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Summer Project for Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited
Title of the project:
Study of wheat seed market in Haryana
Submitted to: DAIICT, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Anil Kumar Sahu ID: 200913009 Master of Science In Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture and Rural Development [M. Sc. ICTARD]
Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT) Gandhinagar-382 007 Gujarat
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. Anil Kumar Sahu has successfully completed summer internship project from 3rd May 2010 to 9th July 2010 in Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited at Dawalwadi, Jalna, Maharashtra. He worked on the project title “Study of wheat seed market in Haryana” His head quarter was at Kurukshetra district of Haryrana. He covered Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Karnal, Panipat and Jind districts of Haryana. During summer training I found him to be hard working and sincere. I wish all the best for his future. Thanking You ......................................... Place:............................ Date:............................ Mr. Sanjay Singh (Product Manager-PMG) Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd. Dawalwari, Jalna Maharashtra
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DECLARATION I Anil Kumar Sahu, Post Graduate student of Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture and Rural Development batch 2009-11, from Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT), Gandhinagar, Gujarat. Hereby declare that this project report titled, “Study of wheat seed market in Haryana” is an original study and has been carried out by me as a part of summer training in Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited (MHSCL) and no any part of this report has been copied from any source, or if taken, the original source has been given due credit in the content. I further declare that I have worked for at least two months on our summer training as required under manual of policies of the our institute.
Place: Gandhinagar Date: 6th Aug. 2010
Anil Kumar Sahu ID: 200913009
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TABLE OF CONTENTS S. NO. HEADINGS List of tables List of figures and charts Abbreviations and acronyms Acknowledgement Executive summary Company’s profile Introduction 1.1 Demography of research area 1.2 Area, production and productivity of five districts and State total 1.3 Key deliverables of the project Research methodology 2.1 Data type and sources 2.2 Research method 2.3 Project area 2.4 Sampling method 2.5 Sample size 2.6 Analysis tools 2.7 Market survey technique 2.9 Data analysis and report 2.10 Operational definitions Findings and analysis 3.1 Estimation of wheat acreage 3.2 Market potential 3.3 Market size 3.4 Estimation of seed replacement rate 3.5 Drivers for seed replacement 3.6 Ability of farmers to pay and pricing strategy in reference to BC ratio 3.7 Identification of prevailing products 3.8 Analysis of adoption process 3.9 Adoption of wheat seed companies by farmers 3.10 Penetration of Mahyco 3.11 Nature of competition and competitors varieties 3.12 Identifying purchasing behaviour PAGE NO. 6 7 8 9 10-11 12-13 14-17 15 16 17 18-22 18 18 18 20 20 20 21 21 21 23-63 23 24 25 28 29 30 33 34 36 38 41 42
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5 6 7 8
3.13 Reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences 3.14 Competitor’s product mapping 3.15 Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Kurukshetra district 3.16 Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Kaithal district 3.17 Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Karnal district 3.18 Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Panipat district 3.19 Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Jind district 3.20 Market development activities 3.20.1 Promotional awareness of agri companies in a village 3.20.2 Companies campaigning in the village 3.20.3 Methods of campaigning by other companies 3.20.4 Suggestions for Mahyco’s promotion Other relevant information 4.1 Future potential and viability for wheat varietal and hybrid business 4.2 Opportunity areas for Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties 4.3 Marketing strategy 4.4 Supply chain strategy Recommendations and suggestions Conclusion References Appendix Tables Forms
45 48 50 51 53 54 56 57 59 50 61 62 64-72 64 65 67 72 73-74 75-77 78 79-89
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LIST OF TABLES TABLE PARTICULARS 1 Demographic details of Haryana 2 Area, production and productivity under wheat crop in five districts and state 3 Sampling details of farmers and dealer/distributors 4 Classification of farmers 5 Number of different categories of farmers as per sample size 6 Acreage under wheat cultivation in 2006-07 7 Acreage under wheat cultivation for 2009-10 and 2010-11 (estimated) 8 Market size of different districts for wheat cultivation 9 Share of OP and research variety in the market of different districts 10 Seed price rate of wheat variety and Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety 11 List of prevailing varieties 12 List of local wheat seed producing companies 13 District wise penetration of Mahyco 14 List of competitors and its varieties 15 District-wise hybrid/varietal preferences 16 Overall selling of top competitor’s varieties of wheat in the five districts 17 List of top selling wheat varieties in Kurukshetra district 18 List of top selling wheat varieties in Kaithal district 19 List of top selling wheat varieties in Karnal district 20 List of top selling wheat varieties in Panipat district 21 List of top selling wheat varieties in Jind district 22 Farmer’s needs and wants 23 Tehsil-wise awareness of Mahyco’s products 24 Tehsil-wise campaigning by agri-companies in a village 25 Farmer’s wheat acreage in Kurukshetra district (from sample size) 26 Farmer’s wheat acreage in Kaithal district (from sample size) 27 Farmer’s wheat acreage in Karnal district (from sample size) 28 Farmer’s wheat acreage in Panipat district (from sample size) 29 Farmer’s wheat acreage in Jind district (from sample size) 30 List of MOP & MRP of all varieties in different districts and total average of it PAGE 16 16 20 21 22 23 23 25 26 32 33 37 39 42 44 48 50 52 53 56 56 67 79 80 81 81 82 83 83 84
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LIST OF FIGURES AND CHARTS CHART PARTICULARS Figure 1: Haryana state and districts of Haryana for wheat seed market Figure 2: Showing the selling concept and the marketing concept Figure 3: Showing different distribution channels Figure 4: Showing different location for availability of Mahyco’s product Showing acreage under wheat cultivation in different district Showing market size of different district of wheat seed Showing share of research variety in different districts Showing share of OP variety in different districts Showing the market share in different districts Showing share of saved seed and purchase seed Showing influencers for farmer to decide which variety to buy Showing awareness of farmers about wheat seed companies Showing awareness among farmers about Mahyco Showing different channels of Mahyco’s awareness Showing No. of farmers who aware different products of Mahyco Showing preference for wheat cultivation in overall districts Showing preference of farmers in different district Showing reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences Showing drivers for seed replacement Showing overall selling of top competitor’s variety of wheat in five districts Showing top selling wheat varieties in Kurukshetra district Showing top selling wheat varieties in Kaithal district Showing top selling wheat varieties in Karnal district Showing top selling wheat varieties in Panipat district Showing top selling wheat varieties in Jind district Showing promotional awareness of farmers about agri company in a village Showing top agri companay campaigning in a village (on the basis of TOMA of farmers) Showing campaigning methods by other companies in a village Showing suggestion methods for Mahyco promotion PAGE 19 68 70 71 24 26 27 27 28 29 35 36 39 40 41 44 45 46 47 49 51 52 54 55 57 59 60 61 62
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
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ABBREVIATIONS & ACRONYMS MHSCL TBM TFA DA-IICT Mahyco SAUs SRR ADO C & F agent ICT MOP MRP SC DSCL TOMA SSCs NTSV H N O/OP R Avg ha Kgs Qtls Rs. DD 1 DBMS Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited Territory Business Manager Territory Field Assistant Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited State Agricultural Universities Seed Replacement Rate Agricultural Development Officer Carrying and forwarding agent Information and Communication Technology Marketing Operating Price Maximum Retail Price Supply Chain DCM Shriram Consolidated Limited Top of the mind analysis State Seed Corporations Not Top Selling Variety Hybrid variety Neutral Open Pollinated variety Research variety Average Hectare Kilograms Quintals Rupees Doordarshan Channel 1 Database Management System
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AKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my gratitude to Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company Limited (MHSCL) for providing me an opportunity to explore my potential and enhancing my practical knowledge at field level. Experience from summer project is uncountable and it has certainly helped me to understand the difference between practical and theoretical knowledge. It has also helped me to learn stressful conditions during market survey and how to cope up with these stresses. This project helped me to understand dealing of different farmers, dealers/distributors in respect of their behaviour, perception, thought and attitude. I would like to extend our sincere thanks and gratitude to my project guide Mr. Sanjay Singh, Product Manager, MHSCL, Dawalwadi for his kind help and support throughout the project. His valuable guidance, suggestions helped me in effective making of this project. I am also grateful to Mr. Vikas Rai Arora, Asst. Manager (Marketing), MHSCL, Dawalwadi for making comfortable at every steps of this project. He regularly advised me some useful corrections after evaluating my report of each district. He continuously helped me a lot in data analysis and report documentation. Thanks to Mr. Nikhil Solanki, Regional Business Manager (RBM), MHSCL, Agra who gave names of Territory Business Managers (TBM). Thanks to Mr. Amit Sharma (TBM), Mr. Randhir Singh (TBM), Naveen Chhabra (TBM), Mr. Kismat Sharma (TFA), Mr. Naveen (TFA) and Mr. Bhupendra (TFA) all of them helped me in finding five main dealers/distributors in each tehsil and nearby village for taking data from farmers. I would like to give special thanks to both dealers/distributors and farmers who gave valuable time in spite of their hectic schedule for providing data regarding wheat seed. Finally I would like to thanks all MHSCL team for their kind support in one way or other in giving good shape of my summer project. Anil Kumar Sahu M. Sc. (Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture and Rural Development) Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology (DA-IICT)
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is a report of summer project undertaken for the study of wheat seed market in five districts of Haryana i.e. Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Karnal, Panipat and Jind. Wheat seed market is having huge potential in Haryana. Mahyco is a reputed private sector company and it is pioneer in seed business. Mahyco is a first company to launch hybrid wheat variety. The objectives of this project are to find wheat acreage, market size, SRR, drivers for seed replacement, pay and pricing strategy in reference to BC ratio, prevailing products in the market, adoption process, penetration of Mahyco, competitors varieties, purchasing behaviour, reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences, product mapping of competitor’s, market development activities, future potential and viability of wheat varietal and hybrid business, opportunity areas for Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties and formulating marketing strategy. For better understanding of wheat seed market, researcher collected primary data by taking market survey in each tehsil. The data has been collected from both farmers (350) and dealers (150) on the basis of judgemental and convenience cum random sampling in each tehsil of above mentioned district with the help of a structured questionnaire which was mainly closed ended with few open ended options and few rank-wise questions. Researcher has taken data of at least 10 farmers and 5 dealers (prominent player in wheat seed business) in each tehsil. Analysis of data has been carried out through MS office Excel. Total acreage under wheat cultivation in over all five districts was 7.44 lakh ha and estimated acreage will be almost same in the next year. Minimum and maximum landholding size of Haryana farmers are 0.5 ha and 212 ha respectively (in sample size). Market potential of over all five districts is 7,44,000 Qtls and total market size of these district is 2,55,285 Qtls. Estimated market size in the next year is 2,76,423 Qtls. It means that there will increase of 8.28% in market size in the next year. Higher market size of wheat seed is in Jind followed by Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat district. Share of OP variety in market size is 99.56% and share of research variety is 0.44% in 2009-10 and 99.45% for OP and 0.55% for research in the next year (expected). Seed replacement rate is 34.31% in over all five districts. That is good indicator for Mahyco’s hybrid wheat. 65% seeds are saved for sowing purpose
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and rest 35% seeds are purchased. BC ratio of wheat variety and Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety are 17.33:1 and 21.25:1 respectively. Average seed price of wheat variety is Rs. 28.12/Kg and researcher calculated seed price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety is Rs. 42.86/Kg respectively. Farmers get influenced maximum by fellow farmers followed by their past experience, dealers, government officers, family & relatives, private company’s staff etc. Majority of farmers are aware of local companies (70%) who produce wheat seed followed by others companies. 64% farmers who know Mahyco and maximum awareness has been found through retailers (53%) followed by fellow farmers (34%), farmer meetings (2%), jeep campaign (1%), banners/poster (1%) and others (9%). Sorghum (SSG) is a top product of Mahyco because maximum farmers know Sorghum (SSG). Private companies have been entered in wheat seed business by launching research variety like Balram 011 (a variety of Krishidhan), Rushi (Vibha Seeds), Super 151, 152, 172 (DSCL), Thunder (Rasi Seeds) etc. 51% farmers prefer to grow OP variety followed by neutral (28%) means prefer to grow any varieties, Hybrid (20%) and research (1%). Over all dominancy of PBW 343 in all district except WH 711 a dominant variety in Kurukshetra.70 % farmers who know about promotional activities of agri Companies in a village. There are dominancy of Bayer Crop Science in a village followed by Syngenta, TATA, Pioneer, Sumitomo, Chambal Fertilizer, Nagarjuna Fertilizer, Shriram Fertilizer etc. Best channels for Mahyco’s promotion is farmers meeting (58%) followed by crop show (15%), jeep campaign (11%), banners/poster (5%), field visits (4%), leaflets (3%), wall paintings (1%), gift items (2%) and radio (1%). Opportunities are the good future potential of a company and this opportunity will be achieved by identifying new Unique Selling Propositions (USPs). Marketing strategy will depend on 4Ps like product, price, place of distribution and promotion. Farmers are interested in growing hybrid wheat variety. Kurukshetra and kaithal are showing same level of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat preference. It needs to do more promotional activities to the farmers about Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety.
