Abies balsamea

Common name: Balsam Fir Family: Pinaceae Range: Northern North American native [10,16,33]; Widely distributed throughout this region [16,33] Habitat: Woodlands [16,33], mountains, cool, moist areas, low swampy grounds, well-drained hillsides [57] Hardiness: 2-3 [10] Other Common Names: Balsam [1,10], Eastern Fir [10] Primary Uses: Firewood, Waterproofing Agent, Wildlife Habitat, Medicine, Oil, Tea

Physical Characteristics
Balsam fir is a medium-sized coniferous tree that grows to a height of about seventy-five feet [10,33]. Bark is rather smooth and only begins to furrow upon old age [16]. It also
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bears blisters that are filled with pitch [16]. Branches are nearly horizontal [16]. Leaves are flat, about ¾ inches long, silvery on the underside and spread horizontally from the branches [16,33]. Cones are erect, about three inches long and disintegrate in the fall, leaving behind the upright axis on which they formed [16,33].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea The foliage of balsam fir can be brewed as a tea [1]. Though it is best to use the young spring growth, that of any age will do just fine [1]. Also, in emergency situations, the inner bark can be stripped away and eaten either raw or dried and ground into flour [16]. As this may likely damage the tree, this is not a recommended use.

Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Cold Remedy, Sore Throat, Antiseptic, Diarrhea, Poultice The needles of balsam fir can be used to make a laxative tea [37]. Sap can be chewed as a cold remedy while an infusion of the sap can be used for sore throats [37]. Resin from the tree is used throughout the world as an antiseptic and a healing agent [56]. The buds, cones and inner bark can be taken as a diarrhea remedy [37]. Native Americans made pillows stuffed with balsam fir needles, believing that their aroma helped keep them from catching cold [37]. Gum, made from the resin of the tree, can be applied as a poultice to skin wounds and irritations [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Timber, Firewood, Waterproofing Agent, Shade, Wildlife Habitat Balsam fir is an outstanding Christmas tree as it retains its needles for a much longer time than the spruces [48].

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An aromatic oil can be distilled from the bark or needles [48]. Balsam fir can be cultivated as a timber species. Its wood has straight grain, is very light and weak and weighs twenty-four pounds per cubic foot [10,56]. It is often used in construction and for paper pulp and boxes and crates [10]. Wood can also be used for fuel [37]. Native Americans used the pitch as a waterproofing agent for the seams of their canoes [37,56]. The average yield is about eight to ten ounces per tree [56]. Also, the resin blisters that line the bark contain ‘Canada Balsam’, which is used as a glue in making compound lens and microscope slides [16]. Balsam fir can be grown as a year round shade tree. As an evergreen, balsam fir provides essential winter (and year round) habitat for many types of wildlife.

Cultivation Details
Balsam fir prefers full sun though it is very tolerant of shade [10,56]. Also, it prefers moist, acidic soil conditions with a pH as low as 5 [10,56]. Trees are shallow rooted and thus are vulnerable to high winds [56]. Balsam fir is a fast-growing tree [56]. After ten years of cultivation, balsam firs will likely have grown to about fourteen feet [10].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Acer spp.
Common name: Maple Family: Aceraceae Range: North American natives (though not all maples are native to North America) [33]; Widely distributed throughout the temperate United States Habitat: Sugar Maple – rich, hilly woods [33], eastern deciduous forests [14] Silver Maple – bottomlands, riverbanks [33,43] Red Maple – swamps, lowlands, moist uplands [33,43] Box elder – riverbanks [33], waste sites, wet ground, streams [43] Hardiness: 3-7 [13] Other Common Names: Sugar Maple – Rock Maple [34] Primary Uses: Sap – Cool drink, beer, syrup, sugar and vinegar, Timber, Firewood, Coppice Material, Potash Source, Windbreak, Pioneer

Sugar Maple – Acer saccharum

Physical Characteristics
Maples are medium-sized to tall trees, reaching a maximum height of about one hundred twenty feet [14,23,41]. Most trees also have broad, rounded crowns [13,14]. In spring, summer and autumn maples are best identified by their simple (usually), lobed, toothed,

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opposite leaves [13,14,33]. The box elder (Acer negundo) is the exception here in that it has compound leaves [33]. The flowers of the silver maple are small, bisexual and produced in thin, hanging clusters before the leaves emerge in spring [13,14,23]. Most of the other maple species produce their flowers in the fall. They are pollinated by insects [56]. Also, maple fruits are quite similar in form and appearance and are a good diagnostic trait. They are in winged pairs and are known as ‘double samaras’ [5,13,14,33]. The buds of the maple species are variable. Sugar maple buds are grayish, pointy, conical, and very imbricate (have many scales), whereas red and silver maple buds are reddish in color, more globose in shape, and though imbricate possess, far fewer scales.

History
The Iroquois have tapped maples for their sap for hundreds of years [5,33]. They would process and consume the sap as a drink, a food sweetener, syrup and sugar [33]. They boiled the sap by throwing red-hot stones into sap buckets until the steam had reduced it to syrup or sugar [5,16,22,23]. Generally, the most popular maple species that they tapped were the sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (Acer rubrum), silver maple (Acer saccharinum) and the box elder (Acer negundo) [33]. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is the state tree of Vermont, New York and Wisconsin, and it is the national emblem of Canada [33].

Edible Uses
Sap, Cool Drink, Beer, Syrup, Sugar, Vinegar, Seedlings, Seeds Though all native maples can be tapped for sap, sugar maple produces the sweetest sap [2,16]. When collecting sap, maples should be tapped in late winter or early spring [5,33]. More specifically, tapping should be done once the sap has begun to ‘run’ [33]. In Vermont, this is usually about the middle of March, continuing on for a month or so [23,33]. The best flow usually occurs on warm, sunny days followed by cold frosty nights [5,14,33]. Freshly collected maple sap can be used as a refreshing drink, while it can also be used to make sap beer [5,14,33]. Sugar maple sap is three to six percent sugar [50]. It takes forty quarts of sap to make one quart of maple syrup [2,13,33,34]. I won’t describe the technique that is necessary to collect and process maple sap into syrup because it has been done extensively elsewhere, and there are a number of detailed resources that would be better consulted than my own.

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Once collected, to protect sap from spoiling, refrigerate it or boil it down daily [33]. To make granulated maple sugar, follow the same procedure as you would to make syrup, but bring your partly boiled down sap to between 40 and 45°F above the boiling point of water (it varies depending on altitude) [33]. Pour this liquid into a stirring bowl and stir it rapidly until crystallization is complete [33]. After about five minutes, you’ll have a mix of fine granulated sugar and balls that are about an eighth of an inch in diameter [5,14,17,33]. Maple sap can also be used to make a sap vinegar. Boil down six gallons of sap until it is one half to one third of its original volume. Remove it from heat, allowing it to cool. Pour this liquid into a pot. Dissolve one yeast cake in a little bit of this liquid and then add it to the pot. Cover the pot with a towel and store it in a cool room for six weeks or until it stops bubbling. This liquid should then be filtered and poured into clean bottles. Place these bottles in a water bath and bring them to 150°F for thirty minutes, finally corking them before the vinegar cools. [14,22,33] Spring harvested maple seedlings can be eaten fresh or dried for later use [56]. Maple seeds can be collected before they are fully ripe which is between June and September [13,14]. To use them, soak them and remove the wings [2,14,16]. Then boil them until tender, season, and roast for ten to fifteen minutes [14]. One hundred grams of maple syrup contain 348 calories, 143mg of calcium, 11mg of phosphorus, 1.4mg of iron, 14mg of sodium and 242mg of potassium [49].

Medicinal Uses
Eyewash, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Cough Remedy The inner bark of red and sugar maple has been boiled and used as an eyewash [6,37]. A decoction of the inner bark of silver maple can be taken for diarrhea and dysentery [37]. The inner bark of sugar maple is used as a cough remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Preservative, Basketry, Shade, Pioneer, Hedge, Timber, Potash Source, Coppice Material, Windbreak, Livestock Fodder, Rust, Bee Forage Maples bark may be used to produce a brown dye [5]. The twigs and bark of the silver maple can be used to make a black dye [37].

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Maple leaves possess a preservative effect and can be layered in with apples, carrots, potatoes and other root vegetables for storage over the winter [15,46]. Branches of the silver and red maple (Acer saccharinum and rubrum) can be used to make baskets [37]. These trees generally provide wonderful shade [2,48]. Red maple (Acer rubrum) can be used for planting along marshes and bogs [38]. It is also an effective pioneer, and as such can be used to speed the regeneration of cleared and open woodlands [56]. Field or hedge maple (Acer campestre) makes an excellent hedge. They grow fast when young but slow with age [15]. When planted, trees should be spaced about two feet apart [15]. Maple wood is also quite valuable [5]. It is hard and workable [5]. The timber of all of the maple species has straight fine grain [10]. Seasoned sugar maple timber is red-brown in color, strong, heavy and hard [10]. It can be used for flooring, joinery and interior construction, furniture and cabinet work, paper pulp, turnery, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, charcoal, veneers, musical instruments, pegs and plywood [10]. Maple is also a good carving wood [41]. Though lighter than oak, maple is even stronger [48]. Sugar maple is responsible for most of the timber that is marketed as maple, though no distinction is made between sugar and red maple [48].

They also provide wonderful firewood [5,56]. Maple ashes are rich in alkali and yield large quantities of potash that can be used as fertilizer for plants [56]. Box elder can be readily coppiced and maintained as a large shrub if desired [56,58]. Sugar maple can reportedly tolerate atmospheric pollution [56]. Silver maple and box elder are fairly wind tolerant and can be planted in a shelterbelt, but the branches of silver maple are rather brittle and can break off in even minor storms [56]. The foliage of box elder is readily eaten by cattle and pigs [58]. Box elder also has fire retardant properties [58].

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Silver maple bark can be boiled with hemlock (Tsuga) and swamp white oak bark (Quercus bicolor) and used as a wash to remove rust from iron and steel, while also prevent further rusting [56]. Maples provide forage for bees [41,58].

Cultivation Details
Sugar maple prefers rich, well-drained soils [2]. Silver, red and sugar maples also like moist soils [10]. Sugar and red maples prefer acid to neutral soil conditions or a pH of about 4.5 to 7.3 [10,56]. All the maples prefer full sun though they will tolerate partial shade [10,41]. In fact, sugar maple is incredibly shade tolerant [56]. Sugar maples are long-lived and may persist for over two hundred years [41]. Silver maples, though fast growing, seldom survive any longer than 125 or 150 years [56]. Red maple grows quickly for the first twenty to thirty years but only lives for about seventy five to one hundred [56]. Box elder is also fast growing though short lived, rarely surpassing one hundred years in age [56]. Maples have shallow, wiry surface roots that may interfere with the growth of some plant species [13,46,56]. Maple sap can be tapped within ten to fifteen years after planting from seed [56]. Trees can be propagated by seed, layering or cuttings [56]. Cuttings should be taken in June or July and they should have two to three pairs of leaves and a pair of buds at the base [56]. Remove a thin slice of bark at the cutting’s base [56]. Once rooted, cuttings must show new growth during the summer before they can be potted up because they will otherwise be rather unlikely to survive the winter [56].

Known Hazards
Maple roots are believed to send out a growth inhibitor that affects nearby plants [41,46,56].

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Achillea millefolium
Common name: Yarrow Family: Compositae Range: European native [7,9,41,44]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [4,44] Habitat: Disturbed soils, roadsides [41], old fields, waste sites, sunny places [4] Hardiness: 2 [7] Other Common Names: Milfoil [7,9,25,41], Thousand Seal [7,25], Sanguinary [7,25], Nose-Bleed [7,25], Hundred-Leaved Grass [25] Primary Uses: Fertilizer, Companion Plant, Cover Crop, Ground Cover, Insect Repellent, Medicine, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Dynamic Accumulator, Fertilizer

Physical Characteristics
Yarrow is an upright, herbaceous perennial herb that grows to a height of three feet [7,39,41,44]. Plants spread by a creeping rootstock [41]. Leaves are narrow, alternate, lacy, linear, aromatic and fernlike [4]. Flower heads are borne in flat-topped clusters, contain five petallike rays and are white in color [4,39,41]. They are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs and are pollinated by insects [56].
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History
Yarrow’s Latin name Achillea is a reference to the fact that its potency as a wound-healer is believed to have been discovered by the Greek warrior Achilles [24].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea, Beer Dried yarrow leaves can be brewed in hot water for ten to fifteen minutes to make a nice tea [4,9]. Also, when used in small quantities, yarrow can make a cool addition to salads [7,9,15,35]. It can be used as a cooked vegetable by removing the feathery leaves from the stems, boiling them for twenty minutes and simmering them in butter [9,35]. Yarrow is most potent just before the flowers have been produced which is usually late spring or early summer [4,44]. Leaves can also be used as a hop substitute in beer [7,9,25]. Yarrow is a source of potassium [22].

Medicinal Uses
Antispasmodic, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Tonic, Skin Irritations, Cold/Fever Remedy, Toothache Remedy Both the flowering tops and the foliage of yarrow are antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, chologogne, diaphoretic, haemostatic and tonic [41]. Yarrow tea can be taken to induce sweating [4]. This tea also makes a good wash for all types of skin irritations, but it should be used infrequently as its repeated use can cause sensitivity to sunlight [4]. It can be taken to help clear up head colds and fevers [44]. Chewing fresh yarrow leaves or impacting a wad of them against a painful tooth or gum area will help to relieve toothaches [44].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Perfumery, Dye, Dynamic Accumulator, Fertilizer, Companion Plant, Cover Crop, Ground Cover, Indicator Plant, Insect Repellent, Compost Material, Livestock Fodder, Bee Forage, Beneficial Insect Attractor An essential oil extracted from this plant is used in perfumery [7]. Yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the flowers [9]. Yarrow is a dynamic accumulator of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and copper [32,54]. The leaves of this plant can be used to make a liquid feed for plants [15,56]. Fill a container with the leaves, add some water and let it soak for a week or two [56]. Later, dilute the liquid about ten to one with water [56]. Yarrow plants increase the aromatic quality of all nearby herbs [46]. It is a great companion plant for grass [15]. Yarrow can be grown as a both a cover crop and a ground cover [7,32]. The presence of yarrow growing wild in an area is indicative of soils that are low in potassium [32]. Both dried and growing plants are said to repel beetles, ants and flies [15]. Yarrow provides wonderful compost material and it will help speed up the composting process when added to piles [15]. The flowers of this plant are an essential ingredient of ‘Quick Return’ herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) [15]. Both the foliage and the flowering stocks can be used medicinally for livestock, especially sheep [7,39,46]. Yarrow can be grown as a pasture crop so that livestock can browse it as they please. Plants provide forage for bees and attract beneficial insects including ladybugs, parasitic wasps, aphids, scales and whiteflies [7,32,39].

Cultivation Details
Plants are sun loving though they are also tolerant of shade [7,24,56]. They also grow very well in poor soils and prefer those that are dry [7,9,15,56]. Plants will grow in light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils that are acidic, neutral and alkaline in pH [9]. Once established, yarrow is wind and drought-resistant [9,15,39,56].

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When growing it as a ground cover, plants should be spaced eighteen inches apart [9]. They spread quickly and vigorously and form a moderate cover [9]. Plants can be propagated by seed (which usually take one to three months to germinate), root division and basal cuttings [41]. Cuttings should be taken in spring when the shoots are about four inches tall [56]. They should take root within three weeks [56].

Known Hazards
Yarrow can become invasive, so if you worry about the seeds spreading, simply cut off the flowering heads before they have the chance to set seed.

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Acorus calamus
Common name: Sweet Flag Family: Araceae Range: Widespread throughout Europe, Asia and the US [2,9,31,33,] Habitat: Shallow waters adjoining ponds and rivers, and wet meadows, marshes and swamps [2,5,7,13,14,31,33] Hardiness: 4 Other Common Names: Calamus, Flagroot, Myrtle Sedge, Myrtle Grass, Sedge Grass, Beewort, Myrtle Flag, Sweet Rush, Sweet Grass, Sweet Cinnamon, Sweet Root Primary Uses: Fiber – basketry, Edible – rhizomes and shoots, Water Purifier, Insecticide/Insect Repellent

Physical Characteristics
A perennial herb with a cylindrical, stout rhizome, [2,5,14,33] growing to between three and six feet tall [7,9,13,15]. Leaves are long (3-5 ft), linear, flexible and yellow-green; flower stalk resembles the leaves but contains a flowering spike that projects upwards and outwards at a forty five degree angle [2,5,13,14,33]. Minute flowers emerge in clubshaped clusters, each containing six sepals, six stamens and a two to three lobed ovary [13]. Flowers from May to June in the Carolinas, May to July in Maryland [13]. Sweet flag seeds ripen from July to August [56]. It has a strong ginger like odor and taste, especially in the red colored rhizome [5,13,14,33].

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Sweet flag is moisture loving, [33] and can even grow in water [56].

History
Sweet flag was grown in Asia for centuries and exported to Europe. There, the rhizome was used in perfumes, herbal medicines and as a food flavoring [33]. Its use spread throughout Europe and was eventually introduced to the United States [33]. Sweet Flag was prized by the Native Americans of the prairie for its medicinal, ritualistic and food uses [31].

Edible Uses
Rhizomes, Condiment, Shoots The rhizomes are the primary edible portion of Sweet flag [33]. They should generally be gathered in late summer or fall [22]. Cut into thin slices, they should be cooked in boiling water for 30 to 40 minutes. If necessary, cook in several changes of boiling water [14]. They may then be candied by cooking in a thick syrup made of two cups of sugar to between a half cup to one cup of water [2,14,15,16,22,33]. Once dried, they should be rolled in granulated sugar [2]. The candied root may then be put up in small quantities in glass jars or cellophane bags [22]. Candied sweet flag roots are believed to help to aid in digestion [2]. The rhizome may also be peeled and washed to remove its bitterness and eaten raw like a fruit [15]. If collected in spring, the dried and powdered rhizomes may be used as a substitute for spices like ginger or cinnamon [15,22,56]. In addition, any new shoots may also be used for food [2,15,16,33] usually when less than 1 ft tall [14]. Thus, they should be generally collected in spring [2,22]. Inner portions of tender your stems can be eaten as a salad ingredient or a spicy snack [13,14]. It is a source of phosphorus, potassium and sulfur [22]. The rhizomes also have been found to contain Choline, which helps the body counteract excesses of cholesterol [22]. Fresh leaves contain 0.078% oxalic acid [56].

Medicinal Uses
Insect Repellent, Antiseptic, Cure-All, Upset Stomach Remedy Penobscot Indians hung the roots around the house to repel disease [13]. It has been proven to contain insect-repellant and antiseptic compounds [13].

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Many Native American tribes used Sweet Flag to cure various illnesses [5,37]. A finger size portion of the rhizome was chewed raw as a remedy to cure anything from toothaches to kidney problems [5]. Sweet Flag is recommended for upset stomachs – one teaspoonful of dried root should be added to a cup of boiling water and drunk cold once or twice a day [5]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots and used to treat flatulence, dyspepsia, anorexia and gall bladder disorders [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Basketry, Insecticide/Insect Repellent, Water Purifier The Pawnee, Lakota and other Native American tribes used the blades of Sweet Flag to make ceremonial garlands [31]. The leaves can be dried and used as fiber to construct mats and baskets [7,15]. When dried and powered, all parts of the plant can be used as a natural insecticides [2,15]. The growing plant is said to repel mosquitoes and an essential oil from the roots is used as an insect repellent and as an insecticide [15]. Sweet Flag acts as a water purifier [7], and thus, is an important component in ponds and wetlands.

Cultivation Details
Commercial plantings have produced a ton of root per acre [13]. Sweet Flag prefers plantings in full sun. Also, it requires wet conditions for growth, but prefers the shallow edges of a pond or boggy soil near the side of a pond. [7,9,15] It is very tolerant of all soil types as well as pH levels, [9] though it prefers a pH in the range of 5.5 to 7.5 [56]. Sweet flag is hardy to about -25°C [56]. In Britain, sweet flag seldomly flowers or sets seed, and never does so unless growing in water [56]. It will spread by the roots though [56]. Sweet flag seed is best sown in a cold frame as soon as it becomes ripe, standing the pot in about an inch or so of water [56]. Once large enough to handle, seedling should be potted up and kept wet by standing the pots in shallow water [56]. The seedlings should be overwintered for their first year in a cold frame or a greenhouse [56]. Plantings should be spaced approximately 30 cm from one another [9].
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It is very easily grown [15], and once established, Sweet Flag easily forms a colony [19].

Known Hazards
When using Sweet Flag for food, some caution should be used, as there have been reports that the fresh root can be poisonous [15,56]. The essential oil that is present in the roots of some populations of sweet flag contain the compound asarone [56]. Asarone has a tranquilizing and antibiotic activity, and is also potentially toxic and carcinogenic [56]. It appears that these compounds are found in some Asian forms of this plant, while plants from North America and Siberia are safe to use and free of the compounds [15,56]. Sweet flag roots has in fact been used in India for thousands of years with no reports of cancer, and this does seem to suggest that utilization of the entire herb is totally safe [56]. More research is needed to discover the true nature of these compounds [56].

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Actinda spp.
Common name: Kiwi Family: Actinidiaceae Range: Chinese native [24,57,61] Habitat: Woodland elevations of 100 – 2000 meters [57] Hardiness: Actinda arguta – 4-7 [28,61] Actinda kolomikta – 3-9 [28,57,61] Other Common Names: Chinese Gooseberry [24,28,39,61] Actinda kolomikta – Arctic Beauty Vine [61] Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Perennial Vine, Wine, Shade, Livestock Forage

Actinda arguta

Physical Characteristics
Kiwi is a woody deciduous vine that can reach a height of forty feet and a spread of anywhere between twenty and forty feet [32]. Leaves are dark green, shiny and have a golden brown tomentose (fuzzy) underside [32]. Flowers are large and creamy with delicate petals [32]. Plants are dioecious (male and female organs are found on separate plants) and are pollinated by bees and insects [24,39,57]. Fruits are borne on the spurs that grow on the previous year’s growth [28].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruits, Wine, Sap Kiwi fruits are fully ripe when they will either drop to the ground on their own or twist off easily in hand [28]. They can be picked with their stems attached [28]. Though the fruits of the hardier kiwi varieties are much smaller than the tropical fruits that most of us have been exposed to, they are sweeter and can be eaten skin and all [28]. They can be eaten fresh or used to make wine and conserves [39]. If stored in a cool, frost-free place the fruits can keep for at least a few months [15]. Vines are also rich in sap and it can be tapped and drunk in the spring [57]. Kiwis contain ten times as much vitamin C as lemons [57].

Medicinal Uses
None known.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Shade, Livestock Forage Kiwis can be trellised along a house wall to provide shade and help to cool it during the summer months [32,39]. An overabundant source of fruits can be used as forage for pigs and chickens [39].

Cultivation Details
Kiwis require a rich, fertile, well-drained soil [32,57]. They dislike alkaline soils and are best grown in soils with a pH that is less than 6 [15]. Plants are tolerant of shade [32]. Actinda arguta prefers full sun while Actinda kolomikta prefers light shade [28,57]. Dormant vines are incredibly hardy, but young spring growth is quite frost tender [15]. If possible, provide vines with shelter from wind [39,57]. Also, vines are shallow rooted and will most likely require summer irrigation [57,61]. As kiwis bloom early, it is best to plant them in an area where they may not be endangered by late frosts [15,32]. This may mean that they should be planted along north

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facing walls so that the buds will be less likely to open before the final frost of the season. Since kiwis are dioecious, both at least one male vine must be planted for every five or six females in order to ensure pollination and fruit production [15,24,28]. Otherwise it is possible to graft male and female plants on the same vine [39,61]. Since kiwis are vigorously climbing vines, they need a strong trellis system [39,57]. Trees can be used, though it is possible that the vines stretch to a height that makes it very difficult to harvest them [57,61]. Probably the easiest way to grow kiwis is along a T-bar trellis [61]. Vines can be expected to live for fifty years or more [57]. Arguta vines should be spaced fifteen to twenty feet apart while Kolomiktas should be spaced at eight feet [57]. Kolomikta vines are less vigorous than Arguta, so they are a good choice for confined spaces [57]. Single Arguta vines can produce yields of twenty-five pounds or more [57]. Kiwis are generally resistant to disease [28,32,61]. Vines should be pruned in winter once or twice a year in order to control their growth and production [15,28,57,61]. Simply take out any old and unwanted growth and leaves some nice shoots for fruiting in the following year [61]. Actinda arguta can withstand temperatures as cold as -25°F [28]. Some varieties have a chill requirement of between 400 and 800 hours [32]. Fruits take about five months to ripen, though those of Actinda kolomikta require less than a nineteen week growing season [28]. Vines are generally propagated by cuttings, though it can also be done by seed [57]. There are a number of varieties of these two hardy kiwi species available for cultivation [28].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Alliaria petiolata (officinalis)
Common name: Garlic Mustard Family: Cruciferae Range: European native [15,16,35]; Widespread throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States [13,14] Habitat: Partially shaded roadsides, open woods, shady disturbed areas [13,14] Hardiness: 3-6 [13] Other Common Names: Jack-by-the-Hedge [13,16,24,35], Sauce Alone [13,16,35], Hedge Garlic [35], Begger Man’s Oatmeal [35] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, blossoms, seedpods, stems, roots and seeds, Medicine, Butterfly Forage

Physical Characteristics
Garlic mustard is a biennial herb that can reach a height of three feet in its second year [13,14,15,16,35]. Leaves are triangular to cordate (heart-shaped), coarsely serrate (toothed), long stalked and possess a garlic odor when crushed [13,14,16]. Flowers are white and in clusters at the leaf bases and stem tips [14]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are generally present from April until June [13,14,35,57]. Fruits are slender pods that grow to a length of two inches and contain numerous small seeds [13,14]. The seeds ripen from June to August [57].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Leaves, Blossoms, Seed Pods, Stems, Root, Seeds Young leaves, blossoms and seed pods can be harvested in spring and early summer [14]. All parts of the plant are edible, including the root [12,13]. Tender young growth can be eaten raw in salads or it may be harvested any time and cooked as a potherb [13,14,35]. The greens will add a garlic flavor to meats and vegetables [13,14]. For those who don’t like the taste of garlic, this plant is perfect, as it is a bit milder [12]. The taste of this plant is described as a cross between mustard and garlic [15,16]. Garlic mustard seeds can be ground and used like mustard [12].

Medicinal Uses
Beta Carotene Source, Antiseptic, Poultice, Cancer Preventative Garlic mustard leaves are a source of beta-carotene [13]. Leaves are antiseptic [24]. They can be used as a poultice to relieve the itch caused by bites and stings [57]. It contains cancer-preventing isothiocyanates [12]. This plant contains allicin which is the important phytochemical that makes members of the allium family such an important medicinal family [12].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Butterfly Forage The entire plant is the source of a yellow dye [57]. Garlic mustard is an important food source of the orange-tip butterfly [15].

Cultivation Details
Garlic mustard grows best in moist, rich alkaline soils [15,57]. It will succeed both in full sun and in partial shade [15].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Allium sativum
Common name: Garlic Family: Liliaceae Range: Asian native [23]; Widely cultivated throughout North America Habitat: Unknown in truly wild situations [56] Hardiness: 1 [32] Other Common Names: Unknown Primary Uses: Edible – bulb, leaves, flowers, seeds and sprouts, Companion Plant, Insect Repellent, Dynamic Accumulator, Medicine, Adhesive

Physical Characteristics
Garlic is a perennial herb (generally cultivated as an annual) that may reach two feet in height [7,15,29]. Leaves are flat, slender and blue-green [23,32]. Flowering stems are smooth and solid [23]. Flowers grow in dense umbels on long stalks and are pink in color [29]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and insects [56]. Young flower heads are enclosed in a papery casing that is soon shed [23]. Bulbs are comprised of eight to fifteen sections called cloves that are separated from one another by dry scales [23,29].

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History
Garlic is believed to be a cultivated race that was derived from a wild plant in central Asia [23]. It was a very popular plant in ancient Egypt [23,34].

Edible Uses
Roots (Bulbs), Leaves, Flowers, Seeds, Condiment, Sprouts Garlic bulbs are ready for harvest when the leaves wither, which is generally in the month July [7,23]. All parts of the plant are edible, including the leaves, flowers and seed [7]. The leaves can be cut and used raw as greens in salads or as a condiment in cooking. Garlic seed, if available, can be sprouted and eaten [7]. One hundred grams of garlic contain 137 calories, 6.2g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 29mg of calcium, 202mg of phosphorus, 1.5mg of iron, 19mg of sodium, 529mg of potassium, 0.25mg of thiamine, 0.08mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 15mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Cathartic, Diuretic, Expectorant, Stimulant, Asthma Remedy, Antibiotic, Cold/Flu/Cough Remedy, Decongestant, Indigestion, Infections Garlic can be taken as a cathartic, diuretic, expectorant, stimulant and asthma remedy [37]. It is a natural antibiotic [34]. Plants can be used as a remedy for colds, flu, congestion, coughs, intestinal disorders, indigestion, acne and infections of the nose, ears, chest and throat [34].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dynamic Accumulator, Adhesive, Insect Repellent, Insecticide, Companion Plant Garlic is a dynamic accumulator of flourine, phosphorus and sulfur [32]. Garlic juice can be used to make an excellent glue [56]. When spread on glass, it enables a person to cut a clean hole in it [56]. Juice from garlic bulbs can be used as an insect repellent [15,46]. It can also be used to ease the pain of stings [15].

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An insecticide can be made by infusing three or four tablespoons of chopped garlic and two tablespoons of grated soap in a liter of boiling water [15]. This should be allowed to cool before using [15]. The growing garlic plant is said to repel insects, rabbits and moles, and thus it is a wonderful companion to include in the garden [15]. Because garlic requires little aboveground space, it is a good companion for plants that require space above the soil. Garlic plants promote the growth of roses and vetch when grown together [46]. Spreading a few cloves of garlic amongst stored fruit will help to delay its rotting [56].

Cultivation Details
Garlic plants prefer moist soils and full sun [7]. They require fertile loose soils and do best when the pH is between 6 and 7 [32]. Garlic needs a consistently moist soil until just before harvest [32]. It is also intolerant of shade [56]. The most common means of propagation is by simply planting a clove from an already harvested bulb [23,29,54]. It is best to use the largest cloves as the ‘seed’ for next year’s plants so that they will develop larger bulbs [54]. They should generally be planted in autumn, winter or very early spring [23]. Individual plants should be spaced about six to eight inches apart [23]. Plants are very slow maturing [32]. Though garlic is a perennial, it is usually cultivated as an annual [15]. If you like though, small plants can be left in the ground for a number of years, producing more cloves and higher overall yields [15]. If the bulbs are large, they should be split apart and replanted each season. Garlic roots reach a depth of about two and a half feet and have a spread of about one and a half feet [32]. There are a number of cultivated garlic varieties available.

Known Hazards
Garlic should not be planted near peas and beans [54]. This is because garlic is strongly antibiotic, and it will disrupt the symbiotic bacteria that these plants depend on for nitrogen [46,54].

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Allium ursinum
Common name: Wild Garlic Family: Liliaceae Range: European native [2,9,13,15,35]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [2,13,14] Habitat: Open woodlands, fields, prairies [14], disturbed areas, forest edges [13] Hardiness: 5 [9,56] Other Common Names: Ramsons [9,35], Wild Onions [2,17,44], Meadow Garlic [42] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, stem, flower and bulb, Companion Plant, Insect Repellent, Medicine, Disinfectant

Physical Characteristics
Wild garlic is a perennial herb that grows to a height of about nine inches [13,14,44]. The entire plant smells like garlic [13,35]. It grows from an underground bulb that is brown and ovoid to nearly globose in shape and about an inch in diameter [2,14]. Several flat, flexible, linear leaves emerge from the base and are up to fourteen inches long [14]. They are shiny green in color and have a strong odor if broken [14,44]. Flowers emerge in clusters in spring and consist of several small white to purple bulbs [2,14]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects and bees [56]. Fruiting capsules are more or less rounded, smooth and three parted and contain small black triangular seeds [13,14].

History
Romans gave their laborers garlic to impart strength [22]. They also gave it to their soldiers to incite courage [22].

