Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 1. Wonder Why?

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Have you ever wondered why Aham is sometimes written as ‚−¿ and sometimes as ‚−ŸþÃ ? Have you ever wondered why Poojya Swamiji , when singing bhajans, sometimes pronounces ( say for example) Aham as ‚−ŸþÃ and sometimes as ‚−›þÃ ?

The curious may move onto Lesson No. Two.

Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9

© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013


Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 2. ‚−¿ versus


To answer those riddles, we must first get familiar with the ¬¨þ£s (vowels) and the ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s (consonants).

‚ ‚þ ƒ ƒÄ „ … † †¼ ¥þ¼ ¥þ¼ ‡ ‡½ ‚ø ‚ù ‚¿ ‚:
be pronounced. ¬¨þ£ s are sixteen in number.

are the ¬¨þ£ s. They

are complete in themselves and do not require the help of another letter to

¨¡þ؏þ›þ s, on the other hand, are incomplete. They can be pronounced only with the help of a ¬¨þ£. For example, the ˆÅ we know and recognize, is actually a combination of ˆÃÅ and ‚ . ˆÅ = ˆÃÅ +‚ . Without the ‚ , the ˆÃÅ is unpronounceable..(is
The there such a word ? ! )

ˆÅþ = ˆÃÅ + ‚þ

and so on and so forth.

A ¨¡þ؏þ›þ HAS to join up with a ¬¨þ£ to be pronounced. If the



a combination of two ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s, as in œ¥þ , you still need a ¬¨þ£ , in this case

‚ , to be added to the ¥þ to pronounce the "conjunct" œ¥þ | The ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s are ˆÃÅ ‰þà Šþà ‹þà ŒÃ þà ŽÃ þà þà Øþà Ùà Úà Ûà Ã µþà ·þà ˜þà ¸Ã šþà ›þà œþà ûÃÅ þà žþà Ÿþà ¡þà £Ã ¥þà ¨þà ªþà «þà ¬þà −à §Ã âþÃ
Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9

© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013


Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Thirty five of them. Interesting fact..Sixteen ¬¨þ£ s plus thirty five

¨¡þ؏þ›þ s make up the

¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ | Add to it , three – s , it gives us fifty four. Fifty four plus fifty four, add up to a hundred and eight. We go over the entire ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ twice, forwards and backwards, when we do one Ÿþþ¥þþ of þœþ | ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s | The oblique stroke at the bottom of the consonants is called a −¥þ›·þà |
That means the sound of that consonant is clipped. A small example...the English word "cup" is pronounced as "ˆÅœþà " and cuppa (as in I wanna cuppa tea...gottit? ) In a sentence like The ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s highlighted in the table are called ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆ

ˆÅœþ is

‚−Ÿþà ‚›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ ( i am Anamika) the Ÿþà is written as Ÿþà to enable it to join with the ‚ ( a ¬¨þ£ ) in ‚›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ , to form the complete letter Ÿþ | The sentence then becomes ‚−Ÿþ›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ | If the sentence were ‚−Ÿþà ·þþ£þ , the Ÿþà is unable to join with the ·þ in the ·þþ ( a ¨¡þ؏þ›þ ) of the ·þþ£þ, to form a single complete letter. It could become Ÿ·þþ , but that would make it a conjunct and not a single
complete letter. Does the difference come through clearly? When faced with the prospect of becoming a conjunct, Ÿþà converts itself into a dot and places itself above the previous letter. Maintaining an identity of its own, it now calls itself an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | The correct form of the sentence then becomes ‚−¿ ·þþ£þ | So Ÿþà is written as Ÿþà , in two cases..... 1. when 2.

Ÿþà is the last letter in a word and when the letter after it , in the next word , is a ¬¨þ£ and when it is at the end of a ·þþ£þ ‚−Ÿþà | (Why does Ÿþà remain a Ÿþà at the end of a sentence? Beats me. Some rules are just
stated and we, poor things, just accept them.) 3/37

Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9

© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013

Details in Lesson No. Three.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Interesting © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 4/37 . Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www..chitrapurmath. This changes the entire concept on how to write and pronounce a word correctly. Only Ÿþà has the authority to be used as an ‚›é¬¨þþ£. Answers to riddle two in Lesson three too.

Rehearing. you'll begin to appreciate how systematic it is. That's all very well but what in heaven's name are that ŒÃ and Øþà doing there? When are they used? The rule is that one ought to use that ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þ؏þ›þ with only those consonants that belong to the same class. It includes all the ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s in that class.. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. It also gives us excellent clues on how to pronounce the ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s.. No revision. The word ¬þ¿¬ˆ¼Å·þ itself means 'that which has been systemized. the ·þà ¨þŠþÄ ... Now. but bring out the sound nasally as well. ·þþ¥é roughly is a ›¡þ¿ | The rest is the palate. since the sounds of this group are based in the throat. The prospect of making a mistake was great. Keep the tongue in the same position as you would when saying þà then say Øþà which Ùà ¨þŠþÄ . knowledge was passed on from guru to shishya verbally.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 3.. ˆÅ is called the ˆÅ ¨þŠþÄ. say Œ.' Just take a look at our ¨¡þ؏þ›þ table again.. one could be assured of hurt neglected relatives and a smile on every canine face on the street. just as you would say ˆÅ. No books..¸›·þ: ( the tongue touches the teeth every single time) and the œþà ¨þŠþÄ. Those are the ones that really trip us up. þ ¨þŠþÄ | This group is called the ·þþ¥é .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 5/37 . Pronunciations had to be accurate.ŸêšþþÄ (the top of the palate).. The ˆÅ ¨þŠþÄ is called the ˆÅµÚ:.chitrapurmath. ‚ø«Ú: (here the lips are used) are easy to pronounce.. literally meaning Class ˆÅ.ˆÅ ‰þ Šþ ‹þ Œ | The first row beginning with Notice how the tongue remains in exactly the same place when you say these words out loud. The Anunasiks justification for existing. A long long time ago. If one invited æþþ›þþ: instead of ¬¨þþ›þþ: to one's feast. definitely.