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COMPANY’S PROFILE Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Limited, popularly known as 'Mahyco', was established in 1964 by Dr. Badrinarayan R. Barwale, and is a pioneer and leader in the Indian Seed Industry. The company strives to provide excellent quality hybrid seeds. Currently, it is engaged in the research, production, processing and marketing of approximately 115 products in 30 crop species including cereals, oilseeds, fibre and vegetables. Mahyco is also developing genetically enhanced crops with the use of gene transfer technology. It is the first private enterprise in India to produce and market hybrids of Cotton, Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Sunflower, Maize, Paddy and Wheat Mahyco is the first Indian company to commercially grow and market transgenic Bollgard cotton (India's first transgenic crop in 2002).
Infrastructure 1. A strong R & D infrastructure developed near Jalna (Maharashtra). 2. An ISO 9001-2000 company with largest multi-location ISO certification in India. 3. Network of more than 100000 farmers in 30 production centers of India. 4. State-of-art Processing units with in-house Quality Assurance facilities. 5. All India marketing network – more than 5000 sales outlets. Commitment to research and development Mahyco Research Centre (MRC), at Dawalwadi near Jalna is one of Asia’s most advanced seed industry Research and Development establishment and is well equipped with state of art labs for Molecular Microbiology, Seed health, Cytogenetics, Gene discovery & molecular markers, Pathology, Entomology, Molecular virology and Crop transformation. Quality assurance at mahyco The production, processing and packaging of seeds are done as per stringent quality assurance norms. Mahyco's Quality Assurance laboratory at Dawalwadi (INML-06) has been granted the status of Member Laboratory of the International Seed Testing Association
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(ISTA), Zurich, Switzerland since 1999 and the status of ISTA accredited Laboratory since April 2005. Awards 1989: National Award for R&D efforts in Agro Industries sector from the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India. 1990: Award by Indian Society of Science & Technology given to Mr. B. R. Barwale, founder & Chairman of Mahyco in recognition of his contribution to Seed Industry. 1990: Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry, (FICCI) Award for outstanding achievement in research in Science & Technology to develop Sunflower hybrid. 1996: Honorary Life Membership awarded to Shri B.R. Barwale, by FIS (Federation International Seeds men) - the apex body of the Seed Associations of the World. 1998: Shri. B.R. Barwale was awarded the World Food Prize for his outstanding achievement in the enhancement of the world's food supply, by the World Food Prize Foundation, USA. 2001: Shri B.R. Barwale has been awarded with Padma Bhushan on March 21, 2001 by his Excellency, The President of India for his contribution to trade and economic activity 2003: On 11th May, National Technology Day, the Vice President of India Hon. Shri Bhairov Singh Shekhawat and other ministries awarded mahyco the first national award for biotech product Commercialization (Biotechnology Award) IARI Award presented by the Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, in recognition of its outstanding contribution to Seed Industry. IMC Award for outstanding performance in hybrid Bajra (MBH-110) production. Life Membership at World Apex body
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Seed is a first and foremost input for better crops. Seed is an indispensable planting material for continuity of life. Seed plays a critical role in agricultural development. Seeds, which are considered the carriers of new technology for crop production and higher crop yield. In India more than four-fifths of the farmers rely on farm-saved seeds leading to a low seed replacement rate1.
Good quality seed is very important factor to achieve high production of food grains and to meet foods for fast growing population in the world. High production of food grains enhances food security and alleviating rural poverty in developing countries and it leads to sustainable development of life2.
Good quality seed means high genetic purity and identity, as well as high physical, physiological and health quality2. It must meet specific quality standards prescribed by the national seed regulations2.
Wheat seed is a consumable agricultural input. Wheat seed marketing is the heart of rural marketing and ultimately rural development. It supports the farm production which is a source of income for large mass of rural population. It creates market for other consumable and durable products in rural areas like fertilizers, pesticides, pump sets, harvesters etc. Therefore wheat seed marketing is a vehicle of modernization.
Haryana is one of the fastest growing states in the country in agriculture and industry Haryana is primarily an agricultural state where approximately 70 per cent population is engaged in agriculture or related activities3. Wheat, rice, mustard and cotton are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's different types of crops3.
Haryana plays a major role in wheat grain production. Haryana is a hub for wheat seed market. It got rank 4th, 3rd and 2nd in terms of area, production and productivity respectively
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for wheat cultivation in India4. Haryana contributes 14.04% of total wheat production in India4.
Farmers of this state are more innovative and they are adopting new agricultural technology. They adopt new variety of wheat seed but firstly they believe in trial, if trial would show good result then they are going to adopt new variety otherwise not.
Even though, farmers are not getting good quality wheat seed. Varieties like DBW 17 and PBW 550 came in market last year but these varieties did not satisfy farmer’s expectation in terms of yield. Farmers are growing same variety of wheat from very long time because of unavailability of better substitute. They are more eager to sow high yielding wheat variety. They do not think much either price of seed or types of variety rather thinking of higher yield.
Farmers of Haryana know that if they continue to cultivate similar variety for many years, the yield would decrease. Thus they are interested in changing wheat seed but due to unavailability of better substitute, they sow saved wheat seed and that leads to less production.
1.1. Demography of research area Haryana is located in the northwest part of the country and the climate is arid to semi arid. There are two agro climatic zones in the state. The north western part is suitable for Rice, Wheat, Vegetable and temperate fruits and the south western part is suitable for high quality agricultural produce, tropical fruits, exotic vegetables and herbal and medicinal plants6 The state of Haryana is bound by Uttar Pradesh in the east, Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south. The Union Territory of Delhi juts into Haryana and is encompassed by it on three sides. The south west of the Haryana is dry sandy and barren. There are 21 districts, 119 blocks and 6955 villages. The State has population density of 478 per sq. km. (as against the national average of 312)7
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Table 1: Demographic details of Haryana S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Parameters Total population (Census 2001) (in millions) Geographical area (‘000’ ha) Cultivable area (‘000’ ha.) Percent cultivable area Net area sown (‘000’ ha.) Gross cropped area (‘000’ ha.) Cropping Intensity Net area irrigated (Total) (‘000’ ha.) Fertilizer consumption (kgs/ha.) (2007-08) Average rainfall (mm.) (2008) Marginal farmers (in lakh) (Up to1 ha.) Small farmers (in lakh) (1-2 ha.) Other farmers (in lakh) (Above 2 ha.) Livestock population (in lakh)5 Availability of milk per capita per day (in gms)5
Values 21.14 4421 3809 86.2 3566 6504 182.39 2936 209 638.4 7.04 (46.1%) 2.94 (19.3%) 5.30 (34.7%) 98.97 660
Sources: http://mohfw.nic.in/NRHM/State%20Files/haryana.htm & http://agriharyana.nic.in/
1.2. Area, production and productivity of five districts and State total
Table 2: Area, production and productivity under wheat crop in five districts and State
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5
Districts Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panipat
Area (in Lakh hectare) 2.13 1.72 1.67 1.10 0.82 7.44 23.76
Production (in Lakh tonnes) 8.97 7.52 7.39 5.14 3.67 32.69 100.57
Productivity ( in Kgs/hectare) 4242 4373 4423 4672 4477 4431.4* 4061.95*
Over all districts State
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1.3. Key deliverables of the project i. ii. iii. iv. Estimation of wheat acreage, market and market size. Estimation of seed replacement rate; drivers for seed replacement. Ability of farmers to pay and pricing strategy in reference to BC ratio. Identification of prevailing products (varieties/ hybrids) (current usage by farmers) and analysis of adoption process. v. vi. vii. Study the penetration of Mahyco and competitors varieties in the area. Identifying purchase behaviour and reasons for hybrid/ varietal preferences. Competitor’s product mapping and market development activities required for Mahyco to become leader. viii. To study the future potential and viability for wheat varietal and hybrid business and identify opportunity areas for Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/ varieties and thereby formulating its marketing strategy.
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2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1. Data type and sources ¾ Primary data was collected by in depth interview with both farmers and dealers/distributors to achieve the objectives. ¾ Secondary data was collected from MHSCL, Jalna and government websites on internet.
2.2. Research method The data has been collected from both farmers and dealers in each tehsil of a district with the help of a structured questionnaire which was mainly closed ended with few open ended options and few rank-wise questions for better analysis of the data. It is necessary to understand farmers’ perception to make our strategic planning.
2.3. Project area A market survey was conducted in five districts of Haryana named as follows:a) Kurukshetra b) Kaithal c) Karnal d) Panipat e) Jind
The researcher explained above districts for market survey via showing map of India and Haryana. (Figure 1)
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Figure 1: Haryana state and districts of Haryana for wheat seed market research
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2.4. Sampling method
Dealers: Judgemental sampling and the judgement applied was that the dealer must be a
prominent player in the tehsil market.
Farmers: To know the true picture of wheat cultivation as well as our company awareness
and its products, it is necessary to do convenience cum random sampling for farmers. In random sampling adequate safe guard were ensured against bias and unreliability.
2.5. Sample size -Farmers: 350 -Dealers/distributors: 150 Sampling details of farmers and dealers/distributors has been shown in Table 3.
Table 3: Sampling details of farmers and dealer/distributors S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Districts Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panipat Total No. of tehsils 5 7 8 5 5 30 No. of sample of farmers 63 81 94 50 62 350 No. of sample of dealers/distributors 28 32 40 25 25 150
2.6. Analysis tools The responses of the farmers and the dealers were properly classified and tabulated in MS Office Excel for various parameter of study. The data analysis was carried out on tool built in MS Office Excel like Pivot table. Findings and analysis have been shown through making table, pie chart, line chart and column chart.
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2.7. Market survey technique Direct interview with farmers and dealers/distributors.
2.8. Procedure of market survey The researcher collected data of at least 10 farmers in each tehsil of a district either by visiting dealer’s/distributor’s shop or nearby village of a tehsil. Researcher took data of five main dealers in the tehsil. These five dealers were selected based on the information collected by company’s staff (TBM & TFA) and further analysis of data.
2.9. Data analysis and report -Data entry -Data tabulation -Chart generation -Application of statistical tools - Report documentation
2.10. Operational definitions
Farmer: The farmers who have land holding more than 0.5 hectare and growing wheat crop
from last one year.
Classification of farmers on the basis of land holding has been shown in Table 4 and number of different categories of farmers as per sample size has been shown in Table 5.