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The Hindus have used garlic for over three thousand years [22].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Stem, Flower Stalk, Bulb, Condiment, Pickle Wild garlic plants emerge very early in spring [24,44]. In fact, the entire wild garlic plant can be harvested in early spring before the flower stalk appears or the bulbs can be dug up in spring and fall [14]. The bulbs can be stored for later use by bundling them together while they still possess six to eight inches of stem and drying them at room temperature [14]. The bulb clusters that emerge on the top of the flower stalk can also be picked in late spring before they ripen [14]. Though the bulbs are rather small, they can be harvested year round if required [15]. The entire plant, leaves, stem, flowers and bulb, can be eaten raw in salads or boiled in salted water for a half hour [14,15,17]. Leaves and flowers can also be used to enhance the flavor of cooked foods [15]. If cooked, the water can be saved and added to help impart flavor on other recipes [2]. The top bulb clusters can be pickled by packing them into a jar, adding one tablespoon of spices and filling the jar with a mixture of two parts cider vinegar to one part water [14,17]. This pickle should be stored cool for a month or more before using [14]. One hundred grams of garlic contain 137 calories, 6.2g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 29mg of calcium, 202mg of phosphorus, 1.5mg of iron, 19mg of sodium, 529mg of potassium, 0.25mg of thiamine, 0.08mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 15mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Poultice, Diuretic, Cold Remedy, Antiseptic, Blood Pressure, Digestive Stimulant Wild garlic is a very valuable preventative medicine [22]. Wild garlic is recommended as a remedy for diseases of the nose and respiratory tract [22]. Crushed leaves can be used externally and applied as a poultice to burns and wounds [44]. Plants can be used as a diuretic [37]. Wild garlic is antiseptic and helps to lower blood pressure [11,37]. It serves to stimulate the digestive system [22].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Insect Repellent, Companion Plant, Disinfectant, Understory Plant, Bee Forage Wild garlic can be used as an insect repellent by either rubbing the leaves on the skin or by consuming the plant itself [37,44]. Because of its strong odor, wild garlic can be an important companion plant in the garden as it may help to repel pests. The juice of the plant can be used as a household disinfectant [56]. Since it is quite shade tolerant, wild garlic is a great plant to use in the understory of woodlands or forest gardens [15]. This plant also provides forage for bees [9].

Cultivation Details
Wild garlic prefers medium and light soils and will tolerate most pH levels [9]. It will also grow in full sun and part or even full shade [9]. Plants are often found growing in wet soils, though they may also be found in drier areas [15]. Individual garlic plants need only about four inches of space, but they take a long time to grow (about nine months) [54]. When well suited, wild garlic can form carpets of growth that spread many yards wide [15]. Care should be taken to ensure that garlic is not planted near beans and peas, as its antibiotic properties deter the symbiotic bacteria that peas and beans depend on for nitrogen [54]. Wild garlic can be propagated by seed or bulb division [22,56]. By separating individual cloves from the underground bulb, you can replant the clove, which will then sprout and produce a new plant [22].

Known Hazards
Though incredibly rare, consuming large quantities of wild garlic can prove toxic [44]. Plants can easily become invasive [15].

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Alnus spp.
Common name: Alder Family: Betulaceae Range: European and North American natives [8,10]; Widely distributed throughout the United States Habitat: Wet soils in woods, lake and stream shores [15] Hardiness: 2 (Alnus tenuifolia), 3 (Alnus glutinosa), 5 (Alnus rugosa) [8] Other Common Names: European Alder – Black Alder [4], Common Alder [10] Unless otherwise noted, all of the following uses refer to the European alder (Alnus glutinosa). Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Intercrop, Companion Plant, Pioneer, Windbreak, Hedge, Coppice Material, Charcoal, Timber, Medicine

European Alder – Alnus glutinosa

Physical Characteristics
European alders are medium sized trees or large shrubs that can reach heights of sixty feet or more with a spread of forty-five feet [15]. (Speckled alder grows to about twenty feet while mountain alder reaches a height of about thirty feet [8]). Leaves are wide,
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birch-like, doubly serrate (toothed) and between two and five inches long [4]. Flowers are borne in mid-spring [4]. They are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female and both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are wind pollinated [56]. Fruits are catkins, and they resemble small pinecones [4].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Catkins Mountain alder (Alnus tenuifolia) is a species that produces edible catkins [8]. They are bitter tasting and can be eaten raw or cooked [8].

Medicinal Uses
Purgative, Sore Throat, Mouth Irritations, Skin Irritations, Astringent, Digestive Stimulant A mild brew of fresh alder bark will induce vomiting [4,58]. This should be made by adding a small palmful of fresh bark to one half cup of water [4]. It should be boiled for two minutes and then allowed to steep for two minutes [4]. Another tea, made from dried alder bark, is a good mouthwash for sore throats, toothaches and other mouth irritations [4]. Stronger bark teas can be applied to moderate skin irritations, poison ivy and bee stings [4]. Powdered bark and leaves can be taken as an internal astringent and also as a digestive aid [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Ink, Tannin, Pioneers, Nitrogen-Fixers, Companion Plant, Intercrop, Hedge, Windbreaks, Coppice Material, Timber, Charcoal, Livestock Fodder, Bird/Insect/Bee Forage The young shoots, catkins, greenwood and bark of mountain, speckled and European alder are all good sources of dyes [8,15,48,58]. The bark provides a tawny-red dye, the catkins produce green, greenwood produces pinkish-fawn and the young shoots create yellow [8,15,48,58]. In addition, the bark can be used to produce an ink [8,15].
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The leaves of the European alder are a source of tannins [8,58]. All alders are excellent pioneer plants as they both establish themselves and grow rapidly and have a heavy leaf fall that serves to enrich the soil with humus [15,39]. Also, all alder species are nitrogen-fixers, so they enrich the soil in which they grow [15,32,39]. Trees have the ability to fix up to 300 kg/hectare/year of nitrogen [58]. These alder species can be used as a nurse crop for other more tender tree species as they will provide them with shelter, spot mulch and nitrogen [39]. When intercropped with fruit trees, alder species have been found to reduce populations of red spider mites [32]. European alder also grows well with black walnut [8]. The alders can be grown as a hedge, though they will most likely require a great deal of trimming [15]. All three of these species can be planted as windbreaks, and trees will start to provide reasonable shelter from winds within three years [8,15]. Alders are also very good coppice species [8,15]. European alder can be grown as a timber species. Wood is reddish in color and straight grained [10]. Seasoned timber is durable in water, soft, light, weak, easily worked and easily bent and split [8,10]. It is often used for furniture and cabinetwork, paper pulp, turnery, fuel, charcoal, gunpowder, water pumps and machinery, carving, clogs, plywood and sluice gates [10]. The leaves of the European alder are eaten by horses, goats, cows and sheep, but pigs refuse them [8,58]. Also, poultry eat the seeds [8]. Ninety insect species are associated with the European alder [15]. Alders are important food plants for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species as well as birds in the winter [15]. They also provide forage for bees [8].

Cultivation Details
They grow best in moist or wet soils, and though they may tolerate drier soils, it will severely curtail their life span [8,15]. Most alder species will tolerate medium, heavy clay soils in addition to soils that have an acidic, neutral or alkaline pH [8]. Though they prefer positions in full sun they are tolerant of light and partial shade [8]. Alders are very tolerant of both wind and severe maritime conditions [8,15]. Alders are very fast growing and often form dense thickets [15,39].

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There are reports of European alder reaching a height of sixteen feet in only five years from seed [15]. If you are planting alders for their ability to fix nitrogen, it may be necessary to inoculate the soils with the bacteria that develop the nitrogen-fixing nodules on their roots [58]. When planting alders for windbreaks, they should be spaced about two feet apart [15]. Trees can be propagated by seed in spring or by cuttings [56,58].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Amaranthus spp.
Common name: Amaranth Family: Amaranthaceae Range: Tropical American native [17,35,44]; Widely distributed throughout the United States and the world [2,17,43]. Habitat: Dry, cultivated fields; foothills, vacant lots, orchards, lawns, vegetable gardens, sidewalk cracks [44] Hardiness: Not available Other Common Names: Pigweed [2,17,22,44], Strawberry Blite [22], Rough-Weed [17], Wild Beet [2,17], Redroot [2,44] Primary Uses: Edible – seeds, stems and leaves, Dynamic Accumulator, Cover Crop, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Chicken Fodder, Pioneer, Ornamental, Intercrop

Physical Characteristics
Amaranth is an annual herb [44] characterized by a stout hairy stem that seldom branches [17]. The plant itself may range in height from three inches to six feet [17]. Amaranth leaves are borne on stems that may be as long as themselves, [2,17] and they are softly hairy as well [2]. The leaves are alternate and dull green in color, pinnately veined, longpointed and oval in shape with a wavy margin [2,44]. The undersides of the young and

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lower leaves are purple [4]. Amaranth plants have strong, noticeable veins [2]. The plant’s stems are rough [17]. The top of the plant bears long panicled spikes of greenish flowers, [17] and here, the small black seeds are concentrated in a compact terminal position [43]. They readily fall at maturity [43]. The plant is monoecious [56]. Amaranth roots are bright red [2,17,44]. Amaranth is a prolific seeder [43] (up to one hundred thousand seeds are sometimes found on a single plant [2]). It begins flowering in early summer, and the seeds form during September and October [43]. It prefers rich soil [2]. If given the opportunity, amaranth will self seed [53]. Amaranth is 3.6% nitrogen and has a Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 11:1 [32].

History
Amaranth has been cultivated for its seeds, leaves and dye in Mesoamerica, the Andes, the southwestern United States and southern Asia [17,43]. Gallons of charred amaranth seeds have been discovered in southern Arizona that date back to at least 5000 BCE [43]. Amaranth served as an important food source for Central and South American Indians 500 years ago [52]. Aztecs and Incas revered it, but the conquering Spaniards banned amaranth’s cultivation because the Aztecs had evolved the practices of creating idols from popped amaranth and eating the seeds during pagan ceremonies that involved human sacrifice [52].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Stems, Seeds Amaranth leaves (and tender stems) may either be eaten as an uncooked salad green or as a lightly cooked potherb [2,22,44]. They are best harvested in the spring, [44] but they can be picked anytime between spring and fall [17]. Some claim that the leaves are devoid of taste [17]. After blossoming, amaranth may become overly tough and bitter [2]. The seeds may be boiled for about an hour until they have all split along one side. At this point, the seed coat will have softened and the white interior of the seeds will be exposed [43]. This ‘gruel’ reportedly has a pleasant odor, but is relatively tasteless [43]. Seeds may also be milled into flour [17,22,43]. Some claim that amaranth flour has a disagreeable odor, but roasting the seed before milling is one recommended solution to improve the flavor and odor [17]. Otherwise, amaranth flour may be mixed with cornmeal or wheat flour, [2] or mixed with rice to give it a nutty flavor [55]. Amaranth seeds should be gathered in the late summer or fall, when the spikes first grow dry [17]. They will soon shatter out, so it is important that it is not done too late [17]. One recommended technique is to cut off seed spikes with scissors and toss them onto a
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large sheet. Once a large enough quantity has been gathered, the sheet is transported to a smooth floor, where one may thresh it out by walking on it with clean shoes and subsequently winnowing out the unwanted vegetative matter [17]. It should be mentioned that this process can be quite laborious and time consuming, especially when done on a small scale. Seeds may also be eaten raw as a cereal or a snack [2,15,42]. If eaten raw, one should be sure to chew the seeds thoroughly as they will otherwise pass through the body without being digested [15]. Nutritionally, amaranth leaves are quite high in iron and vitamins A and C [43]. In fact, a 100g portion of amaranth leaves contain 6100 IU of vitamin A, 53–80mg of vitamin C, 0.08mg of thiamine, 0.16mg of riboflavin, 1.4mg niacin, 267–448mg of calcium, 4300 micrograms of beta carotene, 67mg of phosphorus, 3.9mg of iron and 411–617mg of potassium [2,44]. This leaf quantity contains about 35 calories, 3.7g protein and 0.8g fat [44,49]. They are quite comparable to spinach in regards to nutrition [24]. For the sake of comparison, a single serving of milk contains 148mg of calcium, beef liver contains 7.8mg of iron per serving, and orange juice contains 62mg of vitamin C [45]. Amaranth is obviously an incredible plant in terms of its nutritional value. Amaranth seeds have a high protein and fat content when compared to other conventional cereals [24]. In addition, they are also high in the essential amino acid lysine [45,52]. One hundred grams of seed contain about 358 calories, 247mg of calcium, 500mg of phosphorus and 52.5mg of potassium [44].

Medicinal Uses
Astringent, Mouth and Throat Irritations, Stomach Disorders Amaranth leaves are recognized as an astringent for all types of skin wounds, insect stings, poison ivy irritation, pimples and sores [4,44]. Brewed as a tea, amaranth may be used for abnormally excessive dysentery, diarrhea and menstruation [4,44]. A mild-medium strong tea is useful as a gargle for mouth and throat irritations such as cold sores and sore throats [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Indicator, Pioneer, Dynamic Accumulator, Ornamental, Cover Crop/Intercrop, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Chicken Fodder, Silage, Bird Forage Amaranth is an indicator of dry soil, [32] and its deep roots help act as a pioneer on eroded, compacted soils while also bringing up nutrients from deeper soil layers [46].

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It is a dynamic accumulator of calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron [32]. The decorative foliage of some amaranth species also make it a wonderful ornamental [55]. It may be grown as a cover crop [39]. Also, intercroppings of amaranth and corn in Florida were found to lead to a reduction in fall armyworm populations due to an increase in predators [32]. Amaranth has been found to attract ground beetles [32]. Amaranth may be used as chicken fodder or as silage [39]. Also, many bird species happily consume amaranth seeds such as the finch, junco, lark, longspur, pipit, quail, towhee, pheasant, and sparrow [2].

Cultivation Details
Many different amaranth species exist [55]. Domesticated amaranths are generally divided into two groups – amaranths cultivated primarily for their seeds (as a grain crop) and those grown for their leaves [55]. Consult a seed catalog if you are interested in browsing the different amaranth varieties that are available for cultivation. Amaranth seeds are best started in seed flats and transplanted to small pots once large enough to handle [55]. Once they have grown to about 6in (15cm) high, they may be planted out at about 1ft (30cm) spacing on all sides [55]. They should not be planted outside until frost danger has passed (they are frost tender [15]). Grain amaranths need a ninety-day growing season in order to set seed [39]. Amaranths are characterized by vigorous growth and because most varieties grow at least three feet tall, you will most likely not need more than a dozen plants to feed three or four people [55]. Cuttings of growing plants will root easily [56]. Plants may be grown in full sun or partial shade [32,39]. When harvesting, it’s best to pick the last three inches of a shoot completely, and if you pick the main growing tip, the plant will bush out and produce many tender shoots [55]. Amaranth has few, if any, pest and disease problems, [55] and once established, are drought resistant [15,34]. In addition, amaranth will thrive on poor soils [34]. Most members of this genus photosynthesize by the C4 carbon-fixation pathway, a method that is more efficient than that of most plants [56]. This process is especially efficient at high temperatures, under dry conditions and in bright sunlight [56].

Known Hazards
If not properly controlled, amaranth can become invasive.
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Because amaranth is an annual, simply digging it up can easily eliminate it if it spreads to unwanted parts of the garden [53]. Also, because amaranth will self seed if permitted to, it is important to recognize that this can be prevented. To do this, simply cut off the flower heads before they are ripe [55]. Another word of caution – Amaranths can concentrate nitrates in their leaves, so one should be weary of consuming plants that are either grown with a lot of chemical fertilizers or are growing near polluted sites [4,15]. Nitrate consumption may cause stomach cancers or lead to other gastrointestinal disorders [4,15].

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Amelanchier spp.
Common name: Serviceberry Family: Rosaceae Range: North American natives [14,57]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States; also found in the south and west [5,14,17] Habitat: Tidal stream banks, rocky slope, barrens, open woods, waste areas [33] Hardiness: 3-8 [28] Other Common Names: Shadbush [1,5,13,22,33], Juneberry [1,5,13,17,22,33], Indian Pear [1,5], Shadberry [1,17], Saskatoon [1,31], Sugar Pear [1] Primary Uses: Edible Berries, Wildlife Forage, Windbreak, Hedge, Timber, Basketry

Physical Characteristics
Serviceberry is a small tree or shrub growing to a height of anywhere between four and thirty feet depending on the species [5,33]. Bark is marked by thin alternating vertical bands of two shades of gray. Leaves are deciduous, simple, serrate (toothed) alternate, elliptical to ovate in shape and two to three and a half inches long [13,14,33]. Flowers appear just before the leaves in spring, and they are white or pink and have five petals [13,14,17,33]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Mature fleshy fruit are round, clustered, red to black in color and contain between five and eight seeds [14]. They are said to resemble a miniature apple [5,13]. The buds of the serviceberry are very diagnostic, as they are rather slender and elongated, resembling a crooked finger.
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History
Serviceberries were amongst the more popular of the fifty or so types of food that the Native Americans dried for winter [33]. They would commonly pound them into a mass and use them in making breads and cakes [22]. The name juneberry reportedly refers to the time (late June) when the fruits of this shrub begin to mature [22]. Shadbush is a reference to the fact that this shrub blossoms at the same time as the shad begin to swim upstream [2,22].

Edible Uses
Berries, Leaves, Tea Serviceberries are usually ripe by early or mid-summer [14,33]. The berries produced by this tree vary quite drastically in palatability, but they all will improve in flavor with drying [14,33]. They are best suited for use in cooking [1,14,33]. Fresh or dried serviceberries make a great addition to recipes for jelly, jam pie, biscuits, muffins or bread [33]. They are often used in exactly the same way as blueberries [1]. Serviceberries can be preserved by canning. To do so, begin by first boiling two cups of water and four cups of sugar. Pour in six cups of serviceberries and simmer them for a minute or two. Stir in three tablespoons of lemon juice and then pack the hot berries into sterilized pint jars, cover them with the hot syrup and seal. To process, cover the jars in boiling water for twenty minutes. [1]. Serviceberries were used by Native Americans to make pemmican, which is a thoroughly pounded meat and berry mixture that is a nutritionally complete food [2]. A tea can be made from serviceberry leaves [13,31,42]. Serviceberries are high in vitamin C [57].

Medicinal Uses
Women’s Complaints, Diarrhea Remedy, Disinfectant A tea made from the inner bark of Amelanchier canadensis was used as a tonic to treat excessive menstrual bleeding in women and diarrhea [56]. A compound concoction of the inner bark can be used as a disinfectant wash [56].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Bird/Wildlife Forage, Bird Deterrent, Ornamental, Seasonal Indicator, Baskets, Hedge/Shelterbelt Plant, Windbreak, Rootstock, Timber Berries provide forage for birds and wildlife [31,33]. One problem may be that birds like serviceberries so much that they eat large quantities of the unripe fruit, leaving you with little to harvest [15]. This can be used as an advantage, though. If planted near soft fruits, serviceberries can be used to deter the birds from the soft fruits while the serviceberries are still available [15]. As an ornamental, serviceberries are described to be exceedingly beautiful when in flower [15,57]. The Iroquois used serviceberry as a seasonal indicator [37]. Emerging blossoms let them know when they should plant corn [37]. The stems and branches of Amelanchier alnifolia were used by many Native American tribes as a material for basketmaking [37]. Amelanchier canadensis is recommended for planting as a hedge, screen or shelterbelt [15]. Planted as such, serviceberry can be used as a windbreak [56]. This species can also be used as a dwarfing rootstock for apples (Malus spp.) and pears (Pyrus spp.) [56]. A few serviceberry species can be cultivated for timber, though they most likely won’t yield a large quantity. Amelanchier arborea grows to a height of about 25 feet [10]. Its wood is fine grained and reddish in color [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and heaviness and very hard [10]. Its most common uses are for tool handles and fuel [10]. Amelanchier canadensis grows to about 25 feet as well [10]. Its wood is also fine grained and reddish in color [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and heaviness, very hard, yet very brittle in terms of shock absorbency [10]. It is also generally used for tool handles and fuel [10].

Cultivation Details
Serviceberries will generally tolerate partial shade [10,32]. Also, they tend to prefer a neutral or slightly acidic pH [57]. Amelanchier canadensis thrives in moist soils [10]. Most species will tolerate a variety of soil types [57]. All species are self-fertile [57]. They are also long lived [57]. Because serviceberries are generally small shrubs or trees, they are very good edibles for planting in yards and lawns.

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In the northeast, Amelanchier canadensis is reputedly the finest of this genus [17]. At ten years of growth, it can be expected to have reached a height of about twenty feet [10]. Spreading by suckers, this tree may gradually form a spreading thicket [15]. Fruit produced by this species is usually sweet and juicy, though they will occasionally possess a distinct bitterness [15]. Serviceberries can be propagated by seed, layering and sucker division [56]. Serviceberries are a popular commercial crop in Canada [57]. There are a number of serviceberry cultivars, which are superior to the wild species in that they either have larger fruits or are more productive [28,31]. Thoroughly browse seed and plant catalogs in order to find a variety or cultivar that seems to suit your needs most readily. Otherwise, gather fruits and seeds of wild species that you encounter and enjoy and attempt to propagate them at home. A single shrub of a cultivar called ‘Smoky’ (a cultivar of the western serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia) can yield over eighty pounds of large, sweet fruit [28]. This variety is considered to be the most highly flavored serviceberry [57]. It can be trained as a multi-stemmed bush, a small twelve foot tree, or spaced four feet apart and planted as a hedge [57]. Another variety of Amelanchier alnifolia, known as Northline, grows to about five to seven feet tall, and produces large quantities of large fruit at an early age [57]. Because it suckers quite profusely, it makes a wonderful edible hedge [57]. Plants can be propagated by seed, layering and division [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Apios americana (tuberosa)
Common name: Groundnut Family: Fabaceae Range: Native to temperate, eastern North America [31]; Widely distributed throughout the central and eastern United States [13,14] Habitat: Moist woodlands, bottomlands, thickets [14,31], aquatic or semi-aquatic, marshes, moist meadows [13] Hardiness: 3-9 [7,13] Other Common Names: Indian Potato [1,2,7,16,17,31], Bog Potato [1,2,7], Wild Bean [1,2,7,16,31], Hopniss [2,16,22,31], Wild Potato [22,31] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Erosion Control, Edible – seeds and tubers, Livestock Fodder, Climbing Perennial

Physical Characteristics
Groundnut is a perennial vine that grows up to five feet tall and forms from one or more fleshy tubers that are arranged in a row [2,13,14]. Plant stems are smooth and twine around nearby plants [13,14]. Wherever broken, groundnut exudes a whitish milk [1,13,14]. Leaves are alternate, lanceolate, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base and
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pinnately compound with between five to nine leaflets that are each usually between one and two and a half inches in length [1,2,13,14]. Flowers are tightly clustered on a short stalk that’s two to six inches long, each of them having five brownish-purple petals [13,14]. They actually resemble the flowers of garden beans and peas [1]. Flowers are pollinated by insects [56]. Groundnut flowers from July to September [14,31]. Fruits are dry, linear pods between two and five inches long, each containing at least two small brown lentil-like seeds [13,14]. Groundnut fruits until frost with the fruits themselves actually hanging on until early winter [13].

History
Native Americans introduced the groundnut to the Pilgrims, and it may have actually been responsible for their survival through the first winters [1,2,5,13,31]. Native Americans along the eastern seaboard consumed groundnut tubers regularly, and because of this, they became known to early white settlers who often substituted them for bread [1,2].

Edible Uses
Seeds, Tubers Pick the seedpods in midsummer to autumn as the seeds reach maturity [2,14]. This will most likely not constitute much food, as they are seldom-abundant [2,14]. The pods may be prepared by roasting them at 375°F for twenty to twenty-five minutes, allowing them to cool, removing the seeds and browning them in oil over low heat [14]. Harvest the tubers by digging initially near the base of the stem and then working along the root in order to obtain the entire string (the tubers are actually strung together like a beaded necklace) [1,2,5,13,14]. The tubers usually take two or three years to fully develop, though they could be harvested early after the first year [2,15,16]. Some claim that they have a turnip like flavor [1,14,17] while others explain that they taste quite similar to sweet potatoes [15]. Tubers can be harvested throughout the year, [13,14] and they can be eaten raw or cooked [1,5,13,31]. They can be boiled in heavily salted water until they are tender, seasoned and eaten unpeeled [1,14]. Once boiled, (especially if leftover from a previous boiling) they can also be sliced and fried or roasted [1,14,17]. After cooking, groundnut loses its tenderness and taste once cold [2]. Tubers can be prepared by baking at 350°F for forty-five to sixty minutes or until tender [14]. Groundnut tubers may be dried and ground into a powder that is used as a thickener in soups or mixed with cereal flours to enhance their nutritional value [15]. Groundnut tubers are very high in protein, containing between thirteen and seventeen percent by dry weight [15,31]. This is about three times more than potatoes or any other common vegetable root [15,31].

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Medicinal Uses
None known.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen Fixer, Rubber, Livestock Fodder, Bee Plant, Erosion Control A member of the Fabaceae family, groundnut is a nitrogen fixer, thus it is an important addition to gardens and orchards [7]. Groundnut can serve as a source of rubber [7]. It also provides forage for bees as well as livestock [7,8]. Groundnut may be planted for erosion control [7,8].

Cultivation Details
Though commonly found in aquatic or semiaquatic environments, groundnut will also persist in drier conditions like gardens once transplanted [8,13]. Groundnut prefers full sun though it will also grow in partial shade [7,8]. It will grow in light and medium soils that are alkaline to very acidic [8]. When grown in a warm dry location in well-drained sandy soil, groundnut plants will be long lived and the roots will increase in size and number each year [56]. Also, they dislike windy positions [56]. Groundnut will regrow annually from unharvested tubers just like Jerusalem artichoke [13]. Tubers should be planted two to three inches deep in early spring [31]. Once they come up, mulch them to stop competition from unwanted vegetation [31]. As they are a vine, they should be given something upon which they can climb [31]. After the first year of growth, several inch thick tubers can be harvested from each plant, but the yield will be much greater if left to mature for two or three years [31]. Research is currently taking place with the hope of selecting higher yielding groundnut cultivars [15]. LSU scientists have reported yields of eight pounds of tubers per plant [31]. To plant groundnut by seed, pre-soak it for three hours in tepid water, sowing in a cold frame in February or March [56]. It will usually germinate in one to three months at a temperature of 15°C [56]. Once large enough to handle, plant them out in individual pots, growing them in light shade in a greenhouse for their first winter, finally planting them out in late spring or early summer [56].

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Root division can be done at almost any time of year, but spring is best [56]. Dig up the roots, harvest the tubers and replant them wherever you want them to grow [56]. Tubers can also be harvested in winter and stored in a deep medium until planting them out in spring [56].

Known Hazards
Once established, groundnut can be invasive [8].

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Armoracia rusticana
Common name: Horseradish Family: Cruciferae Range: European native [2,7,29,35]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,16,29] Habitat: Waste areas [35], wet places, clay soils [22] Hardiness: 5 [7,56] Other Common Names: Wild Radish [22], Red Cole [2,7], Wild Horseradish [2], Sting Nose [2], Mountain Radish [7] Primary Uses: Ground Cover, Fungicide, Companion Plant, Edible – root, leaves, seeds and sprouts, Condiment, Pioneer, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Horseradish is a perennial herb that reaches a height of two to three feet [7,23,29,35]. It has a rather extensive root system that may be as long as a foot and one or two inches thick [2,35]. Leaves are large, slightly serrate (toothed), dock-like, long stalked and grow straight up from the root stem to about one to two feet [2,9,35]. They are either lobed or have a repand (wavy) margin [2,23]. When crushed, they omit the characteristic horseradish odor [35]. Flowers are a cluster of white blossoms that grow on a long spike

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from May to June [35,56]. Individual flowers, like most members of the mustard family, have four petals in the form of a cross [2]. They are hermaphroditic (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, flies and beetles [56]. Seeds are produced infrequently, yet occasionally egg-shaped pods emerge that are divided into two cells, each containing four to six seeds [2].

History
Horseradish has been cultivated since early times [23]. In fact, it is estimated that horseradish was domesticated by about 0 BCE [48]. Because it has escaped from cultivation throughout the world, it is somewhat difficult to determine what its native distribution truly is [23]. Horseradish is one of the ‘five bitter herbs’ that the Hebrews ate during the eight days of Passover [22]. (The others include coriander, hoarhound, lettuce and nettle [22].) This plant was introduced to North America in about 1806 [48].

Edible Uses
Root, Leaves, Condiment, Seeds, Sprouts Both the root and the leaves of the horseradish plant are edible [2,22,24]. They should both be collected in the spring, though the root may really be collected throughout the year and even stored for the winter [2,22]. To obtain a section of horseradish that’s large enough to use, you’ll need to dig rather deep and possibly even chop the woody structure [35]. Once harvested, trim off all of the small lateral roots, and peel the large piece of rootstock that remains [29,35]. The white root matter that remains should be grated before use, and it is recommended that this be done outside, as horseradish emits fumes that ‘put the most blinding onion to shame’ [35]. Though the root can also be cooked, heating will destroy the volatile oils that give it its pungency, so it is not recommended [56]. Freshly grated root can be used as is as to garnish foods or processed into a sauce [35]. Use the grated root relatively quickly though, as it will lose its potency in a matter of days [35]. If you would like to preserve the unpeeled roots after harvesting them, simply keep them covered in dry sand [22,56]. To make a sauce that can be kept for a while, mix a teaspoon of dry mustard with a tablespoon of cold water and blend them until smooth. Add six large tablespoons of grated horseradish to this mixture as well as salt and pepper to taste, and let it stand for about fifteen minutes. Finally, blend this mixture into a cup of white sauce [35]. A horseradish sauce can also be made by crushing, mincing or powdering the root and simmering it with milk, vinegar and seasoning [23].

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Young horseradish leaves may be eaten raw as a salad green [24]. Apparently they taste just like the root, only milder [24]. Also, older leaves can be cooked and eaten as a pot herb [2]. Sprouted horseradish seeds can also be eaten [7,56]. One hundred grams of horseradish root contain 87 calories, 140mg of calcium, 64mg of phosphorus, 1.4mg of iron, 564mg of potassium and 81mg of vitamin C [2,22].

Medicinal Uses
Cough Remedy, Worm Expellent, Appetite Stimulant, Diuretic, Antiseptic, Sore Throat Horseradish has been used by herbalists as both a cough remedy and a worm expellent [22]. A sandwich of freshly grated horseradish root is a common hay fever remedy [56]. A tea can be made from grated horseradish root by steeping a teaspoonful of root in a cup of boiling water [2]. Once this liquid cooled, it can be drunk as a stomach stimulant [2,56]. It should not be used by those with stomach ulcers or thyroid problems [56]. The root is also diuretic, stimulant and antiseptic [22]. An infusion of horseradish can be gargled as a sore throat remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Fungicide, Pioneer, Companion Plant, Bee Fodder Horseradish can be grown as a perennial ground cover [7]. An infusion of horseradish roots is fungicidal and has been used namely against brown rot in apples [9]. Horseradish is a wonderful pioneer and is an ideal plant for breaking up heavy clay soils [54]. It is incredibly deep-rooted [32]. The roots can grow to a depth of ten to fourteen feet, covering a radius of two to three feet [32]. This is also important to remember when planting horseradish, as it would be well planted amongst shallow rooted plants that won’t compete with it for nutrients [32]. This plant is a beneficial companion for fruit trees [46]. Also, if restricted to the corners of a potato plot, horseradish will cause the potatoes to be healthier and more diseaseresistant, while their growth will be stimulated as well [46]. Horseradish reportedly deters potato eelworm [56].

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They provide fodder for bees [9].