In the sentence ‚−¿ **************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.... The trick is to look at the ¨¡þ؏þ›þ immediately after the nasal sound in a ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ one to write. Pronounced. WHEN PRONOUNCING Sanskrit is like water . the dot on top of a letter at the end of a word. Therefore the Ÿþà in words adapts its pronunciation to flow in with the next ·þþ£þ . only Ÿþà has the ‚¹šþˆÅþ£ to be used as an ‚›é¬¨þþ£..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 WHEN WRITING For example. ‚¹ is correct and not ‚¿ˆÅ | œþ؍þ is correct and not œþ¿þ | ˆÅµÚ and not kçbÀÚ | ¸›·þ and not ¸¿·þ | þŸœþþ and not þ¿œþþ. It flows. the dot is pronounced like ›þà to flow with the next letter ·þ to whose class the ›þà belongs.. the correct form of the word Shankar is ªþ¹£ and not word and then decide which ªþ¿ˆÅ£ .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 6/37 .. Also. let us know. word . Therefore to give you examples of words from all the ¨þŠþÄ s.chitrapurmath. It should be easy for us to vocalize words.. The Ÿþà should sound like ŒÃ | Therefore ‚−¿ ¹Ùœê ¬é¥·þþ›þà is pronounced as ‚−µþà ¹Ùœê ¬é¥·þþ›þà | If we have royally confused you. ‚−›þà ·þþ£þ and not ‚−Ÿþà ·þþ£þ ( And written ‚−¿ ·þþ£þ | ) ‚−¿ ˆÅþ›·þþ is pronounced as ‚−ŒÃ ˆÅþ›·þþ.

Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 4. sad fact...i have heard that † will soon be given a 'termination of services' notice. he takes the sound of the letter just before him. OUR lessons WILL stick to the original ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ | i'd like to believe that she (¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ .. In an isolated word... For example. Ÿþ¹·þ: is Ÿþ¹·þ¹− . I think he is happy now..£þŸþ: is pronounced £þŸþ−. Many schools have dropped the ŒÃ and the Øþà from the ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ because they might "confuse" our kids. is not pleased with me. We need him a great deal in the days to come and we can't afford to get him mad.chitrapurmath. the Rishis have not been spared either.... Don't want him unhappy.. And keep this to yourselves.. Placating Visarga ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ .. These so called do-gooders have spawned an entire generation of children who read Mç¹j as Shadkar instead of Shankar. Šé²: is pronounced Šé²−º . Interesting fact? No. −¹£: is pronounced −¹£¹−.. sad. i mean) feels safe and protected with us. Forget the Gods. So here goes. i loathe to think what ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ will feel when he hears this bit of self defeating news. ¨þþ›þ£þ: is ¨þþ›þ£þ−þ | Ÿþþ¥þþ¹žþ: is Ÿþþ¥þþ¹žþ¹− | And so on and so forth. How come I don't get any mention at all in your last message ? The ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ too is extremely adaptable.rumour has it that the ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ too will be struck off the rolls.. Here is what he has been © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 7/37 .. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. the two dots sometimes found at the end of a word.

.) žþ¨þ·þú ˆÅþ ? (Who are you? .chitrapurmath.) ‚−¿ þŠþ¸úªþ: | (I am Jagadeesh.. Meet our exuberant Jagadeeshaha When we entered our Sanskrit class for the very first time. ‡«þþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | (This is Mala) and to Mala said.. Just by asking questions and answering them himself (and with exaggerated gestures and an infectious smile!)our vocabulary jumped up from zero to five.. ¬þþ ˆÅþ ? (Who is she?) Ravi answered ‡«þþ ¬þ£¬¨þ·þú | ¬þþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | (This is Saraswati. He looked at Mala and said...Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 5..žþ¨þ·þú is the respectful feminine form of you as in the Hindi ‚þœþ.‡«þ: ù·þ›¡þ: | This is Chaitanya) Chaitanya answered ( Pointing to Ravi and Saraswati seated some distance away. we were greeted very enthusiastically by an energetic and bubbly youngster called Jagadeesh.. ¬þ: ˆÅ: ? (who is he?) ¬þ: £¹¨þ:| ( He is Ravi ) Jagadeesh then said. That is Mala) Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www..ˆÅ: = masculine who) žþ¨þ·þ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþà ? ( What is your name?) Chaitanya answered ‚−¿ ù·þ›¡þ: | ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ ù·þ›¡þ:| Our Jagadeesh grabbed Chaitanya by the shoulder and said ‡«þ: ù·þ›¡þ: (This is Chaitanya) and pointing to a man seated some distance away asked.... He spoke only in Sanskrit but in the space of a few minutes... we figured out what was © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 8/37 ... ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ þŠþ¸úªþ: | (My name is Jagadeesh.. No kiddin'. Take a look.) ¬þ: ˆÅ: ? ¬þþ ˆÅþ ? ¬þ: £¹¨þ: | ¬þþ ¬þ£¬¨þ·þú | Jagadeesh next called out to Ravi. žþ¨þþ›þà ˆÅ:| (Who are you?) (žþ¨þþ›þà = masculine ‚þœþ .. ˆÅþ = feminine who) žþ¨þ·¡þþ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþà ? (What is your name?) Mala answered ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | ‚−¿ Ÿþþ¥þþ | Jagadeesh next pointed to Chaitanya...

net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 9/37 . Pay special attention to žþ¨þ·¡þþ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþà and when žþ¨þ·þ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþà are used.) Those at a distance from you are ¬þ: or ¬þþ (ditto) Game for a game? You are Suraj.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Those sitting close to you are ‡«þ: or ‡«þþ (depending on whether it is a man or a woman.chitrapurmath..and for those of you who want to know the story. Next to you are seated Ram and Sita. write to me) Introduce yourself to the others and then ask the others their names. the same person in the dove and eagle story . and we are socializing in Sanskrit already!! Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Listen to their answers and then introduce each one to the other.. when Lesson 5. Away from you are Lakshmi and Shibi (yup.

(By the way. By the simple addition of suffixes or prefixes. œþÚà (read/ study). I am ŠþŸþà (go)... nouns. Dears all. adjectives and grammatical whatchamacallits in the column to your left. or a noun. I was going through the lessons that have already been sent to you and I can't believe that I have not been given my due. which makes it compatible with he. check out definitions for verbs. ¹¥þ‰þà (write) etc.chitrapurmath. or an adjective. My friends have also chipped in to help. ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þ: ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þ: ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | He goes. I can become a verb. Let me introduce myself. ‰þþ¸Ã (eat). adverbs .. she. I am extremely versatile. I am a root word called a šþþ·é and like my other friends. or an adverb. you have to use my avataar ŠþŽ | Add different suffixes called œÏ·¡þ¡þ s and hey presto I am ready to be used! Look at the following sentences. it.And that is far more than the visargas and the anusvaras of this world can even hope to be. and with any name whether masculine or feminine BUT Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 6. ¨þ¸Ã (speak). She goes It goes He speaks He reads He eats She eats It eats He writes She writes It writes ¬þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þþ ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þþ œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | She speaks She reads It speaks It reads ·þ·þà ŠþŽ¹·þ | ·þ·þà ¨þ¸¹·þ | ·þ·þà œþÚ¹·þ | ·þ·þà ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ·þ·þà ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | £þŸþ:ŠþŽ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ¨þ¸¹·þ | £þŸþ: œþÚ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ | £þŸþ: ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | Yup. all in the present tense and you will see what I mean.) To make me into a © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 10/37 . I think I better introduce you very gently to my multifaceted personality. Affronted ŠþŸþà speaks up. the ¹·þ is added to the root verb.