Table 4: Classification of farmers Land holding (ha) 1–2 2–4 >4 Type Small Medium Large
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Table 5: Number of different categories of farmers as per sample size Districts Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panipat Grand No. of large farmers 33 37 53 38 21 182 No. of medium farmers 21 25 20 8 24 98 No. of small farmers 9 19 21 4 17 70 Grand Total 63 81 94 50 62 350
Open pollinates / public variety: The variety released by government agencies or State
Agricultural Universities (SAUs)
Research variety: The variety released by private companies.
Hybrid variety: The first generation resulting from crossing of two heterogenic parents.
Neutral variety: Farmers who prefer to be neutral that means they can grow any types of
wheat varieties like OP, research and hybrid.
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3. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
3.1. Estimation of wheat acreage Table 6: Area under wheat cultivation in 2006-07 Districts Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panipat Total
Acreage (ha) 2,13,000 1,72,000 1,67,000 1,10,000 82,000 7,44,000
The above statistics says that total area under wheat cultivation is 7,44,000 ha. The maximum acreage under wheat cultivation is in Jind followed by Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Panipat district. Table 7: Acreage under wheat cultivation (in ha) for 2009-10 and 2010-11* in sample size S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 District Kurukshetra Kaithal Karnal Panipat Jind Total Acreage under wheat cultivation (2009-10) 659 1431.5 1471.7 660 818 5040.2 Acreage under wheat cultivation in 2010-11* 662.5 1457.75 1433.2 643.5 765.25 4962.2 % Change in acreage 0.53 1.83 -2.62 -2.50 -6.45 -1.55
Based on the data collected from farmers of sample size for wheat cultivation (for calculating area under wheat cultivation for 2009-10 and 2010-11, researcher took variety 1 and variety 2 of a particular farmer as a preference). Researcher found that acreage under wheat cultivation will be almost same in the next year (2010-11). Table 7 (above) and Chart 1 show that there is very less variation in area under wheat cultivation in the next year.
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Chart 1: Showing acreage under wheat cultivation in different district 3.2. Market potential Market potential is determined by total acreage under wheat cultivation multiplied by seed rate. Seed rate for wheat cultivation is 100 Kgs/ha for OP. After calculating, researcher found that market potential of five district is 7,44,000 Qtls. Market potential (Qtls)
=7,44,000 X 100 = 7,44,00,000 Kg = =7,44,000 Qtls
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3.3. Market size The size of the market has been calculated based on present sales and on estimated sales in the next year. The following are some information sources for determining market size:i. ii. Dealers/distributors data Government data available on website
Market size of five districts has been shown in Table 8 and Chart 2. It is clearly shown that Jind district have great potential for wheat seed market followed by Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat. Total market size in five district was 2,55,285 Qtls in the last year and estimated total market size in five district will be 2,76,423 Qtls in the next year. Table 8: Market size of different districts for wheat cultivation Districts Jind Kaithal Kurukshetra Karnal Panipat Total Market Potential (Qtls) 2,13,000 1,72,000 1,67,000 1,10,000 82,000 7,44,000 Quantity sold (Qtls) in 2009-10 79,788 60,779 58,005 34,752 21,961 2,55,285 Estimated quantity sale (Qtls) in 2010-11 86,796 61,735 65,537 38,724 23,631 2,76,423 % change in market size 8.78 1.57 12.99 11.43 7.60 8.28
Table 9 shows that over all share of OP variety was 99.56 % in the last year and estimated share of OP variety will be 99.45 % in the next year. Over all share of research variety was 0.44 % in the last year and estimated share of research variety will be 0.55 % in the next year. Maximum share of OP variety has been found in Jind (99.86 %) followed by Kaithal (99.81%), Kurukshetra (99.48 %), Karnal (99.38 %) and Panipat (98.27 %) district in the last year and estimated maximum share of OP variety will be in Jind (99.86 %) followed by Kaithal (99.82 %), Karnal (99.34 %), Kurukshetra (99.26 %) and Panipat (97.65 %) in the next year. The maximum share of research variety has been found in Panipat (1.73 %) followed by Karnal (0.62 %), Kurukshetra (0.52 %), Kaithal (0.19 %) and Jind (0.14 %) in
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the last year and maximum share of research variety will be in Panipat (2.35 %) followed by Kurukshetra (0.74 %), Karnal (0.66 %), Kaithal (0.18 %) and Jind (0.14 %) in the next year.
Chart 2: Showing market size of different district of wheat seed Table 9: Share of OP and research variety in the market of different districts S. No.
2009-10 Districts Share of OP* variety (%) Share of research* variety (%) 2010-11 (Estimated) Share of OP variety (%) Share of research variety (%)
1 Kurushetra 2 Kaithal 3 Karnal 4 Panipat 5 Jind Over all share
99.48 99.81 99.38 98.27 99.86 99.56
0.52 0.19 0.62 1.73 0.14 0.44
99.26 99.82 99.34 97.65 99.86 99.45
0.74 0.18 0.66 2.35 0.14 0.55
* OP varieties is released by Government agencies or State Agricultural University (SAUs) *Research variety is released by Private companies
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Chart 3: Showing share of research variety in different districts
Chart 4: Showing share of OP variety in different districts
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Chart 5: Showing the market share in different districts 3.4. Estimation of seed replacement rate Total acreage under crop (in Qtls) = 7,44,000 (in year 2006-07)
Acreage under brought seeds (in Qtls) = 2,55,285 (Total sold quantity by dealers in 2009-10) Seed replacement rate (SRR) = X 100
= = 34.31 %
Saved seed (Qtls) = Total acreage under crop (Qtls) – Acreage under brought seeds (Qtls) = 7,44,000 – 2,55,285 = 4,88,715 Therefore, researcher found that seed replacement rate (SRR) of five districts is 34.31 %.
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Chart 6: Showing share of saved seed and purchase seed
Chart 6 (above) shows that 66% seeds are saved for sowing purpose. Only 34% seeds have been purchased last year. 3.5. Drivers for seed replacement The farmers cited different reasons as their driver for seed replacement of an existing variety. These are:i. ii. iii. iv. v. Low grain yield Low straw yield Disease susceptibility Poor roti quality Lodging susceptibility
These reasons have been mentioned more lucidly in Chart 15.
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3.6. Ability of farmers to pay and pricing strategy in reference to BC ratio Pricing is an important strategic issue because it is related to product quality, channel of distribution and promotion. Farmers are not very price conscious. Some of the farmers had been grown research variety of private company even at higher seed price (Rs. 35-40/Kg). Farmers hire land from other farmers on rent (Theka). Now days, they are taking agriculture in the form of agribusiness rather than just as a source of living. Researcher described about pricing strategy of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat as follows: Wheat variety: Average seed price of all existing wheat varieties was found to be Rs. 28.12 /Kg and researcher is looking for the benefit of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat over other wheat variety (calculated seed price has been shown in Appendix, Table 30). Seed rate of wheat variety (Kgs/ha) = 100 Seed cost of wheat variety for one hectare (Rs. /ha) = 28.12 X 100 =2812 Grain selling price of wheat variety (Rs. /Qtls) = 1100 Average productivity of wheat variety (Qtls /ha) = 44.31 (Average productivity of selected five districts as shown in Table 2) Income per hectare (Rs. /ha) = Average yield of wheat variety (Qtls/ha) X Grain selling price of wheat variety (Rs./Qtls) = 44.31 X 1100 = 48741 BC ratio of wheat variety with respect to seed =
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Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety Seed rate of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Kgs/ha) = 60 Average productivity of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Qtls/ha) = 49.67 Grain selling price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Rs. /Qtls) = 1100 Note: Yield of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat is 49.67 Qtls/ha (Average yield of Pratham 7272 in all trial districts of Haryana is 49.67 Qtls/ha, Marketing demo data (2008- 2009). Reference: Dr. A.M.Rao, Group Leader, Course Grain Breeding, MHSCL, Dawalwadi, Jalna) Income per ha (Rs. /ha) = Yield of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Qtls/ha) X Grain selling price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Rs. /Qtls) =49.67 X 1100 =54637 Now researcher calculated extra benefits over wheat variety Extra benefits over wheat variety (Rs.) = Income per hectare of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety (Rs./ha) – Income per hectare of wheat variety (Rs. /ha) = 54637 – 48741 = 5896 Now company will add 20-30% of extra benefits over wheat variety on seed cost of wheat variety (Reference: Mr. Vikas Rai Arora, Asst. Manager, Marketing, MHSCL, Dawalwadi) Researcher considered 25% of extra benefits that will have to add in seed cost of wheat variety 25% of extra benefits over wheat variety = 5896 X 25% = 1474 rupees Company will add this amount on seed cost of wheat variety that would be the seed cost of Mahyco’s hybrid for one hectare.
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=1474 + seed cost of wheat variety (Rs./ha) =1474 + 2812 = 4286 Now seed price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed (Rs. /Kg) = Seed cost of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed (Rs. /ha) = Seed rate of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed (Kgs/ha) X Seed price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat (Rs. /Kg) =60 X 42.86 =2571.6 BC ratio of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat with respect to seed = = 42.86
= =21.25 Therefore BC ratio of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat with respect to seed is 21.25 and researcher calculated that price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed should be Rs. 42.86 /Kg. Table 10: Seed price rate of wheat variety and Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety Parameters Seed price (Rs./Kg) Seed Rate (Kgs/ha) Yield (Qtls/ha) Grain selling price (Rs./Qtl) Income per hectare (Rs. /ha) Extra benefits over wheat variety Cost on seed(Rs./ha) Share (25% of extra benefits will add on seed cost of wheat variety) BC ratio with respect to seed Wheat variety 28.12 100 44.31 1100 48741 2812 Mahyco’s wheat hybrid 42.86* 60 49.67 1100 54637 5896 2571.6 1474 21.25 : 1
17.33 : 1
* Researcher calculated price of Mahyco’s hybrid with respect to other wheat variety as explained in heading 3.6
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After calculating BC ratio, researcher found that BC ratio with respect to seed for wheat variety is 17.33:1 and for Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety is 21.25:1. Mahyco’s hybrid variety is having 22.62% more benefit over others wheat variety. That indicates feasibility of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed in the market. 3.7. Identification of prevailing products There are following prevailing products in five districts as shown in Table 11. Table 11: List of prevailing varieties Open pollinates wheat varieties released by Government agencies (like SAUs) Barbat UP 2565 WH 533 DBW 17 DW 162 HD 2894 PBW 502 WH 283 Harbir 603 Harbir 606 Ankur Kedar Harbir 609 Nath Mohan Wondar Pratham 7070 UP 2338 Raj 3765 Purna (HI 1556) HD 2189 WH 542 WH 711 WR 544 UP 2565 Rushi Super 151 Super 152 Hypro Nirmal Nirbhay WR 544 HD 2733 HD 2329 HD 2851 PBW 343 PBW 373 C 306 (Desi) HD 2189 Lok 1 HD 2687 PBW 550 HD 2932 PBW 509 WH 147 HD 2009 PBW 154 Supriya 701 Thunder Ajeet 109 Nirmal Abhay 139
Research wheat varieties released by Private company JK Vijay Balram 011 Super 172 Ajeet 102 Nirmal Ajay 72
Hybrid wheat varieties released by Mahyco company Pratham 7272
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3.8. Analysis of adoption process Farmers are sowing new variety as a form of experiment. They are interested to grow new variety for half or one acre as a trial purpose. If wheat variety would perform well in terms of yield, healthy plant growth, less input requirements and lodging resistance then farmers would adopt variety successfully. PBW 343 is a very old variety but still this variety inculcates in the mind of farmers to grow year after year. Farmers have trust on this variety. This variety performs well in any condition like various types of soil, low input requirement, lodging resistance etc except occurrence of diseases like loose smut, karnal bunt, powdery mildew and yellow rust. Farmers have grown new research variety released by private companies but this variety did not satisfy their expectation in terms of yield. Still farmers want to do some experiments with new variety. Similarly, PBW 550 and PBW 17 are new OP varieties released by government agencies. Farmers purchased them at higher price but these varieties did not perform as expected yield. Some district has been shown good yield of DBW 17. Some of the farmers are not going to sow DBW 17 in some district (Kaithal and Karnal) in the next year because of low yield. Apart from mentioned influencer as in Chart 7, there are other influencers too for farmers to decide which variety to buy like commission agent at mandi, cooperative society and farmer fair. Generally farmers asked with fellow farmers about performance of new wheat variety. If fellow farmers tell the good result in terms of yield, straw and other benefits then they influenced much and thought of growing new variety. Researcher found that maximum adoption of varieties due to fellow farmers as shown in Chart 7.