Cultivation Details
Horseradish thrives in poor soils and disturbed areas, but it will grow best in rich garden soil [35,39]. It will grow in light, medium and heavy soils and a wide range of pH levels (5.8 to 8.3), though they will thrive in alkaline conditions [9]. Plants prefer moist soils [7]. Soils with an excess of nitrogen will cause heavy top growth and root forking [56]. Horseradish will tolerate full sun or partially shaded conditions [7,9,41]. They will not thrive in full shade [56]. Plants can be grown through winter by digging up some roots and putting them in a greenhouse [56]. Also, young shoots can be blanched, producing white, tender, sweet leaves [56]. Horseradish plants grow quite quickly [9]. As a ground cover, they will develop a moderate density [9]. Though they grow by clumping, plants will spread to other areas as well [9]. Individual plants should be spaced about eighteen inches apart when establishing a ground cover [9]. This plant can also be grown quite usefully in the understory of woodlands and orchards [41]. When grown commercially, yields may be five tons per acre or more [29]. Horseradish is primarily propagated by root division [41]. After harvesting the horseradish root, the small lateral roots are trimmed away before peeling [29]. It is best to use root sections that are about eight inches long, though realistically, any size will do [56]. These roots can be planted for the next crop as soon as the soil can be worked [29,56]. Division is probably best done is spring, though it can be done throughout the year [56]. This process should be carried out at least once every three years though or the crop will gradually deteriorate [56]. Though plants can be propagated by seed, they are quite uncommonly produced by cultivated plants [56]. Seeds should be sown in spring if available [56]. Also, there are a number of named horseradish cultivars that are available [56].

Known Hazards
Horseradish plants can become invasive if not monitored. To keep them from spreading, simply dig up the plants after each season, attempting to remove as much of the root as possible [46]. Also, large quantities of this plant can be poisonous due to its volatile oil content [56].

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Arctium minus
Common name: Burdock Family: Compositae Range: Asian and European native; Widely distributed throughout the United States and southern Canada [2,14,33,44] Habitat: Roadsides, waste sites, old buildings [1,2,14,33,35,44] Hardiness: Not Available Other Common Names: Bachelor’s Buttons, Bazzies, Butter-Dock, Cleavers, Clite, Cloud-Burr, Clog-Weed, Flapper-Bags, Gipsy Comb, Hurr-Burr, Pig’s Rhubarb, Sticky Jacks, Tuzzy-Muzzy, Wild Rhubarb, Wild Gobo Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, root, flower stalks and leaf stems, Fiber – paper and cloth, Dynamic Accumulator, Potash Source, Pioneer, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Burdock is a stout biennial herb [1,14,33]. It has a long slender taproot that grows one to three feet in length and up to an inch in width [33]. It has large, alternate leaves [14,33]. The basal leaves are heart shaped, often growing to a foot or more in length with a soft down on the underside [1,14,17,33,44]. Upper leaves are smaller, more egg shaped and

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less pubescent [14,33]. Round flower heads are produced in the second year [1,14] and are either purple or white [33]. Flowers from July to September [35,44]. The plant’s brown fruits are borne in burrs [33,35]. It is pollinated by bees and lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and it is self-fertile [56]. Burdock generally grows to a height of five to six feet [1,14,33,44].

History
Burdock was brought to the United States by settlers who used it for food and medicinal purposes [33].

Edible Uses
Basal Leaves, Root, Flower Stalks, Leaf Stems The Iroquois cooked burdock leaves as a potherb and used the roots in soups [33]. American settlers would eat the roots, leaves and flower stalks as cooked vegetables [33]. In early spring, the basal leaves emerge and can be picked [14,22,33]. Later in the spring or early in the second year, the flower stalks can be harvested, peeled of their rind and either eaten like celery or boiled until tender [2,14,33]. Leaf stems can be cut into two-inch lengths and stripped of their hard outer peel [1,2,35]. What remains can be chopped and used raw in salads or boiled and served like asparagus [22,35]. Young burdock leaves can be prepared by boiling in lightly salted water for five minutes over medium heat. They should then be drained and mixed with vinegar, salt and pepper [1,33,44]. Some recommend that they be boiled in a second water before consumption [2,44]. From midsummer of the plant’s first year to late spring of their second year, the taproot can be harvested, though it is generally recommended that only the first year roots should be consumed [14,17,22,33]. They are very rich in starch and have a flavor that resembles that of carrots when eaten raw, though this should only be done with very young roots [15,33]. The roots may also be boiled until tender and then eaten either with butter, salt and pepper or rolled in sugar [14,17,33]. This may also be done with peeled flower stalks [33]. The boiled roots may also be mashed and made into fried patties [14]. The roasted root can be ground into a coffee substitute [56]. Burdock is a source of Vitamins B, C (seeds), Iron, Silicon, and Sulfur [22]. One serving contains 94 calories, 3.1g protein, .1g fat, 6.8g carbohydrates, 26mg calcium, 60mg phosphorus, 1mg iron, 310 I.U. Vitamin A, .06mg Thiamin (Vit. B), .12mg Riboflavin, .5mg Niacin, 72mg Ascorbic Acid (Vit. C) [22].
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Medicinal Uses
Skin Ailments, Diuretic, Blood Purifier, Healing Skin Wash, Stomach Ailments, Mild Laxative, Aphrodisiac In Europe, the roots, leaves and seeds were used in decoctions that were drunk to treat skin ailments [5,33]. In America, the plant was also used to treat skin disorders, but this was through an extract prepared from burdock seeds [33]. Burdock roots act as a diuretic and a diaphoretic [44]. It is believed to be a great blood purifying agent [44]. They contain a high insulin content (27 to 45%) [44]. First year roots, dug in the fall or early spring are used as a healing wash for burns, wounds and skin irritations [1]. This wash is made by dropping four teaspoons of the root into a quart of boiling water, allowing it to stand until cool [1]. A tea made from burdock root or leaves is great for stomach ailments [4]. It may act as a mild laxative and is very soothing to the stomach and bowels [4]. Generally, one half cup twice a day of a weak tea made from soaking a small palmful of root or leaf in a cup of water for four hours is appropriate [4]. For a stronger tea, soak for eight hours – this is usually good for relieving stomach cramps [4]. Burdock is also a known aphrodisiac [22] and has been found to provide strength and energy upon consumption [4,22].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber – Paper and Cloth, Fertilizer – Potash, Soil Indicator, Pioneer, Dynamic Accumulator – Iron Burdock fibers can be used to make paper and cloth [26]. The fiber is about 0.9mm long [56]. To utilize it, stems should be harvested in late summer. Leaves should be removed and the stems should be steamed so that the fiber may be stripped off. To make paper, cook the fibers for two hours in soda ash before putting them in a ball mill for two hours. The paper that results is light tan/brown in color [56]. Burdock can be used to prepare a very rich organic fertilizer [22,44]. In autumn, plants should be collected and burned [44]. Three pounds of ashes contain fifteen ounces of alkaline salts – about equivalent to the highest-grade potash [22,44]. Large stands of burdock generally indicate soils that have a low pH, are heavy in iron and calcium deficient [44]. Because of burdock’s large, deep taproot it is a wonderful pioneer plant, helping to, break up and restore compacted soils [18]. Thus, it could serve as a biennial cover crop [32].

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Burdock is a dynamic accumulator of iron [32]. Burdock is noted for attracting wildlife, especially butterflies [56].

Cultivation Details
Burdock is cultivated in Japan [35,44]. The seed itself is generally rather slow to germinate [15]. It is best sown as late as possible in autumn [15]. If seed is to be sown in spring, it is best pre-soaked for 12 hours and only just covered by soil when sown [15]. Though burdock will succeed in most soils, the best roots are obtained when grown on light, moist well-drained soils [15,56]. It will grow well in semi-shade, [15] though it prefers full sun [56]. Seeds are best sown in autumn in situ [56]. Burdock would do well when planted in hedgerows or woodlands [56].

Known Hazards
Burdock can be invasive and difficult to eradicate, so care should be taken upon planting it [32].

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Asclepias syriaca
Common name: Milkweed Family: Asclepiadaceae Range: Eastern North American native [2,7,56]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern and midwestern United States [2,14] Habitat: Fields, meadows, roadsides, woodland margins [14], pastures, prairies, old fields [2,4,13,31] Hardiness: 3-8 [7,13] Other Common Names: Silkweed [5,7,22,31,44], Wild Asparagus [31], Milk Plant [31], Virginia Silk [31], Wild Cotton [31] Primary Uses: Fiber – paper and cordage, Edible – young shoots, leaves, buds, flowers, pods, oil and seeds, Erosion Control, Butterfly Habitat

Physical Characteristics
Milkweed is a perennial herb that grows to a maximum height of six feet [13,14,31]. The plant’s stems are upright, usually unbranched and pubescent (hairy) [4,14,31]. Leaves are opposite and between four and eleven inches long [13,14,31,44]. They are pointed at the tip and have an entire to repand (wavy) margin [14]. Also, they are thick, leathery and pubescent above, exposing a milky sap when broken as does the rest of the plant [13,14,44]. Milkweed flowers are arranged in dense rounded heads that are between two and a half and four inches across [14,31]. They emerge from June until August [13].

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Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, insects and lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) [56]. Fruits are elongated pods between three and six inches in length that are broadest near the base, gradually tapering to a curved point and covered with soft small green projections [2,14,31]. The seeds are small and flat, each having soft, featherlike hairs attached to one end [13,14,31,44]. Milkweed fruits from July until frost [13].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Young Shoots, Leaves, Buds, Flowers, Seed Pods, Oil, Seeds New milkweed shoots can be harvested in the spring when they are less than eight inches tall [2,14,17,22,44]. They are most tender in the early morning [22]. You can also pick newly opened leaves until buds are formed, and then later pick clusters of buds and flowers (late spring to summer) [14,17,31,44]. Firm pods that are about an inch long can be picked as well [14,44]. To remove the bitterness and the toxins that are present in all parts of the milkweed plant, cover them with boiling water, bringing it back to a boil for one minute [2,14,17,44]. (Because all parts of the milkweed plant have some poisonous properties, they should be cooked for four minutes with at least one change of water to remove the toxins [31].) Discard this first water and repeat the same process two or three times [2,13,14,17,44]. Shoots treated in this way can be cooked like asparagus [5,14,17]. For young leaves, bud clusters and pods, once treated, boil them until tender which is usually about ten or fifteen minutes [14]. Serve them with butter and seasonings. Treated pods can also be cooked like okra (Hibiscus esculentus) [14,17]. Sprouted milkweed seeds can be eaten [56]. An edible oil can be obtained from milkweed seed, though it may require extensive labor to extract it [56]. One hundred grams of milkweed contain 0.8g of protein and 0.5g of fat [49].

Medicinal Uses
Wart Remedy, Skin Irritations, Rheumatism Remedy, Athlete’s Foot The milky sap from this plant was reportedly used by Native Americas as a cure for warts [4,37,44]. They would apply the sap to the affected area for several consecutive days [4,44].

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A tea made from milkweed juice can be used as a skin wash for poison ivy and other skin disorders [4]. Stems from this plant can be cooked and applied as a poultice on rheumatic joints [56]. Milkweed can be used to help clear up athlete’s foot [4]. To prepare this concoction, break up stems into cold water, strain and use the whitish liquid as a foot wash [4]. Leave this lotion on for a few moments before washing it off [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Cordage, Twine, Dye, Oil, Rubber, Erosion Control, Insulation, Paper, Indicator, Butterfly Habitat, Bee Forage The fibers that grow inside milkweed are quite tough and can be made into twine and cordage [5,7,15,22,26]. To harvest this fiber, simply wait until the plant dies down in autumn, leave the stems for a few weeks and then peel off the fibers [15]. Milkweed may also be used to produce a dye [26]. Milkweed seeds contain 20% of edible oil that is similar in quality to soybean oil [22,26]. The meal residue that remains after the processing of the seeds can be used for stock feed [22]. The latex from the milkweed plant was experimented with for rubber production during World War II, and it can be used as such though it does not produce a sufficient quantity to be used commercially [7,15,44]. Milkweed can be used for erosion control [7]. The silky filaments that are attached to the seeds were used by the Department of Agriculture as a kapok replacement in life preservers because they will still float when supporting thirty times their own weight [15,44]. These filaments may also be used as upholstery padding, insulation, paper, clothing and pillow stuffing [7,22,26,44]. The presence of milkweed in an area indicates soils that are rich in clay [32]. Milkweed provides important habitat for butterflies, especially the monarch [2,7]. This is primarily because its larvae feed upon this important plant [2]. It is also a good bee plant [7].

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Cultivation Details
Milkweed prefers growing in soils that are dry or well drained, though they will succeed in any good soil [7,15,56]. They also prefer soils that have a pH that is acidic to neutral [7]. Milkweed generally needs to grow in full sun [7]. Milkweed can be easily established in a wildflower garden or as a part of a patch of prairie plants [31]. They are grown very easily from spring cuttings [31]. If broken in pieces in the fall or early spring, milkweed roots will form new plants [22,31]. Seeds can be planted in the fall or in the spring upon stratification [31]. It is easily transplanted [22]. Milkweed may be propagated by root division as well as cuttings [56]. Slugs seem to adore young milkweed growth in spring, and will even kill large plants if at all possible [15]. Interest in the various uses of milkweed prompted Kansas State University to begin to develop a hybrid that could be grown as an alternative crop in the midwest [31]. Plants are propagated by seed, division and basal cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
Though rarely consumed by livestock, milkweed is said to be poisonous to them [13,44]. Like many plants that contain white milk, milkweeds can be poisonous if not prepared properly [13]. There are a number of plants like Hemp Dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) that are similar to the milkweed, but poisonous if consumed (Hemp Dogbane has smooth leaves, while milkweed’s leaves are hairy [4].) [13,14,31]. If you are looking at a plant with milky sap, stout stems and opposite, hairy, ovate leaves, the plant is most likely milkweed [5]. Basically, if you plan on eating milkweed, just be absolutely sure that it is what you think it is. If given a suitable position, milkweed can become invasive [15]. Thus, recalling that it can reproduce from broken pieces of root, it should only be cultivated in places where you would like it to remain. Also, if you would like to prevent it from spreading by seed, make sure to harvest the pods before they are able to open and disperse.

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Asimina triloba
Common name: Pawpaw Family: Annonaceae Range: North American native [2]; Found throughout the south central and south eastern United States [14] Habitat: River valleys; bottomlands; deep, rich, moist soils [1,14]; understory [13,43] Hardiness: 5-9 [32,57] Other Common Names: Papaw [2,14], Custard Apple [1,2,17], False Banana [1,2,17], Michigan Banana [1,17], Poor Man’s Banana [2] Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Insecticide, Fungicide, Timber, Cordage

Physical Characteristics
Pawpaw is a large shrub or small tree that grows to between ten and forty feet in height [1,2,13,14]. In northern regions though, pawpaw rarely grows any higher than twenty feet [2]. Leaves are alternate, deciduous, simple and between seven and twelve inches long and three to six inches wide [1,13,14,17]. They are usually broadest near the tip

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[14]. They also have an entire margin, are light green in color and feel papery to the touch [14,17]. The buds of this tree are long, slim, brown and flattened, coated with rust colored hairs [2]. Pawpaw has thin, smooth dark brown bark, marked with gray blotches [2,14]. The bell shaped flowers are green when they emerge in spring (May to June), turning a deep purple as they mature [14,17,56]. They actually arise from the twigs of the previous year [1,13,14]. They are hermaphrodite, and plants are self-fertile [56]. Fruits are more or less irregularly shaped, banana-like cylinders between one and four inches long [1,13,14,17]. They are green when they first emerge and eventually turn black and fleshy at maturity, which is generally late summer or early autumn [14,17]. The fruits contain large brown seeds that are surrounded by the edible yellow pulp [17].

History
Native Americans are likely to have enjoyed the fruits of this tree long before the white man set foot on the continent [64]. Though pawpaws have been eaten in the United States for quite some time now, they are seldom grown commercially [64].

Edible Uses
Fruit Pawpaw fruits can be harvested either once the fruits mature or when they are full size but still green in color [14]. This is generally in the first half of October [43]. Once the fruits are ripe, they only remain on the trees for a few weeks and are completely gone by the end of October [43]. If harvested fruits are still immature, they can be stored in a cool, dark, dry place until they ripen [1,2,14]. The sweet pulp of the fruit can be eaten raw [2,14,17]. Also, if separated from the seeds and skin, the creamy, custardlike pulp can be cooked and used in desserts like puddings, breads and ice cream [2,14,17]. Probably the simplest way to cook pawpaw is to bake them in their skins, but it is probably not the tastiest [17]. Pawpaw fruit can be dried in the sun or in an oven for use at a later time [37]. One hundred grams of pawpaw fruit contain 85 calories, 5.2g of protein and 0.9g of fat [49].

Medicinal Uses
Diuretic, Poultice, Laxative, Tonic The leaves of the pawpaw are diuretic [56]. They may be applied to boils, ulcers and abscesses [56]. Pawpaw fruit can be used as a laxative [56].

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Bark of this tree is a bitter tonic, containing the alkaline analobine [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Insecticide, Fungicide, Dye, Cordage, Timber The seeds and bark of the pawpaw are reported to have pesticidal activity [13]. It is recommended to try using papaw leaves as insect and fungal repellent mulches [13]. A yellow dye can be made from the flesh of pawpaw fruits [26,56]. Also, the inner bark of the pawpaw can be used as a source of cordage for making strong ropes and string [26,37,56]. Pawpaw wood is light, soft, coarse grained, weak and spongy [56]. It weights twentyfour pounds per cubic foot [56].

Cultivation Details
Pawpaw prefers rich, moist, fertile soils [1,2,28]. It also likes shaded or partially shaded conditions, though they can grow in full sun [2,28,57]. Trees are moderately fast growing, though they are fairly short-lived [28]. Despite this, the roots produce suckers, ensuring a continuation of this species in your yard [28]. Pawpaw is one of the few plants that I was unsure of whether or not I should include in this directory. I would have to say that its cultivation in some parts of New England could be considered marginal to say the least. Nonetheless, it is quite an interesting and somewhat exotic fruit with a number of benefits, and if grown under the proper conditions, there is no reason as to why it shouldn’t survive. Even if its cultivation was attempted in hardiness zones three or four, the development of a beneficial microclimate may be enough for it to thrive. Thus, it may be a good idea to at least try to cultivate it in a sunny, sheltered position, perhaps also utilizing the reflected light of a south facing wall behind it [15]. Some sources say they are hardy to -20°C, whereas others claim this number to be -35°C [56]. At least two pawpaw trees are necessary to ensure pollination [28,57]. Though trees are typically pollinated by insects, they can be pollinated by hand in order to better assure fruiting. It grafts readily, though it is difficult to transplant because of its deep taproot [50]. Pawpaws are usually untroubled by insects and disease, though the fall webworm may prove bothersome [28,32,56].

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Also, many animals relish pawpaw fruit, so it may be necessary to erect a protective fence around productive trees if you find that your harvest is being stolen [28]. Pawpaw foliage seems to be abhorred by all pasturing animals, so there’s no need to worry about livestock damaging the trees [50]. Pawpaws can be propagated by seed or layering [56]. Seed is best sown in a cold frame when ripe [56]. It will usually germinate in one to three months [56]. Stored seed will require stratification, while dried seed will quickly lose its viability [56]. Once large enough to handle, seedlings should be potted individually and grown in a greenhouse for their first winter [56]. When they are more than six inches tall they can be planted in their permanent positions, though they should be given some protection from the winter cold for their first winter [56]. There are a number of pawpaw varieties and cultivars, so if you are interested in including this plant in your landscape, consult seed companies and nurseries in order to determine which may be best for you. Consult source 57 for a few available cultivars.

Known Hazards
Pawpaw fruits disagree with some people, so some care should be taken when trying them for the first time [13,14,50]. Pawpaw leaves can cause dermatitis in sensitive people [56]. Supposedly, pawpaw seeds should not be eaten, as they are poisonous [15,56].

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Asparagus officinalis
Common name: Asparagus Family: Liliaceae Range: Eurasian native [7,23,33]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [33] Habitat: Sandy fields, waste places, roadsides, salt marshes [14,33] Hardiness: 4 [7] Other Common Names: Wild Asparagus [33], Garden Asparagus [33] Primary Uses: Edible – spears and seeds, Bank Stabilizer, Companion Plant, Coffee

Physical Characteristics
Asparagus is a perennial herb that grows from a thick, white rhizome, reaching a height of three to seven feet [7,14,29,33]. It is in early spring that the stout asparagus stems emerge [33]. They are characterized by scale-like leaves and tiny branches [33]. If stems are allowed to grow, they will reach a height of up to six feet and they take on a triangular shape that is reminiscent of that of a Christmas tree [17,33]. Thus, it is the young stems that are harvested from this plant for food [17,33]. Leaves are alternate, lance-shaped and about an inch long [14]. If allowed to grow unchecked, the branches would elongate and reveal stalked greenish-yellow, bell-shaped flowers along the upper stems [14,29,33,35]. The flowers are dioecious (only one sex is found on a single plant) and they are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruit is a globose scarlet berry [14,23,29,33,35].

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History
Asparagus was first cultivated more that two thousands years ago [33]. It was mentioned by both Greek and Roman writers [5]. In 200 BC, Cato gave excellent directions for asparagus’ culture [5].

Edible Uses
Spears/Shoots, Seeds, Coffee Harvest asparagus ‘spears’ by slicing the emerging stalk off with a knife [33]. This should be done in late spring, as the spears begin protruding from the soil [46]. Cutting the young stalks just below ground level when the shoots protrude four to eight inches will cause more shoots to grow [14,29]. When freshly picked, asparagus can be eaten raw or chopped into a salad [33,54]. Otherwise, the stalks can be steamed or boiled until tender or for about ten to fifteen minutes [14]. Male plants produce the best shoots [56]. Be sure not to overharvest the plant because this will only weaken it for the next year [56]. Also, be sure to only harvest shoots with a diameter larger than a pencil. Asparagus seeds can be collected, roasted and ground in order to make a coffee-like drink [7,16]. One hundred grams of asparagus contain 20 calories, 2.2g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 21mg of calcium, 50mg of phosphorus, 0.6mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 183mg of potassium, 900 I.U. vitamin A, 0.16mg of thiamine, 0.18mg of riboflavin, 1.4mg of niacin, 26mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Rheumatism Remedy, Kidney/Bowel/Liver Restoration, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Laxative The Cherokee used cooked asparagus stalks and greens as a treatment for rheumatism [37]. Asparagus roots and shoots have a restorative and cleansing effect on the bowels, kidneys and liver [56]. The root is a diaphoretic [56]. It is strongly diuretic and laxative [56]. They should be harvested in late spring, once you are no longer harvesting shoots, and dried for later use [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Bee Forage, Companion Plant, Bank Stabilizer

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Dyes may be extracted from this plant [7]. It both attracts and provides forage for bees [7]. Asparagus and tomatoes are perfect companion plants in the garden [15,46,54]. They both actually seem to protect and stimulate one another [46]. Recent research has found that asparagus plants contain asparagusic acid, which is effective at repelling nematodes [15]. Once asparagus has been harvested, the soil is ready for the tomato plants, and their summer long cultivation will help to ensure that the asparagus will be kept free of weeds [46]. Also, asparagus ferns are a very good disguise for members of the cabbage family [54]. It can be planted as a bank stabilizer along sandy streams [41]. Asparagus fronds are often used as a decorative addition to flower bouquets [17].

Cultivation Details
Asparagus prefers moist growing conditions, full sun and fertile, nitrogen rich soils [7,48]. It will also tolerate partial shade [7]. Though it prefers a pH of 6.5 or higher, it will tolerate a pH in the range of 4.3 to 8.2 [56]. Asparagus actually doesn’t begin producing a crop until the plants are two or three years old [23,54]. Despite this, once asparagus has been established, the plants will produce for twenty years or more [54]. If you do not want to wait for the first few years for your asparagus crop, you can buy two-year-old crowns, which will provide a much quicker crop [54]. Asparagus may also be easily propagated in winter by crown division [41]. Despite this, it is significantly cheaper to plant asparagus from seed [54]. If you wish to start asparagus from seed, it is a good idea to soak them overnight, as it speeds up germination, but even if you do soak them, it can still take a number of weeks for the seeds to germinate [54]. You can sow them in early spring in a standard seedgerminating mix, and when the seedlings have reached about two inches in height, transplant each plant into a standard seedling-raising mix [54]. These should be dressed with compost of worm castings or fed with seaweed brew or liquid worm manure and left in a moderately sunny spot until the following spring [54]. Once the plants have been in the tray for a year, you should be able to distinguish between the males and the females [54]. Females are much more spindly and have small white-green flowers followed by red berries, whereas males are more vigorous and have thicker stems [54]. Some recommend that you discard the females, but there are many insects that relish female flowers, and you will also be able to produce seed if (both for making coffee and for later use) if you plant out a few [54]. It is important to remember that you will most likely be keeping these plants for twenty years, so feel free to discard any seedlings that do not appear to be very vigorous [54].

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The seedlings that you decide to keep can be transplanted to their permanent spot in early spring [54]. Mulch them heavily (up to six inches) for their first winter, and in spring, new shoots will begin to appear from the mulch daily [54]. Unfortunately, you should not harvest the shoots that emerge in the first year, but when the next year comes you can cut every spear that emerges for about eight weeks, then letting the fern grow and replenish itself [54]. In the third year, and in each subsequent year, you may harvest the spears of well-fed plants for up to twelve weeks [54]. During this time, you can probably harvest one or two shoots every day [54]. Because asparagus will be a somewhat permanent addition to your landscape, it is very important that you properly consider your placement of these vigorous perennials. Each plant will grow into a fern that is at lest three feet tall, filling a circle with a diameter of about sixteen inches [54]. Since asparagus will most likely need to be visited every day in the spring to harvest the spears, it makes sense that they be planted near a path or at least somewhat nearby your home [54]. Since plants do not need to be pollinated, except in order to yield seed, you can scatter them around your property [54]. Asparagus roots grow to a depth of up to 4.5 feet and a radius of 10.5 feet [32]. This is important to consider when planting it amongst other species in the garden. One of the few insects that may become troublesome to your asparagus is the asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparagi) [46]. This beetle can be controlled though by allowing chickens to run free in the asparagus bed and feast on this troublesome insect [46]. Also, by allowing chickens to run free amongst the dormant asparagus in late autumn, they will provide the plants with a direct source of phosphate fertilizer while also controlling the grasshopper population which often thrives amongst asparagus [54].

Known Hazards
Try to avoid harvesting older asparagus stalks, as they are mildly toxic [14].

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Bambusa/Fargesia/Phyllostachys spp.
Common name: Bamboo Family: Graminaceae Range: Chinese/Asian natives [57]; Widely distributed throughout the world Habitat: Forest understory, swamps, open areas Hardiness: 5-10 [57] Other Common Names: There are hundreds of species of bamboo. Primary Uses: Building Material, Erosion Control, Windbreak, Edible Shoots, Hedge, Paper, Biomass, Fuel, Livestock Fodder

By no means is the following intended to be an even remotely complete analysis of the countless uses of bamboo. That is well beyond the scope of this work. There are dozens of books that are devoted solely to bamboo, its uses and its cultivation. I have chosen to include it in this analysis because it is such an incredibly versatile plant, and I think that it would be quite interesting and valuable to responsibly and thoughtfully explore the possibilities for its cultivation here in New England. For anyone who is interested in growing bamboo in his or her own yard, I most certainly recommend further researching this amazing plant.

Physical Characteristics
Bamboo is an evergreen woody stemmed perennial grass [57]. Bamboos are either monopodal (running) with long travelling roots that can reach a great distance from the
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parent plant or sympodal (clumping) [62]. The clumping varieties of bamboo, some of them members of the Fargesia genus, are the species that I would like to focus on in this entry. Bamboo is mainly distinguished by the special structure of their culms (stems), their rapid growth and the singular flowering habits of most species [62]. There is an incredible range in the height and habit of bamboo species, with some forming a low cover only a few inches high while others reach heights of well over one hundred feet. There are at least 1250 species of bamboo and 57 genera [62].

History
Bamboo has been used by native peoples for thousands of years to provide for an endless supply of needs. In many cultures, it is a sacred plant. Bamboo was first brought to Europe in the mid-nineteenth century [47].

Edible Uses
Shoots, Pickle When young, bamboo shoots are edible either raw or cooked. They are also commonly pickled [23]. An incredibly common and valuable food throughout Asia, bamboo shoots are quite nutritious. They are harvested by digging up emerging shoots just as they begin to poke through the soil. It is important to dig them up as early as possible because as they get older, they begin to harden and there is much less edible material available. So, when digging them up, dig as deeply as possible along the new shoot, and then break it off at the lowest point. Peel off the outer inedible layers until you reach the softer, meaty center. This is the edible portion of the plant. Shoots that are excessively bitter can be soaked in two or three changes of water in order to soften the taste [41]. One hundred grams of bamboo shoots (Bambusa spp.) contain 27 calories, 2.6g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 13mg of calcium, 59mg of phosphorus, 0.5mg of iron, 533mg of potassium, 20 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.15mg of thiamine, 0.07 mg of riboflavin, 0.6mg of niacin and 4mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Asthma Bamboo stems can be taken for asthma and hemmorids by cooking them slowly in two egg yolks [47].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Windbreak, Hedge, Ground Cover, Timber, Paper, Fiber, Biomass, Fuel, Soil Stabilizer, Livestock Fodder Bamboos can be grown as a quick-spreading, multi-purpose windbreak [39,41,57]. They can also be grown as a thick, impenetrable hedge [57,62]. Some of the small bamboo species can be grown as a ground cover [47]. Probably the most common and well-known use of bamboo is the use of canes as structural material. Not only can bamboo be used in building, furniture making, concrete reinforcing, etc. but canes can be used to make utensils, fences, musical instruments, paper pulp and well, virtually anything you can possibly imagine [34,39,41]. When using the canes for timber, they should be carefully dried for between six and twelve months [41]. Canes have typically reached maturity after four years of growth. Thus, if a careful and thoughtful system of cultivation is developed, it is possible to harvest a number of mature canes every year after the first four years of clump establishment. Also, because of their prolific growth, bamboo can be grown as a biomass crop. This biomass can then be used as a fuel. These plants are absolutely wonderful soil stabilizers [39,41]. Often shallow rooted, bamboo is incredibly effective at holding the soil and preventing it from eroding away [39]. The leaves of some species can be used as animal forage [39]. Also, bamboo shoots can be used as low-grade pig fodder [41].

Cultivation Details
Bamboo generally prefers conditions that are either in full sun or part shade [57]. They are tolerant of a wide range of soil types, though generally best suited to moist, welldrained sites [57]. Individual clumps can live for over a hundred years [57]. When choosing a bamboo species to cultivate, especially here in New England, there are two primary factors to consider. The first of these is its relative hardiness, as many bamboo species are adapted to more tropical climates, and it would be a waste of both time and money to plant species that will not survive here. Secondly, and probably even more importantly, is choosing the habit of the plant. By habit, I mean whether the species are clumpers or runners. Bamboo is a grass, and like other grasses, it spreads by

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underground rhizomes. Clumping varieties are so named because they produce their canes in a clumping pattern that surrounds the initial ‘clump’ of plants, maintaining a rather well controlled growth. Runners, on the other hand, are far more haphazard in their spread and will quickly and invasively colonize any possible open areas regardless of their distance from the original plant. Thus, the point that I would like to make here is that I am not recommending or advocating the cultivation of running varieties here in New England. Bamboo has the potential to become a highly invasive species, but it is primarily running varieties that pose this risk, as they could easily spread from one person’s yard into their neighbor’s, and upon having done so, being nearly impossible to eradicate. Clumping varieties are easily controlled and maintained, and their growth is far from invasive. So, for anyone interested in cultivating this incredibly useful plant in their own yards, I must say that it is up to you to attempt to find a clumping variety that is hardy enough to survive in the microclimate that is your property. If you truly want to grow running varieties, it can be done so that they will be contained. The rhizomes will be unable to spread across both roads and water, and it is also possible to put in an underground barrier before planting to ensure that the plants’ growth does not overextend the area desired. One possible option is planting a running variety on an island in a dam so that it is unable to spread [39]. Fargesia nitida nymphenburg or Blue Fountain Bamboo is a clumping variety that produces canes about ten or fifteen feet tall [57]. It is quite hardy and will tolerate temperatures as low as -20°F [57]. It also is characterized by a weeping habit [57]. Fargesia muriale is a Chinese species that actually serves as the staple food for Panda bears [57]. Leaves are small and thin and the shoots are upright, about a half-inch in diameter and twelve feet in height [57]. It is hardy to -20°F and prefers partial shade though it will grow in sun [57]. Bamboo is generally propagated by seed, clump division, rhizome cuttings and basal cane cuttings [39,56]. It is unnecessary to pollinate plants [57]. Some species only flower once every one hundred years [57].