) Now . ·¨þ¿ . œþþ (drink) becomes ¹œþþ and ´ªþà (see) becomes œþª¡þ. © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 11/37 . it's YOU who are eating and NO ONE ELSE. 6.. you can now make two word sentences in Sanskrit using ‚−¿. ŠþŽ¹·þ conveys both meanings "goes" and "is going" Thus you can safely translate ‚−¿ ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ as I speak and I am speaking. £âþà protect. if you noticed. Do you see how the same suffix ( œÏ·¡þ¡þ ) has been added to all the 2. ¬þþ and ·þ·þà .. ›þŸþà namaskaar (to salute. say. (Refer to 2 for reasons why) Knowing this. 4. since ¹Ÿþ is loyal to ‚−Ÿþà . ŠþŸþà ( yours truly) becomes ŠþŽ before the suffixes are added. œþþà cook. ¬þ:. All the rest remain the same. I can simply say ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ and the message that I am the one who is speaking and NO ONE ELSE. has been conveyed. ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ: etc. Also.. if you notice. Ditto with ·¨þŸþÃ.. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ¸ªþ£˜þ:.. Similarly. I do not have to even mention the ‚−Ÿþà or the ·¨þŸþà | The ¹·þ though. 5.. two very important šþþ·é s .gettit?) ¹¬þ is loyal only to ·¨þ¿ AND ¹Ÿþ is loyal only to ‚−Ÿþà | Please note that it is ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ and not ŠþŽ¹Ÿþ | There is an þ Ÿþþ°þþ added to the šþþ·é before the œÏ·¡þ¡þ is added. −¬þà laugh.Let me provide you with a few more " everyday" šþþ·é s. ¬þþ and ·þ·þà or for that matter to. œé¬·þˆ¿Å .( £þšþþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ œþ£›·é ‚−¿ ¹¥þ‰þþ¹Ÿþ.the minute I say. ‰þþ¸¹¬þ . £þ¨þµþ:. ¬é¹Ÿþ°þþ. 3. does need a specified subject.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 ·¨þ¿ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¨þ¸¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ œþÚ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¹¥þ‰þ¹¬þ | You go You speak You read You eat AND You write ‚−¿ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ œþÚþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¹¥þ‰þþ¹Ÿþ | I go I speak I read I eat I write 1. ¬éšþþ.chitrapurmath. šþþ·é s to make the verb compatible with a particular subject? ¹·þ is loyal to ¬þ:.

Besides having a post graduate degree ( and a © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 12/37 . they have to impress their teacher Smt. please do not hesitate to write.chitrapurmath. my debut. if you ask me. Tarangini Khot. for good measure) she speaks and thinks FLUENTLY in Sanskrit. but honestly. the usable form will be given in brackets eg: ŠþŸþà (ŠþŽ) or œþþ ( ¹œþþ ). I am honoured. These guys out here can't wait to be useful. All love. if the šþþ·é 's form must be changed before it can be used. More next week.Ed.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Henceforth. On the contrary. A Sanskrit wizard. Besides. ŠþŸþà | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Use œþþ (¹œþþ ) and ´ªþ (œþª¡þ) too to make some more two word sentences. If you find this lesson difficult or need clarification of any kind. This may be my coming out ball. I have no trouble sharing the limelight with Tarangini.

Present ing the entire present tense deal.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 13/37 . ‚þ¨þþ¿ œþÚþ¨þ: | We two study. Thou shalt not press the panic button.chitrapurmath. Thou shalt tell thyself. Panic Button. my dears. ¡é¨þþ¿ œþÚ˜þ: | You two study. Here. just books. if Sanskrit has not just a singular and a plural but a dual as well ! " ·ø œþÚ·þ: | They two study. Thou shalt reassure thyself." So what. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. "Thank the good Lord that we do not need to learn a triple!" œé¬·þˆÅþ¹›þ | Books. is the works.

) ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular M F N þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ ¬þ: ¬þþ ·þ·þà He She It ·þù ·ø ·ø Two He s Two She s Two It s ·ø Many He s ·þþ: Many She s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s ŠþŽ¹›·þ ¡ê¡þ¿ / ¡ê¡þŸþà All of you Ÿþš¡þŸþ ŠþŽ¹·þ ·¨þ¿ /·¨þŸþà You ŠþŽ·þ: ¡é¨þþ¿ / ¡é¨þþŸþà You two „îþŸþ ŠþŽ¹¬þ ‚−¿/ ‚−Ÿþà I ŠþŽ˜þ: ‚þ¨þþ¿ /‚þ¨þþŸþà We two ŠþŽ˜þ ¨þ¡þ¿ / ¨þ¡þŸþà All of us ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ 1. you two. N=Neuter. 3. is given to he. The ŠþŽþ¨þ: ŠþŽþŸþ: œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ has distinct words based on gender. in true altruistic © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 14/37 . the subject need not be given. on when ‚−¿ is used and when ‚−Ÿþà | 5. Therefore. 4. This style of presentation is what is original. Here the first preference. F= Feminine. Refer to Lesson 2. (Phew!!) M= Masculine. that the subject has to be specified. two of us .chitrapurmath. œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ contains within it ALL the nouns and pronouns in the whole wide world EXCEPT for you. I. all of you. Only the 2. if I say ‰þþ¸˜þ:.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 ŠþŸþà œé²«þ Person (to go) ¥þÙà ¥þˆÅþ£ (the present tense. For example.. These Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.. she and it.. the subject can be none but ¡é¨þþŸþÃ. When the verbs of the Ÿþš¡þŸþ and the „îþŸþ are used. It is only for the œÏ˜þŸþ . all of us.