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Chart 7: Showing influencers for farmer to decide which variety to buy From Chart 7 clearly shows that after fellow farmers, past experience, dealers, govt. officers, family members & relatives, private company’s campaigns, print media, radio/television, opinion leaders and others are in decreasing influencer’s score. Farmer’s past experience is a very effective means of purchasing variety because they show the result practically in their field. Dealers are also main influencer because some farmer believes on dealers. They thought that whatever variety will recommend by him that would be better. Government officers also promote farmers to purchase new varieties. For example: most farmers had been grown hybrid sunflower due to influence of government officers. Private company’s staff like TFA influenced farmers to purchase new variety because TFA direct contacts with farmers and convinced them. Farmers are also influenced by relatives. Farmers discuss with relatives
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about which wheat variety to grow. If any new information for wheat variety gets from relatives then farmers discuss with him and trying to adopt it. Print media like newspaper, agriculture magazine also influenced farmers to purchase variety because this media gives whole information (like cultivation practices, benefits and other relevant information) of varieties. Radio/television is more common in state of Haryana. Farmers are watching agriculture news on DD1 (Khet-Khalihaan programme). They also get influence by this source. 3.9. Adoption of wheat seed companies by farmers Farmers know local company (70 %) who produces wheat seed. But these local companies are not producing new variety of wheat. The most of the seeds produced by local company are certified and approved by state certification agency. Local company purchase seeds either from farmers or itself cultivate wheat for seed purpose. They maintain good conditioned farmer’s fields and adopt scientific method of cultivation. After wheat harvest, company cleaned it and treat with chemicals and then packed and bagged and then labelled local company’s name on the bag. Company sales these wheat as a seeds in the next season. Haryana seed development corporation (HSDC) are major supplier of wheat seed. Farmers know that HSDC is producing wheat seeds but they do not know about private companies.
Chart 8: Showing awareness of farmers about wheat seed companies
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From Chart 8, researcher found that maximum awareness of farmers towards wheat seed company is local company (70%) and rest 30% awareness are all other companies like Mahyco, Krishidhan, DSCL, Ankur, Nath, SSC and Nirmal. There are following list of local wheat seed producing companies as shown in Table 12. Table 12: List of local wheat seed producing companies S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Name of other local companies (Seed Producing Unit) Amar Beej Co, Sirsa Arjun Seeds Shri Bala Ji Seed, Siwan, Kaithal Kamboj Seeds, Indri, Karnal Harbir Agro Tech Shankar Seed, Anta Micro Tech Seeds Parbhat Seed Traders, Kurukshetra Kurukshetra Seeds, Kurukshetra Hari-Har Seeds Goodwill Hybrid Seed, Uklana, Fatehabad Indian Seeds, Indri, Karnal Modern Seeds, Indri, Karnal Kadyan Seeds, Traori, Karnal Annapurna Seeds Kehar Seeds Moti Seeds Vardhman Seed, Kurukshetra Parkash Seeds, Hisar Suraj Seeds Murli Seeds Rabha Seeds Shiv Ganga Hybrid Seed Pvt. ltd., Hisar Surya Seeds & Chemicals, Fatehabad Sikandarpur Agriculture Farm Super Seed Pvt. Ltd, Hisar Quality Hybrid Seed, Hisar Grow Tech. Seeds, Hisar Uttam Seed, Hisar Uttam Seeds Corporation, Smalkha (Panipat)
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Penetration of Mahyco
Mahyco is a branded company in agriculture sector and its great values among farmers. Farmers have more faith in Mahyco in comparison to others companies but still it needs to do more promotion for brand awareness. Some tehsil of a district, farmers are unaware about Mahyco. They are very curious to know about our company but there is no such promotion to get information about company. There is less availability of Mahyco’s products in some tehsil of a district. For example: Madlauda (a tehsil of Panipat) where farmers are not willing to go Panipat for purchasing seed because of far distance from home. So they prefer Madlauda for purchasing of seed because of closer distance from home. Utla (a village of Madlauda), farmers of this village are domesticating a large numbers of buffaloes. Apart from food crops, they are cultivating non branded forage crop for their animals feed because awareness to Mahyco’s forage crop is low. That means penetration of Mahyco for fodder crop is very less in Madlauda. Maximum penetration of Mahyco is in Jind district (86%) followed by Kurukshetra (74%), Panipat (65 %), Kaithal (64 %) and Karnal (44 %) as shown in Table 13. Overall awareness of Mahyco is 64 % as shown in Chart 9. There is more than 50% awareness of farmers about Mahyco. It indicates that there would be good platform for Mahyco’s hybrid wheat varieties. Penetration of Mahyco is more at village near district place/headquarter or near tehsil. Some farmers are growing Mahyco’s Sorghum (MFSH 4) but they do not know company’s name. They just purchase from retailer and grow. They do not keep attention on brand of a company. Mahyco was famous for hybrid sunflower earlier because of yield was high. After successive decrease in acreage under sunflower as well as less production of Mahyco’s hybrid sunflower, other private company became popular. This is also a valid reason for reducing penetration of Mahyco. Farmers are confused about two brands of Agriculture Company because of similar pronunciation. These two brands are MAHYCO and MICO. Farmers have prejudice that both
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are same company but actually not like that. MICO is manufacturing pumps, filter and other agricultural equipments/machineries. MICO is one of the most famous agricultural companies in farm equipments/machinery sector. Some of the farmers have perception that MICO is also producing seeds but it is not like that. On other hand those farmers who aware of MAHYCO only then they undoubtedly purchase filter, pipes and other agricultural equipments. Both companies are getting benefit of being similar pronunciation. Farmers are not going to investigate company’s profile and name. They just purchase on the basis of his prejudice set in their mind that MICO/MAHYCO is reliable company so whatever the product that will be pure and good quality. Table 13: District wise penetration of Mahyco S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Districts Farmers who know Mahyco (%) 74 64 44 65 86 64 Farmers who don't know Mahyco (%) 26 36 56 35 14 36
Kurusketra Kaithal Karnal Panipat Jind Over all districts (%)
Chart 9: Showing awareness among farmers about Mahyco
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Chart 10: Showing different channels of Mahyco’s awareness Chart 10, shows that maximum awareness of Mahyco has been found through retailers (53%) followed by fellow farmers (34%), farmer meetings (2%), jeep campaign (1%), banners/poster (1%) and others (9%). Therefore retailers play major role in dissemination of awareness about Mahyco. Following other channels of awareness of Mahyco i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Print media (agriculture magazine, newspaper) Attractive bag of Mahyco’s product due to good picture of crop at retailer’s shop Commission agent at mandi. Company’s sales and marketing staffs (like TBM, TFA) Relatives and family members Government officers (like ADO) Television (Khet-Khalihaan channel)
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Chart 11: Showing No. of farmers who aware different products of Mahyco From Chart 11 shows that maximum number of farmers know Sorghum (SSG) product of Mahyco followed by sunflower, paddy and cotton. Rest of the other products of Mahyco have same level of awareness to the farmers like bottle guard, round guard, ladies’ fingers, ridge guard, cucumber, tomato, bitter guard, brinjal, maize. (Researcher calculated number of farmers based on top of the mind analysis) 3.11. Nature of competition and competitors varieties For wheat seed marketing, the competition is increasing. Wheat producing companies are adopting new methods to tap the wheat seed market. Some of the private companies are trying to capture wheat seed market by developing research varieties as shown in Table 14.
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There are following competitors and its varieties in wheat seed market:Table 14: List of competitors and its varieties S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Company’s name Harbir Agro Tech Ajeet Seeds Ankur Seeds Krishidhan Vibha Seeds Rasi Seeds DSCL Supriya Bio Science Manisha Agri Bio Tech JK Seeds Nirmal Seeds Nath Seeds Research varieties Harbir 603, Harbir 606, Harbir 609 Ajeet 102, Ajeet 109 Ankur Kedar Balram 011 Rushi Thunder Super 151, Super 152, Super 172 Supriya 701, Supriya 201(Hybrid) Hypro JK Vijay Nirmal Nirbhay, Nirmal Ajay 72, Nirmal Abhay 139 Nath Mohan Wonder
3.12. Identifying purchasing behaviour Farmers follow other farmers for cultivating wheat variety. If progressive farmers are growing DBW 17 then rest of other farmers will also grow DBW 17. Farmers are directed towards which kind of variety are growing by fellow farmers for wheat cultivation. They influenced much by fellow farmers. They discuss with fellow farmer for deciding which variety to purchase. Following people are involved in purchasing process: i. Retailers/dealers/distributors: Farmers have good faith on him. Whatever they will advice, farmers will be accepted. These people play a major role in shifting one variety to other variety for purchasing same kind of crop/any other products by farmers.
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For example: Farmers have been decided/determined to purchase Round Up (a herbicide) of Monsanto company, but retailers/distributors influence to purchase Bound Off (a herbicide) of other company. Farmers completely convinced by them. But some farmers are very rigid to purchase agri-inputs that they have faith on product and they have been made trial of that product. So such farmers have strong determination power. ii. Private company’s staff: Company’s staff visits in village and convinced to farmers to purchase his company’s product. iii. Government officers: Government officers also give advice to farmers for purchasing product of a company, if product of a company is of good quality. iv. v. Fellow farmers: Fellow farmers are also responsible for purchasing variety of wheat. Family members and relatives: These people also play a role in purchasing variety of wheat. Purchasing behaviour of farmers will depend on following factors:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Quality of product Price of product Timely delivery of product Providing field service Production of product Reputation of product Age of farmers Income of farmers Education of farmers
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Attitude of farmers Culture of farmers
From Chart 1 shows that maximum number of farmers i.e 51 %farmers are preffered to grow OP variety for wheat cultivation followed by neutral (28%) that means any kind of variety, hybrid (20%) and research (1%). Still there are more scope of hybrid wheat variety because 20% farmers want to grow hybrid variety and that percentage may increase if Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety would satisfy farmers needs and want.
Chart 12: Showing preference for wheat cultivation in over all five districts
Table 15: District-wise hybrid/varietal preferences District Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Panipat
Over all (%)
Farmers who Farmers who prefer OP prefer Hybrids (%) (%) 61.5 12.3 35.8 27.2 46.8 21.3 46.0 28.0 72.6 8.0
Farmers who prefer Research (%) 1.5 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0
Farmers who prefer Neutral (%) 23.2 37.0 31.9 24.0 19.4
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Chart 13: Showing preference of farmers in different district From Chart 13 (above), clearly shows that farmers of Panipat and Jind are inclined more towards open pollinated variety. Farmers of Panipat and Jind show less preference towards hybrid wheat variety in respect to rest of other three districts. Farmers who prefer to be neutral, they lie in between open pollinated variety and hybrid variety. Very less number of farmers prefers research variety. 3.13. Reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences
Farmers have good trust on open pollinated variety. Those farmers who are growing open pollinated variety from long time, they are thinking that farmers will have to solely depend on company’s hybrid for wheat cultivation. Farmers will have to purchase seed each year. They have misconception that if farmers will adopt hybrid variety then open pollinated variety will extinct from our planet. So there is need to save government variety (OP variety). That’s why they do not prefer hybrid variety.