Known Hazards
Running bamboo species are highly invasive and nearly impossible to eradicate.

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Barbarea vulgaris
Common name: Wintercress Family: Brassicaceae Range: European native [14,29,33]; Naturalized and widespread in the northeastern United States [14,33] Habitat: Moist areas, fields, waste areas, damp woods, roadsides, meadows [14,29,33] Hardiness: 4-8 [13] Other Common Names: Yellow Rocket [1,2,13,17,22,56], Belle Island Cress [1,2,17], Scurvy Grass [1,2,17], Bitter Cress [1,2], Spring Cress [1,17] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, flower stalks and buds, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Wintercress is a perennial herb growing to two and a half feet [13,14,23,29,56]. In the winter, wintercress forms low-growing rosettes of dark green leaves that hug the ground [13,33]. Once the snow is gone and the stem emerges, they take on a more upright position [14,33]. Stems are quite sturdy and quickly grow to a foot or two, often branching above [14,33]. Branches and stems are mostly lined with leaves, though the

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distal end is leafless, instead bearing a spike-like flower cluster [33]. Basal leaves are about six or eight inches long with a rounded terminal lobe and one or more pairs of smaller lateral lobes [33]. Wintercress flowers are yellow and have four petals, just like members of the mustard family [33]. They generally appear from May to July [13,35]. Flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by flies, bees and beetles [56]. Seedpods are elongated and grow to about one or two inches, splitting open lengthwise to release their small seeds [14,33].

History
Europeans have used wintercress as a foodstuff for years [33]. In North America, French-Canadians use wintercress as a salad plant, while many people in the southeastern states use it as both a salad plant and a cooked vegetable [33]. Wintercress got its scientific name Barbarea because it was once the only green plant that could be gathered and eaten on Saint Barbara’s Day, which falls on the fourth day of December [2,17].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flower Stalks, Buds Both young leaves and newly emerged flower stalks can be harvested from this plant [17,33]. Wintercress also produces new leaves during winter thaws, which can be eaten [2,17,33]. It is in late February and early March that wintercress becomes most abundant [17]. Unfortunately, as the weather warms, these leaves generally become too bitter [2,13,14,17,33]. The leaves will blanch, losing their bitterness if you tie them in a bundle while the plant is rooted and cover them with a bucket for a period of ten days to two weeks [14,17]. Nonetheless, by midspring, wintercress buds and blossoms abound and can be harvested and used as a broccoli-like vegetable, either sautéed or used for fritters [2,17,33]. Early and blanched leaves can be eaten raw in salads [1,2,14,17]. More bitter leaves should be boiled in two changes of water until they are tender [1,2,13,14,17]. Wintercress can be three times as plentiful in its ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content than orange juice [17].

Medicinal Uses
Blood Purifier, Skin Ailments, Cough Remedy Cherokee Indians ate boiled greens to purify the blood [13,37]. Crushed leaves can be poulticed onto bee stings and other skin disorders [13].

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An infusion of the leaves can be taken every half hour as a cough remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
None found.

Cultivation Details
Wintercress thrives in moist areas [53]. It does well in moist well-drained soils and can grow in sun or shade [56]. Plants will tolerate a pH between 4.8 and 7.5 [56]. Wintercress may be sown in autumn and harvested very early in spring [53]. When planted in a favorable position, wintercress will often self-sow quite freely [15,56]. Often, wintercress is so plentiful that it need not be cultivated at all [53]. Otherwise, sow seed in spring or autumn in situ – they will usually germinate within two or three weeks [56]. If grown in a greenhouse or under a cold frame and protected from the snow, wintercress will be much more likely to produce a harvestable crop during the winter months [23]. Barbarea verna or American Land Cress is closely related to wintercress [15]. Though it is more reliable as a winter crop, it is not reliably perennial [15]. American Land Cress should generally be sown in late summer or early autumn in order to provide winter leaves [15]. Like wintercress, if left on its own, American land cress will self-sow freely [15]. Both of these species could provide edible leaves year round [15]. If you would like to grow them for winter crops grow them by a sunny wall, but if you would like to harvest summer leaves, grow them near a shady wall [15].

Known Hazards
Besides the possibility for wintercress to become invasive, there are no known hazards associated with this winter green. To prevent it from becoming invasive, simply cut down the plant or harvest the seed pods before they have had the opportunity to open in the spring (or summer depending on when you plant it).

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Bellis perennis
Common name: Daisy Family: Compositae Range: European native [7,9,25] Habitat: Disturbed areas, lawns, meadows [56] Hardiness: 4 [7,9] Other Common Names: Lawndaisy [37], English Daisy [7,25], Bruisewort [7] Primary Uses: Dynamic Accumulator, Ground Cover, Bee Forage, Medicine, Edible – leaves, flowers and buds, Insect Repellent

Physical Characteristics
Daisy is a perennial herb that grows to a height of about six inches and a similar spread [7,9,15]. Leaves are deep green and wavy [9]. Flowers are produced virtually year round though they are most prolific in spring [15]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, flies and beetles [56].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Buds Young leaves, flowers and flower buds can be eaten either raw or cooked [7,9,15]. They have a reasonably mild flavor [15].
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Medicinal Uses
Stomachic, Antispasmodic, Expectorant, Laxative, Purgative, Tonic, Rheumatism, Arthritis, Liver/Kidney Ailments, Blood Purifier A decoction of the plant clusters can be taken as a stomachic [7,37]. Daisy is mildly anodyne, antispasmodic, antitussive, demulcent, digestive, emollient, expectorant, laxative, ophthalmic, purgative and tonic [56]. An infusion can be used in the treatment of catarrh, rheumatism, arthritis, liver and kidney ailments and to purify the blood [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dynamic Accumulator, Indicator Plant, Ground Cover, Insect Repellent, Bee Forage Daisy is a dynamic accumulator [7,9]. The presence of daisy growing in an area is indicative of clay soils that are acidic [32]. Plants can be grown as a ground cover [9]. Daisy leaves can be infused in water and used as an insect repellent spray [9,15]. Plants also provide forage for bees [9,58].

Cultivation Details
Daisy prefers dry soils and full sun, though it will tolerate partial shade [7,9]. It will tolerate light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils that are acidic, neutral and alkaline in pH [9]. Plants will grow best in soils that are fertile and moisture retentive [9]. Plants are very tolerant and will still thrive after being subject to constant cutting [15]. When planting daisy as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced eight inches apart [9]. They will slowly develop their either clumping or vigorous spread that will gradually develop a low-density cover [9]. Plants can be propagated by seed or by division [56].

Known Hazards
Daisy may be a host for the tarnished plant bug.

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Berberis spp.
Common name: Barberry Family: Berberidaceae Range: European native [2,10,14,23]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,14] Habitat: Disturbed woodlands, fencerows, fields, roadsides [14], uplands, well drained loams [2] Hardiness: 3-8 [10,24] – Depends on the species and the variety Other Common Names: Sourberry [2,22], Oregon Grape [2], Mountain Holly [2], Creeping Barberry [2], Mahonia [2], Algerita [2], Mountain Grape [2], American Barberry [2], Jaundice Berry [2,10], Piprage [2,10], Berberry [2] Primary Uses: Hedge, Wildlife Forage, Edible – berries and leaves, Wine, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Barberry is a small to medium sized shrub that grows from three to ten feet high [14,23,35]. The branches are grooved and turn from yellowish-red to grey by the second season [14]. Three-forked spines line the branches, and this is a very diagnostic trait for this plant [2,14]. Leaves are alternate, deciduous, simple, rounded, finely serrate (toothed), about an inch and a half long and often crowded together on short shoots [2,14,35]. In autumn, the leaves turn brilliant scarlets and bronzes [2]. Flowers are stalked, greenish-yellow and in narrow elongated clusters of about ten to twenty

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[2,14,23]. They are hermaphrodite and emerge in the spring [2,23]. Fruits develop in late summer or early autumn and are drooping clusters of rounded, reddish berries [2,14].

History
Records exist from Egyptian times that tell of the various uses of barberry [5,22]. One of the more important of these was its medicinal use for liver complaints [5].

Edible Uses
Berries, Leaves, Juice, Wine, Tea Harvest the berries in autumn once they have developed their full color [14]. They may be eaten fresh as a snack or used to make jams and juice [14]. Barberries can also be candied and pickled [2,25]. Excess berries can be dried and saved for later use [22]. Also, young barberry leaves can be eaten in spring [42]. To make barberry jelly, cook the berries until they are tender (about twenty minutes) and strain the juice through cloth or a jelly bag. Boil this juice to 200°F and pour it into jars. This jelly needs no pectin or water and is very tart. [2,14,22,35] In fact, if you wish to add water to the jelly mix, you will also need to add pectin to make the mixture jell [16]. Barberry juice can be used in sauces and drinks to add tartness [2,14]. With lemon and mint, these fruits can be used as a cooling summer drink [22]. Barberries can be used to make wine [22]. Express enough fruit to yield a quart of juice. Add three quarts of water and three pounds of sugar, and let the mixture ferment. When mixed with three or four times this amount of water, this is a very pleasant drink. [22] Chewing a few barberry leaves will help to relieve thirst [2,14]. Young leaves may also be used to flavor foods [56]. Dried young leaves and shoot tips can be used to make a tea [56]. Barberries are rich in vitamin C [2].

Medicinal Uses
Liver Tonic, Sore Throat Remedy, Fever Remedy, Jaundice Barberry is an excellent liver tonic [24]. This is because its bitter principle is more closely related to human bile than any other known natural substance [24]. Native Americans used barberry bark and root for sore throats [37].

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A compound decoction of the berries can be taken for fevers [37]. A decoction of barberry leaves can be taken as a jaundice remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Beads, Hedge, Bird and Wildlife Forage, Timber, Ground Cover A red dye can be produced with barberry fruits, while the stems produce a permanent yellow dye [2,5]. This yellow dye can be extracted by boiling [2]. Unripe barberries can be dried and used as beads [56]. Planted as a hedge, barberry’s prickles will help to deter unwanted visitors [15]. Barberries are great bird forage and will most likely attract them in the autumn [2,5,15]. They also provide an important fall and winter food source for all types of wildlife, [2] though some sources maintain that this is not true. This shrub can be grown as a source of wood [10]. It is fine grained and yellow in color [10]. Though this shrub would likely produce little harvestable timber, that that can be collected is very hard [10]. It can be used for furniture and cabinetwork, turnery, carving and tooth picks [10]. It can also be used as a fuel [56]. There are a few barberry species that can be cultivated as ground covers and informal hedges [9]. These include Berberis x stenophylla cvs, B. thunbergii cvs and B. verruculosa [9]. These species will grow in virtually all soil types [9].

Cultivation Details
Barberry prefers positions in full sun, though it will tolerate partial shade [10,15]. When grown in the shade of trees, barberry requires a moist soil [56]. It will tolerate most soil conditions, especially alkaline soils, but they will do best in a moist loam [15,58]. It is somewhat fast growing. Shrubs will attain their maximum height within their first ten years of growth [10]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and suckers [56]. Cuttings of half ripe wood should be potted out in July or August in a cold frame, while cuttings of mature wood of the current season’s growth (with a heel if possible) should be propagated in October or November in a cold frame [56]. Suckers should be removed in late autumn or early winter and either planted out in situ or potted up for the winter and planted out in late spring [56].

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A number of barberry species and cultivars exist, and there are actually both deciduous and evergreen species available [15]. All of them are quite easy to grow and will even do well planted in the understory of a woodland or food forest [15].

Known Hazards
Barberry is a host of a fungoid wheat disease called ‘black stem rust’, so if you intend to grow wheat or live near someone who does, it is probably not a good idea to grow this plant [5,15,24,48]. In fact, its cultivation is prohibited by federal law in some states, though I do not believe this to be the case in Vermont [24]. Also, because barberry seeds are quickly spread by birds, be aware that they can quickly become invasive.

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Betula spp.
Common name: Birch Family: Betulaceae Range: North American natives; Widespread throughout the eastern United States [33]. Habitat: Sweet Birch – mature, rich, well-drained woods [14,33] Yellow Birch – moist woods, lower slopes and cool marshlands below 1000ft elevation [14,33] Paper Birch – young forests [33] Gray Birch – sterile soil, abandoned farms, previously burnt land [33] Hardiness: 2-6 [10] Other Common Names: Sweet Birch – Black Birch [1,10,17,22], Cherry Birch [10,17,22], Mahogany Birch [10], Mountain Mahogany [10] Yellow Birch – Grey Birch, Canadian Yellow Birch, Quebec Birch, Canadian Silkywood, American Birch, Hard Birch [10] Paper Birch – Canoe Birch, White Birch, American Birch, American White Birch, Canadian White Birch [10] Gray Birch – White Birch, Fire Birch, Old Field Birch [10] Primary Uses: Timber, Sap – beer, vinegar and syrup, Charcoal, Compost Material, Pioneer, Coppice Material, Soil Stabilizer

Paper Birch – Betula papyrifera

Physical Characteristics
Birches are medium sized trees growing to between fifty to eighty feet tall [14,33]. Most birch species can be easily distinguished by their twigs and bark, which are commonly

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marked with raised horizontal bumps or lenticels [2,33]. In several species, (paper and yellow birch) the bark separates from the tree in paper-like sheets as it grows in age [33]. Paper birch has creamy white bark while the bark of yellow birch is more golden in color. The bark of sweet birch is similar in color to that of yellow birch but it does not peel away nearly as much as paper or yellow birch, while gray birch has dull white or gray bark that also does not peel. Birch leaves are deciduous, simple and alternate [2,13,33]. They are generally ovate in shape with doubly serrate margins (toothed), though gray birch’s leaves are deltoid (triangular) [13]. Flowers are borne in catkins [2,33]. Birch fruit is a very small single seeded winged nutlet that’s grouped with others, forming a cone like structure [2,14,33].

History
Bark of the sweet birch is said to have most likely saved the lives of many Confederate soldiers during Garnett’s retreat over the mountains to Monterey, Virginia [1,22]. Apparently, the path the soldiers followed could be easily distinguished for years afterward by following the trail of peeled birch trees [1,22].

Edible Uses
Twigs, Bark, Leaves, Tea, Sap, Beer, Vinegar, Syrup, Flour The twigs, bark and leaves of both sweet (Betula lenta) and yellow (Betula alleghaniensis) have a distinct wintergreen scent and flavor [1,2,14,17,33]. Thus, they were used by the northeastern Native Americans and the colonists to make mildly stimulating teas [5,33]. The twigs themselves were used as a flavorful chew [33]. Wintergreen oil can be extracted from these two species by steam distilling the bark and twigs [5,33]. Sweet birch oil is actually sold commercially as “oil of wintergreen” [1,2,5,17,38]. To make tea from birch twigs and bark steep them in water or birch sap [1,2,13,14,17,38]. (Do not boil them in the water or sap as it will destroy the volatile wintergreen oil [14]. Birch bark from either the trunk or the larger roots can be dried at room temperature and stored in jars in a cool place for later use [1,17]. Most birch species can be tapped just before leaves begin to emerge in spring [1,13,17,33]. In Vermont, this is usually from the middle of April until mid-May [33]. Birches are taped in exactly the same fashion as maples [13,14,17,33]. This sap can be converted into wine or beer and is a practice that has existed in Europe for centuries [5,33]. The sap may also be consumed as a mildly sweet fresh drink [17,33]. To make beer from sweet or yellow birch, begin by collecting two gallons of birch sap and two quarts of birch twigs. Boil them both along with two cups of raw sugar or one cup of honey in a large pot for fifteen minutes. Spread a half yeast cake on a toasted
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piece of dark bread and float it in the liquid. Cover the pot with a towel and let it sit in a cool room for ten to fourteen days. Once this time has passed, either drink the beer immediately or bottle it. Gray and paper birch can also be used to make birch beer -simply omit the twigs from the recipe. [5,13,14,17,22,33]. Birch vinegar is another product that can be made from birch sap. Simply mix five gallons of birch sap (paper birch works well) with three cups of raw sugar in a large pot, place the mixture in a cool room, cover it with a towel and let it stand for about two months, making sure to stir it occasionally. The vinegar can then be filtered and bottled. [13,22,33] A thick, molasses flavored syrup can be made from the sap of the yellow birch [2,14,22]. Boil the sap in a shallow open container outside, and continually add more sap as the volume decreases until evaporation leaves a thick syrup [1,14]. It generally takes about ten gallons of sap to make one pint of syrup [17]. The inner bark of birch trees can be dried and ground into flour, a practice that was common amongst Native Americans and frontiersmen [1,2]. It can also be cut into strips and boiled like noodles in stews or even eaten raw [1,2]. Nonetheless, stripping the bark from these trees will damage them and should only be done in extreme situations. Birch leaves contain calcium, chlorine, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, silicon, Beta-Carotene and vitamins A, B1, B2, C and E [22].

Medicinal Uses
Cold Remedy, Dysentery, Stomach Ailments, Diuretic, Skin Ailments, Sedative Cherokee took river birch (Betula nigra) tea for colds, dysentery and stomach ailments, while the Chippewa used bark tea for stomach aches [13]. Tea made from birch leaves instills a diuretic effect [4]. This same tea can be used as a skin wash for mild irritation like poison ivy, bee stings and rashes [4]. By boiling birch bark and leaves for two to seven minutes, a mild sedative results that induces a calming effect and a good night’s sleep during stressful times. Drink only one half cup per day when you wish to feel the effects of this strong tea [4]. This same tea boiled for ten minutes can be used as a skin wash for severe problems, including acne. This wash should be applied three times a day [4].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Timber, Charcoal, Coppice Material, Compost Enhancer/Ingredient, Thatching Material, Pioneer, Soil Stabilizer Black and brown dyes can be made from birch trees, while the fresh or dried leaves can be used to make a yellow dye [5]. All birch species can be used for timber. The wood of yellow and sweet birch have fine, straight grain, are strong, average in heaviness, and hard [10]. Yellow birch is light brown in color and can be used in flooring, joinery/interior construction, furniture/cabinet work, for paper pulp, turnery, fuel, veneers, household utensils and plywood. Sweet birch is dark brown and is used for furniture and cabinet work, paper pulp, turnery, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage, charcoal, veneers, household utensils, wheels/hubs/spokes, piles, water pipes, agricultural implements, boxes/crates, clogs/shoes, nails/pins/dowels and plywood [10]. Paper birch produces wood with a fine straight grain that is average in strength and heaviness, durable and hard [10]. It’s light brown in color and can be used for paper pulp, turnery, fuel, veneers, lasts, plywood, spools and toothpicks [10]. Paper birch is well known as the type of wood that Native Americans used to make canoes [37,48]. Sweet birch may be coppiced on a cycle of five years or more [56]. Birch bark is waterproof [15]. Birches encourage good fermentation, so it is beneficial to plant them around compost and manure piles [46]. It is hypothesized that this is because of substances that birch roots excrete [46]. Also, adding birch leaves to compost will help it to relieve exhausted soils [46]. Flexible young birch branches can be used in thatching [15] and paper birch bark can be used to make baskets [37]. Gray and paper birch are common pioneer species, so they are very good at re-colonizing deforested lands. Also, paper birch has an extensive root system and thus can be used to control erosion along banks [56].

Cultivation Details
Sweet, river and yellow birch are trees that would be well planted in wet areas like marshes or bogs [38]. On the other hand, some sources claim that they dislike wet soils
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[56]. Yellow and paper birch will tolerate partially shaded conditions [10]. Birches succeed in well-drained loamy soils [56]. At the age of ten years, paper birch can be expected to reach a height of six meters [10]. In winter a leafless birch canopy casts fifty percent shade [32]. Most birches hybridize freely with other members in their genus [56]. Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Brassica nigra
Common name: Black Mustard Family: Brassicaceae Range: European native [14,23,29,44]; Widespread throughout the United States [13,14] Habitat: Fields, yards, disturbed sites [13,14,44] Hardiness: 3-8 [13] Other Common Names: Wild Mustard [13] Primary Uses: Cover Crop, Dynamic Accumulator, Edible – leaves, seeds, buds, flowers and stalks, Condiment, Intercrop, Livestock Fodder, Compost Material

Physical Characteristics
Black mustard is a medium to large annual herb growing up to six feet high [2,14,29]. Plant stems are erect and the lower portions are pubescent (hairy) [1,14]. Leaves are alternate, stalked, between three and seven inches long and usually broadest above or near the middle [14]. The lower leaves are lobed, while upper leaves are narrower and wavy and dentate (toothed) [1,2,14]. Plants produce a few flowers in narrow, elongated loose clusters [14]. They are stalked and have four yellow petals [13,14,29]. Flowers are present from March until May [13]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and
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female organs) and are pollinated by flies [56]. Fruits are narrow linear capsules that are upright and beaked [13,14,23]. They split open lengthwise, releasing tiny seeds [1,14].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Buds, Flowers, Stalks, Seeds, Mustard, Oil All parts of the black mustard plant are edible [1,44]. Black mustard leaves can be harvested in very early spring [14,17,44]. Leaves emerging later in the season can be blanched by covering with leaves or a flowerpot for about two weeks [14]. Buds and flowers can be picked until nearly all of the flowers have opened [1,14,17,44]. The buds can be eaten like broccoli [4,17,44]. Young or blanched leaves can be eaten raw in salads [1,14,17,29]. Older greens should be boiled for about thirty minutes with one change of water [2,4,14,17,44]. If you plan to boil the greens you will need a large quantity, as they tend to lose quite a bit of volume when cooked [2,4,17]. The flowers can also be used to make a broccoli-like dish [1,2,4,17]. They will boil up quickly in salted water, and should be brought to a rapid boil and then let stand, covered for five minutes away from the heat [1]. Mustard stalks and stems can be added to salads and stews or eaten raw [44]. Inch-long segments can be cooked and served like green beans [44]. Stems can be used when they readily snap between the fingers, whereas those that only bend without breaking have already grown too old and fibrous [44]. Seeds may be harvested during the summer when the oldest pods open [14,17]. Lay them out on a cloth or plastic tarp, drying them in the sun for several days [4,14,17]. Beat the pods to release the seeds, remove the stalks and winnow the seed from the chaff [14,17]. Black mustard seeds can be sprinkled on salad or used to make mustard [1,2,4,13,14,17,23,29]. To do so, grind them in a food mill [4,14,17,35]. To make a mustard spread, combine equal parts of mustard powder and oven-browned flour with a half-and-half mixture of vinegar and water [1,2,14,17,35]. An edible oil can also be obtained from the seeds [56]. One hundred grams of mustard greens contain 23 calories, 2.2g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 138mg of calcium, 32mg of phosphorus, 1.8mg of iron, 18mg of sodium, 220mg of potassium, 5800 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.8mg of thiamine, 0.14mg of riboflavin, 0.6mg of niacin and 48mg of vitamin C [2,44,49].

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Medicinal Uses
Decongestant, Sore Muscle Treatment, Headache Remedy, Digestive Aid Mustard seeds can be used as a decongestant [1,17,44]. To prepare the mixture, add ground mustard seeds to an equal quantity of ordinary flour, stirring in enough tepid water to make a paste [1,44]. Sandwich this mixture between two cloths and tape it into position while still warm and wet [1,44]. Leave it on the chest for twenty minutes or until the recipient can no longer handle the increasing warmth [1,17,44]. Care should be taken though, to ensure that this plaster does not burn the skin [4]. This same mixture can be used as a remedy for sore muscles and aching backs [17,37,44]. A poultice of leaves can be applied for headaches [37]. Mustard powder can be used for a number of medicinal applications [4]. A small palmful added to a pan of warm water can be used as a foot bath [4]. Twice as much added to a bath will help to bring down a fever [4]. A tea made from mustard greens can be used to aid in digestion [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Cover Crop, Intercrop, Soap, Livestock Fodder, Dynamic Accumulators, Compost Material, Indicator Plant Mustard plants are often grown as cover crops because of their deep tap roots [32,48,54]. Also, as a green manure crop, they grow quickly and produce enough vegetative matter to be dug into the soil in about eight weeks [56]. Plants may be grown as fast-growing intercrops [32]. The oil that can be obtained from the seeds may also be used as a lubricant and to make soap [56]. They may also be grown to provide grazing material for cattle and fodder for poultry [48,54]. The mustards are dynamic accumulators of sulfur and phosphorus [32]. Nitrogen comprises 1.5% of the total weight of mustard plants [32]. Their vegetative matter is a good addition to compost piles. They have a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 26:1 [32]. The presence of mustard in an area indicates acidic, hardpan soils [32].

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Cultivation Details
Black mustard does best in full sun and well-drained fertile soils [56]. It also prefers soils that are alkaline, though plants will succeed in any reasonable soil [56]. They will tolerate a pH in the range of 4.2 to 7.8 [56]. Because plants are not very winter hardy, they are best sown from early spring until late summer to obtain a succession of crops [56]. If growing plants for seed, they should be sown in April [56].

Known Hazards
Black mustard has been found to deplete the soil of nutrients [46]. Thus, if grown, its position should be most certainly rotated each year. When eaten in large quantities by grazing animals, the seeds and pods have sometimes become toxic [56].

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Caltha palustris
Common name: Marsh Marigold Family: Ranunculaceae Range: North American native [2,16]; Widely distributed throughout northern North America [2,14,16] Habitat: Freshwater swamps, wet meadows, along streams, ponds, lakes [14,22] Hardiness: 3 [56] Other Common Names: Cowslip [2,14,16,22,25], Meadow Bright [25] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Edible – leaves, buds and root, Ground Cover, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Marsh marigold is a perennial herb that grows to a height of about two and a half feet [14]. The smooth, hollow stems are partially spreading to upright [2,14]. Basal leaves have long stalks and rounded to kidney-shaped [2,14,16]. They have an entire to repand (wavy) margin and are cordate (heart-shaped) at the base [2,14]. Stem leaves are smaller and do not have stalks [14]. Flowers are large, about one and a half inches wide and have five bright yellow petal-like sepals [2,14]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, beetles and flies [56]. Fruits are rounded, elongated and split open along one side, releasing small seeds upon maturity [14].
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History
Marsh marigold has long been one of the most popular spring greens in New England [16], and as early as 1784, the Massachusetts botanist Manasseh Cutler spoke of it as an esteemed potherb [16].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Buds, Pickle, Root The leaves can be cut from the plant when young [14,22,38]. It is best to do so before the flowers have opened [14]. Also, tightly closed buds can be harvested for pickling [14,16,38]. Wash the leaves and cover them with boiling water [2,14,16]. Reheat the water to boiling and drain, repeating this process two or three times [2,14]. Finally, cook them in very little water until they have become tender [2,14]. To make a pickle with the buds, cover them with boiling water, but do not bring the water back to a boil [14]. Drain and repeat the process described for the leaves [14]. Finally, drain the water, pack the buds in jars and cover them with a hot pickling liquid before sealing [14]. They should be stored for at least a month before eating [14]. The pickling liquid is made by slowly adding ¼ cup of salt, ½ cup of sugar, one tablespoon of ground mustard and one tablespoon of celery seed to two cups of vinegar and one cup of water and boiling the mixture for ten minutes while stirring [14]. Also, well-cooked roots can be eaten but they should not be consumed raw [56].

Medicinal Uses
Rheumatism, Diaphoretic, Emetic, Expectorant, Cold Remedy, Poultice, Diuretic, Laxative The root is antirheumatic, diaphoretic, emetic and expectorant [56]. A decoction can be used to treat colds [56]. A poultice of the boiled and mashed roots of this plant were applied to sores by the Chippewa Indians [37]. A compound decoction of the leaves and stalks can be taken as a diuretic [37]. An infusion of the leaves can be used as a laxative [37].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Wetland Plant, Ground Cover, Dye Marsh marigold is a wonderful plant to include along wetlands [38]. Plants can be grown as a ground cover [56]. As such, they should be spaced about eighteen inches on all sides [56]. The flowers can serve as the source of a yellow dye [56].

Cultivation Details
Marsh marigold requires wet soils and will tolerate water up to six inches deep [56]. Plants prefer sunny positions, but if placed in shady areas, they can also tolerate drier soils [56]. It has an affinity for soils that are slightly alkaline and will also grow well in heavy clays [56]. Marsh marigold will tolerate a pH range of 4.8 to 7.5 [56]. Plants can easily be transplanted and brought inside while in bloom to brighten the house with their beautiful flowers [22]. Marsh marigold is heavy feeder, absorbing large quantities of nutrients and will inhibit the growth of other nearby plants, especially legumes [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed or by division in early spring or autumn [56].

Known Hazards
Caution!!: Raw leaves and buds are poisonous, containing a toxic substance called helleborin [2,14,16,22,37]. They should not be eaten until they have been treated properly [2,14,16,22].

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Capsella bursa-pastoris
Common name: Shepherd’s Purse Family: Cruciferae Range: European native [2,5,14]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,13,14] Habitat: Yards, vacant lots, roadsides, disturbed areas [1,13,14] Hardiness: 4-8 [13] Other Common Names: Lady’s Purse [2,22], Pepper and Salt [2,22], Pickpocket [2,16], Mother’s Heart [2,25] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, seed pods, seeds, sprouts and roots, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop, Insecticide, Medicine, Condiment

Physical Characteristics
Shepherd’s purse is a small to medium sized annual or biennial herb that grows to a maximum height of two feet [14,44]. Its stem is either unbranched or sparingly branched and has a few small, narrow leaves [14]. Shepherd’s purse is formed by a flattened basal rosette of leaves [1,2,13,14,44]. Individual leaves are between two and five inches long and lobed along the sides [13,14]. Leaves that grow high on the flower stalks are shaped like arrowheads, sessile (attached directly to the stem) and toothed along the margin [44].
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Flowers are produced in narrow elongated clusters (to twelve inches), and each one has four small white petals in the typical configuration of most flowers in the mustard family [13,14,44]. Shepherd’s purse commonly flowers in early spring and dies back in late summer [13,44]. Fruits are green, slightly flattened, long stalked and heart shaped and contain about six small seeds in each half [1,13,14].

History
Shepherd’s purse is an essential condiment in the barley-rice gruel that the Japanese consume as a ceremonial dish on January 7th [13]. Shepherd’s purse was once commonly brought to the markets in Philadelphia in large quantities in the spring [16].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Seed Pods, Condiment, Seeds, Flour, Sprouts, Roots, Tea Shepherd’s purse leaves should be harvested before the plant has reached the flowering stage in late winter and early spring [14,43]. They have a spicy, peppery taste [1,13,22]. Leaves can be eaten raw as salad greens or boiled for about twenty minutes with one change of water if desired [1,2,14,37]. Depending on the age of the leaves, one or two changes of water may be necessary before eating them. If the leaves are too peppery, the growing plants can be blanched by covering them with sawdust, leaves, paper bags or flower pots for a week or more [1,14,16]. The plant’s seedpods can be stripped off as they ripen in summer and autumn [14,43]. Once dry, the pods and seeds can be used as a seasoning or a pepper-substitute in soups and stews [1,4,5,13,14,15]. The seeds may also be eaten raw [44]. Native Americans ground this plant’s tiny seeds into flour [2,13,37,44]. This would be a very labor-intensive process though, with little flour to actually use in the end. For those who are interested in utilizing the seeds of this plant, it may be far more productive to use them for sprouts [13]. Also, burning the plant in an enclosed container will produce a grey ash that can be used as a salt substitute [13]. Fresh or dried shepherd’s purse roots can be used as a ginger substitute [13,15]. A tea can be made from the leaves [1]. One hundred grams of shepherd’s purse greens contain 33 calories, 4.2g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 208mg of calcium, 86mg of phosphorus, 4.8mg of iron, 394mg of potassium, 1554

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I.U. of vitamin A, 0.25mg of thiamine, 0.17mg of riboflavin, 0.4mg of niacin and 36mg of vitamin C [44,49].