Šé²Ÿê·øÄ ·¨þþ¿ ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ ¬þ·þ·þ¿ ‚þ·ŸþˆÅþŸþ ¬þ¿¨þšþĹ›þ ‚Ÿþ | Exercise. It doesn't really matter which way you learn it as long as the right form of verb is used with the right subject..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 become the first person. one refers to oneself as the „îþŸþœé²«þ| 6.... Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www...Using the given table as a guide. 5. All of them ( Feminine) see. Yet knowing that the Divine Aatman resides in oneself.. the style that you see in various text books will be „îþŸþ is referred to as the œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ .chitrapurmath... (¸¼ªþà ¬þþ ¹œþþ¹·þ | ¡ê¡þ¿ ›þŸþ˜þ | ¨þ¡þ¿ œþÚþŸþ: | Go over the table at least twice a day for the next few days and you will see how easily you will begin to match the verb with its subject. Brain Teaser. is the œÏ˜þŸþ.In the second stanza of the bhajan œêµþĈťþþŸþ¹¡þ ¬þ¿¹¨þ·¬¨þ³¹œþµþú. We two eat. and the third person is called the ·þ¼·þú¡þœé²«þ . He speaks.. here are the words. (¨þ¸Ã ) 2...œþª¡þ ) 3. So certain texts will have the table the way it is the other way around where written here and certain other texts will have it "upsidedown" 7. 1.where.. 4.. the Ÿþš¡þŸþ is referred to as ¹×·þú¡þœé²«þ . To make Sanskrit available to a generation already accustomed to English grammar.) Those of you who do not know the bhajan.the second person. in this © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 15/37 . use the correct form of the verb given in brackets and translate the following . 6. who is the subject? What is the verb?(Ignore the other words that have not been taught as yet.first person. ( ‰þþ¸Ã ) .

Till we meet again. i have even constructed sentences like "‚−¿ milkam boi ¥þþ¹Ÿþ . i had left school years ago. " Adios Amigos!" *************************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. −¬þà . But once i got started. ‰þþ¸Ã . It's fun." May i lend you a shoulder? When i first landed up with this memorizing process. £âþà . ´ªþà ( œþª¡þ ) are all there for your ready reference in the index. Have titled it "Verb conjugations in the present tense. Try it.." to connect the right verb œÏ·¡þ¡þ s with its subject.. we can move onto our next set of lessons. ¹¥þ‰þà . When faced with a limited vocabulary. i wasn't too sure i could do it. my learning ability adapted itself to my new requirements. œþþà .chitrapurmath. it makes it simpler. Once you are more or less comfortable with this. the words begin to flow. œþÚà . ›þŸþà . Once you remove the " I can't! " block from your mind.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 The tables for the šþþ·é s ¨þ¸Ã .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 16/37 . œþþ ( ¹œþþ ). Use the words often during the day.

) RULES THAT APPLY TO þ ( AND) NOTE: • There are two ways in which þ ( and ) is added in a sentence. Say instead --. mouse þ play.. ·þù or ·ø . Therefore. elephant. the Masculine form of the pronoun always takes the preference. This is the most common usage and is THE PREFERRED one while conversing. For example: The cat.. "Gender and Person combinations.. List all the objects and add þ after the last listed object. away in your memory bank.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 7 A. had a very interesting question to ask. but a mouthful!!! File this usage.(By the way.. Sometimes one may come across a sentence like. • Musical. " In him neither cleanliness. if you want to say . Gottit? • £þŸþ: ¬þú·þþ ¥þâŸþµþ: þ ›þŸþ¹›·þ | The plural form of the verb with more • than two subjects." Sushma Nadkarni from Australia. So one can say ·þù ŠþŽ·þ: | For all the feminists out is what happens. there's a way out. even though the sentence contains three 17/37 Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. For example: The cat þ dog þ elephant þ mouse þ play. dog. Back to Sushma's query. When the two are a man and a woman..¬þ: ¬þþ þ ŠþŽ·þ: | • £þŸþ: ¬þú·þþ þ ›þŸþ·þ: | The dual form of the verb is used to match with the two © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . correct but rare. " AND."They two go.chitrapurmath. • Put the þ in between all listed objects. What subject form does one use. a subject is the one who performs the action in a sentence.. nor character nor truth exists." The verb HAS to be singular. if one person is a man and the other a woman? Okey Dokey .

And a very " G'dai to you mate!" ************ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ·þ¹¬Ÿþ›þà ›þ ªþùþ¿ ›þ ‚þþþ£: ›þ þ ¬þ·¡þŸþà ‚¹¬·þ | ( ‚¬þà + ¹·þ ) ‚¬þà • the root form meaning " be ".net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 18/37 . use the dual form of the verb for the „îþŸþ œé²«þ. For example.. Since „îþŸþ œé²«þ features in the sentence. ‚−¿ ¨þþ ·¨þ¿ ¨þþ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¨þþ ‚−¿ ¨þþ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¨þþ ·ø ¨þþ ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ( Yup. All questions are welcome. What if you have subjects from two or three different œé²«þ s ? In that case. use the dual or the plural form of the verb (depending on the number of subjects) and give preference to „îþŸþ œé²«þ first . 2... £þŸþ: ·¨þŸþà ‚−¿ þ ŠþŽþŸþ: | Plural form AND „îþŸþ œé²«þ | £þŸþ: ·¨þ¿ þ ŠþŽ˜þ: | Dual And Ÿþš¡þŸþ. ·¨þŸþà ‚−¿ þ ŠþŽþ¨þ: | Since there are two people. use the dual form of the verb. 3.he insists on making his presence felt!) I must thank Sushma for her question. greater and a very "useful understanding "of the language. ¨þþ prefers to be between all the words and at the end.chitrapurmath. don't you think? Everybody benefits. ·ø ·¨þ¿ þ ŠþŽ˜þ | Plural And Ÿþš¡þŸþ | then to RULES THAT APPLY TO ¨þþ ( OR) • The verb matches the subject that you place last in your sentence.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 subjects. This kind of interaction builds a quicker.. 1. the verb form HAS to be singular. 4. Looking forward to active participation from all of you. This got me a reading and a referring again.. Ÿþš¡þŸþ œé²«þ and last of all to œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ.