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Some farmers want more yield only whatever the types of variety. They are not thinking much about either open pollinated or hybrid or even research variety. The reasons for farmer’s preference towards varieties are mentioned as per the Chart 14 (below)
Chart 14: Showing reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences Besides farmers were also enquired about reasons for which they wants to change their existing variety. Chart 15, shows the parameters for changing their existing variety.
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Chart 15: Showing drivers for seed replacement Truth about reasons can also be inferred as the attributes which they would prefer in a new variety. Thus these would be their drivers for replacement of an existing variety. Apart from the parameters as indicated in Chart 15, there are some other parameters too for replacement of existing varieties as follows: i. Farmers are growing existing variety from very long time so they thought of replacing existing variety with new variety. ii. iii. iv. v. Shattering affect is also valid reason for replacement of seed. Existing variety are susceptible at high temperature. Poor germination of existing variety.
Existing variety are susceptible for water logging condition.
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Competitor’s product mapping
Researcher calculated top five selling varieties along with its quantity (Qtls) in each tehsil of a district. After collecting all sold quantities of wheat varieties of tehsil in all five districts, variety wise summation of sold quantity of all top wheat varieties and arranged these quantities in descending order as shown in Table 16. Table 16: Overall selling of top competitor’s varieties of wheat in the five districts S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Varieties PBW 343 PBW 711 DBW 17 PBW 502 PBW 550 PBW 373 WH 542 HD 2329 HD 2733 HD 2687 HD 2851 HD 2932 WH 147 HD 2894 Harbir 606 Total Quantity of sale (Qtls) in 2009-10 116832 31779 24516 18036 8809 5762 3533 3331 2983 1968 1300 1044 925 906 175 221898 Estimated quantity of sale (Qtls) in 2010-11 122298 36620 18221 19663 12730 6132 2304 2796 5090 2298 4710 1438 925 1250 250 236725 Change (%) 4.68 15.23 -25.68 9.02 44.51 6.42 -34.78 -16.06 70.66 16.77 262.31 37.72 0.00 37.93 42.86 6.68
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Chart 16: Showing overall selling of top competitor’s variety of wheat in five districts Chart 16 (above), shows that there is dominancy of PBW 343 wheat variety followed by PBW 711, DBW 17, PBW 502, PBW 550 etc. From Chart 16, researcher found that there will increase in sale of PBW 343, WH 711, PBW 502, PBW 550, PBW 373, HD 2733, HD 2687, HD 2851, HD 2932, HD 2894, Harbir 606 and will decrease in sale of DBW 17, WH 542, HD 2329 and will be same sale of WH 147 in the next year. Overall five districts there will increase of 6.68% in sale of wheat seed in the next year.
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Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Kurukshetra
district Table 17 and Chart 17, shows that there is dominancy of PBW 711 and will increase with 12.86% followed by PBW 373 (10.44 %), DBW 17 (12.86 %), HD 2733 (13.58 %), HD 2687 (16.77 %), PBW 502 (3.47 %) and PBW 343 (0.26 %) in the next year. Here there will 3rd most demand of DBW 17 and 4th most demand of PBW 550. Both varieties are new wheat variety. It gave high yield particularly in Kurukshetra district. Overall increase in sale of top selling wheat seed will be 10.55 % in the next year. Table 17: List of top selling wheat varieties in Kurukshetra district S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Varieties PBW 711 PBW 343 DBW 17 PBW 550 HD 2733 HD 2687 PBW 502 PBW 373 Total Quantity sale in 2009-10 16709 13966 8258 4859 2983 1968 1615 594 50952 Estimated quantity sale in 2010-11 18858 14003 9320 6134 3388 2298 1671 656 56328 Change (%) in quantity 12.86 0.26 12.86 26.24 13.58 16.77 3.47 10.44 10.55
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Chart 17: Showing top selling wheat varieties in Kurukshetra district 3.16. Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Kaithal district
Table 18 and Chart 18, shows that there will increase in sale of PBW 343 with 3.18 % in the next year. There are variations of being a top selling wheat variety year after year. For example: HD 2851 and HD 2733 were not top selling variety in the last year but these will be top selling variety in the next year. Similarly WH 542 is a top selling variety in last year but will not top selling variety in the next year. There will be decrease in sale of both DBW 17 (-62.54 %) and PBW 711 (-5.40 %) in the next year. Reason is that DBW 17 did not perform well in the last year that means this variety did not give expected yield and farmers was purchased this variety at higher price. Sale of PBW 550 (29.83 %) and HD 2329 (30 %) will increase in the next year and data shows that PBW 550 has good yield in comparison to DBW 17 in Kaithal district. Over all there will decrease (-2.32 %) of top selling varieties in the next year.
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Table 18: List of top selling wheat varieties in Kaithal district S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Varieties Quantity sale in 2009-10 Estimated quantity sale in 2010-11 36858 2715 6433 2278 2816 1341 195 1013 1703 52636* % change in quantity 3.18 -62.54 21.91 -5.40 29.83 46.40 30.00
PBW 343 DBW 17 PBW 502 PBW 711 PBW 550 WH 542 PBW 373 HD 2329 HD 2851 HD 2733 Total
35721 7247 5277 2408 2169 1368 NTSVA 916 150 NTSVA NTSVA 53888*
Percentage and total did not consider S. No. 6, 9 & 10 A: Not Top Selling Varieties
Chart 18: Showing top selling wheat varieties in Kaithal district
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Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Karnal district
Table 19 and Chart 19, shows that there is dominancy of PBW 343 in Karnal district. There will increase in sale of top selling wheat variety in the next year like PBW 343 (30.52 %), WH 711 (27.93 %), PBW 550 (64.17 %), HD 2851 (165.23 %), HD 2932 (37.74 %), HD 2894 (37.97 %) and WH 542 (15.60 %). There will decrease in DBW 17 (-71.04 %), PBW 502 (-6.37 %) and PBW 373 (-50 %) in the next year. Sale of DBW 17 will also decrease in the next year. DBW 17 also did not show good yield. There will increase in sale of HD 2851 in the next year because farmers of Karnal will sow wheat after harvest of late variety basmati rice and HD 2851 is a late variety and this variety gives good yield in late sowing. So they prefer to grow HD 2851. There will also increase in PBW 550 due to high yield. Over all sale of wheat seed will be increasing at 12.96 % in the next year. Table 19: List of top selling wheat varieties in Karnal district S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Varieties PBW 343 DBW 17 PBW 502 WH 711 PBW 550 HD 2851 HD 2932 HD 2894 WH 542 PBW 373 Total Quantity sale in 2009-10 (Qtls) 11033 5821 2370 2066 1507 1300 1044 906 840 250 27137 Estimated quantity sale in 2010-11 (Qtls) 14400 1686 2219 2643 2474 3448 1438 1250 971 125 30654 % change in quantity 30.52 -71.04 -6.37 27.93 64.17 165.23 37.74 37.97 15.60 -50.00 12.96
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Chart 19: Showing top selling wheat varieties in Karnal district
Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Panipat district
Table 20 and Chart 20, shows that there is greater dominancy of PBW 343. Overall sale will increase of 4.82 % of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. There will increase of 9.09% sale of PBW 550 in the next year. Sales of other varieties will also increase like PBW 502 (6.67 %), PBW 711 (9.16 %), PBW 373 (0.48 %) and DBW 17 (6.17 %).
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Table 20: List of top selling wheat varieties in Panipat district S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Varieties PBW 343 PBW 502 PBW 711 PBW 373 DBW 17 PBW 550 Harbir 606 HD 2851 Total Quantity sale in 2009-10 (Qtls) Estimated quantity sale in 2010-11 (Qtls) 13475 2096 1764 1472 1463 300 250 20570* % change in quantity 4.26 6.67 9.16 0.48 6.17 9.09
12925 1965 1616 1465 1378 275 175 NTSVA NTSVA 19624*
* Percentage and total sum did not consider S. No. 7 & 8
: Not Top Selling Variety
Chart 20: Showing top selling wheat varieties in Panipat district
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Analysis of market of top selling varieties of wheat in Jind district
From Table 21 and Chart 21, shows that maximum sale of wheat variety is PBW 343 followed by PBW 711, PBW 502, HD 2329, PBW 373, DBW 17, WH 542 and WH 147. But sale of HD 2329 will decrease in the next year. Farmers of Jind district are more concentrated towards PBW 343. They are also growing WH 147 because they require less fertilizer and other inputs but due to problem of lodging they do not prefer. Demand of DBW 17 will increase in the next year and sale of HD 2329 will decrease in the next year. Over all increase of 5.17% sale of wheat varieties in the next year.
Table 21 : List of top selling wheat varieties in Jind district S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Varieties PBW 343 PBW 711 PBW 502 HD 2329 PBW 373 DBW 17 WH 542 WH 147 PBW 550 Total Quantity sale in 2009-10 (Qtls) 43188 8981 6809 3181 2538 1813 1325 925 NTSVA 68760* Estimated quantity sale in 2010-11 (Qtls) 43563 11079 7244 2601 2538 3038 1325 925 1006 72313* % change in quantity 0.87 23.36 6.39 -18.23 0.00 67.57 0.00 0.00 5.17*
* Percentage and Total did not consider S. No. 9
A: Not Top Selling Variety
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Chart 21: Showing top selling wheat varieties in Jind district
Market development activities
Marketing of wheat seed is very challenging because of nature of seed. Seed quality deteriorates faster due to infection of insects and pests. Promotion is a major tool for Market development activities. Apart from promotion there is need to develop strong confidence among business partners like company, distributors/dealers, retailers and farmers. Best channels for Mahyco’s promotion are farmers meeting, crop show, jeep campaign, field visits and other channels as shown in Chart 24. Market development is carried out through brand’s image and reputation for reliability and quality of product.
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There are following phases of market development:a) First phase: i. ii. iii. Target market of wheat seeds Product mapping of wheat seeds as shown in Table 16 and Chart 16 Sales and market share of wheat seeds
b) Second phase: i. ii. iii. Product price Distribution of wheat seeds Marketing budget
c) Third phase: i. ii. iii. Long run sales of wheat seeds Profit goals Marketing mix strategy (4Ps of marketing)
Apart from above, there are following points to be considered for market development: a) Advertising b) Distribution c) Pricing d) Branding e) Packaging
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3.20.1. Promotional awareness of agri companies in a village:
Chart 22: Showing promotional awareness of farmers about agri company in a village
From Chart 22, 70 % farmers know about promotion of any products in a village by companies. This show good condition for launching a new product because they know why company came in village. They will listen carefully during promotional activities like farmers meetings, field services and individual contact with farmers by TFA. Farmers will accept and understand about new product after knowing it through promotional activities.
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3.20.2. Companies campaigning in the village:
Chart 23: Showing top agri companay campaigning in a village (on the basis of TOMA of farmers) From Chart 23, Majority of farmers know that Bayer company comes in village for promotional activities of product. Farmers is having maximum awareness to Bayer company followed by Syngenta (Branded product is Topic), TATA ((including Tata chemicals and Tata Rallis), Pioneer, Sumitomo (Branded product is Leader), Chambal Fertilizers, Shriram Fertilizers, DuPont, Monsanto, Dhanyaa, Nodai seeds, Gharda chemicals, Vibha seeds, Rasi seeds. Companies are visiting mostly in paddy season for advertising pesticide in diseased paddy crop. Above observation is made on the basis of top of the mind analysis (TOMA) of the farmers that means farmers firstly response to above companies and ignore both 2nd and 3rd response of the farmers.
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3.20.3. Methods of campaigning by other companies:
Chart 24: Showing campaign methods by other companies in a village Other methods of campaign by agricultural companies:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.