Medicinal Uses
Blood Coagulant, Diuretic, Astringent, Antiscorbutic, Haemostatic, Kidney Stimulant, Dysentery, Diarrhea Remedy Shepherd’s purse can be taken internally or applied externally to stop or slow internal or external bleeding [4,5,44]. It is a diuretic, astringent, antiscorbutic and a haemostatic [5,22,44]. A tea can made from shepherd’s purse that will help to stimulate the kidneys [1]. The leaves can be used to make a tea to treat dysentery and diarrhea [37,44].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Insecticide, Indicator Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop, Bird Feed/Forage When placed in water, the seeds of shepherd’s purse attract mosquitoes [15]. It contains a gummy substance that effectively binds the insect’s mouth to the seed, while also releasing a substance that is toxic to the larvae [15]. It is said that half a kilo (about one pound) of shepherd’s purse seed is enough to kill ten million larvae [15]. The presence of shepherd’s purse on a site indicates sandy soils that have a high salt content [32]. Shepherd’s purse will absorb salt from soils and thus, it can be grown on salty or marshy land to reclaim it [15]. The plant is also a dynamic accumulator of sodium, sulfur and calcium [32]. When interplanted with members of the brassica family, shepherd’s purse has been found to reduce flea beetle populations [32]. Also, when grown as an intercrop amongst corn, shepherd’s purse effectively reduced black cutworm populations [32]. Birds are drawn to the seeds of shepherd’s purse [5,15]. A mixture of shepherd’s purse and wild goosefoot seeds can be used as feed for most caged birds [22,44].

Cultivation Details
Shepherd’s purse will tolerate all soil types. The greens of this plant vary in size and succulence in relation to the richness of the soil in which they are grown [1,16,22].

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It reportedly responds well to cultivation, giving reasonable yields [15]. Shepherd’s purse dies back in late summer, but new seedlings generally emerge in the fall [13,44]. About 64,000 seeds are produced by a single mature plant in a season [44].

Known Hazards
As a member of the cabbage family, shepherd’s purse is a host for many diseases that effect the brassicas [56].

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Carya ovata
Common name: Shagbark Hickory Family: Juglandaceae Range: North American native [33]; Widespread throughout the northeast and midwest Habitat: Rich woods, well drained bottomlands, dry upland slopes [14,33,56] Hardiness: 3-8 [13] Other Common Names: Shellbark Hickory [2,17] (though it is actually a different species of hickory), Little Shellbark Hickory [10] Primary Uses: Timber, Firewood, Charcoal, Edible – nuts, oil, sap and syrup, Windbreak, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Shagbark hickory is a medium to tall tree reaching a height of 120 ft [13,14,29,43]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, pinnately compound with five to seven ovate, finely serrate leaflets [1,13,14,17,33]. These leaflets are between eight and fourteen inches long and are broadest near the middle or tip [14]. Shagbark has large, globose terminal buds that appear to have shed the outer scales. In spring, elongated hairy male catkins emerge below the leaves while the stouter female spikes are found above them [33]. Flowers emerge in spring (April to May) as the leaves unfold [13,14]. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are male or female, but both sexes exist on the same

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plant) and they are wind pollinated [56]. Fruit matures in autumn and is rounded with a hard shell covering the oily, edible ribbed seed [14,33]. The fruit’s husk is hard and splits lengthwise into four [2,3,14,17,33]. The bark is probably the most diagnostic trait of the shagbark hickory, characterized by long, gray shaggy vertical plates [13,14,17].

History
Hickory nuts once served as a staple winter food for Native American tribes such as the Dakota, Omaha, Pawnee and Winnebago [13]. American settlers not only ate hickory nuts but also tapped the tree’s sap in the spring for syrup and sugar [1,2].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Oil, Sap, Syrup Gather shagbark nuts in early autumn when they begin to fall with the leaves [14]. The optimal collection is from mid-October to mid-November [43]. They can be stored for up to two years in a cold cellar [56]. The nuts can be cracked with a stone or hammer, and the meats removed with a nutpick [1,14,17]. Once separated, place the nutmeats in a pot, cover them with water and bring it to a boil [14]. This way, most of the meats will rise and can be skimmed off and separated from the husk [14]. Nuts may be eaten raw or used in recipes, which is very common [17]. Individual trees produce a heavy nut crop usually every other year [33]. Shagbark hickory reportedly produces the tastiest nuts in the hickory family [33]. Some even consider them to be the finest wild nuts in the United States [33]. As hickory nuts are a favorite food of squirrels and other animals, they will quickly disappear, so they should be harvested immediately upon falling [43]. Hickory oil and broth is one valuable product that can be processed from the nuts of the shagbark. This preparation method has long been used by Native Americans. About two cups of nuts will yield two tablespoons of oil. Begin by crushing washed, husked nuts and adding them to an equal quantity of boiling water, leaving them to boil slowly for two to three hours. The shells will sink to the bottom and the nutmeats will float. Gradually the nut oil will rise to the surface. Continually add water to make sure that it is above the surface of the nutmeats. Skim off the oil and refrigerate it. It can be used like butter or served with vegetables. Then, once you have extracted most of the oil, you can use the nutmeats to make broth. Add boiling water to the nutmeat shell mixture, stir it and cook for about twenty minutes or until the broth has turned brown and has a nut-like flavor. Pour the liquid into a storage container. Repeat this several times and finally skim the nutmeats off and add them to the broth. This broth may be eaten hot as is or used to make soup. [14,17,33] The sap of the shagbark hickory is sweet, and it can be tapped in spring and made into a syrup [56].

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Hickory nuts are very nutritious. One hundred grams contain 673 calories, 13.2g of protein, 68.7g of fat, 360mg of phosphorus and 2.4mg of iron [2,49].

Medicinal Uses
Headache Remedy, Arthritis Remedy Chippewa Indians steamed the fresh, small shoots as an inhalant for headaches [37,56]. The Iroquois applied a decoction of the bark as a poultice for arthritis [37,56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Timber, Firewood, Charcoal, Windbreak, Soap, Syrup, Dye, Livestock Fodder Hickory is widely recognized for the special nature of its wood [5,48]. It is incredibly durable [5,24]. The grain of shagbark wood is coarse and straight [10]. The wood is redbrown in color, very strong, heavy, very hard, has good shock absorbency and is easy to bend [10]. It is commonly used for tool handles, basketry, agricultural implements and wagon construction [10,39,48]. Because of its strength and flexibility, Native Americans used hickory to make hunting bows and arrows [6,37]. Shagbark wood weighs 52 pounds per cubic foot [56]. Hickory is one of the best known firewoods [10,13,32]. Scientific examinations have found that a cord of hickory is nearly equivalent in energy value to a ton of hard coal [5]. Hickory wood makes an excellent charcoal [39,41,56].Also, the value of green hickory wood for smoking hams and bacons is quite well known [5,39,41]. Shagbark hickory can be planted as a windbreak [32]. The Dakota Indians used shagbark nuts to make soap [37]. Both the Dakota tribe and early American settlers tapped the tree’s sap and used it to make sugar and syrup [37]. The bark of the shagbark was used by Native Americans for plaiting baskets [6]. A yellow dye can be made from the inner bark [13,56]. Inferior nuts can be used as pig forage (and for chickens if cracked and soaked first) [41].

Cultivation Details
Shagbark hickory prefers deep, moist soils and full sun [10]. In fact, it won’t grow in shade [56]. It is an upland species and will grow on poor soils, though it will do much

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better on rich soils [39]. Some claim that the quality of the nut is dependent on the type of soil in which it is grown. Shagbark hickory is generally slow growing, spending the first few years of its life doing little but driving an enormous taproot deep into the soil [24]. At ten years of age, shagbarks reach about six meters in height [10]. Hickories are long-lived and may reach 250 years in age [2]. If started from seed, hickories will take at least ten to fifteen years before yielding [39,56]. Though trees are self fertile, larger crops of better quality seeds will be produced if crosspollination takes place [56]. Thus, it may be a good idea to plant several species [39,41]. When open grown, shagbarks will form upright, cylindrical crowns [39]. Shagbarks generally grow quickly in spring, ending with the formation of a terminal bud in about six weeks [50]. After this, nothing will make the tree grow again until the next year [50]. Shagbark is highly resistant to disease and pests, though it is quite susceptible to fire [43]. Dry hickory nuts weigh about 4.1g, which means that there are about 100 nuts to the pound [43]. Seedlings have long taproots which makes them difficult to transplant [39]. Shagbark seed requires a period of cold stratification [56]. It is best sown in a cold frame upon ripening [56]. Stored seed should be kept moist (but not wet) before sowing [56]. Generally, only sow one or two seeds in each deep pot, thinning them to keep the best one [56]. They should be put in their permanent positions as soon as possible, which preferably should be their first summer [56]. They should be given some protection from the cold during their first winter [56]. Seeds can also be sown in situ, but be sure to give them protection both from mice and from the cold [56]. There are several varieties of grafted shagbark hickories that can be purchased [50]. These will generally bear nuts much sooner than hickories started from seed [39,50]. A number of shagbark cultivars are listed on the Plants for a Future website (www.pfaf.org/) with general information about each of them. Also, to help enhance both their growth and their nut production, it is recommended that you feed the trees quite well [50].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Castanea dentata
Common name: Chestnut Family: Fagaceae Range: North American native [10]; Widespread throughout the eastern United States [13] Habitat: Sterile soils [16], dry, gravelly or rocky, mostly acidic soils [56] Hardiness: 3-7 [13] Other Common Names: American Chestnut [10] Primary Uses: Edible – nuts and oil, Flour, Timber, Coppice Material, Tannin, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Chestnut is a deciduous shrub or a small tree that may reach heights of one hundred feet [10,13,29]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, between two and ten inches long, narrowly ovate (egg-shaped), serrate (toothed) and have prominent lateral veins [13,29]. Female flowers appear in cone like structures below the elongate catkins of the male flowers after the leaves have developed [13]. Flowers are monoecious (individual
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flowers are male or female though both sexes are found on the same plant) and pollinated by insects [56]. The female flowers then develop into a spiny bur that contains two to three shiny, brown edible nuts [13,29]. The Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) generally has a similar physique, though it is much smaller than the American chestnut [58].

History
Chestnut orchards have been widespread in Corsica since they were introduced by Roman soldiers in the second century A.D. [50]. In Europe and Asia, chestnuts have been an important source of bread for centuries [16].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Flour, Coffee, Chocolate, Sugar, Oil Gather the nuts as they ripen in late summer or early autumn [14]. Separate the nuts from the burs and store them whole or shell, blanch and dry them [14]. To shell and blanch them, cover the nuts with boiling water until the shell and skin can be removed easily [14]. Then place the nutmeats in a shady position for about a week until they have become dry and shriveled [14]. Dried and shelled or unshelled nuts can be stored in a porous bag in a dry place [14]. Before using stored nuts, soak them in water for a half hour [14]. Nuts can be eaten alone by slitting the shells and roasting them in a hot oven or over coals [14,35]. Chestnuts may also be used as a supplement to countless dishes [35]. Nuts may also be roasted, ground and made into flour [23,24,50]. A coffee-like beverage can be made from the roasted nuts [13,14]. Begin by chopping freshly shelled nuts, spread them out on foil and roast them at 375°F until they have grown dark and dry. Finally, grind the nuts into a powder and add one ounce of powder to each cup of water, boiling for fifteen minutes. [14]. There are also reports of making a chocolate-like food from chestnuts [56]. The French extract sugar from chestnuts [16]. They yield 14% sugar [16]. An edible oil can also be extracted from the chestnut by boiling them in water and skimming off the oil as it comes to the surface [42,56]. One hundred grams of chestnuts contain 194 calories, 2.9g of protein, 1.5g of fat, 27mg of calcium, 88mg of phosphorus, 17mg of iron, 6mg of sodium, 454mg of potassium, 0.22mg of thiamine, 0.22mg of riboflavin and 0.6m of niacin [49].

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Medicinal Uses
Cough Remedy, Poultice Cherokee used chestnut leaves (which are rich in tannins) as a cough syrup, also applying them to cuts and wounds [13,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Tannins, Dye, Timber, Coppice Material, Livestock Fodder Chestnut trees are a common and valuable source of tannins [34]. The bark can be used to tan and dye leather [13,48]. Chestnut bark can be used to produce a brown dye [37]. American chestnut trees may be used as a source of timber. The wood is grey-brown and the grain is coarse and straight [10]. Seasoned timber, is weak, durable, average in heaviness and very brittle [10]. It is also rot resistant [15]. This wood weighs 28 pounds per cubic foot [56]. It is commonly used for joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinetwork, paper pulp, fuel and crates or boxes [10]. Unfortunately, I do not believe that the Chinese chestnut is grown as a timber tree. If cut, chestnut trees will sucker, so they can be grown and harvested for coppice material [15,50,57]. Chestnuts are wonderful high-grade fodder for livestock, especially pigs [23,41,50].

Cultivation Details
Chestnut trees prefer moist soils that have a pH that is acidic to neutral, but they don’t like wet feet [10,57]. They do best in full sun but will tolerate partial shade [10]. Once established, chestnuts are fairly drought resistant [32,57]. They are very tolerant of highly, acidic, infertile dry sands [56]. Chestnuts have a chill requirement of between four hundred and seven hundred and fifty hours [32]. Grafted chestnut trees will usually begin to bear within two or three years while seedlings may take five to seven years [57]. To ensure pollination, you must plant two varieties, two seedlings or one of each [32,41,57]. Different chestnut species will readily cross with each other [57]. Mature chestnut trees can produce from one to four hundred pounds of nuts or more in a season [32,57].

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If chestnut nut worms are a problem, plant the trees in a chicken yard, so that they can feast on the worms, while freeing your nuts from these annoying pests [50]. For maximum long-term production, chestnuts should be planted at a spacing of forty feet or more, though nut production will be greatly augmented if they are initially planted at twenty-foot spacings [57]. Chestnuts are excellent trees to plant in pine woodlands, as their leaf fall helps to counteract the acid-forming tendency of the pine needles [15]. Unfortunately, because of the prevalence of chestnut blight, it is recommended that chestnut trees with European and American parentage not be planted east of the Rocky Mountains as they may not be resistant to this disease [57]. On the other hand, most Chinese varieties are resistant to the blight, so they may be cultivated here in the eastern United States [32,41]. Thus, it may seem strange as to why I chose to include a tree species in this directory that will most likely be unable to grow in this region. There are a few reasons for this decision. Firstly, chestnut trees are a part of our heritage here in New England, as they were once cultivated throughout the region. Though some specimens may still be alive, most of them have fallen subject to the chestnut blight, but there have been reports of some trees that seem to have become at least temporarily resistant. Nonetheless, Chinese chestnut varieties are easily available and will fulfill many of the same functions as the American chestnut. And, if perhaps there is an American chestnut tree that you are aware of that is still thriving despite the blight, it will most certainly fulfill the many uses that have been discussed here. There are a few known American chestnut varieties that have exhibited some resistance to blight. ‘Kelly’ is one variety that produces small to medium-size nuts that possess a good flavor [56]. It is vigorous and upright and is the variety that has shown the most resistance to the chestnut blight [56]. ‘Essex’ is another variety that was selected from the wild because it exhibited good resistance to blight [56]. Hardy and productive, this variety produces a small nut with a very good flavor and good kernel filling [56]. So, to once again reiterate what I stated earlier, there are cultivars available that have been found to be resistant to the blight, most of them being of Chinese parentage. ‘Skioka’ is a Chinese variety that is winter hardy and grows to about fifty feet in height [57]. It is a heavy producer of large sweet nuts and is believed to be resistant to the blight [57]. ‘Layeroka’ is a blight resistant variety [57]. It is a hybrid of Chinese and European parentage, and retains the timber quality and nut size and productivity traits of its European parent [57]. Chinese chestnuts (Castanea mollissima) are also available that are resistant to chestnut blight and grow to thirty-five feet tall [57]. They produce a large quantity of sweet nuts [57].

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Known Hazards
The chestnut blight is a fungus that gets through the bark, lives in the cambium, spreads concentrically and kills it [50]. It was first spread in 1904 from the Brooklyn Botanical Garden and had devastated countless commercial orchards in a matter of years [50].

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Celtis occidentalis
Common name: Hackberry Family: Ulmaceae Range: North American native [2]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States [2] Habitat: Stream banks, rich moist soil [22], rocky hillsides, hardwood forests [2,16] Hardiness: 2 [10] Other Common Names: Nettle Tree [2,16], Honeyberry [2], Hoop Ash [2], Hacktree [2], Sugarberry [10,16,22], Beaverwood [10] Primary Uses: Windbreak, Fire Resistant, Timber, Edible Berries, Wildlife Forage, Chicken Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Hackberry is a shrub or small tree that grows to a height of twenty to one hundred feet [2]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, long-pointed, and have a smooth or serrate (toothed) margin [2,16]. Hackberry buds are triangular in shape when looked at from overhead and also appear to be seated on a raised ‘bench’ that emerges from the twig. The pith inside the twig is chambered (alternating segments of pith and no pith) which is very diagnostic [2]. Hackberry bark is grey, rough and is marked by warty bumps and ridges that look like splattered concrete [2,16]. Flowers emerge in April and May and are small and green [2]. They are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are

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pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are edible drupes that contain a single large seed [16,43]. As they ripen they change from green to orange-brown to purple [22,31].

History
Homer explained that the pulp of the hackberry was so delectable that the ancients who ate them forgot their native countries [16,31]. Because it is very impractical to strip the fleshy portion of the fruit from the seeds, Native Americans generally ground the entire fruit, consuming all of the paste or powder [31,43].

Edible Uses
Berries, Condiment, Seed Kernel Hackberries can be harvested in late autumn from October to November, though they often persist on the trees until mid-January or even March [2,16,43]. The berries actually sweeten with cold weather [2]. Berries are best harvested by picking or by shaking the tree and collecting the fruits on drop cloths placed underneath them [2,43]. The texture and flavor of the berries is said to be quite suggestive of that of dates [2,16]. They can be eaten fresh or used for making jellies, preserves, etc. [56]. Dried hackberries were pounded into a condiment that was used to season cooked meat by the Dakota Indians [37]. The white kernel inside the hard outer seed shell is soft and sweet and has a taste that is similar to the outer pulp [16].

Medicinal Uses
Sore Throat Remedy, VD A decoction of hackberry bark can be taken for sore throats [37,56]. When this decoction is combined with powdered shells it has been used to treat VD [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage, Dye, Fire Resistant, Windbreak, Wet Sites, Chicken Fodder, Timber Hackberries provide forage for wildlife, especially birds [2,32,38]. A dye can be obtained from the roots [56].

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As hackberry has a low fire potential, it would be a good addition to plantings in a protective fire belt [58]. This tree is quite wind hardy and could be a valuable inclusion to a system as an edible windbreak [32]. They are good trees to be planted along swamp, bog or dam edges [38]. The berries from this tree would provide good fodder for a chicken forage system [58]. Hackberry can be grown and harvested for timber. Its wood is coarse grained and light yellow in color [10]. Seasoned timber is weak and average in heaviness [10]. It weighs 45 pounds per cubic foot [56]. Its most common applications are for fencing and posts, furniture and cabinetwork, veneer, fuel and agricultural implements [10].

Cultivation Details
Though hackberry does best in rich soils, it can be grown almost anywhere [22]. In poor soils, trees will not attain the stature of an idealized tree [22]. They will tolerate alkaline soils [56]. Plants prefer positions exposed to full sun and cannot grow in the shade [10,56]. They are resistant to drought once established [22]. Trees are also wind resistant [56]. Hackberry is easily transplanted [56]. Plants are fast growing and can be incredibly long lived [56]. Plants in this genus are resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) [56]. Hackberry can be propagated by cuttings or by seed [56]. Seed can be stored for up to five years [56]. It is best sown once it is ripe in a cold frame after having been given two to three months of cold stratification [56]. Stored seed may take up to twelve months or more to germinate [56]. Once they are big enough to handle, seedlings can be potted out individually and grown in a cold frame for their first winter [56]. In late spring or early summer of the next year they can be planted out and should be given some protection from the cold for the first winter [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Chamaemelum nobile
Common name: Garden Chamomile Family: Compositae Range: Eurasian native [48]; Cultivated throughout the United States Habitat: Grassy areas [35], pastures, roadsides, sandy commons [56] Hardiness: 4 [9] Other Common Names: Common Chamomile [35], Garden Dogfennel [37] Primary Uses: Medicine, Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Companion Plant, Fertilizer, Fungicide, Compost Material, Tea, Insect Repellent, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Oil

Physical Characteristics
Chamomile is a spreading, perennial evergreen herb that grows to a height of about eight inches and a spread of about a foot [9,15]. Leaves are feathery [9,35]. Flowers are daisylike and present from June to July [9,35,56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, flies and beetles [56]. Plants are said to possess a sweet apple scent that is very diagnostic [35].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Flowers, Tea, Condiment, Beer, Oil, Liqueur Flower heads can be used to make tea [9,23]. They should be gathered once the petals have just begun to turn down, and they can be used either fresh or dried [35]. The entire plant can be used as a flavoring and also in beer making [9,15,23]. An essential oil that can be derived from chamomile is used for flavoring liqueurs [9,23]. Chamomile is a source of calcium and potassium [22].

Medicinal Uses
Anti-Inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Nervine, Tonic, Stimulant, Digestive Aid Flowers are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, nervine, stomachic, and vasodilatory [56]. An infusion of dried chamomile flowers can be taken as a tonic and a stimulant [48]. Chamomile tea is also a soothing digestive aid [22,23].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Fertilizer, Companion Plant, Compost Material, Indicator Plant, Fungicide, Shampoo, Oil, Perfumery, Insect Repellent, Dye, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Bee Forage Chamomile can be planted as a ground cover [9,15,23,35]. It is a dynamic accumulator of calcium, potassium and phosphorus [9,32,54]. An infusion of the flowers can be sprayed on ailing plants as a liquid feed and general tonic [15]. Chamomile is an excellent companion plant and appears to have a beneficial effect on other nearby plants [15]. The flowers of this plant are an ingredient of ‘Quick Return’ herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) [15]. When found already growing in an area, chamomile is indicative of soils that are hardpan or crusty and acidic [32].

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An infusion of the flowers is fungicidal [9]. Also, this infusion can be used as a hair shampoo [9]. The essential oil of this plant is used in perfumery [9,15]. Chamomile is an insect repellent both while growing and when dry [15]. Flowers can serve as the source of yellow and gold dyes [9]. Plants attract beneficial insects [15]. Chamomile provides bees with forage [9].

Cultivation Details
Chamomile is tolerant of most soil types though it has a particular affinity for alkaline soils [9,56]. Plants also prefer dry conditions [9,56]. Though chamomile prefers full sun, it is tolerant of partial shade [9,56]. Plants will tolerate a pH range of 6.8 to 8 [56]. When planting chamomile as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced sixteen inches apart [9]. They will vigorously spread at a moderate pace and develop a moderate cover [9]. As a ground cover, chamomile is quite hardy. It can be mown like grass and will continue to flower [9,15]. Chamomile can be propagated by seed, division and basal cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Cichorium intybus
Common name: Chicory Family: Compositae Range: Eurasian native [33]; widespread throughout the United States [13,14,33] Habitat: Roadsides, waste areas, fields, [13,14,33] vacant lots, disturbed sites [14] Hardiness: 3-8 [7,13] Other Common Names: Wild Endive [33], Succory [1,2,7,13,33,44], Witloof [2,7,33], Blue Sailors [2,7,17], Ragged Sailors [2,17,44], Blue Dandelion [2,44], Blue Daisy [2] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, flowers and roots, Dynamic Accumulator, Cover Crop, Biomass, Pioneer, Compost Ingredient, Livestock Fodder, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Chicory is a perennial [13,14,33] that grows up to five feet high [1,13,14,29]. It has elongated basal leaves that emerge in a rosette from a deep taproot [1,13,14,33]. The basal leaves resemble those of the dandelion [2,14,17], but they are generally thicker and tomentose (covered with many small white hairs) and exude a white milk if broken [13,33]. They are lance shaped, broadest above the middle and between four and thirteen

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inches long [14]. Leaves are toothed and often have lobed margins [14]. Stem leaves are alternate, and they grow smaller up the stem [13]. When cut, the stem exudes a white milky sap [2,44]. In the second year, the erect, twig-like branching flower stem appears and grows to about three feet [17,33]. The flower heads (usually blue but sometimes white or pink) [1] appear in the axils of the plant’s small upper leaves and are later followed by the fruits, which are tiny brown or black nutlets [13,14]. The flowers contain both male and female organs and are pollinated by bees [56]. It is also self-fertile [56]. Chicory begins flowering in June and continues on until frost [2,13,35,44]. Individual flower heads usually don’t open until between eight and ten o’clock, and often close for the day at noon on sunny days, [2,13] though on cloudy days they may remain open all day [1,2,13]. Chicory seeds ripen from August to October [56].

History
Chicory has been cultivated for over one thousand years in continental Europe [33]. In fact, it was well known by the Romans [13,33]. There it has been used as a vegetable, a coffee adulterant and for sheep forage [33]. The first settlers who came to the New World brought chicory with them to be used as a food plant and also for its delicate blue flowers [33]. It didn’t take long for chicory to escape from its original garden plantings and eventually grow to become considered a weed [33]. During the American Civil War, chicory coffee was used both in the northern and southern states [33]. Chicory seed was sold for fifteen cents an ounce by B.K. Bliss of Springfield, Massachusetts in 1862, and was advertised for the plant’s roots ability to serve as a coffee substitute and supplement [33].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Roots, Coffee Chicory leaves may be harvested and eaten from the time they emerge in spring until they become too tough to chew [33]. They should be picked as early as possible, as they will only toughen with time [1,14,17]. Leaves should be harvested before the plants have had the chance to flower [1]. The bleached underground portion of the leaf crown can be eaten raw in a salad, [1,14,17] while you should boil the crown bases for about five minutes, serving them with butter and seasonings [1,14,17]. The same should be done with the leaves, but it may be necessary to change the water a few times to remove their bitter taste, especially in the spring [14,44]. Blanching chicory shoots reportedly makes them more palatable [13]. This is done by simply covering them for a few weeks to keep light off [1,13,22]. The variety that is usually cultivated in this way is called Witloof endive [23,29,44]. Blanching can also be done by uprooting a chicory plant, trimming off the large leaves and putting the roots in a box of wet sand or sawdust in a dark cellar [17,44]. It should be mentioned though, that healthwise, chicory leaves are much more nutritious when consumed unblanched [22].
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The blue flowers of the chicory plant can be used in salads, fresh or pickled [13]. Chicory roots may be gathered from autumn until spring [14,33]. Chicory coffee is made from dried and powdered chicory roots [33]. The plant has actually been commonly cultivated to satisfy peoples’ desire for this drink. To make it, harvest several dozen chicory roots and wash them thoroughly in lukewarm water. Then dry them in a moderate oven until they are dark brown and quite brittle (about two hours). Let them cool, break the roots into pieces, crush into a powder and store in a covered jar. To prepare this mixture, simply steep one teaspoon of powdered root in a cup of water for about fifteen minutes. Also, chicory root may be used as an adulterant to ordinary instant coffee, adding a bitter taste to the drink [23]. This may be done by adding 1/3 teaspoon of powdered root to ½ teaspoon of instant coffee and steeping in a cup of water. The resulting drink is described as expresso-like in flavor. [1,2,14,15,17,29,33,34,35,44] Chicory coffee does not contain caffeine [29]. Also, if chicory roots are gathered before the stems have had an opportunity to shoot up, they are edible [22]. Once they have been thoroughly dried, the roots may be ground into a fine meal that can be used to prepare bread or cookies [22]. When collected early, the fresh root reportedly contains 36% insulin [44]. Some claim that the roots can be eaten by boiling, steaming, roasting or cooking in stews – they are just very bitter [15,44]. I’ve not read any other sources that suggest this, but that is not to say that it can’t or shouldn’t be done. Although over 92% water, each 100g serving of raw chicory greens contain 20 calories, 1.8g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 86mg of calcium, 40mg of phosphorus, .9mg of iron, 420mg of potassium, 4000 I.U. of vitamin A, 22mg of vitamin C, .06mg of thiamine, .10mg of riboflavin and .5mg of niacin [2,44,49].

Medicinal Uses
Diuretic, Laxative, Hepatic, Rheumatism Remedy, Skin Irritations, Stomach and Kidney Disorders, Diabetes Herbalists recognize chicory as a diuretic, laxative and hepatic [44]. Chicory tea was a European folk remedy for gout, gravel, hepatomegaly, jaundice and rheumatic complaints [13]. To make the tea, steep one ounce of root in a pint of water [13]. Cherokee Indians used chicory root as a poultice on fever sores [13]. Chicory root may also be steeped as a medicine for stomach and kidney disorders [22].

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The root is a source of the sugar inulin [7]. Inulin is a starch that humans cannot digest and so it usually passes straight through the human digestive system [56]. As such, it may be used to make a suitable sweetener for diabetics [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Bee Forage, Compost Ingredient, Pioneer, Dynamic Accumulator, Indicator Plant, Livestock Fodder, Cover Crop, Biomass, Fuel Blue dyes may be obtained from chicory leaves and flowers [7]. Chicory may also be grown as a bee attractor and for bee forage [7,32,39]. It is also known for attracting wildlife in general [56]. Chicory flowers are an alternative ingredient of Quick Return (‘QR’) herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) [56]. This consists of a dried and powdered mix of several herbs that when added to a compost heap, will speed up bacterial activity and effectively shorten the time needed to make the compost [56]. Chicory’s deep taproot brings up minerals from the deep subsoil [15]. It is also a dynamic accumulator of calcium and potassium [32]. Chicory serves as an indicator plant, and its presence may suggest soil that has been cultivated or tilled, soils high in clay [54], and/or highly fertile soils [32]. Chicory may be grown in pastures as a fodder or herbage crop for cattle [7,44]. It has been found to improve milk quality and quantity [39]. As a forage crop, chicory leaf yields may range from three to six tons per acre and root yields of about five to twelve tons per acre [39]. It may also be grown as a cover crop [32]. As a source of inulin, chicory roots have the potential to be used for commercial production of biomass because inulin can be easily converted to alcohol [15].

Cultivation Details
Chicories are almost completely immune to slugs, so they serve as excellent substitutes for brassicas and lettuces in the garden [24]. Chicory prefers moist, well-drained soils and a pH that is alkaline to neutral, [7] though it can also grow in very acid soils [56]. It tolerates a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.3 [56]. It also prefers full sun though it will tolerate partial shade, [7] but will not grow in deep shade [56]. If grown in a sheltered position, chicory will provide greens through much of the winter [15].

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Chicory would be a good plant to include in meadows, lawns, cultivated beds, next to (south or west) walls [56]. Because it is a perennial, chicory will produce new growth from the roots each year [44]. Thus, you may harvest the greens from a chicory plant year after year and it will continually pop up each spring. Chicory seed that is being grown for its roots should be sown in May or June in situ [56]. Varieties grown for their leaves can be sown in April for a summer crop or in June/July for a winter crop [56]. They may either be sown in situ or in pots and planted out once large enough [56]. When growing chicory as a winter salad, seed will need to be sown each year in spring or early summer [15]. This way the plants will grow without forming a flowering stem and will produce a head of leaves resembling lettuce that can be used in the winter [15]. When harvesting, the leaves should be cut off just above the root because if the weather isn’t too cold, the plant will then make some new growth, supplying a second and even third harvest [15]. Generally, the plants are somewhat reluctant to form a head of leaves in following years, but they will continue to provide some leaves for a few years before gradually dying out [15]. Chicory is an important crop in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Germany [44]. Over the years, many traditionally cultivated varieties of chicory have become available through seed catalogs that are generally far less bitter than their wild counterparts [24]. Many of them also put out fresh leaves during the winter months [24]. To find various chicory varieties, consult available seed companies. An Italian variety of chicory known as ‘Rossadi Treviso’ starts out green in color but eventually transforms itself in autumn into an astounding pyramid of sharply colored, crimson leaves [24]. This variety is very productive and extremely hardy [15]. ‘Grumolo’ is the name of a very hardy chicory variety that stays close to the ground as a tight rosette in the winter, only to form a tall, narrow pagoda in the spring [24].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Corylus spp. (cornuta and americana)
Common name: Beaked/American Hazelnut Family: Betulaceae Range: North American natives [2,33]; Widely distributed throughout the temperate zones of the northern United States [14,29,33] Habitat: Beaked Hazelnut – rich thickets, clearings, forest borders [33], dry or moist woodlands, hills or mountain slopes [14] American Hazelnut – thickets [14,33], widespread, dry to moist woodlands [14,31] Hardiness: 3 Other Common Names: Filbert [22,24,31,33] Primary Uses: Edible – nuts and oil, Hedge, Fiber – basketry, Coppice Material, Wildlife Habitat, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Hazelnuts are large shrubs or small trees that reach a maximum height of up to ten to fifteen feet [14,33]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, ovate with an acuminate (pointy) tip, doubly serrate (toothed), and pubescent (hairy) beneath [1,14,31,33]. Male flowers are borne in long conspicuous catkins in early spring, while the female flowers are less distinct [1,14,33]. Flowers are present from April to May, and they are monoecious

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(individual flowers are male or female, but both sexes are found on the same plant) and wind pollinated [56]. Hazelnut fruit is a brown nut that is borne in a leafy husk [14,33]. American hazelnut’s husk is open and slightly flares towards the end, whereas the husk of the beaked hazelnut forms a narrow, open-ended beak at the nut’s apex [1,14,33]. Beaked hazelnut also has a much softer shell than that of the American hazelnut [1,33]. Nuts mature in late summer or autumn [14].