. Now that Sanskrit has an additional dual. It is the basic form of a verb and can be converted into a noun or an adjective etc. Let us just concentrate on the verb aspect first.) in Sanskrit too... seems to need further explanations....something that filled my heart with deep appreciation.. Sanskrit has an additional "dual " besides a singular and a plural. In English we have a singular and a plural. The present tense ŠþŸþà (to go) ¥þÙà ¥þˆÅþ£ ( ¥þÙà ¥þˆÅþ£ are Sanskrit ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual words that mean the Present Tense.) œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ Ÿþš¡þŸþ „îþŸþ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Boys go. Boys.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 7 B. dealt with the introduction of a root word called a šþþ·é | A šþþ·é is the most flexible thing in the universe. by the addition of prefixes and suffixes. So we have. Sanskritofying English!!! Something happened a few days ago.a boy goes. Nimish Ubhayakar. we can be assured that the future of Sanskrit lies in good and caring hands. a fifteen year old.." Let's take a peek at the table again . To understand grammar better. Deeply interested in India and Her culture. the verbs HAVE to match the subject . Vertically they denote "Number" and horizontally the "person. The others will be introduced by and by.. Lesson 7. two boys go and many boys go. So here goes. With young people like him. Boy. we need separate verb forms to distinguish the duals from the singulars and the plurals.chitrapurmath. born and brought up in the U. First let's get a few concepts absolutely ŠþŽ¹·þ ŠþŽ¹¬þ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ ŠþŽ·þ: ŠþŽ˜þ: ŠþŽþ¨þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ ŠþŽ˜þ ŠþŽþŸþ: 19/37 © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . pride and hope..K... Sanskrit verbs are always shown in a tabular form.. he learnt the Devanagiri script to be able to learn Sanskrit. Just as in English where the verb has to match the subject ( "Boys goes" is an absolute howler. Lesson 6. wrote to us. A boy goes..

two of you..but if i say Šþþ¡þþ¹Ÿþ.dog.i? you? we?...these fall into the The subject is so specific here that just by looking at the word ‰þþ¸¹¬þ ( the suffix ¹¬þ is the indicator) i know that it is you who are eating and nobody else.and then figure out who the subject is. many fish. two tadpoles ·þ£·þ: and three or more tadpoles ·þ£¹›·þ | ·þ¼ ( to swim) being šþþ·é | Ÿþš¡þŸþ | 2.. museums.. Two cats ŠþŽ·þ: . alongside this one and begin to compare the two. Use ŠþŽ¹›·þ with plural forms of ANY noun. For example. Use ŠþŽ¹·þ with singular forms of ANY noun. ¹Ÿþ tells me that "I am © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 20/37 . one bird...whether cat . To identify the verb forms." 4. is it ¹·þ.Three or more cats the noun form "cat" is written differently for one cat. ¹Ÿþ. ·þ:... Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. two cats and three or more cats. If i say "sing" it is unclear as to who is singing..chitrapurmath. ˜þ. These concepts should come through clearly. If i say ¨þ¸˜þ:.... ˜þ:. two cobs of corn . Catch a hold of the suffix. the suffix ˜þ: indicates "two 3.. You. three or more of you .. two rats. Ÿþ: .... ¹¬þ.. Now let's tease the brain teaser in Lesson 7. you must look at its tail end. Therefore since both Ÿþš¡þŸþ and „îþŸþ have predetermined subjects. ¨þ:. These verbs will therefore be used for the third person. 1.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Keep the ŠþŸþà table that has earlier been given in Lesson 7.... the of you". Use ŠþŽ·þ: with dual forms of ANY ŠþŽ¹›·þ | Yes. combine English and Sanskrit to "remember" which verb form goes with which subject form. For the tadpole the ·þ£¹·þ. into giving us a solution. Every noun and pronoun in the dictionary fall into the œÏ˜þŸþ .. noun. i needn't add the subject at all in my sentences. Similarly.but that will be explained in Lesson 8.One cat ŠþŽ¹·þ . ¹›·þ.

Use these verb suffixes with their matching subjects to form Sanskrit/English sentences. write to the chef ( yours truly). Mother cook¹·þ. ******* Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www." © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 21/37 . two elephants trumpet·þ:. till the verb suffixes..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Šé²Ÿê·øÄ ·¨þþ¿ ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ ¬þ·þ·þ¿ ‚þ·ŸþˆÅþŸþ ¬þ¿¨þšþĹ›þ ‚Ÿþ | ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ tells you that the one who is performing the namaskaar is none but "I. Once you have finished reading Lesson 8 and Lesson 8 A. Go on to the next lesson.sentences like that ..subject combinations have more or less been memorized.until our vocabulary grows. ·¨þ¿ meditate¹¬þ . Father snore¹·þ | . Let's see if i can tease my brain into coming up with better explanations! Looking forward to your feedback... If you are still in a soup.chitrapurmath. things will begin to make sense then.‚−¿ singþ¹Ÿþ . come back to Lesson 7.

.into. Almost everything that we have in our shastras . Each of them convey a different meaning. "to Raghava " as "Raghavato" and "with bats and balls" as "batsballswith" The subject's word form. We needed the freedom to be able to put words in any order in a sentence. the meaning of the sentence changes. In it. our scriptures.. The Rishi Budhakaushik had disappeared within himself. as in the one performing the action.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 8. Insights into ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ s Have a look at these two sentences. and then add that to the noun. In most languages. remains unchanged. in His infinite grace.chitrapurmath. our texts. The only way to ensure that was to convert a preposition into a © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 22/37 . What we essentially do in Sanskrit is write the word "under tree" as "treeunder". They played with bats and balls. (A preposition is a word in a sentence that shows the relationship between two or more nouns/pronouns. The noun plus the preposition-turned. Sanskrit is musical. • The cat drinks milk. She sat under a tree.. For example. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. are all set to a particular metre in the form of poetry. gave to the Rishi the Ramaraksha stotra. • Milk drinks the cat. is a beautiful verse. It is rhythmic. Clarity any clearer??!! ) It was a long time ago.suffix became a completely new word whose meaning became crystal clear. £þŸþ: (£þŸþø ) £þþŸþ¹µþ: ¬þ¸þ ¹¨þþ¡þ·ø £þŸþ¿ £Ÿøªþ¿ žþø | £þŸøµþ ‚¹žþ−·þþ ¹›þªþþþ£þŸê: £þŸþþ¡þ ·þ¬Ÿù ›þŸþ: || £þŸþþ·þà ›þþ¹¬·þ œþ£þ¡þµþ¿ œþ£·þ£¿ £þŸþ¬¡þ ¸þ¬þø¶¬Ÿ¡þ−Ÿþà | £þŸø ¹þîþ¥þ¡þ: ¬þ¸þ žþ¨þ·é Ÿø −½ £þŸþ ŸþþŸþà „Ö£ || Notice how the word £þŸþ appears in many different forms in the verse.. without any changes to the meaning of what had to be conveyed. The changes occur with the other noun or pronoun in the sentence with whom the subject seeks to establish a relationship. Let's go through each one of them in sequence. the minute the words are shifted around. The Lord Shiva. a œÏ·¡þ¡þ. Krishna spoke to Raghava. The early morning was vibrant in the silence of meditation.