Television. Give sample free for trial/demonstration. Bike campaign (20-25 in numbers). Individual contact with farmers. Film show on variety. Company provides tour to farmers at various agricultural research farms. Cultural programme like Nukkar natak as well as theatre by local artist/singer. Distribute pesticide at cheap rate in village. Gift offer as a coupon in product bag.
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Suggestions for Mahyco’s promotion: From Chart 25, clearly shows that 58 %
farmer’s advice is that there should be farmer meeting for Mahyco’s promotion. Other methods are crop shows (15 %), jeep campaign (11 %), banners and poster (5 %), field visits (4 %), leaflets (3 %), gift items (2 %) , radio (1 %) and wall painting (1 %). Farmers suggested that there should be a meeting after crop show in the standing crop.
Chart 25: Showing suggestion methods for Mahyco promotion
Other methods for Mahyco’s promotion: i. Training & Visit system(tour from one farm to other farm as well as company's research station) ii. Television.
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Provide agricultural information on mobile to the farmers. Demonstration/trial at 5-10 Km distance of interval and fix a meeting at standing crop.
Firstly give seed free/at cheap rate as a sample for 1-2 acre to a group of progressive farmers, if yield would be same as company has said, then farmer will pay the cost of seed otherwise not, Farmers will follow all instructions for cultivation practices, if yield would be less, then company have to pay all expenses that was incurred by farmers.
Fix a programme of local dancer, Nukkar Natak and singer who are famous for Punjabi and Haryanwi songs and there should be a small drama on company’s promotion.
vii. viii. ix.
Make Mahyco farmer society. Print media (like agriculture magazine, newspaper etc.) Show video film based on variety and company’s profile.
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4. OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION
4.1. Future potential and viability for wheat varietal and hybrid business There are good future potential and viability for wheat varietal and hybrid business. Farmers are interested to grow new product (hybrid wheat) just as a trial purpose in the first year. If this new product would show good result at farmer’s field level, then farmers would accept to grow for next year.
Chart 12, clearly shows that 20 % farmers, 28 % farmers, 51 % farmers and 1 % farmers prefer to grow hybrid, to be neutral, OP and research wheat variety respectively. Initially 20 % preference of hybrid wheat variety is a good indicator for future potential of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat.
Chart 13, clearly shows that maximum preference of hybrid wheat variety is in Kurukshetra district followed by Kaithal, Karnal, Jind and Panipat district.
From Chart 17, Kurukshetra shows 10.55 % increase in sale of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. From Chart 18, Kaithal shows (-) 2.32 % decrease in sale of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. From Chart 19, Karnal shows 12.96 % increase in sale of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. From Chart 20, Panipat shows 4.82 % increase in sale of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. From Chart 21, Jind shows 5.17 % increase in sale of top selling wheat varieties in the next year. Chart 16, shows that Overall sale of top selling wheat varieties will increase with 6.68%.
Acreage under wheat crop will be all most same as last year as per Table 7. There is slight increase or decrease in acreage under wheat cultivation in different five districts. For example: acreage under wheat cultivation in Jind (-6.45 %), Panipat (-2.50 %) and Karnal (-2.62 %) will be slightly decreasing but slightly increasing in Kurukshetra (1.83 %) and Kaithal (0.53 %) in the next year (based on data collected from variety 1 and variety 2 of a particular farmer as a preference). Thus there will less variation in acreage under wheat
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cultivation in the next year that will be very helpful to launch Mahyco’s wheat hybrid variety. That will lead to better future potential as well as viability of wheat varietal and hybrid business.
4.2. Opportunity areas for Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties Opportunity is an external feature of marketing process for a company to make a strategic planning (means long term future planning to achieve the objective). Finding opportunity is a good source of development of new products. Opportunities are the potential future of a company. There are following opportunities areas for Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties:-
To know the market trend of existing wheat varieties in potential area for wheat cultivation.
Formulation of effecting marketing channel. This marketing channel can offer the opportunity to develop a competitive advantage to others company.
Variety should be categorised in early, medium and late because some farmers grows wheat after harvest of sugarcane, potato, basmati rice, sunflower and cotton. Variety should perform well in wide range of climates and soil conditions.
Identifying Unique Selling Propositions (USPs) of Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties are as follows:1) Compact grains. 2) Good seed setting. 3) Lodging tolerance: Maximum farmers of Haryana are using Combine machine for harvesting of wheat crop. If lodging takes place in the field of wheat then there would be impossible for harvesting with Combine machine. 4) More number of tillers 5) More number of grains per spike. 6) Suitable for any types of soil like saline, alkaline and sandy soil: Quality of water in Jind district is not good. Ground water is saline. So there should be need of saline, alkaline and sandy soil tolerant variety of wheat.
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7) Water logging tolerance. 8) Terminal heat tolerance: There was extreme hot temperature at the time of seed setting and this condition was observed just before 10 days of maturity in last year. 9) Rust tolerance 10) Tolerance to grain shrivelling and shattering. 11) High genetic and germination purity. 12) Shape and size of ear 13) Low input requirement: Jind district is facing shortage of water. Ground water level is at very low level. 14) High sedimentation value of wheat grains 15) Colour and shining of grains: Colour of flour should be whitish so that it can add the value of roti quality. 16) Grain size should be bold. 17) Good roti quality and bread making quality: Softness property remains same for longer period after making roti. Roti should be tasty and liked by large number of people. 18) Nutrient contents: Biscuit making company, Flour millers, Bakery industries or other food companies select wheat based upon its protein content, price, baking quality, appearance, flour yield value and other quality factors. Wheat variety may develop in which vitamins (such as niacin, thiamine and riboflavin) also will present. For good baking quality, it needs to be starch, proteins, and lipids. 19) Plant height: Plant height should be average. Apart from more grain yield farmers are also interested in getting more straw because straw price is increasing year after year. They use straw for their animal. 20) Unsuccessful of competitor’s research variety released by private companies. v. Farmers are interested to try new wheat hybrid variety (20% farmers prefers to grow hybrid wheat variety)
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Due to intensive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and other agro chemicals in Haryana, quality of soil and water are deteriorating and causing toxicity. So there is need to develop such wheat varieties that have tolerant to toxic quality of soil and water i. e wheat variety should be toxic resistance.
Wheat variety should be tolerant to pest and diseases. Good repo among farmers due to Mahyco brand value. So most of the farmers will grow Mahyco’s wheat hybrid/varieties
4.3. Marketing strategy
The marketing concept of Mahyco company must be concentrated around the profitable satisfaction of farmers needs. This will help to achieve success in high-growth. For achieving successful market, a well developed marketing strategy is required. Such a strategy makes possible after analysing marketing research of a product. Marketing of wheat seed is determined by the needs, want and demand of farmers. Marketing strategy is to satisfy farmer’s needs and want after sowing wheat variety. Need, Want and Demand are the basic concepts of Marketing Farmer’s needs and want are as follows: Table 22: Farmer’s needs and wants Farmer’s needs High yield High market price of output Low input requirement Disease resistance Farmer’s wants Good roti quality Low cost of seeds Lodging resistance No shattering More protein and vitamin content
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Marketing of wheat seed can be developed through research and identifying potential farmers. Then accordingly find best way to introduce product to them that would be carried by advertising and other marketing strategy. There are two concepts of marketing strategy: a) The selling concept: Main focussed area is product and making profit through increasing in sales volume by incorporating better selling and promotional technique. b) The marketing concept: Main focussed area is farmer’s need and making profit through satisfying farmers need by incorporating integrating marketing. Both concepts are illustrated in Figure 2. Focus Means End
Selling Products And Promoting (a) The Selling Concept
Profits through Sales volume
Profits through farmer’s Satisfaction
(b) The Marketing Concept
Sources: Theodore Levitt, “Marketing Myopia”, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1960
Figure 2: Showing selling concept and the marketing concept
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Marketing strategy for wheat seed is dependent on 4 Ps: I.
Product: A product is something that is viewed as capable of satisfying needs of
farmers. Product is a first step of increasing marketing. Wheat seeds are perishable in nature and its demand is seasonal. Quality of product matters a lot. Quality of product increases market value. It establishes strong relation between company and farmers for long term. For example: Sorghum (MFSH 4) of Mahyco. MFSH-4 performs better in comparison to variety of other company. Following characteristics of wheat seed: i. Quality: Cleaned wheat seed, treated with fungicide, good germination percentage, good purity percentage etc. ii. Features: Produce more yield, disease resistant, healthy plant growth, low input requirements, lodging resistance, high market price of output, good water absorbing capacity, etc. iii. Brand name: Farmers believe and have faith on branded company like Mahyco, Bayer, Pioneer, Syngenta etc. iv. Packing: Packing should be flexible and easy to carry for distant places. Example wheat packet should be of different size of quantity that means wheat seed packet should be available in 10Kg, 20 kg & 40kg packet. All descriptions about wheat variety must be written on packet of product. v.
Service level: There is need of providing services to the farmers from company.
Very critical factor for getting higher market share. The pricing variation may depend on the paying capacity of the market and local taxes and duties.
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Price of wheat seed is determined by all available competitors’ products in the markets.
There should be some discount on more sales of quantity of products to the farmers.
Place of Distribution:
Distribution channels: Company follows any one of the following channels at one time. Channel 1
Production ii. Unit
C & F Agent
Channel 2 Production iii. Unit Company’s Depot Dealers/Distributors Retailers Farmers
Channel 3 Production Unit Dealers/Distributors Retailers Farmers
Channel 4 Production Unit Dealers/Distributors Farmers
Figure 3: Showing different distribution channels
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Distribution coverage: Wheat seed distribution should be covered firstly at potential area of wheat cultivation. After that distribution should be at less potential area.
Availability of products: Generally agriculture related shops are aggregated at grain market or vegetable market in district level, tehsil level and sub-tehsil level. Therefore Mahyco’s products should reach upto Panchayat level as shown in Figure 4. District level Tehsil level Sub-tehsil level
Panchayat level Figure 4: Showing different location for availability of Mahyco’s product
Sales and marketing territories: Potential area of wheat cultivation should be controlled by sales and marketing territories office.
Transportation carriers: Transportation carriers also play a major role in increasing marketing efficiency of wheat seed. Marketing of wheat seed are very responsive. Delivery of wheat seeds should follow real time property. Product will have to reach at destination places in shortest possible of time. If any delay in delivery of product may causes great loss in business of a company.
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¾ Retailers play a key role in pushing the products to the farmers. ¾ Kisan melas which are increasingly becoming important means of marketing. This melas gives an opportunity to the farmers to do comparative analysis of products and brands. ¾ Through advertisement on TV, radio, print media (news paper in local language, agriculture magazines etc.), hoardings, posters, pamphlets, audio cassettes and theatre ¾ Free samples of the seed being distributed to the farmers for field trial/demonstration ¾ Video shows, exhibitions, bike/jeep campaign, wall paintings at village point level and banners/poster at retail point level 4.4. Supply chain strategy a) Establish a world-class Supply Chain (SC) infrastructure. b) Foremost important messages of supply chain success are quality, price and timely delivery of products to destination places and maintain relationships with farmers and dealers/distributors. c) Supply chain is required for fulfilling a farmer request. d) Higher the supply chain profitability, the more successful is the supply chain. e) Intensive use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for real-time communication across the supply chain that means reducing response time, lowering the cost and expediting communications and transportation of information among supply chain partners.