History
European hazelnut varieties have been cultivated for centuries and were widely gathered by the Mesolithic peoples of Europe [41].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Flour, Oil Hazelnuts can be gathered in early to late September, though they are mature enough in late August [1,33,35,43]. To determine whether or not a nut is ripe, push on it in the husk [57]. If it turns in the husk, it means the nut and the husk have separated and they are as ripe as they will get [57]. It is important that they be harvested upon maturity, as they are a very popular food amongst wild mammals [31,33]. By early December, it will be nearly impossible to find any nuts to harvest [43]. It is a good idea to wear gloves when you gather and husk beaked hazelnuts, because their bristles will easily penetrate unprotected hands [33]. When kept unshelled, in a cool place, hazelnuts can be stored for at least twelve months [56]. Once harvested, remove the husk and shell and eat the nuts as they are, or use them in any recipe that calls for nuts [14]. They can be stored for over a year [57]. Hazelnuts can be ground into meal and used as flour [14,16]. The nuts are rich in an edible oil that can be extracted from them [56]. One hundred grams of American hazelnuts contain 634 calories, 12.6g of protein, 62.4g of fat, 209mg of calcium, 337mg of phosphorus, 3.4mg of iron, 2mg of sodium, 704mg of potassium, 0.46mg of thiamine, 0.9mg of niacin [22, 49].

Medicinal Uses
Astringent, Poultice, Cardiac, Stomachic A tea made from American hazelnut bark is an astringent that was used to treat hives and fevers [56]. A poultice can be made from the bark of the American hazelnut and used to close cuts and wounds and treat tumors and old sores [56].
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An infusion of the branches and leaves of beaked hazelnut has been used to treat heart complaints and intestinal disorders [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Wood Polish, Dye, Wildlife Habitat, Hedges/Screens, Coppice, Fiber – Baskets/Fencing, Livestock Fodder The seed from these shrubs are a source of an edible oil and a wood polish [15]. This shrub can be used to make a dye [37]. Hazelnuts provide valuable cover and nesting sites for birds [2]. Because of their tendency to sucker, hazelnut is a very good plant to use to form hedges or screens [15,57]. Hazelnuts are excellent shrubs to grow in coppiced woodlands [15,41]. They can be cut down every seven to twelve years, and can be used for a range of applications including fencing, basketmaking and small furniture items [15,37]. Hazelnuts are also well planted in pastures, as cattle like to nibble on them [41,46]. It has been found that hazelnut leaves increase the butterfat content of cow’s milk [46]. They also contain tannic acid, which helps to cleanse cows’ digestive systems [46].

Cultivation Details
Hazelnuts thrive in soils that are deep, friable and well drained, though they are widely adaptable [31,56]. They prefer slightly acid soil with a pH of about 6.5 [56]. They also prefer full sun, though they will tolerate partial shade [56]. They may live up to one hundred and fifty years [41]. Hazels are good understory shrubs or trees [41]. Shrubs usually bear nuts at two to three years of age, though some will take up to five to seven years [15,41,56]. Individual trees may give yields of twenty pounds of nuts or more [56]. If hazelnuts are planted as a hedge, they shouldn’t be pruned, as it will significantly stunt their nut production [15]. Plants are self-fertile, [56] but generally, at least two different hazelnut cultivars should be planted a few yards apart to ensure cross-pollination [31].

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Hazelnuts form thickets as they grow, spreading by means of underground rhizomes [50]. Thus, the clump grows on the outsides, while the middle dies out [50]. When planting, single hazelnut shrubs/trees should be spaced between fifteen and twenty feet apart, while hedge plantings should only be spaced three to five feet apart [57]. Hazelnuts should be planted in late winter or early spring [57]. If planted in late spring, plants will initially grow less and require more watering [57]. They can be started by grafting, sucker division, layering, cuttings or seed [41,56]. Seeds are best sown in a cold frame immediately upon harvesting [56]. They will germinate in late winter or spring [56]. Seed that has been stored should be pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and given two weeks warm, followed by three to four months of cold stratification [56]. They will germinate in one to six weeks [56]. Their first year should be spent in pots in a cold frame or in a sheltered place outdoors [56]. Many hazelnut hybrids and varieties are available for cultivation [41,57].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Crambe maritima
Common name: Sea Kale Family: Cruciferae Range: European native [7,9,23,29] Habitat: Beaches [24], sea cliffs, sand [23] Hardiness: 5 [7] Other Common Names: None known Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, stems, flower stalks and roots, Ground Cover, Bee Forage

Physical Characteristics
Sea kale is a long-lived perennial that grows to a height of about three feet [7,29]. Leaves are large, often two feet or more in length, and bluish-green [9,23,29,35]. They resemble cabbage leaves though they are much more frequently lobed [29]. Flowering stems grow to two feet high [23]. Flowers are white, broadly clustered and have four petals [23,35]. They emerge from June to August [35]. Also, the flowers are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. The roundish fruits contain a single seed [23].

History
Sea kale was once cultivated extensively in Britain [23].

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Edible Uses
Stems, Leaves, Flower Stalks, Roots The young white stems of this plant are its primary edible product and can be eaten raw or cooked [7,15,23,29,35]. They should be cut into manageable lengths and boiled in salted water until tender [35]. They can then be served like asparagus [23,29,35]. Sea kale stalks are said to have a nutty, slightly bitter flavor [23]. Sea kale is often blanched in winter and early spring to force early crops [7,15,23]. This is done by covering the plants and effectively preventing any light from reaching them for at least two weeks before harvesting [15,23]. The leaves of this plant can be eaten raw or cooked as a potherb, though older leaves develop a strong bitterness that is unpleasant [7,9,15]. Young flowering sea kale shoots are produced in early to mid summer and can be harvested when they are between four and six inches tall and before the flowers have opened [15]. They can be eaten raw or lightly steamed [15]. Sea kale roots can be eaten cooked as well [9].

Medicinal Uses
None known.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Bee Forage Sea kale can be grown as a ground cover plant [7,9,56]. Plants provide forage for bees [9,56].

Cultivation Details
Sea kale prefers soils that are well drained and moderately dry and that are also alkaline to neutral [7,9,56]. It also requires soils that have a low fertility [9]. Plants will do best in full sun though they will also tolerate partial shade [7,56]. Sea kale is tolerant of windy conditions and drought [9,15,56]. Plants are easily grown and will persist for ten to twelve years [15,29]. Despite this, plants may not be hardy enough to be cultivated as perennials in some parts of New England.

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If growing sea kale as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about two feet apart [9]. They spread by clumps, so they won’t become invasive and will develop a moderate cover [9]. Plants are usually propagated from root cuttings though they are also sometimes propagated by seed [23]. Named varieties are available for cultivation [15].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Crataegus spp.
Common name: Hawthorn Family: Rosaceae Range: North American and European natives [2,15,35]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,13,14] Habitat: Stream banks, old fields, woodland openings, bottomlands [2,14] Hardiness: 3-9 [13] Other Common Names: Haw [2,13,42], Thorn Apple [2], Bread and Cheese [22], Thornbush [2], Mayhaw [2], Hagthorn [2], Scarlet haws [2], Cockspur Thorn [2], Thorn, [2,13] Primary Uses: Hedge, Windbreak, Livestock Forage, Edible – fruit and leaf shoots, Coppice Material, Wildlife Habitat, Wildlife Forage, Medicine, Wine

Physical Characteristics
Hawthorns are small trees or large shrubs that grow to a height of forty feet [13,14]. They are densely branched and often armed with long sharp spines [2,13,14]. Leaves are alternate, deciduous and simple [2,13,14]. They are generally three lobed and depending on the species, they have a serrated (toothed) or entire margin [2,13,14]. Flowers are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and they are usually white with five petals [14,56]. Also, they are pollinated by midges [56]. Fruits are rounded to pear shaped berries and vary in color depending on the species [2,14]. There are many species

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of hawthorn, and though keying them to genus is quite easy, it is extremely difficult to differentiate individual species [2].

History
Native Americans would gather large amounts of this copious fruit [2]. They would eat some fresh while it was palatable and dry the remainder for use as an ingredient in pemmican [2]. Early European settlers harvested hawthorn for use in jams, marmalades and jellies [2].

Edible Uses
Fruit, Leaf Shoots, Tea, Coffee, Wine The fruits of most hawthorns ripen in autumn, persisting for several months, though some hawthorns are spring fruiting [14]. Depending on the species, the plants vary rather widely in terms of flavor [2,14]. The best way to determine whether or not a particular fruit is palatable is to sample them [2,14]. The sweetest fruits can be eaten fresh [13,14]. Fruits can also be dried and stored for winter use [14]. The young leaf shoots of the hawthorn can be eaten in spring [15,35]. To make hawthorn jelly, crush three pounds of fruit, cover them with water and cook until soft. Strain the juice through a jelly bag and bring four cups of this juice to a boil. Stir in one package of pectin, and then add six or seven cups of sugar, stir and bring to a rolling boil. If you don’t add pectin, boil the mixture at 239°F. Remove the juice from the heat, skim and pour it into sealed jars. [14] Hawthorn fruits can be used to make a tea [13,14]. Steep two or three tablespoons of crushed fruit in a cup of boiling water for five to ten minutes [14]. Dried hawthorn leaves can also be used to make a tea [15]. Roasted hawthorn seeds can be boiled as a coffee substitute [15]. Hawthorn can be used to make an herbal wine [22,25].

Medicinal Uses
Kidney Ailments, Sore Throat, High Blood Pressure, Heart Tonic Hawthorn is a recognized remedy for kidney ailments and sore throats [5]. Fruits have a tonic effect on the heart and are used as a treatment for high blood pressure [15].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fence/Hedge, Windbreak, Intercrop, Livestock Forage, Ornamental, Timber, Coppice Material, Wildlife Habitat, Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage These plants may be used quite effectively as a living fence. If grown closely together, their dense, thorny branches would be quite effective at keeping out unwanted visitors. These shrubs also make wonderful hedges, as they respond to pruning quite well [15]. Unfortunately, regularly trimming a hawthorn hedge will eliminate most of its fruiting potential [15]. Hawthorn may be grown as a windbreak [41]. When intercropped with cabbage, hawthorn has been found to reduce diamondback moth populations because it is an alternative host for these pests [32]. These shrubs are known to have medicinal qualities that benefit livestock, so they can be planted as a forage crop, allowing the livestock to treat themselves as they so desire [58]. Hawthorns are popular as ornamental species because of both their spring flowers and the brilliance of their fruit [15]. Hawthorns provide timber for tool handles and canes [5]. Cockspur thorn (Crataegus crus-galli) is a North American hawthorn species [10]. Its timber is fine grained, average in heaviness and hard [10]. Its primary use is for tool handles and fuel [10]. The English hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) has reddish-white wood with a straight fine grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and heaviness, hard, durable and difficult to split [10]. It’s used for fencing and posts, furniture and cabinetwork, turnery, tool handles, fuel, charcoal and wagons [10]. As hawthorns will coppice, they can be used as a mulch and biomass source [41]. The protective thorns of these plants make them wonderful habitat for small birds [2,41]. They also provide forage for wildlife [41]. Hawthorns have 149 associated insect species [15]. They provide nectar forage for bees [41,58].

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Cultivation Details
Hawthorn prefers conditions in full sun, though they will tolerate partial shade [2,10,41]. Hawthorns are incredibly hardy and adaptable [24]. They tolerate most soils and growing conditions [15]. They will also tolerate wind, drought and occasional water logging [15]. Though slow-growing, hawthorns are long-lived and can be expected to last for between one hundred and three hundred years [41]. Once planted, young trees need very little except for a thick weed-suppressant mulch [15]. Grafted varieties will produce fruit within two to three years while plants started from seed may take between five and seven years [15]. By the age of ten, cockspur thorn and English hawthorn species will have reached a height of about twenty feet [10]. Depending on whom you consult, there are between one hundred and twelve hundred different hawthorn species in the United States alone [2]. Thus, it also follows that there are countless cultivars and varieties of hawthorn available to the home grower. A few of these include: Crataegus arnoldiana – this shrub grows to twenty feet tall and twelve feet wide [15]. It produces a very tasteful fruit that is sweet and juicy and up to three quarters of an inch in diameter [15]. Crataegus pennsylvanica – this variety grows to a maximum height of thirty feet with a spread of about twenty feet [15]. Its fruits are sweet up to two weeks before it fully ripens, and it produces very large fruits that can be up to an inch and a quarter in diameter [15]. Crataegus schraderiana – this shrub grows to a height of about twenty feet with a spread of about fifteen [15]. Fruit ripens towards the end of September and persists for at least four more weeks [15]. The best fruits will be up to three quarters of an inch in diameter [15]. Supposedly, the fruits are wonderful.

Known Hazards
Certain hawthorn species have been documented for having a stimulating effect on the heart [13]. Hawthorn is a host for cedar apple rust, a disease that effects apples [32].

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Cydonia oblonga
Common name: Quince Family: Rosaceae Range: Persian native [29,41] Habitat: Heavy, damp soils [32,56] Hardiness: 5-9 [24,57] Other Common Names: None known Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Windbreak, Root Stock, Medicine, Pectin Source

Physical Characteristics
Quince is a small deciduous crooked tree that grows to a height of about twenty feet [23,41,48]. Leaves are rounded, oval and tomentose (fuzzy) beneath [23]. Flowers are large, white or tinged with pink and are borne singly at the ends of new shoots in May [23,28,29,48]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are astringent and pear shaped, fragrant, yellow or greenish yellow when ripe, and may reach a diameter of four inches [28,29,48].

History
Quince has been cultivated in Europe and Britain for centuries [41]. In fact, it was highly valued by the Romans [23]. The quince reached America in colonial times [25].

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Edible Uses
Fruits, Drink, Pectin Source In order to ensure that the fruits develop their full flavor, they should be left on the tree until frost has begun to strip it of its leaves [25,41]. This may be as late as mid-October and mid-November [32]. Fruits can be used to make syrups, preserves and tarts or occasionally eaten fresh, though some varieties may not be sweet enough [15,41,57]. They have a ‘pineapple and citrus’ flavor [57]. Ripe fruits, once harvested, may keep for as long as two months [41]. A drink can be made from the seeds by adding them to water crushed, simmering them for five minutes and sweetening to taste [56]. Quince fruits are rich in pectin, so they are very useful for adding to other fruits when making jams [15].

Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Astringent, Anti-Inflammatory, Cardiac, Carminative, Digestive, Diuretic, Emollient, Expectorant, Pectoral, Peptic, Restorative, Stimulant, Tonic, Mouthwash, Sore Throat The seed is laxative, astringent and anti-inflammatory [56]. When soaked in water, it swells up and forms a mucilaginous mass that has a soothing and demulcent action when taken [56]. Fruits are antivinous, astrinent, cardiac, carminative, digestive, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, pectoral, peptic, refrigerant, restorative, stimulant and tonic [56]. Fruits and their juice can be used as a mouthwash or gargle to treat gum problems, sore throats and mouth ulcers [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Root Stock, Windbreak, Tannin, Livestock Fodder Quince is often grown as a dwarfing stock on which to bud or graft pears [48]. Trees can be grown as an edible windbreak [32]. Quince leaves contain 11% tannin [56]. Fruits manifest medicinal qualities when fed to livestock [58]. Trees are best grown in pasture so that the animals can browse and access them as they need [58].

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Cultivation Details
Quince trees prefer moist soils [32,41,56]. They require a sunny position if they are to fruit well [15,56]. Trees dislike very dry or waterlogged soils [56]. Plants will tolerate semi or even deep shade though they will not fruit well [56]. Quince are slow growing trees [41]. Plants are self-pollinating, so it is only necessary to grow one specimen to ensure that they fruit [28]. It may be necessary to grow quince along a sunny, south-facing wall to ensure that the fruits fully ripen [15]. They have a chill requirement of between one hundred and five hundred hours [32]. Trees can bear fifty pounds of fruit each [32]. Many quince cultivars are disease resistant, though there are no varieties that are resistant to fire blight [28,32,48,57]. They can be propagated by seed, cuttings, suckers or layered shoots in autumn [41,56]. There are a number of named quince varieties available for cultivation [15,57].

Known Hazards
Seeds contain hydrogen cyanide, which is poisonous [56]. In small quantities, this substance has been found to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, but in excess, it can cause respiratory failure and even death [56].

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Cytisus scoparius
Common name: Scotch Broom Family: Fabaceae Range: European native [8,25]; Found throughout the eastern United States [16] Habitat: Sandy pastures, open woodlands, coastal borders [56] Hardiness: 5 [8,9] Other Common Names: Broom [8,16,25] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Fiber – basketry, paper and cloth, Dynamic Accumulator, Hedge, Soil Stabilizer, Edible – buds, seeds and shoots, Ground Cover

Physical Characteristics
Scotch broom is a medium-sized deciduous shrub that reaches a height of about ten feet [8,24]. Twigs are slender and green [9]. Leaves are green-gray [9]. Flowers are yellow, pea-like and emerge in May [9,16]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56].

History
Information unavailable.
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Edible Uses
Buds, Seeds, Coffee, Shoots, Beer Flower buds are edible and can be pickled and used as a caper substitute [8,16,24,25]. They may also be eaten raw and added to salads [8]. Roasted broom seeds can be used as a coffee substitute [8,16,25]. The tender green tops can be used like hops to give a bitter flavor to beer [8,25].

Medicinal Uses
Tonic, Cardiotonic, Cathartic, Diuretic, Emetic Scotch broom is a tonic and an internal cleanser [24]. Flower heads are cardiotonic, cathartic, diuretic, emetic and vasoconstrictor [8,56]. They should be harvested in spring and can be used fresh or dried [56]. As the medicinally active ingredients break down with time, they should not be stored for more than twelve months [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Dynamic Accumulator, Fiber, Cloth, Paper, Basketry, Tannin, Hedge, Dye, Ground Cover, Oil, Soil Stabilizer, Livestock Browse, Bee Forage Scotch broom is a nitrogen-fixer [8,24,46]. Plants are dynamic accumulators of calcium [46]. The bark of the plant can be used as a source of fiber [8]. It can be substituted for jute in the manufacture of cloth, nets and paper [8]. The fibers are obtained by harvesting the branches in late summer or autumn, removing the leaves and steaming the stems until the fibers can be stripped [8]. The fibers should then be cooked for three hours in lye and put in a ball mill for three hours [8]. Paper made from scotch broom is pale tan in color [8]. Branches can be used to make baskets, brushes and brooms [8]. Broom is a source of tannins [8]. Plants can be grown as a wind tolerant hedge [8]. Green and yellow dyes can be extracted from scotch broom [8,24].

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Prostrate varieties exist that can be used as good fast growing ground covers [8,9]. They reach a height of about eight inches and develop a clumping, fast growing, low density cover [9]. One variety is called Cytisus scoparius spp. Maritimus [9]. Individual plants should be spaced three feet apart [9]. An essential oil can be extracted from the flowers and used in perfumery [8]. Scotch broom grows well on dry banks and can be planted as a soil stabilizer [8]. Plants thrive in the partial shade offered by forest gardens and woodlots [24]. Cattle, goats and sheep will all readily browse scotch broom [8]. Broom is a good bee plant and also provides food for ants and caterpillars [8].

Cultivation Details
Plants require good drainage and either full sun or partial shade [8]. Broom will succeed in most soils and will tolerate those that are dry or moist [8]. Plants are tolerant of both pollution and maritime exposure [8]. Their deep root system helps make them tolerant to drought once established [56]. Established plants dislike root disturbance [8]. Despite this, they are very tolerant of cutting and quickly regenerate from the base [8]. Plants can be propagated by seed, layering and cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
Scotch broom is of extremely low or zero toxicity, though some sources claim that it is poisonous [56].

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Diospyros virginiana
Common name: Persimmon Family: Ebenaceae Range: North American native [10,14,23]; Widely distributed throughout the southeastern United States [13,14,23,50]. Habitat: Rich bottomlands, field and woodland margins, rocky hillsides, along fencerows and highways [13,14] Hardiness: 5-9 [57] Other Common Names: Date Plums [10,23], Possumwood [10], Possum Apple [10] Primary Uses: Edible – fruit, seeds and oil, Vinegar, Timber, Soil Stabilizer, Medicine, Ornamental, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Persimmon is a large shrub or small to medium size tree that grows to a maximum height of sixty feet [13,14]. Bark is blocky, thick and dark gray to grayish-brown [14,28]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, between three and a half and eight inches long, broadest near the base or the middle, dark green and smooth along the margin (entire) [13,14]. It is dioecious (male and female flowers appear on separate trees), and the flowers are pollinated by insects and the wind [13,14,15,56,58]. Flowers are produced along the younger branches at the bases of leaves [13,14]. They are urn-shaped and greenish-yellow to creamy-white in color [13,14]. They are generally present from May to June [13]. Fruits are globose and fleshy and about an inch or two in diameter [14]. They are orange in color and contain three to eight flat brown seeds [13,14,17].

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History
A relative of our American persimmon, the Japanese Date Plum (Diospyros kaki) has been cultivated in China and Japan for centuries [64]. They have developed hundreds of varieties of this plant, and it is even said that there are as many varieties of this tree in Japan as there are apple varieties in England [64]. In the nineteenth century, people began to cultivate the Japanese date plum in the Mediterranean, and today it is grown commercially on a limited scale in California [64]. Native Americans readily ate the fruits of our own native persimmon, but the early pioneers did not enjoy them much [64]. Distanced by the fruit’s astringent taste, they didn’t come to appreciate persimmons until they leaned that the fruits must be thoroughly ripe or touched by frost before they are fit for consumption [64].

Edible Uses
Fruit, Beer, Vinegar, Wine, Tea, Seeds, Coffee, Oil Persimmons can be harvested as they mature in early autumn [14]. They will persist on the trees into early winter, but they are best collected after the first frost when the fruits are soft and have slightly wrinkled skin [13,14,15,28]. Harvesting them before they have had the chance to fully mature will much likely result in sour fruits [14,15,17,28]. In general, the peak period of fruit availability is from about October 15 to November 15 [43]. Persimmons can be eaten fresh as is or used for a multitude of baking applications [14,23]. Fruits can also be frozen or canned for later use [14,17]. To can the fruit, put those that are fully ripe through a colander, removing the seeds [17]. Then pack the pulp into half-pint jars, seal them and place them in boiling hot water for thirty minutes [17]. Check the seal and then store them until you next need them. When baking with persimmons, strain the pulp in order to remove the seeds and skin [14]. Persimmons can be used to make beer, vinegar and wine [13,16,17]. For preparation information see Euell Gibbons’ Stalking the Wild Asparagus (1962). Dried persimmon leaves can be used to make a tea [13,14,17]. Scorched seeds can be used to make a coffee substitute [13,16]. An oil can be extracted the seeds that reportedly tastes like peanut oil [56]. One hundred grams of persimmon fruit contain 127 calories, 0.8g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 27mg of calcium, 26mg of phosphorus, 2.5mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 310mg of potassium and 66mg of vitamin C [49,58].

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Medicinal Uses
Cancer, Diarrhea, Dysentery, Kidney Ailments, Menstrual Irregularities, Stomachic, Sore Throat Remedy, Heartburn Treatment Persimmon has been used to treat cancer, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhages, kidney ailments, menstrual irregularities, sores, stomatitis and sore throats [13]. The Cherokee chewed persimmon bark for heartburn [13,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Soil Stabilizer, Ornamental, Livestock Fodder, Timber, Bee Forage, Wildlife Forage Because of the persimmon tree’s deep taproot, it is a good tree to use to stabilize soil [50]. Persimmons are wonderful ornamentals as their leaves are brilliant in autumn [17,41,58]. Persimmon fruits can be used as livestock fodder for both pigs and cattle [41,50]. The leaves of this tree are ignored by most pasturing animals including sheep and goats [50]. Thus, persimmon trees could be planted in pastures, providing livestock with a localized source of food in the fall without worrying about them being damaged by the animals. Wood from the persimmon tree is dark, strong, dense, very hard, heavy and has very good shock absorbency [10,28]. It is grey-brown in color and the grain is fine and straight [10]. It’s used for turnery, household utensils, carving, planes and shuttles [10]. Persimmon flowers are important bee and wildlife forage [13].

Cultivation Details
I should begin this section by mentioning that persimmons are quite marginal for cultivation in Vermont. Though it is most certainly possible, especially in the southern part of the state, persimmons are pretty much at the edge of their range. Planting them on a protected south-facing slope would be a very sensible way in which to augment the possibility of a tree flourishing. Just be aware of the fact that they may not necessarily be appropriate trees for your landscape depending on the microclimatic conditions at your site. Persimmons can grow in any soil type, even poor soils [28,50,57,58]. They bear best in full sun, though they can tolerate partial shade [10,28,32,57]. Established trees are drought resistant, though they will do well in moist soils [10,32].

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Trees are generally slow growing and live for about fifty to seventy-five years [28,57]. They usually can be expected to grow about twelve inches per season [32]. American persimmon is hardy to at least -25°F [28]. Because persimmon fruit ripen so late in the year, be certain to choose a cultivar that has time to mature before the days grow too short and the cold sets in [28]. Persimmons should be planted in pairs, with at least one male for every five to six females to ensure pollination [15,28,57,58]. Females will produce fruit though if there are no males to pollinate them, but it will be seedless [15,58]. Trees have a chill requirement of 100 to 500 hours [32]. Annually, an average persimmon tree could be expected to yield between ten and twenty pounds of fruit [43]. Trees usually begin to bear fruit between two to five years after planting depending on the cultivar [28,57]. Persimmons are generally pest and disease free [28,32,57]. Persimmon trees have deep taproots, so they are difficult to transplant [28,50]. They can be propagated by seed, cutting or grafting [23,28,58]. Often, American persimmons are not cultivated but rather used as the rootstock on which to graft the Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki) [23]. They are an important cultivated fruit in China and Japan, and persimmons are also cultivated in France [23]. There are two hundred species of persimmons worldwide [50]. There are numerous persimmon varieties available for cultivation. Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries, Roger Harris, ed. (1996) contains brief listings on at least twenty as well as more complete instructions for care [28]. Raintree Nursery’s catalog also contains a handful of persimmon varieties for sale, some of them suitable for cultivation in New Hampshire and Vermont [57].

Known Hazards
None found.

185

Elaeagnus angustifolia
Common name: Russian Olive Family: Elaeagnaceae Range: European and Asian native [8,10]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [22] Habitat: Alluvial floodplains, old fields, sandy soils [22] Hardiness: 2 [8,10] Other Common Names: Wild Olive [10,24], Oleaster [8,10,15,22,24], Silverberry [10,22], Sugarberry [22] Primary Uses: Nitrogen Fixer, Companion Plant, Pioneer, Hedge, Windbreak, Edible Fruits, Fire Protection, Soil Stabilizer, Firewood, Timber, Poultry Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Russian olive is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to twenty-five feet in both height and spread [15]. Twigs are occasionally armed with small thorns [22]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, elliptical, toothless, between one and four inches long, graygreen and covered with silvery scales [22]. Flowers are small, silvery, solitary or in small clusters and sweetly scented [8,22]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are one-seeded, oval in shape and very sweet [15,22]. They ripen in early autumn [15].

History
The Romans grafted Russian olives onto old olive trees in order to rejuvenate them [24].

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Russian olive is often cultivated in Northern Europe for its edible fruits [8].

Edible Uses
Fruits, Seed, Flour, Beverage Both the fruits and seeds of Russian olive are edible [8,15,24]. They shouldn’t be harvested until they are fully ripe, or they will be very astringent [15]. The best way to determine if the fruits have ripened is by tasting them – if they make your mouth pucker up, the fruit is not yet ready [15]. If a quantity of fruit have been harvested prematurely, you can leave it in a fairly warm room for a few days, and it will likely ripen [15]. Fruits can be eaten raw or cooked [8]. They can be used to make jellies or sherbets or used as a seasoning in soups [8]. The seed can also be eaten raw with the fruit, though the seed case is quite fibrous [8]. Russian olive fruits can also be dried and powdered and used in baking [22]. In addition, they can be made into fermented beverages [22].

Medicinal Uses
Bronchitis, Burns, Constipation, Fever Remedy, Astringent The seed oil is used by some as a remedy for bronchitis, burns and constipation [22]. Flowers are used for fever, neuralgia and aching burns [22]. Leaves are astringent and are also used for enteritis and fever [22].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixing, Companion Plant, Pioneer, Hedge, Fire Protection, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Timber, Firewood, Oil, Perfumery, Poultry Fodder, Bird Forage, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Forage Russian olive is a nitrogen-fixer [8,10,24,32,39,58]. It is an excellent companion plant to grow in orchards [8]. It is also a good pioneer species [58]. This shrub makes a great hedge [15,32,58]. Trees are very tolerant of pruning [8,56]. In addition, Russian olive has a low fire potential [58].

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It can be planted as an edible windbreak or for erosion control [32,39,58]. Russian olive can be grown as a timber tree. Its wood is very hard and fine-grained, and it is often used for carving, beams, posts and fuel [8,10]. An essential oil that can be obtained from the flowers is used in perfumery [8]. The fruits of this tree also can be used as fodder for poultry [39]. Birds find Russian olive fruits to be a very attractive food source [15]. Shrubs provide habitat for wildlife [32]. Russian olive provides forage for bees [8].

Cultivation Details
Russian olive prefers well-drained soils that are not too rich [8,15]. It requires a sunny position if it is to prosper, though it may be tolerant of partial shade [8,10,15,39]. Plants will tolerate light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils that are acidic, neutral and alkaline in pH [8]. Shrubs are very wind hardy [8,24,56]. They will also tolerate poor soils, salt, maritime conditions and drought [8,39,56]. Shrubs can tolerate temperatures down to -40°C [15]. Russian olive is quite fast growing [39]. Experiments conducted in North America have found that intercropping Russian olives in an orchard can increase the fruit yield of the orchard trees by ten percent [8,15]. This is especially the case with nut trees and plums [15]. Plants should be spaced about thirty-two inches apart from each other [15]. There are available varieties that have been bred for improved fruits [15]. Shrubs can be propagated by seed, cuttings, layering and root cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
Russian olive can become highly invasive [22]. It is important though, to attempt to balance its benefits and drawbacks. In most circumstances, trees will only escape to areas that have been disturbed where they serve to recolonize the land and add nitrogen and organic matter to the soil. Ideally, one would hope that they are thus serving to prepare the soils for the forest that will follow in their wake. If seedlings are becoming weedy, a simple mowing twice a year will greatly help to eliminate any problems.

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Elaeagnus umbellata
Common name: Autumn Olive Family: Elaeagnaceae Range: East Asian native [8]; Cultivated and wild throughout the United States Habitat: Waste areas, fields, most soils [60] Hardiness: 3 [8] Other Common Names: None known Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Intercrop, Windbreak, Hedge, Edible Fruits, Mulch Source, Soil Stabilizer, Poultry Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Autumn olive is a large shrub or small tree that grows to twenty feet tall and ten feet in spread [8,15,32,39]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, lance-shaped, entire and grayish-green. They are also covered with gold flecks on the bottom. Twigs are often spiny. Flowers are cream-colored and very fragrant [15,24,60]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are halfinch red or orange berries [24].
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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruits, Seeds Autumn olive produces edible fruits [15,24,60]. They can be eaten fresh or cooked and are said to taste like red currants [8,24]. Harvested fruit will store for about fifteen days at room temperature [8]. The seeds are also edible, either raw or cooked [8]. They can be eaten along with the fruit, though the casing that encloses them is very fibrous [8]. Fruits contain about 8.3% sugars and 4.5% protein [8]. One hundred grams contain 12mg of vitamin C [8,60].

