •Water moves into the cells by osmosis and could cause them to burst.
Blood concentration too high
•The hypothalamus senses too little water in the blood. •A message is sent to the pituitary gland to release anti-diuretic hormone. •This stops the kidneys removing water and going to the loo!!
Blood concentration too low.
•Too much water in the blood stops the hypothalamus signalling the pituitary. •Water is removed by the kidneys. •Large amounts of dilute urine produced.
Cell Division .Mitosis .
DNA DNA structure discovered by Crick and Watson .
Genetic and Environmental causes of Variation • • • • Variation is inherited Genetic – skin colour Environmental – hair length Both – height. intelligence . weight.
Asexual reproduction • Produces identical copies called clones – onions. greenfly • This type of cell division is mitosis • Cuttings and grafting in plants • Micropropogation used by growers . potatoes. strawberries.
Mutations • Change in the DNA of an organism caused by an error when it is copied • Radiation and certain chemicals such as cigarette smoke can cause mutations • Most are harmful and leads to illness or death • Useful ones are rare but have a dramatic impact on a species and its evolution .
It is a recessive allele which affects 1 in 2000 children.Harmful mutations • Down’s syndrome – an extra chromosome number 21 • Cystic fibrosis is caused by a mutation in the DNA. • It causes sticky mucus which blocks the lungs and pancreas .
Genetic Engineering • Is the ability to alter DNA • A gene from one organism can be transferred into the DNA of a completely different organism • In some cases the all the DNA is removed from a cell and replaced with the DNA from another organism • Dolly the sheep was the first example of genetic cloning .
sheep. cows. To produce certain traits • In plants for taste. These are then bred to produce offspring. texture. • Sexual reproduction will ensure variation . cats and so on.Selective Breeding • In animals – dogs. shelf life • Is done by choosing parents with the required traits.
Mendel Studied peas and concluded that characteristics were passed on from one generation to another. one allele into one gamete and the other into another Law of independent assortment – any gamete of the father can fertilise any gamete of the mother . Law of segregation – the 2 alleles separate when gametes are formed.
Genetic Crosses .
Evolution • Most organisms overproduce • Population numbers remain constant • Sexual reproduction ensures that all offspring exhibit variation • These variations are inherited from the parents • From these Darwin produced his theory of evolution .
Darwin Evidence for evolution •Fossils •Homologous structures – bat’s wing. forearm. horse’s leg. .
New Species – Survival of the Fittest • The peppered moth • Pale ones no longer camouflaged during the Industrial Revolution – were no longer camouflaged • Darker ones survived to reproduce and some of their offspring were even darker • This is survival of the fittest .
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