For example if I have to say "from the book. on ¬þŸþøšþ›þ (used when calling out to. "from the book" JUST HAS to be Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ‚Ÿþ£ etc.' £þŸø is 'in Rama. If you remember." I look at the word for "from Rama" It says. Since Sanskrit is so musical. £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object ·þ¼·þú¡þþ by. ŠÏ›˜þ ( book).' £þŸþ¬¡þ conveys the meaning 'Rama's. For example. £þŸþ¿ becomes the object form. £þŸþþ·þà | So therefore.' And £þŸþ by itself. ˆÅµþÄ (ear).' £þŸþþ·þà is 'from Rama.' £þŸþþ¡þ signifies 'for and is a masculine word. Žþ°þ (student) besides so many names like ¹ªþ¨þ. Ÿþ ŠÏ›˜þþ·þà | Simple. all I have to do is make sure that my words rhyme. þþ¥þˆÅ (boy). is the form the word takes when calling out to someone named Rama. Ÿþ−½ªþ.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 £þŸþ: is the subject form. That means that it ends in the sound ‚ = Ÿþà + ‚ There are lots of masculine words that end in ‚. £þŸþ: is an ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ word. ¨þ¼âþ (tree). 23/37 © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . with þ·é˜þúÄ for œþ؍þŸþú from «þ«Úú (denotes possession) ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ singular ¹×¨þþ›þ dual þ−º¨þþ›þ plural £þŸþ: £þŸþ¿ £þŸøµþ £þŸþþ¡þ £þŸþþ·þà £þŸþ¬¡þ £þŸø (−½) £þŸþ ¬þœ·þŸþú in.. Let us put it in the form of a table to make it easier to refer to. £þŸøµþ means 'by or with Rama.chitrapurmath.) Now.

the Rama is picked from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | Since Shiva is the object to whom the namaskaar is done. Thank God for small mercies . They are used not too often .chitrapurmath.. with þ·é˜þúÄ for œþ؍þŸþú from «þ«Úú shows possession ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ £þŸþ: £þŸþŸþà £þŸøµþ £þŸþþ¡þ £þŸþþ·þà £þŸþ¬¡þ £þŸø (−½) £þŸþ ¹×¨þþ›þ £þŸþù £þŸþù £þŸþþž¡þþŸþà £þŸþþž¡þþŸþà £þŸþþž¡þþŸþà £þŸþ¡þø: £þŸþ¡þø: (−½) £þŸþù þ−º¨þþ›þ £þŸþþ: £þŸþþ›þà £þŸþ¾: £þŸøž¡þ: £þŸøž¡þ: £þŸþþµþþŸþà £þŸø«é (−½) £þŸþþ: ¬þœ·þŸþú in. New Concepts taught in this lesson • You can arrange the words in any manner in a Sanskrit sentence.there is so much less to memorize." All my students fell asleep while reading my lesson? " Therefore. here now is the entire table.. Since Rama does the action..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 I can see eyebrows raised over the blank spaces for the dual and plurals. on ¬þŸþøšþ›þ (used when addressing) I have tried to show you that certain words are repeated in the table by clubbing them together in the same colour. Are they needed? You can betcha bottom dollar that they are! What in the world would you say for " I hear with my two ears ?" Or for that matter . Let me give you some concrete examples. you use the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ form which is ¹ªþ¨þŸþà | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. that is why the need to create new words did not present itself. Rama does Namaskaar to Shiva. don't get flustered!) ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object ·þ¼·þú¡þþ by. £þŸþ: ¹ªþ¨þ¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ | ›þŸþ¹·þ £þŸþ: ¹ªþ¨þŸþà | ¹ªþ¨þ¿ £þŸþ: ›þŸþ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ›þŸþ¹·þ ¹ªþ¨þŸþà | ¹ªþ¨þ¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ £þŸþ: | ›þŸþ¹·þ ¹ªþ¨þ¿ £þŸþ: | All these sentences mean exactly the same © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 24/37 . £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ (Just to look at my dears.

" If you mix up the words.. In a lighter vein. you may safely assume that I am calling out to Ram. "the birds sat on the fence.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 • A word + a preposition is used in Sanskrit. put the birds. Here is a little limerick that might amuse you.. I must use the word £þŸþ: | Hope these two concepts have been dealt with clearly in this © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 25/37 .chitrapurmath. If I use the word £þŸþ. The study of Sanskrit should not make one tense. In the end.. For. look at the sentence. I MUST use the word £þŸþŸþÃ | If Ram is the person performing the action. In Sanskrit.a word is NEVER used by itself. it will still make sense! ****************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. If I intend using Ram as the object of my adoration ..

. Ignore the verb forms and just concentrate on the subject forms. ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular M F N þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ ¬þ: ¬þþ ·þ·þà He She It ·þù ·ø ·ø Two He s Two She s Two It s ·ø Many He s ·þþ: Many She s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s ¡ê¡þ¿ / ¡ê¡þŸþà All of you Ÿþš¡þŸþ ·¨þ¿ /·¨þŸþà You ¡é¨þþ¿ / ¡é¨þþŸþà You two „îþŸþ ‚−¿/ ‚−Ÿþà I ‚þ¨þþ¿ /‚þ¨þþŸþà We two ¨þ¡þ¿ / ¨þ¡þŸþà All of us Now let's concentrate on the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ. The table is broken horizontally into three œé²«þ s. Besides the conjugations of the verb. I remember going into a complete tizzy when first introduced to the vibhakti idea. Divide the lot completely as so. œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Luckily for me. Here is what I gathered in an oyster. Take a look at the ŠþŸþà present tense verb table. the matching subject forms are also given.chitrapurmath.. Reinforcing Vibhaktis. Tarangini had the patience of a growing © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 26/37 . I asked more questions than a talkative four year old.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 8 A .

Ÿþþ¥þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ. £þŸþ: ŠþŽ¹·þ. All „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ 3.. Therefore. All ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ £þŸþ | 2. −¹£.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 œÏ˜þŸþ M ¬þ: He £þŸþ:. Šþ¼−Ÿþà ŠþŽ¹·þ. ·ø Two She s ·þþ: Many She s ·ø Two It s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s At the risk of sounding terribly repetitious and boring. there are „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words like Šé².. ¨þ›þŸþà ŠþŽ¹·þ . ¨þ›þŸþÃ.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 27/37 . words like dictionary except for those of the Ÿþš¡þŸþ and the Just as there are ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ £þŸþ. Ÿþ¹·þ:. £Ÿþþ ŠþŽ¹·þ. The 2.. ¹ªþªé (child)..chitrapurmath. žþþ›é (sun). Šé²:| ·þù Two He s ·ø Many He s F ¬þþ She £Ÿþþ. All ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words are declined like( made to rhyme like) words are declined like Šé² | −¹£ | words are declined like Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Šé²: ŠþŽ¹·þ. ¬þþšé etc. ¹Šþ¹£ etc. and words like there are ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ ˆÅ¹¨þ. œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ accommodates every single noun and pronoun in the „îþŸþ . 1. 1. ›þ¸ú N ·þ·þà It Šþ¼−ŸþÃ. −¹£:.. þþ¥þˆÅ etc.