Medicinal Uses
Astringent, Cardiac, Stimulant, Pectoral, Cough Remedy Autumn olive is astringent, cardiac, stimulant and pectoral [8,56]. The seeds are used as a stimulant to help treat coughs [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Intercrop, Hedge, Mulch, Windbreaks, Soil Stabilizer, Firewood, Bird Forage, Poultry Fodder, Bee Forage Autumn olive is a nitrogen-fixer [8,24,39]. It can be intercropped as a nurse tree for chestnuts and black walnuts, effectively spurring their growth [60]. Shrubs will form thickets or hedges when trimmed [8,39]. They are even successful in exposed positions [8,56]. Branches can be chopped and used as a mulch source [60]. Trees can be grown as windbreaks and planted for erosion control [8,39]. The wood of this shrub is a good fuel [8].

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Both poultry and birds eat the fruits [39]. The shrubs can be grown in with the chickens allowing them to forage for themselves [39]. Autumn Olive flowers provide forage for bees [8].

Cultivation Details
Trees prefer positions in full sun [8,39]. They will grow in dry or moist soils [8]. Autumn olive is tolerant of poor soils, drought, salt and partial shade [8,24,39]. They will grow in light, medium, and heavy soils as well as soils that are acidic, neutral or alkaline in pH [8]. Trees are wind hardy and able to tolerate maritime conditions [8,24,56]. Shrubs are fast-growing [39]. Plants may produce fruits in as little as six years from seed [8,56]. Also, once they begin fruiting, they are prolific bearers [60]. There are varieties that have been bred for fruit quality [8]. Some of these include ‘Red Wing’, ‘Jazbo’, ‘Hidden Springs’ and ‘Cardinal’ [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and layering [56].

Known Hazards
Autumn olive is an invasive plant [6]. Nonetheless, it is a pioneer species and only colonizes disturbed lands, adding both nitrogen and organic matter to the soil and ideally reconditioning it for the forest trees that will follow [60]. Under most circumstances it can be easily controlled by a mere two mowings per year [60].

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Equisetum spp.
Common name: Horsetail Family: Equisetaceae Range: North American and European natives [7,9]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [5] Habitat: Stream banks, sandy, wet soils, swamps, roadside ditches [44] Hardiness: 2 [9] Other Common Names: Dutch Rush [9], Scouring Rush [9] Primary Uses: Fungicide, Fertilizer, Basketry, Dynamic Accumulator, Weed Barrier, Soil Stabilizer, Scouring Brush, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Horsetail is a perennial rushlike plant that reaches a height of about three feet [9,44]. It sometimes resembles a narrow bamboo and also is similar in appearance to ferns [44]. Horsetail shoots can be easily pulled apart at the nodes [44]. Each shoot has vertical ridges along its length and is covered with a gritty silica [44]. The spaces between the nodes are hollow [44]. Leaves are black, bristly and needlelike sheaths that appear at the nodes [44]. The leaves contain no chlorophyll, and it is instead produced throughout the stem [44]. Horsetails reproduce by underground rhizomes and airborne spores [44]. When fertile, the stalks terminate in a conelike, spore-bearing spike [44].

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History
Equisetums are incredibly ancient plants, having been on earth for an estimated three hundred million years [5]. Botanists generally agree that the horsetail species that we find in our swamps today were the forest trees of the coal age in earlier forms and often grew to fifty feet [5]. Horsetails were a common food of the Romans [16,25].

Edible Uses
Shoots, Rhizomes, Leaves, Condiment Horsetail is not a significant food source. Very young emerging shoots that are only about an inch tall can be eaten after they have first been carefully peeled of their thin outer layer of skin [9,42,44]. The rhizomes of some species can be dug up and used as a food source once cooked [9,37,42]. Equisetum arvense produces edible strobili that can be cooked [7]. Also, the leaves of this species can be used as a food flavoring [7]. One hundred grams of horsetail, Equisetum arvense, contain 20 calories, 1.0g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 58mg of calcium, 93mg of phosphorus, 4.4mg of iron, 180 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.07mg of riboflavin, 5.6mg of niacin and 50mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Diuretic, Blood Purifier, Skin Wounds/Irritations, Breath Freshener, Decongestant, Eyewash When using them medicinally, horsetails are best gathered in spring [44]. Horsetail is a mild diuretic [5,37]. The shoots of this plant can be ground fresh or dried and used to make tea [44]. This tea can be used for insomnia, as a blood purifier or in cases of nervous breakdowns [44]. Horsetail tea can also be used to treat wounds, cuts, sores, swelling or rashes [37,44]. In addition, this tea can be used to eliminate bad breath, clear nasal passages and relieve tension [44]. The liquid inside the stems and roots of this plant can be used as an eyewash [37].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Basketry, Scouring Brush, Wood and Metal Polish, Fungicide, Fertilizer, Dynamic Accumulator, Weed Barrier, Cover Crop, Soil Stabilizer, Indicator Plant, Poultry Fodder A pink dye can be extracted from horsetail stems and leaves [7,9,37]. Horsetail roots can be used in basketry [37]. Because of horsetail’s high mineral content (namely silica) and gritty skin, it can be used as a scouring brush for cleaning pots and pans [5,7,37,44]. Binding together a few stems will create a most useful brush [5]. Shoots may also be used to polish hardwood, ivory and brass [7,44]. In fact, it even imparts a natural sheen upon brass [44]. Horsetail is a fungicide [7,9,46,56]. The dried leaves and stems can be made into a decoction and sprayed on plants to protect them from fungi [46]. To make equisetum tea, add one and a half ounces of dried horsetail to a gallon of cold water [46]. Bring it to a boil and leave it for twenty minutes [46]. Allow it to cool gradually, strain, and spray it on all plants that have their true leaves developed [46]. This decoction should be diluted more each time that it is used in the same place [46]. This tea can be used to help to control powdery mildew [46]. A liquid plant feed can also be made with horsetail [56]. Plants act as dynamic accumulators of silica, magnesium, calcium, iron and cobalt [7,9,32,54] Because they can tolerate very wet soils, horsetails are good plants to grow along berms [32]. Horsetail can be used as a weed barrier around gardens [54]. It most likely keeps unwanted plants from invading the garden because it is very high in silica and competes successfully with other plants for this vital nutrient [54]. Despite this, care should be taken to ensure that horsetail’s invasive nature does not allow it to become a rampant weed itself. Horsetails can be used as cover plants and soil binders in moist or boggy soils [9,32]. Wild horsetails indicate wet, clayey, acidic soils, while the field horsetail, Equisetum arvense indicates wet, sandy soils [32]. Equisetum arvense can be used as fowl fodder [7,37].

Cultivation Details
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Horsetails require moist or wet soils [7,9]. They will tolerate all soil types and pH levels, though they prefer soils with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5 [9,56]. Plants also prefer full sun though they will tolerate partial shade [7,9]. Horsetails grow at a moderate speed [9]. When grown for cover, they develop a moderate density, though they become very invasive [9]. Individual plants should be spread about a foot apart from one another [9]. Plants can be propagated by spores or root division [54,56]. Propagation by root division should be done with care though, as a new plant will begin from even the tiniest fragments and can become quite difficult to eradicate once established [54]. Thus, to propagate, simply dig up a plant and break the root into pieces [54]. Though any size fragment will grow, pieces that are about the size of a small carrot are best [54]. They can be planted in a hollow in mulch or soil and covered with about an inch or so of good compost or soil [54].

Known Hazards
Horsetail can cause mild poisoning if it is grazed in large quantities by horses, cattle and sheep [16,44]. It will not kill them though [44]. Plants can become very invasive [9,56].

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Fagus grandifolia
Common name: American Beech Family: Fagaceae Range: Native to Eastern North America [10,33] – found in northern temperate zones [33] Habitat: Common in eastern hardwood forests [33]; river valleys, lower mountain slopes, [14] fertile bottomlands and uplands [2], prefers rich well-drained soils [14,22,33] and cool shady areas [2] – seldomly seen growing in swampy conditions [33] Hardiness: 3-4 [10] Other Common Names: Red Beech [2], White Beech [2] Primary Uses: Edible – nuts, leaves and flour, Timber, Oil, Wildlife Forage, Charcoal, Coffee

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Physical Characteristics
Beech trees average about eighty feet in height and four feet in diameter [33] and grow to a maximum height of about 100 feet (30+ meters) [10]. At ten years of age, Beech trees generally are about two meters (6.3ft) in height [10]. They are best identified by their smooth blue-gray bark, [2,33] which may be likened to the skin of an elephant’s leg. When grown amongst other trees, beech will develop small crown and straight trunk, but when open grown, they usually have a wide spreading crown and squat trunk [2,33]. Beech buds are slender, imbricate, lanceolate and rust colored and make it quite an easy species to distinguish [2,33]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, toothed and ovoidelliptical in shape [2]. They are about 2.5-5.5in long (6-14cm) [14] and have pointed tips and rounded bases [1]. The leaf veins are pinnate and remarkably straight [2]. The leaves themselves are thin and somewhat papery [1,2]. Beech foliage turns copper or gold in the autumn [1,2]. Beech trees are monoecious (both male and female reproductive organs are located on a single specimen) [2]. Male flowers are drooping yellow-green structures and female flowers are shorter spikes [33]. The flowers appear in April and May [2] when the leaves are about half grown or approximately three inches in length [33]. Flowers are wind pollinated [56]. Beech seeds ripen from October to November [56]. Beech fruit is a three cornered shiny brown nut about a half inch long and commonly borne in twos or threes in a brown, prickly husk [33]. The husks open when exposed to heavy frosts [1,33], thus releasing two triangular nuts [14]. In the northeastern United States and neighboring Canada, American Beech often exceeds 25% of the total forest composition [43].

History
Beechnut oil has been widely used during times of economic hardship. In some areas of Germany during World War I and II, schoolchildren were given special holidays in order to gather beechnuts because they were of such importance as a source of domestic oil [35].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Leaves, Flour, Coffee It usually isn’t until beech trees have reached about forty years old that they begin producing nuts [33]. Also, heavy crops are produced usually only every two to three years [33,56]. In a good year, high producing trees may bear as many as 4,400 nuts per 100 square feet of canopy [43]. Once again, nut collection should usually be done after a heavy frost. One way to do this is to spread large drop cloths under the tree prior to the

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first killing frost [43]. Competition with squirrels, birds and other mammals may result in a reduced harvest. Simply separate the seed casing from the nuts by shaking and winnowing [14]. Dry them in a warm, open area [14]. Beechnuts are sweet tasting and most certainly edible raw [14,33]. They are rich in proteins, carbohydrates and fat [33]. The nuts’ small size makes them somewhat laborious and impractical to harvest on a large scale [33]. To make flour, grind and air dry nutmeats [14]. Crush them and boil in water and skim off the oil for cooking [14]. Beechnuts can also be used to make beech nut coffee. To do so, place husked and dried nuts in a moderate oven (300°F) for fifteen to thirty minutes to crack the shell [33]. Shell the nuts, dry them in the oven until brittle, and then grind them finely with a rolling pin [33]. This mix can then be used to make coffee at about a teaspoonful of nuts per cup of coffee [33]. This solution should be steeped in boiling water for about fifteen minutes [33]. Newly emerged beech leaves can be used as a source of food [33,35]. In Vermont, new leaves usually emerge around midspring and are tender enough to be eaten for a few weeks [33]. New leaf growth is usually produced during two three week periods each year; once in spring and once in mid-summer [56]. It should be mentioned though, that picking young beech leaves will most likely mean that no leaves will grow on that part of the tree during the summer season. Because the leaves will wilt quite rapidly, they should be used soon after collection [33]. Prior to cooking, leaves should be washed and drained. They may be prepared as follows: bring two cups of salted water and one tablespoon of butter to a boil; stir in two cups young beech leaves; cover and let cook over medium heat for about five to eight minutes. Drain and serve [33]. The leaves themselves should be eaten with the fingers and held by the petiole (leaf stalk) so that the blade can be eaten while the stalk is discarded [33]. The edible portion of the beechnut is 6.6% water, 21.8% protein, 49.9% fat, 18% carbohydrates, and 3.7% ash [50]. One hundred grams of beechnuts contain 568 calories, 19.4g of protein and 50g of fat [49]. The nuts also are a source of calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon and sulfur [22].

Medicinal Uses
Poultice, Lung Ailments, Abortifactant A mixture of boiled leaves can be used as a wash and poultice to treat frostbite, poison ivy rash, burns, etc [56].

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A tea made from beech bark can be used to treat lung ailments, and is also used as an abortifactant [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Shade, Ornamental, Timber, Charcoal, Oil, Bird and Livestock Forage Beech is an excellent shade tree, [2,33] as well as a common ornamental [2]. It casts such dense shade that few species are actually able to grow in a beech woodland [15]. Beech trees can also be harvested for timber. Seasoned timber is average in strength, average in heaviness, hard and easy to bend [10]. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot [56]. Beech wood was long ignored because of the difficulty in seasoning it and a high percentage of defectives [48]. Beech wood can be used for flooring, furniture/cabinet work , paper pulp, turnery, tool handles, fuel, cooperage, charcoal, veneers, railway sleepers, household utensils, agricultural implements, boxes/crates, wagons and planes [10]. Beech wood makes excellent charcoal [56]. Beechnuts can be used to make beech nut oil, but it is a rather long process [33]. Firstly, the nuts must be husked and dried and then heated in a moderate oven in order to crack the shell. The shells can be removed by rubbing in the hands and winnowing. Grind the nuts to a paste, and add enough water to keep the paste at the consistency of fresh frosting. Once oil can be extracted from the paste with the pressure of your hand, place it in clean wool or linen bags for pressing. Slowly extract the oil by putting the bags under pressure for several hours – the oil can be collected in large earthen vessels. Once all the oil has been removed from the first press, remove the paste and put it into a pot, adding enough water to keep it sticky. Mix and warm the paste under gentle heat for about fifteen minutes, place it back into the bags and press again. Store the oil in covered casks in a cool place and after two or three months, draw off the oil into new vessels. This procedure should be repeated two or three times during the first year. The oil should then be placed in clean, stoppered flasks and stored in a cool place (preferably in sand). Rich in fats and proteins, beechnut oil will keep for at least ten years. [33] Each pound of nuts may yield as much as three fluid ounces of oil [35]. This oil may be used as a dressing for salads, for cooking, as a wood polish and as a lubricant [15]. Its’ nature is often compared to olive oil [15]. Beechnuts are very popular with wild birds, mammals, and livestock [33]. In fact, beechnuts have been used extensively as poultry and farm animal feed in England and France [22].

Cultivation Details
Beech trees prefer moist, well-drained growing conditions and acidic soil conditions [10]. They also prefer partial shade [10] and are extremely tolerant [48].

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Beech trees produce suckers and because of this, will often form thickets in the wild [56]. Also, they have surface-feeding roots and cast dense shade, which significantly inhibits other plant growth, so this should be kept in mind when planting [56].

Known Hazards
Large quantities of the raw seed may be toxic [56]. Beech bark should be avoided by pregnant women as it is an abortifactant.

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Foeniculum vulgare
Common name: Fennel Family: Umbelliferae Range: European native [15,23,35,44]; Widespread throughout the United States [16,23] Habitat: Cliffs, waste ground, damp places [35], dry stony calcareous soils near the sea [56] Hardiness: 5 [7] Other Common Names: Wild Licorice [44], Wild Anise [44], Finocchio [44], Sweet Fennel [7] Primary Uses: Edible – stalks, roots, leaves and seeds, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Dynamic Accumulator, Oil, Insect Repellent, Medicine, Cover Crop

Physical Characteristics
Fennel is a perennial herb that reaches a height of up to five feet [23,35]. Plants generally begin to appear in winter and early spring [44]. They begin by establishing a bushy, fern-like base that is about two to three feet across [44]. By spring and early summer, the flower stalks have risen to their full height [44]. The root of this plant begins as a taproot and continually grows larger and wider as the plant ages [44]. The leaves and stalks are covered by a thin waxy coating that gives the plant a slightly bluish201

green appearance [44]. Leaves are aromatic, soft and threadlike [35]. Their ends break up into many fernlike leaflets [44]. Stalks and stems are coarsely, striately grooved [44]. Flowers are borne in umbels (clusters) of yellow blossoms that are present from early June to October and are up to six inches in diameter [35,44]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are oblong to ovoid in shape, flattened and greenish, yellowish-brown or greyish [23]. The seeds have prominent ribs and are about an eighth of an inch long [44]. They will occasionally persist on the plant for a few months after it has died back and begun to dry [44]. The entire plant has a licorice taste and odor [44].

History
Fennel was one of the Anglo-Saxon herbalists’ nine sacred herbs [35]. Prometheus was said to have brought fire to earth in a dried fennel stalk [44].

Edible Uses
Stalks, Roots, Leaves, Seeds, Tea, Condiment, Sprouts, Oil All parts of the fennel plant are edible [35]. This includes the stalks, bulb/root, leaf sprays and seeds [35]. They are all said to possess a fresh nutty, licorice-like flavor [35]. All of the green portions of the plant should be cut as early as possible in summer [35]. Some of the harvest can be hung and dried for the winter [35]. Fennel’s odor grows stronger as it dries [35]. Seeds should be gathered in late October or just before they have fully dried [35]. If you would like to harvest fennel leaves and stalks in late summer and autumn, cut the plant down to ground level before it sets seed and it will continue to produce fresh growth [15]. Fennel seeds can be steeped to make a tea that tastes like licorice [15,44]. The seeds can also be used as a flavoring in cooking [56]. Sprouted seeds can also be eaten [7,56]. An edible oil can be extracted from fennel seeds that is used in confectioneries, condiments, pickles, cordials and liqueurs [7,15,23,44]. They contain up to twenty six percent oil [48]. One hundred grams of fennel contain 31 calories, 2.9g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 114mg of calcium, 54mg of phosphorus, 2.9mg of iron, 338mg of potassium, 1566 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.12mg of thiamine, 0.15mg of riboflavin, 0.7mg of niacin and 34mg of vitamin C [44,49].

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Medicinal Uses
Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antispasmodic, Carminative, Expectorant, Laxative, Stimulant, Stomachic, Diuretic, Gastrointestinal Aid, Rheumatism, Eye Problems Fennel is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, laxative, stimulant and stomachic [56]. Raw young fennel stalks or fresh foliage can be eaten to relieve gas [23,35,37,44]. Fennel has a diuretic effect [44]. An infusion of the root is used to treat urinary disorders [56]. The feathery leaves are used to treat gastric ailments, cramps and rheumatism [24]. A lotion made from fennel is used for eye troubles [24,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Breath Freshener, Dynamic Accumulator, Insect Repellent, Dye, Oil, Soaps/Perfumes, Tobacco Substitute, Cover Crop, Bee Fodder, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Livestock Fodder/Stimulant Indians commonly chew fennel seeds as a breath freshener [44]. Fennel is a dynamic accumulator of sodium, sulfur and potassium [7,32,54]. Dried fennel is an insect repellent [15]. Fennel is believed to repel fleas [15,44]. This can be done by sprinkling fresh or dried leaf parts in a dog’s sleeping area or by rubbing crushed seeds onto the animal’s coat [15,44]. The leaves and flowers can be used to produce yellow and brown dyes [56]. Oil of fennel is used in soaps and perfumes [44]. Fennel was used by the Hopi as a tobacco substitute [37]. The pith from dried flower stalks can be used as tinder to start a fire [44]. Plants can be grown as a cover crop because of their deep taproots [32]. Fennel provides fodder for bees [7].

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Plants also serve to attract beneficial insects [7,32,41]. Some of these include potter, braconid, mud-dauber, sand wasps and syrphid and tachinid flies [32]. Fennel has been found to increase the milk production when fed to dairy cows and goats [46].

Cultivation Details
Fennel thrives in full sun but will unhappily tolerate partial shade as well [7,24,41]. Plants prefer moist conditions [7]. Fennel prefers lighter soils [15]. It is both wind and drought tolerant [15,56]. This plant is easily grown [15,56]. Though fennel is relatively short-lived, it self-sows incredibly freely [15,56]. Plants can be propagated both by seed and division [56].

Known Hazards
Beans, tomatoes, caraway, kohlrabi, wormwood and coriander are not good companions for fennel [46]. Fennel can become invasive if it is permitted to spread [32].

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Fragaria spp.
Common name: Strawberry Family: Rosaceae Range: North American native [31]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [13,14,31] Habitat: Open woodlands, woodland margins, fields [5,13,14] Hardiness: 3 [7] Other Common Names: Wood Strawberry [2], Earth Mulberry [2] Primary Uses: Edible – berries, leaves and stems, Ground Cover, Companion, Dynamic Accumulator, Medicine, Companion Plant

Physical Characteristics
Strawberry is a small perennial herb that generally lacks a distinct stem and instead produces runners that reach a height of about six to ten inches tall [2,13,14,15,29,31]. Leaves are alternate, basal, compound, trifoliate (three-leaved), about one to four inches long, sharply serrate (toothed) and pubescent beneath [13,14]. Several flowers emerge in a short spreading cluster with five petals each [2,13,14]. They are present from March until June [31]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and other insects [56]. Seeds are small, yellowish and hard and are embedded in the large, red sweet fleshy receptacle that is the berry [2,13,14].

History
It was one of the American wood strawberries (Fragaria virginiana) that was the first to be cultivated and bred for size and color [35]. It was most likely introduced to Europe shortly after 1600, later being brought back to North America as the large cultivated varieties that we commonly know today [35]. Prior to this time, strawberries that were
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found in gardens were generally wild plants that had been transplanted from the woods in early spring [35].

Edible Uses
Berries, Leaves, Drink, Tea, Stems, Stalks, Roots, Coffee Berries generally begin to ripen from early June throughout the summer, depending on the local climate [2,14]. Leaves can be collected any time but they are best in late summer [14]. They can be dried by spreading on a clean surface in a warm, dry area or by heating them in a moderately warm oven [14]. Once they are dried, crumble the leaves and store them in a dry place [14]. Berries may also be frozen and saved for later use [17]. To do so, begin by making a syrup by boiling two parts water to one part sugar for a few minutes [17]. Let this syrup cool while you are packing storage jars full of fresh berries [17]. Cover the berries with the syrup, seal the jars tightly and freeze as quickly as possible [17]. Strawberries can be used to make a quick beverage [1,14]. Simply crush a handful of berries and mix them with one cup of water, sugaring to taste [14]. To make two pints of strawberry jam, mix four cups apiece of sugar and crushed berries. Stir them together in a large pan, bringing them to a boil and continuing to stir until the sugar is melted. Keep them at a rolling boil for fourteen minutes, skim off the white foam and seal it in hot sterilized jars. [1] Fresh or dried strawberry leaves can be used to make a tea [1,13,14]. This can be made by steeping two handfuls of fresh or a half-cup of dried leaves in one quart of boiling water for five minutes [1,14]. Strawberry stems and stalks can also be eaten [2]. In India, dried and ground strawberry roots have been used as a coffee substitute [56]. One hundred grams of wild strawberries contain 37 calories, 0.7g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 21mg of calcium, 21mg of phosphorus, 1.0mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 164mg of potassium, 60 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.07mg of riboflavin, 0.6mg of niacin and 59mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Cancer, Stomachic, Astringent, Diuretic, Laxative, Tonic, Dysentery Strawberries are a good source of elegiac acid, which is a known cancer preventative [13].

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Strawberries are also used to relieve stomach aches [37]. Both the leaves and fruit are mildly astringent, diuretic, laxative and tonic [56]. Leaves have been used as a remedy for dysentery [5,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Companion Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Indicator Plant, Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage, Bee Forage Strawberries can be used to provide a wonderful edible ground cover [9,15,28]. Plants grow very fast and cover the ground quite densely [9]. Lettuce, spinach, bush beans and borage have been found to grow well with strawberries [46,54]. Unfortunately, strawberries dislike growing nearby cabbage [46]. Strawberries are dynamic accumulators of iron [7,9,32] Wild strawberries are indicative of acidic soils [32]. Strawberries provide forage for wildlife and birds and may actually require a netting cover to keep the crop from quickly disappearing [2]. They also provide forage for bees [39,54].

Cultivation Details
Strawberry plants prefer moist, fertile, well-drained soils [7,56]. Because of their shallow roots, strawberries are sensitive to dry or waterlogged soils [28]. The American wild strawberry prefers acidic to neutral conditions with a pH that falls between 5.5 and 7.0, 6.2 being ideal [7,9,28]. Strawberries will do well in all soil types [9]. Most strawberry species prefer full sun though they will tolerate partial shade [7,9,15]. Because of their affinity for slightly acidic soils, strawberries are believed to benefit from a mulch of pine needles or shredded branches [24,28,46,56]. Well maintained, disease free strawberry plantings can fruit well for three to four years [28]. They can produce yields of eight to ten ounces per plant [32]. Strawberries have a chill requirement of 200 to300 hours [32]. Some strawberry varieties require pollination to set fruit [54], though others are selffertile [57]. In cold climates, plants should be covered with about six inches of straw for the wintertime to protect them from cold temperatures and frost and snow damage [28].

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Wild strawberries can be transplanted in early spring [31]. When planting strawberries as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about a foot apart [9]. Viral diseases and pests are a major problem with strawberries [23,54]. Plants are propagated either by seed or division of runners [56]. Wild strawberry varieties, though smaller than typical cultivated species, produce fruits that are much more flavorful [24,31]. There are three main ‘wild’ strawberries that have been developed for cultivation [24]. These include the American wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), the alpine strawberry {F. vesca) and the musk strawberry (F. moschata) [24]. The musk strawberry is rare in Europe and nearly unknown in America, but it is self-pollinating, produces larger fruit than alpine strawberry and is hardy to Zone 5 [24]. For more extensive information on available strawberry cultivars as well as growing information, see Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries, Roger Holmes, ed. (1996). Also, check seed and nursery catalogs for available varieties.

Known Hazards
Strawberry may be a host for the tarnished plant bug.

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Gaultheria procumbens
Common name: Wintergreen Family: Ericaceae Range: North American native [14,33,57]; Widely distributed throughout the temperate United States [13,14,17] Habitat: Bogs, ponds, open woodlands, clearings, poor acid soils [13,14,17,33] Hardiness: 3-9 [13,57] Other Common Names: Checkerberry [1,5,13,14,17,22,33,56], Teaberry [1,13,17,22,33], Mountain Tea [17,22,33], Ground Holly [17] Primary Uses: Ground Cover, Oil, Dynamic Accumulator, Medicine, Edible leaves and berries, Tea, Condiment

Physical Characteristics
Wintergreen is a low-growing, vine-like evergreen shrub that reaches about six inches in height [1,2,13,14,17,33,56]. It has a creeping, elongated slender stem that grows on or just below the ground surface [13,17,33]. Leaves are alternate, simple, evergreen and about an inch and a half long [1,14,33]. Their upper surface is dark and glossy, and they have a wintergreen smell when crushed [1,2,14,33]. In midsummer (June-September) the branches bear small white urn-shaped white flowers that hang down under the leaves [1,2,13,14,33]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. The bright red berrylike fruits soon follow the flowers, and they are persistent through the winter [1,2,14,33].

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History
The use of wintergreen for tea was reportedly ‘discovered’ by Dr. Jean-Francois Gaultier, a naturalist and court physician in Quebec [33]. Despite this ‘discovery’, the Iroquois have also been known historically to consume wintergreen tea [33].

Edible Uses
Berries, Leaves, Spice, Tea, Syrup Wintergreen berries can be found from fall to spring while the leaves can be collected year round [14,22,33]. Some say that they taste best after frost [56]. Berries can be eaten fresh as a snack or used to make jam and pies [1,2,14,17]. Wintergreen leaves can be used in making teas or for flavoring nearly anything [1,13,17,33]. They may be used fresh or dried slowly in an oven set to 200°F for about twenty minutes [33]. Once dry, they can be stored for later use. Unfortunately, some find that wintergreen loses much of its flavor when dried [2,17]. To make wintergreen tea, simply simmer a handful of leaves in boiling water for thirty minutes or so [5,14,33]. The concentration of wintergreen oil in the tea increases with prolonged steeping [14]. Also, tearing the leaves into fine bits provides more flavor as it increases the surface area in contact with the boiling water [2]. To make wintergreen syrup, mix one cup of wintergreen leaves with two cups of raw sugar and two cups of water [33]. Boil them over a medium heat for twenty minutes or until the mix thickens [33]. This syrup can be used any way you please.

Medicinal Uses
Fever Remedy, Rheumatism, Arthritis, Headache Remedy, Mouthwash, Skin Irritations, Cough Remedy, Sore Throats, Dysentery, Cold Remedy Wintergreen leaves and fruits contain methyl salicylate, a close relative of aspirin, which effectively reduces fevers and minor aches and pains [14]. It is also used as a treatment for rheumatism and arthritis [13]. A strong tea made by steeping a large palmful of leaves in a cup of water for a half hour is a very effective headache remedy [4]. This tea also makes a good mouthwash for sore throats, gum ailments and cold sores [4]. Even stronger wintergreen teas can be used as a wash for irritated skin [4]. Wintergreen oil distilled from the leaves is used as a soothing remedy for coughs and sore throats [5].

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Leaves can be chewed as a remedy for dysentery [37]. A poultice of the entire plant can be applied to the chest for colds [37]. An infusion of the leaves and berries can also be taken for colds [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Smoking Additive, Dynamic Accumulator, Groundcover, Oil, Bee Fodder, Winter Food Source for Wildlife Native Americans added wintergreen leaves to their smoking mixtures [13]. Wintergreen is a dynamic accumulator of magnesium [32]. Because of their creeping tendencies, wintergreen can be planted as an edible groundcover [57]. Also, because of their affinity for acidic soils, they would be very well planted in the understory of established conifer trees, as that is quite a similar environment to their natural habitat. An essential oil derived from wintergreen fruits by steam distillation is used in candles and perfumery, as a food flavoring, medicinally and in toothpastes [9,56]. To obtain the oil the leaves must be steeped for twelve to twenty-four hours in water [56]. Wintergreen provides fodder for bees [9]. It also provides an important winter food source for wildlife [9].

Cultivation Details
Wintergreen grows well in light and medium soils [9]. They also do well in soils with a neutral pH, though they thrive in acidic soils [9]. Once established, plants will tolerate dry conditions [9]. They are very tolerant and prefer either full or partial shade, though they may be able to tolerate full sun in soils that are constantly moist [9,15,57]. Plants are drought tolerant once established [15,56]. Wintergreen grows rather slowly and established plantings will become moderately dense as wintergreen is a creeper and spreads outward by suckers [9,15,57]. Individual plants should be spaced about twelve to eighteen inches apart from one another if planting them as a ground cover [9,15,57]. The plants will probably fill this space in their second or third year [15]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings or division [56]. Cuttings of half ripe wood that are an inch or two long should be started out in July or August in a cold frame in a shady place [56]. They will form their roots in late summer or spring [56]. Division can

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be done almost any time of year, though it is most effective before the new growth begins in spring [56]. Large clumps can be replanted directly into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them in a cold frame until they are rooting well [56]. They can then be planted out in spring [56]. There do exist some named forms of this plant that have been developed for their ornamental value [56].

Known Hazards
Methyl salicylate, which is contained in wintergreen berries and leaves, can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities [13]. Also, be aware that wintergreen spreads freely by suckers and if given the proper conditions, it can become invasive [15].

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Gaylussacia spp.
Common name: Huckleberry Family: Ericaceae Range: Eastern North American native [56]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States [14] Habitat: Woodlands, clearings, dry to moist soils [14], thickets, acidic sandy soils [22,56] Hardiness: 3-8 [13] Other Common Names: Black Huckleberry [13,14,37] Primary Uses: Edible berries, Wildlife Forage, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Huckleberry is a shrub that grows to about four feet in height [13,14]. It will often form low thickets [13,14]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, between one and two and a half inches long, entire and dotted with glands above and below [2,13,14]. Shrubs produce short elongated flower clusters that contain a few small white cone shaped flowers [14]. They are present from May to June and are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Fruits are sweet fleshy berries that turn black at maturity and contain ten small seeds [13,14,33]. Though huckleberries closely resemble blueberries, blueberries contain more than ten seeds, so they can be definitively distinguished by their fruits [1,5,13,17,33].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Berries, Flour Berries should be harvested as they ripen from early July to September depending on the local climatic conditions [13,14]. Fruits can be eaten fresh or used in beverages, pies, desserts, pancakes, jam and jelly [13,14]. Berries can also be dried and stored for later use [14]. This is done by spreading them singly on a tray, foil or paper and keeping them in a warm attic [14]. They should be dried for about ten days or until a crushed berry no longer releases juice [14]. Once dry, they should be stored in a sealed container [14]. Because huckleberries and blueberries are so similar, they can most certainly be used in recipes interchangeably [17]. See blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) for a few different recipes that can be adapted for huckleberry fruits. Also, huckleberries can be dried, ground, mixed with flour and used in baking [56].