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5. RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS There are followings recommendations and suggestions as follows:i. Mahyco’s product should be available at each one of tehsil of a district of potential area for wheat cultivation. ii. It is mandatory for Mahyco that at least one dealer should be of Mahyco in each tehsil of a district of potential area for wheat cultivation in Haryana. iii. Less difference in price of Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed with other research varieties of private companies. iv. Company have to find farmer’s behaviour and cropping pattern in particular region. For example: Dadupur village of Karnal, farmers prefer late variety of wheat because they are growing basmati rice and it takes more time to mature. After harvest of basmati rice, they sow wheat crop. In that respect, all types of wheat variety should be available in a company like early variety, medium variety and late variety under wheat cultivation. v. For launching a new variety, firstly seed should be given to progressive farmers in each village. Reason is that progressive farmers play a major role in promoting new variety because they are associated with so many farmers directly or indirectly. vi. vii. There is need to strengthen promotional channel in a village. Nationwide programme is needed for launching new hybrid wheat seed because it is of first in kind. viii. There is need to strong supply chain business partners like company, dealers/distributors, retailers and farmers.
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The company will have to know soil type, land use pattern, cropping pattern, socio economic condition of farmers in particular regions for better formulation of marketing strategy for wheat crops.
Mahyco’s hybrid wheat seed should be cost effective crop production. There should be facility of agri-advisory services by making Farmer Care Centre (FCC) in each district so that farmer can get appropriate information about climatic condition (weather forecasting , temperature, relative humidity), accurate sowing time of particular wheat variety, package of
practices of different of Mahyco’s products and other agri relevant information. This FCC will help in establishing wide interlinked network of automatic weather station with real time data dissemination across the country. FCC will also help to the farmers through sending message on mobile to the farmers. There should be facility of sending message from farmers to the FCC for any query regarding wheat cultivation and query will be registered through better Database Management System (DBMS) and this DBMS will store data of farmers when they will call to the company. xii. There will be need of one week farmers training session at FCC for any Mahyco’s products xiii. There is need to develop farmers friendly website (in local language) so that farmers can see appropriate information regarding Mahyco’s product and other relevant information. Now day’s farmers are surfing internet due to involvement of young generations in agriculture sector. They know how internet will help to farmers. Therefore complete use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in providing better facilities to the Haryana farmers.
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6. CONCLUSION i. Total acreage under wheat cultivation in over all five districts is 7.44 lakh ha. Acreage under wheat cultivation will be slightly increasing in Kurukshetra and Kaithal district but slightly decreasing in Karnal, Panipat and Jind district. ii. Market potential of over all five district is 7, 44,000 Qtls and total market size of these district is 2, 55,285 Qtls. iii. Growth in market size of over all five districts is 8.28 %. Growth of market size in Jind, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat are 8.78 %, 1.57 %, 12.99 %, 11.43 % and 7.6 % respectively. iv. Share of OP variety in study area is 99.56 % and share of research variety is 0.44 % in 2009-10 and 99.45 % for OP and 0.55 % for research in the next year. v. Maximum market share is contributed by Jind (31 %) followed by Kaithal (24 %), Kurukshetra (23 %), Karnal (14 %), Panipat (8 %). vi. Seed replacement rate is 34.97 % in over all five districts. 65 % seeds are saved for sowing purpose and rest 35 % seeds are purchased. vii. Maximum seed replacement is due to low yield, disease susceptibility, lodging susceptibility, high cost of seeds etc. viii. BC ratio with respect to seed of wheat variety and Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety are 17.33:1 and 21.25:1 respectively. ix. Average seed price of wheat variety and Mahyco’s hybrid wheat variety should be Rs. 28.12/Kg and Rs. 42.86/kg respectively. (Researcher recommendation)
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Farmers get influenced maximum by fellow farmers followed by their past experience, dealers, government officers, family & relatives, private company’s staff etc.
Maximum farmers are aware of local companies (70%) followed by Krishidhan (8%), Mahyco (7%), DSCL (5%), SSC (5%), Ankur (3%), Nirmal (1%) and Nath (1%)
64 % farmers who know about Mahyco and maximum awareness has been found through retailers (53 %) followed by fellow farmers (34 %), farmer meetings (2 %), jeep campaign (1 %), banners/poster (1 %) and others (9 %).
Sorghum (SSG) is a top product of Mahyco because maximum farmers know about sorghum (SSG). Other products are Sunflower, Ladies’ fingers, Paddy, Cotton, Bottle guard etc.
Private companies have been entered in wheat seed business by launching research varieties like Balram 011 (produced by Krishidhan), Rushi (produced by Vibha Seeds), Super 151, 152, 172 (produced by DSCL), Thunder (produced by Rasi Seeds) etc.
Retailers/dealers/distributors play a major role in changing purchasing behaviour of farmers.
51 % farmers prefer to grow OP variety followed by neutral (farmers can grow any types of wheat variety for wheat) (28 %), Hybrid (20 %) and research (1 %)
The main reasons for hybrid/varietal preferences are high yield, disease resistance, lodging resistance, good roti quality, unavailability of better substitute, low input requirements etc.
Over all dominancy of PBW 343 in all district except WH 711 dominant variety in Kurukshetra.
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Expected increase in sale of top selling variety of wheat is 6.68 %. 70 % farmers who know about promotional activity of agri Company in a village. There are dominancy of Bayer Crop Science in a village and this is followed by Syngenta, TATA, Pioneer, Sumitomo, Chambal Fertilizer, Nagarjuna Fertilizer, Shriram Fertilizer etc. These companies are campaigning through jeep campaign (34 %), farmers meetings (26 %), banners/poster (13 %), leaflets (13 %), crop show (4 %), field show (9 %), wall painting (1 %), gift items (1 %) and radio (2 %).
Best channels for Mahyco’s promotion is farmers meeting (58 %) followed by crop show (15 %), jeep campaign (11 %), banners/poster (5 %), field visits (4 %), leaflets (3 %), wall paintings (1 %), gift items (2 %) and radio (1 %).
Finding opportunity is a good source of development of new products. Opportunities are the potential future of a company and this opportunity will be achieved by identifying new Unique Selling Propositions (USPs).
The marketing concept of Mahyco company must be concentrated around the profitable satisfaction of farmers needs.
There are good future potential and viability for wheat varietal and hybrid business. Farmers are interested to grow new product (hybrid wheat) just as a trial purpose in the first year. If this new product would show good result at farmer’s field level, then farmers would be accepted to grow for next year.
Foremost important messages of supply chain success are quality, price and timely delivery of products to destination places and maintain relationships with farmers and dealers/distributors.
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7. REFERENCES [1.] Economic Survey (2009-10), Agriculture & Food Management, 8. P. 185 [2.] Gastel, A. J. G. Van., Bishaw, Zewdie. & Gregg, B. R., Wheat seed production. Bread wheat: Improvement & Production. P. 463-464 [3.] Agripreneurship in Haryana – Problems and Prospects, A research paper, written by Dr. Sanjeev Kumar & Dr. M.R.P. Singh, Reader, Haryana School of Business, Guru
Jambheshwar University of Sc. & Tech., Hisar,  Dte. of E & S, Govt. of India, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi (200-01) [5.] Times of India, June, 5, 2006 [6.] http://agriharyana.nic.in/ [7.] http://mohfw.nic.in/NRHM/State%20Files/haryana.htm [8.] http://www.indiancommodity.com/grain/wheat.htm [9.] http://www.agricoop.nic.in/Agristatistics.htm  Marketing demo data, Rabi (2008-09), Dr. A.M.Rao, Group Leader, Course Grain Breeding, MHSCL, Dawalwadi, Jalna  Kotlar. Philip, Armstrong. Gary, Saunder. John, Wong. Veronica: Principal of Marketing  Theodore Levitt, “Marketing Myopia”, Harvard Business Review, July-August 1960.  http://www.mahyco.com
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8. APPENDIX Table 23: Tehsil-wise awareness of Mahyco’s products Awareness of Mahyco’s products Jind distict Jind Bt Cotton, Sorghum (SSG), Bottle guard, Ladies’ fingers, Sunflower, Paddy , Cucumber, Ridge guard Julana Bt Cotton, Sorghum (SSG), Paddy Narwana Bt Cotton, Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower Safidon Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Bottle guard Uchana Cotton, Bottle guard, Paddy, Sorghum (SSG), Round guard, Ridge guard Kaithal district Daand Paddy, Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower Guhla Paddy, Sunflower, Tomato, Sorghum (SSG) Kaithal Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Pumpkin, Sunflower Kalayat Bt Cotton, Sorghum (SSG), Paddy Pundri Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower Rajoned Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Sunflower, Mustard Siwan Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower, Maize Karnal district Asandh Sorghum (SSG), Paddy Gharaunda Ladies’ fingers, Paddy, Bottle guard Indri Sorghum (SSG), Maize, Paddy, Sunflower, Radish Karnal Sunflower Nigdhu Cotton, Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower Nilokheri Paddy, Sunflower, Sorghum (SSG) Nissing Sorghum (SSG), Ladies’ fingers, Bottle guard Taraory Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Sunflower Kurukshetra district Ismailabad Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower, Maize Ladwa Sorghum (SSG), Sunflower, Tomato, Maize, Bottle guard Pehowa Bitter guard, Brinjal, Sorghum (SSG), Cucumber, Round guard, Paddy, Ladies’ fingers, Bottle guard Sahabad Sunflower, Ridge guard, Bottle guard, Round guard, Sorghum (SSG) Thaneshar Cucumber, Sunflower, Round guard, Paddy, Radish, Bottle guard Panipat district Bapoli Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Sunflower, Wheat, Brinjal Israna Paddy, Sunflower, Wheat, Sorghum (SSG) Madlauda Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Sunflower, Watermelon Panipat Cabbage, Brinjal, Cucumber, Round guard, Bottle guard, Paddy, Sorghum(SSG) Samalkha Sorghum (SSG), Paddy, Wheat, Sunflower Tehsil