See you next week! ************************ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ differently from words and ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words are declined words BUT the most beautiful thing is ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ that Sanskrit allows us the freedom to convert all words into ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words and decline them like £þŸþ | For instance.) Similarly we have different ending feminine words and neuter words. relate your woes and we'll provide instant relief! The Agony Aunts and Uncles here are a prompt lot. All rhyming words are declined in the same manner. (We'll take it easy. i shan't give you more than you can chew. a feminine one with its feminine rhyming counterpart. and a neuter with a neuter.. And that's a promise. Just hit the feedback button on our Sanskrit page. Things will become clearer as we proceed and i will keep explaining and repeating concepts for as long as you require me to. Just try and understand this concept. BUT remember that a masculine word is rhymed with its masculine counterpart.. why not convert Šé² into Šé²¸½¨þ or maybe −¹£ into ›þþ£þ¡þµþ ? Makes conversation simple! These antics are alright in the beginning but eventually we will have to learn all the forms of different words simply so that we may recognize them in shlokas and © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 28/37 .

ever "metamorphosize.chitrapurmath. steady ones that never. vibhakti." The Ram is the subject. Since £þŸþ: is from œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ ( Third Person Singular. ‰þþ¸¹·þ | the Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.... Of Caterpillars and Non-Caterpillars. They are called ‚¨¡þ¡þ s..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9. Let's go through a group of them in every lesson . Sanskrit English what here there from-where where all together everywhere elsewhere Hindi ¹ˆÅŸþà / ¹ˆ¿Å ‚°þ ·þ°þ ¡þ°þ ˆºÅ°þ ‡ˆÅ°þ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‚›¡þ°þ So I can accurately say Æ¡þþ ¡þ−Ü ¨þ−Ü þ−Ü ˆÅ−Ü ¬þþ˜þ ŸÝ ¬þþ þŠþ− ¹ˆÅ¬þú ‚ù£ þŠþ− ‚−¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ·¨þ¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ¬þ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ‚þ¨þþ¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽþ¨þ: | . gender. Therefore you pick the word Ram from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | £þŸþ: | The verb is " is eating" and HAS to follow the subject. Much as you have been introduced to verbs and nouns that change their shape and size at the drop of a hat. shall we get familiar with our Caterpillars? In a sentence such as " Ram is eating a ladoo.. you name it.according to English Grammar) the verb also has to be from the œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ .. verb. Having introduced our Non. there are some © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 29/37 . they hold their own." ( Ah! NOW the reference to caterpillars becomes clear! ) You can use them with any noun..and so on and so forth. tense. in a changing world.Caterpillars.

£þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ·þ°þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | Ram is eating a ladoo there. neuter words will be introduced with an (N) and feminine words with an ( F). £þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþà ‚°þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | Ram is eating a ladoo here. Whenever i introduce NEW masculine words to you. the verb.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 The object that is being gobbled up is the ladoo (Ÿþø¸ˆÅ .chitrapurmath. Let's change the subject AND along with it.the root word) The object form of the word Ÿþø¸ˆÅ is Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþà . ) ·¨þ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | You are eating a ladoo everywhere.. The verb is bound by Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. change the word according to the ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ table to include a preposition ) Rules that must be followed.. The conjugation(Changes in a verb form) of the verb in its various forms remains the same for all three genders.. ‚−¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ is an absolute no no. 2. £þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆ¿Å ‰þþ¸¹·þ | CLUE: Whenever a sentence is constructed or translated.(Don't even try and imagine it. not by ¹¥þ² © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 gender.) ( New Concept Ÿþø¸ˆÅ is a masculine word.(Probably Let's add an averse to sharing it. ‚¨¡þ¡þ. THEN add the rest of the words to complete the sentence. grab (for dear life) the verb and its subject. 1. i shall put an ( M) next to it. ‚−¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþà ‚°þ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | I am eating a ladoo here.. To use them in sentences. ·¨þ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþà ‚›¡þ°þ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | You are eating a ladoo elsewhere. ‚−¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ·þ°þ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | I am eating a ladoo there. The verb HAS to agree with the ˆÅ·þþÄ. 30/37 . Therefore the sentence becomes. the œé²«þ person and ¨þþ›þ number.

M) Šþþ: Ÿþø¸ˆ¿Å ‰þþ¸¹·þ is translated as The elephant is eating a laddoo.) ( Easier to say. or other yet to be introduced forms. Šþþ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ is . the place to where the "going to" happens ALWAYS is in the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ| going © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 31/37 . ¬þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ . £þŸþ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ .. The ladoo is eating an elephant.Ÿþþ¥þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ . ****** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. New Concept Whenever you use ŠþŸþà in its verb. add the Ÿþà or the anuswaar to wherever you are ‚−¿ ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | Šþþ: ¨þ›þ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þ: Šþ¼−¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þŸþà ‚−Ÿþà | The faithful shall follow me into solving the exercises in Lesson 9 A. M ) Ÿþø¸ˆÅ (laddoo. ·þ·þà ›þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | The subject ˆÅ·þþÄ ALWAYS is in the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ and the object ˆÅŸþÄ is ALWAYS in the ¹×·þú¡þþ | Šþþ (elephant..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 3.chitrapurmath. Thou shalt tread this path with care.

are the first two ¹¨þ0 ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿çquuç² ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ ¹×¨þþ›þ £þŸþ: £þŸþù £þŸþŸþà £þŸþù þ−º¨þþ›þ £þŸþþ: £þŸþþ›þà Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Let's build a vocabulary now.Exercises in sentence building.. ´ªþà ( œþª¡þ¹·þ )| All you have to do is separate the word œþª¡þ¹·þ into œþª¡þ + ¹·þ and understand that the usable verb Whenever new verbs are introduced. ´ªþà (œþª¡þ¹·þ ) to see ¥þÙà ¥þˆÅþ£ (present tense ) œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ Ÿþš¡þŸþ „îþŸþ œþª¡þ¹·þ œþª¡þ¹¬þ œþª¡þþ¹Ÿþ œþª¡þ·þ: œþª¡þ˜þ: œþª¡þþ¨þ: œþª¡þ¹›·þ œþª¡þ˜þ œþª¡þþŸþ: For quick reference to help you do the exercises. You can build an entire present tense table based on this by the addition of œÏ·¡þ¡þ s ( suffixes) as so. The ‚ ending masculine (‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ ) noun " £þŸþ " has already been introduced.. the form is the first part of the word. Subsequent lessons will introduce one vibhakti at a time..chitrapurmath. œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ ‡ˆÅ ¨þþ›þ will be given in brackets alongside the šþþ·é | For example. We will work with just the first two vibhaktis today.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9 A © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 32/37 . Time now to introduce a new concept...