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Table 24: Tehsil-wise campaigning by agri-companies in a village Agri-companies who campaigning in a village Jind district Bayer Crop Science, Nagarjuna fertilizers, Pioneer, Rasi Seeds, Sunvax, TATA Jind Syngenta, UPL, Excel Crop Care, Shri Ram Fertilizers Ajeet, Bayer Crop Science, Nuziveedu, Rasi Seeds, TATA, Vibha Seeds, Julana Syngenta, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Ankur, PI Agri Inputs SeedTech, TATA, Pioneer, Chambal Fertilizers, UPL Narwana Bayer Crop Science, Godrej, Syngenta, TATA, UPL, Chambal Fertilizers, Bharat Safidon Insecticide, TATA, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Kaithal district Chambal Fertilizers, Pioneer, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Bayer Crop Science, Dhanyaa Kaithal Seeds, Mukti Seeds, Shakti Seeds Kalayat Bayer Crop Science, Jai Shree Rasayan Udyog Ltd, Pioneer, Syngenta, Tropical Agrosystem(P) Ltd Pundri Dhanyaa Seeds, Pioneer, Syngenta, Bayer Crop Science Rajoned Gharda Chemicals, Monsanto, Raghore Pesticide, Coromandal Siwan Asia Agro Chemical (P) Ltd, DuPont, Syngenta, Shree Ram Chemical (P) Ltd, Chambal Fertilizers, Excel Crop Care Karnal district Asandh Biozyme, Gharda Chemicals, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Tata Chemicals Gharaunda Nodai, Syngenta Indri Bayer Crop Science, Harbir Agro Tech, Sahib Seeds, Syngenta (TOPIC), Tata Chemicals, Chambal Fertilizers, Leader(Sumitomo), Bayer Crop Science, Geo Life Karnal Bayer Crop Science, Dhanuka Pesticide, IFFCO, Sumitomo(Leader), Chambal Fertilizers, DuPont, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Syngenta (TOPIC), Kargils India Ltd, Sumitomo (Leader), Syngenta (TOPIC), Tata chemicals, Crystal, Shri Ram Nigdhu Fertilizer, Gharda, Chambal Fertilizers, IFFCO Nissing Leader(Somitomo), Shri Ram Fertilizers, TOPIC, Chambal Fertilizers, Taraory Bayer Crop Science, Dhanuka Pesticide, Godrej, Tata chemicals, PI Agri Inputs, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Syngenta, Crystal, Godrej, Monsanto, Ramicide, Syngenta Panipat district Bapoli Chambal Fertilizers, IFFCO, Nagarjuna Fertilizers, NFL Israna Chambal Fertilizers, Crystal, TATA, NFL Madlauda Sumitomo(Leader), Nagarjuna Fertilizers, NFL, TATA, Mahindra, Coromandal, Syngenta, Krishidhan, Shri Ram Fertilizers, Bayer Crop Science Panipat Bayer Crop Science, DuPont, PI Agri Inputs Samalkha Sumitomo(Leader), Syngenta (TOPIC), Krishidhan Tehsil
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Table 25: Farmer’s wheat acreage in Kurukshetra district (from sample size)
Kurukshetra Variety 2 2010Varieties 2009-10 11* 146 DBW 17 50 73 PBW 550 32.5 66 PBW 502 28.5 56 PBW 343 28 45 PBW 711 22 10 HD 2687 9 41 HD2851 5 40 PBW 373 2 10 PBW 509 1
Variety 1 2009-10 154 96 66 54 40 24 22 15 10
PBW 711 PBW 343 PBW 502 DBW 17 Mix PBW 343 & WH Barbat HD 2687 Mix PBW 343 & PBW WH 542
201011* 47 30.5 35.5 15 30.5 9 5 3 0
Others varieties Varieties 2009-10 PBW 343 PBW 711 PBW 550 DBW 17 Barbat PBW 502 PBW 542 HD 2733 PBW 533/HD 2687/Harbir 606/HD 16 14 12 10 8 7 5 5 8.5
* Estimated wheat acreage
Table 26: Farmer’s wheat acreage in Kaithal district (from sample size)
Kaithal District Variety 2 Varieties Type PBW 343 WH 542 PBW 502 DBW 17 O O O O
Varieties PBW 343 PBW 502 DBW 17 Mix PBW 343, WH 542 & HD 2329 WH 542 PBW 711 Mix PBW 343 & PBW 711 HD 2851
Variety 1 Type 200910 O O O O 907 160 68 50
201011* 912.5 141 51 50
200910 52.5 43 31 23.75
2010-11* 70 42 23 32.75
Others varieties Varieties 200910 WH 542 C 306 DBW 17 HD 2851 17 6 5 5
O O O O
19.5 11 7.5 8
31.5 18 7.5 10
PBW 711 PBW 550 HD 2733 HD 2932 PBW 373 HD 2329 HD 2851 Barbat
O O O O O O O O
19 13.5 6 4 2.5 2 2 1 200.5
18 11 15 15 2.5 0 0 7 236.25
PBW 502 PBW 343 PBW 550
4 4 2
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Table 27: Farmer’s wheat acreage in Karnal district (from sample size)
Karnal district Variety 2 Varieties Type DBW 17 WH 542 O O
Varieties PBW 343 DBW 17
Variety 1 Type 200910 O 627.75 O 134.5
2010-11* 626.75 61
200910 62.5 55.5
201011* 62.5 54
PBW 502 PBW 711 HD 2851 Mix HD 2894 & DBW 17 Mix PBW 343 & PBW 502 Mix PBW 343 & WH 542 Mix PBW 343 & DBW 17 HD 2733 PBW 550
O O O O
95.5 62.5 43 24
64.5 42 59 27
PBW 343 HD 2733 HD 2851 PBW 502
O O O O
52 37 30 27
101 56 43 21
Others varieties Varieties 200910 DBW 17 31.5 Mix PBW 10 343 & PBW 502 HD 2851 8 PBW 343 8 HD 2687 4 HD 2733 4
HD 2894 JK Vijay PBW 373 PBW 550 C 306
O R O O O
*Estimates wheat acreage
3 3 2.5 2 0.5 315
10 0 2.5 5 0.5 397.5
C 306 Raj 3765
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Table 28: Farmer’s wheat acreage in Panipat district (from sample size)
Panipat district Variety 2 Varieties Type DBW 17 PBW 502 PBW 711 PBW 373 Balram 011 WH 542 HD 2329 HD 2851 C 306 PBW 550 O O O O R O O O O O
Varieties PBW 343 HD 2851 DBW 17
Variety 1 Type 2009-10 O O O 549 26 5
201011* 608 14.5 0
2009-10 41 14 7 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 80
201011* 8 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 21
Others varieties Varieties 200910 PBW 502 6 PBW 711 5 PBW 550 3 HD 2733 2 DBW 17 1 HD 2851 1
* Estimated acreage
Table 29: Farmer’s wheat acreage in Jind district (from sample size)
Jind district Variety 2 Varieties Type PBW 502 DBW 17 O O
Varities PBW 343 Mix PBW 343 & PBW 711 PBW 711 HD 2329 PBW 502 DBW 17 WH 147
Variety 1 Type 200910 O 609.5 O 21
201011* 568.75 21
2009-10 51 21
201011* 48 12
Others varieties Varieties 200910 DBW 17 10 PBW 711 5
O O O O O
17 11 8 4 4
17 13 14 4 5
HD 2329 PBW 711 PBW 343 WH 542 HD 2851 HS 283(Himgiri) PBW 550 2009 PBW 373 C 306
O O O O O O O O O O
19.5 12 8 8 5 5 5 3 3 2 142.5
19.5 11 8 5 1 5 5 3 3 2 122.5
HD 2329 PBW 502 C 306 HS 283(E) Purna(HI 1556)
4 2 2 1 1
* Estimated acreage
Page: 83 of 89
Table 30: List of MOP & MRP of all varieties in different districts and total average of it
S. No. Variety T y p e Kurukshetra Avg Avg of of MOP MRP Kaithal Avg Avg of of MOP MRP Karnal Avg Avg of of MOP MRP Panipat Avg Avg of of MOP MRP Jind Avg Avg of of MOP MRP Total Avg of MOP Total Avg of MRP
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44
DW 162 PBW 343 PBW 373 PBW 154 WH 711 WH 542 PBW 502 PBW 550 DBW 17 WH 147 HD 2189 Lok 1 HD 2687 HD 2329 UP 2338 UP 2565 HD 2733 PBW 509 HD 2851 WR 544 HD 2894 Raj 3765 C 306 (Desi) Ajeet 109 Ankur Kedar Balram 011 Nath Mohan Wonder Nirmal Nirbhay Nirmal Ajay 72 Nirmal Abhay 139 Barbat Rushi Super 151 Super 172 JK Vijay Harbir 606 Harbir 603 Harbir 609 209 Hypro HD 2932 Supriya 701 Super 152 Thunder
O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O R R R R R R R O R R R R R R R O R O R R R
50 16 18 33 21 16 17 27 29 25 22 19 19 22 23 23 30 34 25 35 35
16 20 22 21 20 26 34
16 17 18 16 16 21 27
20 21 21 21 20 26 34
16 17 18 17 16 23 26 18
21 22 24 24 22 30 36
16 17 17 16 16 25 27
19 20 21 20 20 31 32
16 17 18 17 17 25 26 17 18 17 17 17 28 16 22 18 17 22 41 30
20 20 21 20 20 29 30 21
18 18 18 20 20 20 19 25
19 22 23 23 25 23 23
18 22 16 22 18 22 19 21 18
16 18 18 20 20 21 19 26
20 22 23 25 24 26 23 31
20 20 21 31 29 21 20 27 46 35
35 33 35
27 28 28 24 23
20 38 38 38 38 38 40 35 35 40 40 40 40 50
50 16 17 33 18 16 16 24 27 17 21 18 18 19 17 22 23 17 21 24 23 20 24 38 35 25 38 38 38 38 38 37 35 35 40 38 38 38 21 30 23 50 39 25 28.12
19 20 22 21 20 28 33 21
21 22 22 28 28 27 26 22 29 46 30
40 40 21 30 20
50 50 40
38 38 38
45 45 23
35 35 35
40 40 40
45 43 38 40 30 60 46 30 31.37
37 43 28.4 40 22.8 50
21 50 25
24 60 30 27.5
Avg of all varieties
Page: 84 of 89
Form 1: Farmers’ Questionnaire 1. What is the cropping pattern followed in village? Kharif Pattern-1 Pattern-2 Rabi Zaid
2. Details about wheat grown S. No. 1 2 Acreage Variety (200910) Acreage (201011) Yield (09-10) Seed (saved/ purchased) Mandi Price (Rs/qntl) Replaced Variety Seed Price (Rs./kg)
3. From how many years are you growing the above variety/ies? ___________ Years 4. Are you thinking of changing your preferred variety/ies? a) Yes 5. If yes, why? i. ii. iii. iv. v. Disease susceptibility Low yield High cost of seed High input requirement Low market price of output vi. Inability to use seeds next year vii. Poor roti quality viii. Availability of better substitute ix. Lodging susceptibility x. Other b) No
6. If no, then what do you like in the product? i. ii. iii. iv. v. Disease resistance High yield Low cost of seed Low input requirement High market price of output vi. Ability to use seeds next year vii. Good roti quality viii. Unavailability of better substitute ix. Lodging resistance x. Others
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7. How much more yield do you want if you invest Rs. 100 extra for seed (per acre)? __________ Quintals/Acre. 8. Who influences you to decide which variety to buy? (Rank 1st, 2nd and 3rd)
Reference Sources Other Farmers Family members /relatives Dealers Opinion leaders Government officials Private company’s campaigns Past Experiences Radio / Television Print Media Any other _________________ 9. What is your preference for wheat cultivation?
10. Name all the companies producing seeds for wheat that you are aware of? Company Krishidhan Nath SSCs Mahyco Ankur Ajeet Nirmal DSCL Others 11. Do you know about Mahyco? a. Yes b. No Rank
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12. If yes, how did you become aware of it? Promotion Method Jeep campaign Banners/Poster Wall painting Farmers meetings Crop shows Leaflets Radio Retailers Fellow farmers Others 13. Name some products/brands of Mahyco? 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 14. Does any agri company promote here in this village? a. Yes b. No Rank
15. Name some other company campaigning in this village? 1. _____________________ 2. _____________________ 3. _____________________ 16. What all methods do they use for campaign? Campaign Method Jeep campaign Banners/Poster Wall painting Farmers meetings Crop shows Leaflets Radio Gift Items Field visits (service) Rank
Page: 87 of 89
17. How should Mahyco promote to increase sales/reach? Campaign Method Jeep campaign Banners/Poster Wall painting Farmers meetings Crop shows Leaflets Radio Gift Items Field visits (service) 18. What is the total size of your land holding? _______ Acre Name: _____________________________ Village: _______________________ District: _______________________ Rank
Contact no.:____________________ Tehsil: ____________________
Units would be: Acreage Production Yield : : : Acre Quintal Quintal per acre
Page: 88 of 89
Form 2: Dealers’ Questionnaire
Name of Dealer: Taluka: Market Size (Total):
Phone no: Research:
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49
DW 162 PBW 343 PBW 373 PBW 154 WH 711 WH 542 PBW 502 PBW 550 DBW 17 WH 147 HD 2189 Lok 1 HD 2687(Shresht) HD 2329 UP 2338 UP 2565 HD 2733 PBW 509 HD 2851 WR 544 HD 2894 Raj 3765 C 306 (Desi)
Type O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O R R R R R R R R R R R O R R R R H R R R O R O R R R
Quantity (Qtls) 2009-10 2010-11
Ajeet 102 Ajeet 109 Ankur Kedar Green Gold 21 Krishidhan Balram Nath Mohan Wonder Nirmal Nirbhay Nirmal Ajay 72 Nirmal Abhay 139 Narmada Sarita Sirsa (Unnat) Barbat Rushi Super 151 Super 172 JK Vijay Pratham 7070 Harbir 606 Harbir 603 Harbir 609 209 Hypro HD 2932 Supriya 701 Super 152 Thunder
Page: 89 of 89
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