two men HAVE to be matched with œþÚ·þ: the dual œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ verb. He is © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 33/37 . And since there are two men. Verbs. ¡é¨þþ¿. and ¨þ¡þ¿ fall into the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ | Therefore logically.−¬þ›þþ to laugh) ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2..All nouns and pronouns except for the ·¨þ¿. Those two men are reading. ŠþŸþà ( ŠþŽ¹·þ to go) −¬þà (−¬þ¹·þ. ‚−¿. ¬þ: ·þù he two he s žê ( žþ¨þ¹·þ to be) œþÚà (œþÚ¹·þ to read or study). 1. ¡ê¡þ¿.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Do you have a notebook . ¹ˆÅŸþà ‚°þ ·þ°þ ¡þ°þ ˆºÅ°þ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‚›¡þ°þ ‡ˆÅ°þ ·ø all the he s £þŸþ ( M) ƒÄæþ£ ( M) þþ¥þˆÅ boy ( M) Ÿþ›é«¡þ man (M) ›þ¼œþ king ( M) ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ school ( M) ŠÏþŸþ village ( M) Example sentences. Avyayas. a pencil and a HUGE eraser ready? Then let's gettagoin' ! Nouns / Pronouns.chitrapurmath. Ÿþ›é«¡þù œþÚ·þ: | Recall. the word for two men HAS to rhyme with £þŸþù which makes it Ÿþ›é«¡þù | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.. ‚þ¨þþ¿.

Correct these sentences. Ram and Ishwar are studying ( Refer to lesson 7 A). 16. What is happening there? ·þ°þ ¹ˆ¿Å žþ¨þ¹·þ? Whatever is happening also falls into the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ | Since it appears to be . He is reading. 3. 9. Ram is going to the village. 8. All the men are going to the village. Where is the boy laughing? 7. He is laughing there. 11. 13. 12. 5. Answers are provided in Lesson 9B. Two boys are laughing. 6. 10. Two men are going to the village. ¬þ: œþÚ·þ:| ¬þ: œþÚ¹›·þ | ·þù œþÚ¹·þ | © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 34/37 Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. žþ¨þ¹·þ is used. 4. The boy is going there. þþ¥þˆÅ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | Try doing the rest on your own. But you shall be honest and take a peek only after you have tried completing the exercise. 1. Two boys are going to school. All the boys are namaskaaring Ram. All the boys are laughing.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 3. The king is going elsewhere. 2. Ram is namaskaaring( for lack of an appropriate word!) Ishwar. Ram is namaskaaring all the boys. The boy is going to school. 3. 2. Translate. The two are reading here. 14.chitrapurmath. 15. 1. 4.

you may take that peek now. ****************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. By the way. Will see you next week. You have my © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 35/37 . 7. ·ø œþÚ¹·þ | þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹›·þ | ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø ¹ˆÅŸþà œþÚ¹›·þ | Seems more than enough for a first time session. 8.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 4. 5. 9. 6.chitrapurmath.

Where is the boy laughing? þþ¥þˆÅ: ˆºÅ°þ −¬þ¹·þ ? 7. Two boys are laughing. The boy is going to school. ·þù œþÚ¹·þ | ·þù œþÚ·þ:| 4. þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹›·þ | þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹·þ| 6. þþ¥þˆÅþ: £þŸþ¿ ›þŸþ¹›·þ | 16. þþ¥þˆÅù ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽ·þ: | 13. þþ¥þˆÅù −¬þ·þ:| 11. The two are reading here. Ram and Ishwar are studying. Answers to questions in Lesson 9 A 1. Ram is namaskaaring all the boys. 1. þþ¥þˆÅ: ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ| 4. Two boys are going to school. ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹·þ | 7. ·þù ‚°þ œþÚ·þ:| 10. Ÿþ›é«¡þþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹›·þ | 15. All the men are going to the village. Ram is going to the village. ¬þ: ·þ°þ −¬þ¹·þ| 3. ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹›·þ| 9. ·ø œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø œþÚ¹›·þ| 5. £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ| 5. £þŸþ: þþ¥þˆÅþ›þà ›þŸþ¹·þ | Corrected sentences. ›þ¼œþ: ‚›¡þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | 6. þþ¥þˆÅþ: −¬þ¹›·þ | 14. Ram is namaskaaring Ishwar. He is © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 36/37 . £þŸþ: ƒÄæþ£¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ | 9. ¬þ: œþÚ¹›·þ | ·ø œþÚ¹›·þ| 3. He is laughing there. ·ø ¹ˆÅŸþà œþÚ¹›·þ | ·ø ¹ˆÅ¿ œþÚ¹›·þ | How was the goin' ? Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. All the boys are laughing. ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2. £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | 8. Two men are going to the village. £þŸþ: ƒÄæþ£: þ œþÚ·þ:| 8.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9 B. The king is going elsewhere. ¬þ: œþÚ·þ: | ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2.chitrapurmath. Ÿþ›é«¡þù ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ·þ: | 12. All the boys are namaskaaring Ram.

Ditto for same ending feminine words. And that's tremendous progress. feminine or neuter. What you would have achieved at the end of Month 1. dual or plural. it ends in a Ÿþà or an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | That ‚¨¡þ¡þ s are words that do not change their form. That wherever is the place that one is going to. Know. That nouns.. pronouns and verbs can be singular. if i do say so myself! ******************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. That all "same ending" masculine words are declined alike.chitrapurmath. That the subject is picked from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ| That the object is picked from the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | That Sanskrit verbs are so familiar simply because we use them everyday when speaking our own mother tongue. That nouns and pronouns may be masculine. Ditto © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 37/37 . That nouns or pronouns have to be attached to a preposition before they can be used.. • • • • • • • • • When to use Ÿþà and when to use an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | How to correctly write a word with ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þ؏þ›þ s. Suffixes have to be added to a verb root form to match the subject. the place falls in the • • • • • ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | That is.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Summing up Month 1. How to correctly pronounce Ÿþà or an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ ending word depending on what letter follows it.

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