Medicinal Uses
Cold Remedy, Dysentery, Indigestion, Blood Tonic, Rheumatism, Kidney Ailments Tea made from huckleberry leaves can be taken for colds, dysentery and indigestion [13,37]. It may also be taken as a blood tonic [13,37]. The tea can be used as a remedy for rheumatism and to help relieve kidney ailments [13,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Smoking Additive, Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage, Ornamental Cherokee Indians chewed huckleberry leaves like chewing tobacco while the Iroquois smoked the leaves [13]. Huckleberry provides forage for many types of wildlife, especially birds [1,13]. These shrubs also make wonderful ornamentals, especially due to the fact that their foliage turns a brilliant bronzy red in autumn [28].

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Cultivation Details
Huckleberry shrubs prefer shady locations in sandy or peaty soil [28,32,56]. Huckleberry will do best in acidic soils [5,56]. In fact, they will not thrive on alkaline soils [28]. They prefer soils with a pH range of 4.5 to 5.2 [28]. Shrubs will also thrive in sunny conditions [56]. As huckleberry does well in moist soils, it is well planted on berms [32]. There do exist some named huckleberry varieties that have been selected for their larger fruits [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, layering and division [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Genista tinctoria
Common name: Dyer’s Greenweed Family: Fabaceae Range: European native [8,25] Habitat: Scrub and dry lands [8], meadows, pastures, heaths, poor soils [56] Hardiness: 2 [8,9] Other Common Names: Kendall Green [48], Dyer’s Broom [9,25], Woodwaxen [25], Woad Waxen [46] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Fiber – cloth, cordage and paper, Soil Stabilizer, Ground Cover, Coffee, Edible Buds, Wildlife Habitat

Physical Characteristics
Dyer’s greenweed is a dwarf deciduous shrub that grows to a height of two feet and has a spread of about three feet [8,9]. Flowers are yellow and are bone in May and June [9]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Buds, Seed, Coffee The buds of this plant can be pickled and used in sauces as a substitute for capers [8,25]. Also, the seed has been suggested as a possible coffee substitute [8].

Medicinal Uses
Cathartic, Diuretic, Emetic, Stimulant, Vasoconstrictor, Rheumatism The leaves, flowers and twigs of dyer’s greenweed can be used as a cathartic, diuretic, emetic, stimulant and vasoconstrictor, though some caution should be taken as the plant does contain toxins [8,9]. A homeopathic remedy that is used to treat rheumatism is made from the fresh shoots of this shrub [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Fiber, Cloth, Cordage, Paper, Ground Cover, Soil Stabilizer, Dye, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Forage Dyer’s greenweed is a nitrogen fixing plant [8,9,26,46]. This plant can be grown as a fiber source, and the fiber that is gathered from it can be used to make cloth, cordage and paper [8,26]. Some varieties of this species can be grown as a ground cover [8]. They can also be planted as a soil stabilizer on sand dunes [8]. Yellow to green dyes can be obtained from all parts of dyer’s greenweed [8,9,26,48]. Dyer’s greenweed provides fodder for rabbits [8]. Plants also provide habitat for birds, insects and other wildlife [26]. Also, this shrub provides forage for bees [8,9].

Cultivation Details
Dyer’s greenweed will tolerate soils that are well drained and either dry or moist [8]. It will grow in light and medium soils as well as soils that have an acidic, neutral or alkaline
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pH [8,9]. Plants prefer full sun, and they are intolerant of full shade [8,9,56]. They are both wind and drought tolerant once established [8,9]. When grown as a dye plant, dyer’s greenweed is generally treated as a biennial, and the entire plant is harvested in its second year of growth [8]. If you are growing this plant as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about eighteen inches apart [9]. The plants will spread at a moderate speed by clumping, eventually forming a low-density cover [9]. ‘Flore Pleno’ is a dwarf variety of this species that spreads well and creates a superior cover [9]. Plants do not transplant well and resent root disturbance [8]. Thus, any necessary transplanting should be done when they are still young [8]. Dyer’s greenweed can be propagated by cuttings and seed [56].

Known Hazards
Plants do contain toxins so proper care should be taken prior to eating or preparing any of its parts medicinally [8,9].

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Gleditsia triacanthos
Common name: Honey Locust Family: Fabaceae Range: Eastern North American native [10,41,50,56]; Widely distributed throughout most of the United States [41,50] Habitat: Floodplains, riverbanks, pastures, fencerows, abandoned fields [43] Hardiness: 3-8 [10,13] Other Common Names: Sweet Bean [10], Sweet Locust [10], Three Thorned Acacia [10], Honeyshuck [10], Thorny Locust [10] Primary Uses: Livestock Fodder, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Timber, Coppice Material, Fuel, Sugar, Edible – seeds, pulp and pods

Physical Characteristics
Honey locust is a deciduous tree that grows to a height of about one hundred feet [13]. Both the trunk and branches often bear large, conspicuous thorns, though some cultivated varieties have been bred thornless [13]. Leaves are alternate, pinnate or bi-pinnately compound with fourteen to nineteen leaf pairs along the rachis [13]. Leaflets are small, ellipsoid to ovate, rounded at the tip and have an entire (untoothed) margin [13]. Flowers are greenish and clustered and are present from April to June [13]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are large, flat beanlike pods between three and sixteen inches in length that eventually turn from green to brown [13]. They contain many brown, lens-shaped seeds
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that reside in a brown pulp [13]. Pods generally do not begin dropping until late December or January [43].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Sugar, Pulp, Seeds, Flour, Coffee, Drink, Beer The thick sweet pulp that surrounds the seeds in the pods can be used as a brown sugar substitute [6,13,15,16,43]. This pulp can also be eaten raw [15]. Ground seeds can be substituted for flour in baking [24,41,50]. Roasted seeds can be used as a coffee substitute [13]. Seeds can be eaten raw or cooked and have a sweet flavor [15]. Tender green seeds pods of the honey locust can especially be cooked and eaten [13]. The young seeds reportedly taste like raw peas [13,15]. Both the seedpods and the seeds themselves can be used to make a drink [56]. Seedpods can reportedly be fermented and used to produce beer [16,42]. Honey locust pods contain twenty-seven to thirty percent sugar, while the seeds contain ten percent protein [39,41].

Medicinal Uses
Cold Remedy, Fever Remedy, Cough Remedy, Antiseptic An infusion of honey locust bark can be taken for colds and fevers [37]. Infusions made from either the roots or bark can be used to soothe coughs [37]. The juice of the pods is antiseptic [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Livestock Fodder, Fuel, Soil Stabilizer, Windbreak, Hedge, Timber, Coppice Material, Light Canopy, Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage The fruits of this tree serve as excellent livestock fodder [39,41,50]. In fact, they can be grown in the pastures, allowing the cattle to forage for their food and clean up the fallen
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fruits [50]. Fruits can also be ground before feeding to the livestock [41]. They have an equivalent feed value to oats [41]. Though honey locust is a member of the legume family, it unfortunately does not fix atmospheric nitrogen like most of the other members of this family [15,58]. Harvesting the beans produced by this tree is incredibly easy as they are quite large [50]. Seedpods can also be used for alcohol fuel production [58]. Trees have a very deep taproot [50]. They are quite good at controlling erosion [50]. When trees are planted so that they are not crowded, they produce long branches near the ground and thus are wonderful species for both hedges and windbreaks [41,50]. The thorns also help protect the trees from livestock [41]. Honey locust can be grown as a timber tree. The heartwood is reported to last one hundred years in the ground untreated [58]. Wood is red-brown in color and has straight coarse grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength, very durable, heavy and hard [10]. It is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, railway sleepers and wheels, hubs and spokes [10]. Honey locust wood is also commonly used in furniture making. It weighs fortytwo pounds per cubic foot [56]. Trees will coppice quite readily [58]. As these trees have open-tops, they allow a fair amount of light to pass through the canopy, favorably permitting a two-story agriculture [15,39,50,58]. In winter, leafless honey locust canopies cast forty percent shade [32]. They have a very light canopy and come into leaf late in the season while they lose their leaves early [56]. Thus, they are a wonderful canopy tree for a woodland garden [56]. Honey locusts are very good companions for conventional fruit crops like apples and plums [15]. Honey locusts provide an abundance of forage for wildlife [13]. Trees also provide excellent bee forage [39].

Cultivation Details
Honey locusts will grow in any well-drained soil though they prefer deep, rich loams [39,41,50]. They are tolerant of acidic and alkaline soils [58]. They also prefer full sun [10,41]. Trees are very intolerant of shade [50,56]. Established trees are drought tolerant [15,39,41,50,56]. Honey locusts are also very tolerant of pollution and salt [15,56].

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Honey locust is a fast growing tree [50]. Annual increases of two feet in height and a half-inch in diameter is not uncommon in favorable locations [50]. Plants begin producing fruit at about ten years of age [15]. At this age, they may already have reached a height of fifteen feet [10]. They will produce commercial crops for some one hundred years thereafter [15]. Wild trees generally have a lifespan of 120 years [56]. Trees are incredibly productive, and some have been found to be regular bearers of fruit [41,50]. Individual trees may yield up to twenty bushels [41]. In Alabama, eight-year-old trees produced over 250 pounds each [41]. If there were thirty-five trees per acre, this would equal 8750 pounds/acre [41]. These trees are subject to very few pests or diseases [41]. Trees can be easily propagated by grafting or root suckers [50]. Thorn-free varieties are available for cultivation (Gleditsia triacanthos inermis) [41,50].

Known Hazards
The large, sharp thorns produced by this tree can be dangerous.

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Helianthus annus
Common name: Sunflower Family: Compositae Range: North American natives [2,14,17]; Widespread throughout the United States [2,14,17] Habitat: Prairies, plains, roadsides, disturbed sites [14,31] Hardiness: 4 [7] Other Common Names: Mirasol [31], Giant Sunflower [2], Marigold of Peru [2], Prairie Sunflower [2] Primary Uses: Cover Crop, Green Manure, Soil Reclamation, Fiber – paper, cloth and cordage, Biomass, Mulch, Fuel, Oil, Windbreak, Livestock Fodder, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Edible seeds, sprouts, buds and tubers, Coffee, Flour

Physical Characteristics
Sunflower is an annual or perennial herb that grows up to ten feet high [2,14,23,31]. The stem is upright and marked with stiff hairs [14,23]. Leaves are alternate, simple, nearly triangular in shape, between two and twelve inches long and contain stiff hairs on both surfaces [14,31]. Flowers are produced in heads that are up to six inches in diameter [14]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated

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by flies and bees [56]. Individual petals are between one and two inches long, while the central disc flowers lack showy petals [14]. Fruit is flattened, dry and single seeded [14].

History
Sunflower was a staple food of many Native American tribes [22]. In fact, it was the Native Americans who domesticated this plant [31]. This plant was also known in prehistoric times, as large quantities of seeds have been found in the remains of dwellings of cave people that lived in the Ozark mountains long before any known historic tribes [22]. The annual sunflower was introduced to Europe in the middle of the sixteenth century [23]. Sunflower’s name comes from two Greek nouns, helios, the sun, and anthus, flower [2].

Edible Uses
Seeds, Flour, Yogurt, Nut Butter, Oil, Coffee, Sprouts, Buds, Tubers Sunflower seed heads can be gathered from late summer to early autumn before the seeds have grown dry enough to be released [14]. Flower heads should be hung in a warm dry place [14,17,23]. Native Americans parched and ground unshelled seeds into a fine meal that was used to form a dough that could be baked or eaten [14,17,31]. To separate the nutmeats from the shells, break the hulls open and pour the broken seeds into water, stirring vigorously [14,17]. The nutmeats will slowly sink while the shells rise to the top [14,17]. The nutmeats can be roasted and used in nut recipes [14,17]. Also, they can be ground into a flour and substituted for wheat flour in muffin and bread recipes [14,17]. In addition, seeds may be eaten as is [17]. A seed yogurt can be made if sunflower seeds are blended with water and left to ferment for twelve to twenty four hours in a warm place [15,56]. To make nut butter, grind raw nutmeats into a paste, adding honey or maple syrup to improve the flavor if desired [14]. The seeds may also be used to produce an oil [2,23]. In fact, sunflower seeds contain 50% oil [22]. To do this, they must be thoroughly crushed or ground and boiled in water [14]. The oil can then be skimmed off of the surface of the broth [14]. Roasted seed shells can be used for making coffee [2,14,15,22,31].

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Sprouted seeds can be eaten raw [56]. When cooked, sunflower flower buds can be eaten like globe artichokes [15,42,56]. There are also a few varieties of sunflowers that produce edible tubers [7]. These include oblonghead sunflower, Helianthus x doronicoides, the giant sunflower, Helianthus giganteus var. subtuberosus, showy sunflower, Helianthus x laetiflorus, and Maximilian sunflower, Helianthus maximilianii [7]. Sunflower seeds contain 53% protein, and this protein has been found to be nearly 100% digestible [22]. One hundred grams of sunflower seed (Helianthus annus) contain 560 calories, 24g of protein, 47.3g of fat, 120mg of calcium, 837mg of phosphorus, 7.1mg of iron, 30mg of sodium, 920mg of potassium, 50 I.U. of vitamin A, 2.00mg of thiamine, 0.23mg of riboflavin and 5.4mg of niacin [49].

Medicinal Uses
Snakebite Remedy, Poultice, Astringent, Diuretic, Expectorant, Rheumatism A poultice of crushed sunflower leaves has been traditionally applied to snakebites, sores, swellings and spider bites [37,56]. Tea made from the leaves is astringent, diuretic and expectorant [56]. A decoction of the roots can be used as a warm wash on rheumatic aches and pains [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Soil Reclamation, Dye, Fiber – Paper/Cloth/Cordage, Biomass, Mulch, Green Manure, Cover Crop, Potash Source/Fertilizer, Varnish, Soap, Companion Plant, Livestock Fodder, Seasonal Windbreak, Fuel, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Bee Forage Sunflower is quite effective at drying excessively damp soils as it is able to absorb remarkable quantities of water [22]. In fact, swampy sections of Holland have been made habitable by extensive cultivation of the sunflower [22]. Sunflowers can be used to produce a yellow dye, while the seeds of some varieties can be used to produce a purple-black dye [15,22,26,37]. The Chinese have long used the fibers of sunflower stems to manufacture paper [22,26]. Sunflower fibers can also be used to process cloth and cordage [26].

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Because of their prolific growth, sunflowers are a wonderful biomass producer, and as such, they are a significant source of mulch [15,26]. They can also be grown as a springsown cover or green manure crop [15,32]. Sixty two percent of sunflower ash is composed of potash [15,22]. Sunflower oil can be used in making varnishes and soaps [15,23]. Though they are allelopathic, sunflowers and members of the cucurbit family grow quite well together [46,54]. Sunflower leaves have been used as fodder for cattle and poultry [22,23]. Also, the seeds can be used as a source of chicken fodder [22,23]. These plants can be grown and used as a seasonal garden windbreak [46]. Dried sunflower stalks make an excellent fuel [15,56]. Also, sunflower seed oil has been mixed with diesel and used as a fuel to power farm machinery [34]. In fact, studies have even found that refined sunflower oil performs better than diesel as a fuel source [34]. Sunflower seeds attract birds in autumn, providing them with a vast food source [2,31,46]. Plants provide habitat for birds, insects and wildlife [26] and attract beneficial insects like lacewings and parasitic wasps [32,56]. Blooming sunflowers provide an abundant source of pollen and nectar for bees [46,54,56].

Cultivation Details
Sunflowers will succeed in most soils, [7,15,23,41] but they do best in deep rich soils [15]. They require a neutral soil [56]. Though some sunflowers are woodland plants and will tolerate light shade, most of them prefer positions in full sun [2,7,15]. Once established, sunflowers are drought tolerant [15]. Sunflowers are heavy feeders, so they require a large quantity of good compost [15,46,56]. Also, because of this, care should be taken to ensure that they are not grown in the same space year after year [15,56]. To fully utilize space in a garden, sunflowers can be grown as a living trellis, upon which, climbing plants can grow [32]. Once again, despite the fact that they are allelopathic, sunflowers will grow well with both cucumbers and corn [56]. Plants are primarily propagated by seed, which should be sown in mid spring in situ [56].

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There are a number of sunflower cultivars available, and they have generally either been selected and grown for the oil content in their seeds or the seeds themselves [56].

Known Hazards
When grown together, potatoes and sunflowers will stunt one another [46,58]. Sunflowers are allelopathic, and as a result, they can inhibit the growth of nearby plants [32,41,56]. Plants can accumulate nitrates, especially if they are fed on artificial fertilizers [56]. Sunflowers may act as hosts for the tarnished plant bug.

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Helianthus tuberosus
Common name: Jerusalem Artichoke Family: Compositae Range: Native to central North America; [1,2,5,23] Widely distributed throughout the United States, [13] but generally confined to the east [2,31] Habitat: Damp, rich thickets, waste areas, roadsides, [1,2,14,31] woodland borders, open floodplains [13,43] meadows, [13] old gardens [5,13] Hardiness: 3–9 [13] Other Common Names: Girasole [7,29], Topinambour [7,29], Tuberous Sunflower [31], Sunchoke [7,31], Sunflower Artichoke [2,7], Earth Apple [2,7], Sunflower Root [2], Canada Potato [2], Wild Sunflower [2], Sunroot [39] Primary Uses: Edible – tubers and flour, Pioneer, Biomass, Mulch, Livestock Fodder, Fuel, Coffee, Summer Windbreak

Physical Characteristics
Jerusalem artichoke is a perennial herb that grows up to eleven feet tall [13,14]. It commonly forms colonies when growing in the wild [2,14,17]. The stems are rough, hairy and upright, and the root system is comprised of elongated, red or white, fleshy edible tubers that are between three to five inches long [14]. On the lower parts of the stem, leaves are either opposite or in whorls of three, but higher up, they are single and alternate [2,13,14]. The leaves themselves are broadest near the base and grow up to ten inches long and between 2.5–6in inches wide [13,14]. They are tapered at the tip and base, scabrous (rough) above and often hairy beneath [13,14]. Daisylike flower heads are yellow and are between 2–5in broad [1,13,14]. Jerusalem artichoke has several flower heads per plant that form on slender stems from the leaf
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bases on the upper part of the stems [14]. Flowers are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. The fruit is a small nutlet 0.2–0.3in long, with minute spinelets at the tip [13]. The plant closely resembles the wild sunflower, but it has more slender stalks and grows in thicker clusters [17]. Jerusalem artichoke usually flowers in late July and continues on until frost, when most of the aerial energy is transported downwards to the roots and tubers [13].

History
Jerusalem artichokes were commonly cultivated by Native Americans [1,17]. In fact, it is believed to be one of the oldest cultivated vegetables [22]. They were also commonly used by early American settlers [1]. Jerusalem artichokes were introduced to Europe not long after Colombus’ voyages to the New World and became very popular amongst peoples along the Mediterranean [1,2,17]. The Italians called it girasole and to the Spanish, it was girasol [1,2,17]. These two words both mean sunflower, but they became corrupted by the English over time and thus came to be known as Jerusalem [1,2,17]. The ‘artichoke’ refers to the fact that centuries ago people boiled the flower buds of some of the edible sunflowers and ate them with butter like artichokes [1,2]. Jerusalem artichoke’s widespread cultivation led to its escape and naturalization throughout much of North America [2].

Edible Uses
Tubers, Pickle, Flour The tubers are the primary food source provided by Jerusalem artichoke, and they can be dug up from the first frost all the way through winter [2,14]. Because Jerusalem artichoke’s energy is transported to the roots late in the growing season, it generally follows that the longer you wait to harvest, the bigger, and sweeter, the harvest will be [13,31]. Since the flowering stalks will persist through winter, they can be constantly harvested throughout the season as long as the ground isn’t frozen [13]. Individual plants may produce a pound or more of raw tubers [13]. Once harvested, the tubers should be left covered in sandy soil until needed [22]. To prepare the tubers, they should first be peeled and scrubbed. They can be sliced raw and added to a salad, boiled and mashed, roasted or sliced and fried [5,14]. When eaten raw, Jerusalem artichokes are described as crunchy with a taste similar to water chestnuts [31]. Many potato and carrot recipes can be adapted for Jerusalem artichoke [1,14]. When cooking the tubers, make sure that they are not cooked too long or at too high a temperature because they may toughen as a result [1].

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To pickle the tubers, peel them and boil for three to four minutes, cover with wine vinegar and age for three to five weeks [5,14,17]. Tubers may also be ground and used as flour that can be substituted for between 25 and 50 percent of the wheat flour called for in recipes [19]. Tubers may be roasted and used as a coffee substitute [56]. Jerusalem artichoke has a food value that is similar to that of potato, [14,17] but unlike the potato, Jerusalem artichokes have a low starch content [5]. The carbohydrates provided by the tubers are mostly insulin and thus are appropriate for low starch diets [14,17]. Tubers are high in iron but low in fat [31]. A 100g portion of raw tubers contains between seven calories for those that have been freshly harvested to 75 calories for those stored for a long period [31]. This same portion also contains 2.3g of protein, 0.1g of fat, 14mg of calcium, 78mg of phosphorus, 3.4mg iron, 20 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.20mg of thiamine, 0.06mg of riboflavin, 1.3mg of niacin, and 4mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Inulin Source – Diabetes, Rheumatism Remedy The tubers contain inulin, a carbohydrate source that is largely indigestible [1,5,31], and so it may be a favorable plant for both weight watchers and diabetics to cultivate [13,31]. In fact, fructose is actually made from inulin [48]. Western Indians make tea from the shoots as a remedy for rheumatism [13].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Summer Windbreak, Pioneer, Biomass Crop, Mulch, Alcohol – Fuel, Livestock Fodder Jerusalem artichoke can be planted and utilized as a fast growing, summer windbreak or wind shelter [7,15,39]. This will not be effective in a windy garden though, because the plants will simply be blown over [15]. If Jerusalem artichokes are planted for this purpose, they should instead be dwarfed by pinching out growing tips when they are about two feet tall in order to encourage bushier growth [15]. It should also be mentioned though, that plants will not reach a reasonable height until July, and by October, they are generally dying down [56]. They may also be grown as a pioneer, as Jerusalem artichokes are useful to break up hard soils [39]. Since the tubers are the most widely used part of the plant, Jerusalem artichoke can be grown as a biomass crop so that all of the above-ground, vegetative matter can be put to a use [7,15].
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The leaves may be used as a spot mulch in gardens after the tubers have been harvested [39]. The starchy tubers may be fermented and used to produce alcohol for fuel [7,15]. The tubers may also be grown for use as livestock fodder [7]. Tubers can be used as hog feed, [39,48] while dry stalks and leaves are eaten by goats [39].

Cultivation Details
Jerusalem artichoke is commonly cultivated today, [14] as it is a plant that is easily grown [5,31]. Unharvested tubers will initiate the growth of new plants, so the Jerusalem artichoke will easily self-seed, and can be carefully contained within a general area [31,48]. If you are not relying on them to self-seed, tubers should be planted in early spring [23]. Jerusalem artichokes thrive in damp, but not wet ground, [2,7] yet they will also tolerate drought [39]. They will grow in poor soil, but they will produce more if grown in good soil [19]. Plants tend to like some lime in the soil [56]. Though they prefer to grow in full sun, Jerusalem artichokes will grow in partial shade [7,32]. It can tolerate strong winds, but not maritime exposure [56]. Young Jerusalem artichoke growth is very attractive to slugs, and they can totally destroy plants [56]. Jerusalem artichoke yields are often four to five times that of potatoes [39]. Roger Grinnell explains that he once spaced Jerusalem artichoke plants three to four feet apart in organically improved sand and harvested almost 400 tubers (several gallons) from one plant [19]. Growing plants in sand means that the tubers can be quite easily cleaned [19]. Though tubers may be left in the soil over winter, some recommended that they be dug up before the ground freezes to prevent vole damage and mammalian theft [19]. Others recommend that they be left in the soil through winter, as the tubers become sweeter tasting and are then quite palatable raw [15].

Known Hazards
Jerusalem artichokes can be incredibly invasive and persistent, and though they can be controlled, it may take considerable work [31]. Also, Jerusalem artichokes are allelopathic and release a root exudate that is toxic to some plants, [39] so it is best to be careful as to which species they are grown amongst. Also, overconsumption of tubers has been found to cause flatulence [37].

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Hemerocaulis fulva
Common name: Day Lily Family: Liliaceae Range: Asian native [7,33]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [13,14] Habitat: Roadsides, thickets [33], abandoned home sites, vacant lots [13,14] Hardiness: 4-9 [7,13] Other Common Names: Tawny Daylily [7,13], Fulvous Daylily [7], Orange Daylily [7] Primary Uses: Edible – buds, flowers, tubers and stalks, Cordage, Ground Cover, Soil Stabilizer, Ornamental, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Day lily is a perennial herb with tuberous roots that grows to a height of about six feet [7,14,33]. Leaves are basal, light green to greenish-yellow, sword-like and between one and a half and five feet long [14,33]. The flower stalk is leafless and grows up to six feet in height [14,33]. This is the point from which the upward facing blossoms emerge [33]. The flower buds are narrow and tube-shaped [14]. The flowers are in clusters of three to five at the tip of the stalk and average about five inches in width [14,33]. They have six large petal-like segments, are orangish in color and emerge from late May to July [13,14,17]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Each flower is only open for a single day [14,17,33]. Fruits are fleshy capsules that have three parts [13,14].

History
Day lilies are Asian horticultural species that were introduced to the United States and grown in flower gardens for their showy blossoms [33].
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Edible Uses
Buds, Flowers, Tubers, Stalks All parts of the day lily are edible. The tip of the flower stalk and the young buds can be used for cooked greens, the flowers can be served as a cooked vegetable or dessert and the tubers can be used as a boiled vegetable [13,17,33]. When harvesting tubers, make sure to select only those that are firm [14,17]. Buds can be picked when they are half to nearly full size [14,17]. If you want to avoid damaging the young flower buds or blossoms, you can wait to remove the petals until after the flower has completed blooming and droops [17,33]. These blooms can be sautéed, used in fritters or dried and used to thicken soups [33]. Both the blooms and the buds can be dried by putting a layer of them on a sheet pan and placing it in a warm dry room for about a week until they grow crisp [14,17,33]. To regenerate these stored products, add just enough water to ensure that they are completely soaked [17]. If eaten raw, the tubers will impart a sweet nutty flavor on salads or whatever else they may be cooked with [14,17]. They can generally be used as a potato substitute in recipes [13,14]. To prepare the buds, boil about a half a cup of water and add two cups of blossoms [14,33]. Cover and cook over low heat for three minutes [33]. They are said to have a taste that is similar to summer squash [33]. They may also be enjoyed raw [13], though some say that when raw, they irritate the throat [14]. In addition, buds may be pickled [13]. Buds and flowers can be added to soups and stews during the last few minutes of cooking to serve as a thickener, imparting a gelatinous quality that is not unlike okra [17]. Also, in spring, the sprouting stalks of day lilies are edible [15,17]. They can be cut just above the roots and after removing the larger leaves, the tender inner stalk portion can be sliced and added to salads or prepared like asparagus [17]. One hundred grams of day lilies (part unspecified) contains 42 calories, 2.0g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 87mg of calcium, 176mg of phosphorus, 1.2mg of iron, 24mg of sodium, 170mg of potassium, 3000 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.16mg of thiamine, 0.21mg of riboflavin, 0.8mg of niacin and 88mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Diuretic, Anodyne, Antiemetic, Antispasmodic, Depurative, Febrifuge, Sedative Tubers can be used as a laxative and a diuretic [13,56].

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Day lily flowers are anodyne, antiemetic, antispasmodic, depurative, febrifuge and sedative [56]. An extract of the flowers is used as a blood purifier [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Cordage, Ground Cover, Soil Stabilizer Day lily flowers can be used to produce a dye [7,9]. Foliage can be plaited to make cord [9]. Day lilies are a useful understory plant and can be grown under trees as a guild with marigolds, dill, nasturtium, etc. [41]. Plants can be used as a semi-evergreen ground cover [7,9]. They will spread quite quickly forming a cover that is moderate in density [9]. Because of their stout tubers, day lilies can be planted for erosion control [7,9,41].

Cultivation Details
Day lilies prefer full sun though they will tolerate partial shade [7,9,15,56]. They will also do best in moist soils [7]. Day lilies are tolerant of all soil types and pH levels though they prefer a pH between 6 and 7 [9,15,56]. Tubers can be replanted to develop a new crop [14]. They regenerate very quickly [9,14]. If planting day lilies as a ground cover they should be spaced a foot and a half apart from one another [9]. The cultivar ‘Kwanso Flore Pleno’ is recommended for good ground cover [9]. Plants can be propagated by seed or division [56]. There are a number of named cultivars that are available for propagation [15,56].

Known Hazards
Day lilies can become invasive, so care should be taken to ensure that that do not spread too rapidly throughout the yard [9]. They are generally easy to control [15]. Also, day lily tubers can have a laxative effect, so simply be aware of this [13]. It is said that eating large quantities of the leaves of this plant may have a hallucinogenic effect, so if you do choose to consume them, do so in moderation [15].

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Humulus lupulus
Common name: European Hop Family: Cannabiaceae Range: European native [7,23,35]; Cultivated throughout the United States Habitat: Moist, rich soils, thickets, river banks [22] Hardiness: 5 [56] Other Common Names: Hop [7], Common Hop [7], Bine [7,25] Primary Uses: Beer, Edible – leaves and shoots, Fiber – paper and basketry, Medicine, Climbing Perennial, Summer Shade

Physical Characteristics
Hop is a rough stemmed twining vine that reaches an average annual height of about twenty feet [7,29]. While the roots are perennial, the vine dies each year [7,23,29]. Leaves have three to five lobes [29]. Flowers are small and greenish white [29]. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers are borne on separate plants) and are wind pollinated [41,56]. Female flowers are green and cone-like [35]. Male flowers are borne on separate plants and have a different appearance [23]. The multiple fruit produced by this plant is similar to that of the mulberry except that each ovary is covered with a large leafy bract [29].

History
The female flowers of the hop plant have been used to flavor beer since the ninth century [35]. Hops became a commercial crop in England around 1520 [23].
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Edible Uses
Flowers, Beer, Shoots, Leaves, Tea Flowers are ready to be picked by early to mid-September [7,22,35]. They are used commercially to prepare beers and ales [7,22,39,41]. For strongly flavored beers, the flowers are used fresh [35]. Otherwise, they can be dried in a warm airy place or in a low oven until they are pale brown [35]. In addition to their effect on the taste of beer, hop also serves to retard bacterial action, aiding in the fermentation of the drink [29]. The young shoots and leaves of this plant can also be used as a vegetable [7,15,22,23,29,35,39,41]. They should be gathered when they have reached four to six inches in height [22]. They can be cooked as a potherb or added to soups [22,35]. Young leaves can be eaten raw in salads [56]. A tea can be made from the leaves and cones [56]. Ground hops can also be used as a baking soda substitute [22,37].

Medicinal Uses
Insomnia, Rheumatism, Anodyne, Antiseptic, Antispasmodic, Febrifuge, Hypnotic, Nervine, Sedative, Stomachic, Tonic, Poultice, Earaches, Toothaches, Fever Remedy, Tonic, Stimulant, Diuretic Hop roots can be used medicinally in the treatment of insomnia [37,38,41]. Plants can be taken for rheumatism [37]. Female fruits are anodyne, antiseptic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, hypnotic, nervine, sedative, stomachic and tonic [56]. A poultice made from hops can be applied to wounds, earaches and toothaches [37]. A decoction of the fruits can be taken for fevers and intestinal pains [37]. An infusion of the plant can be taken as a tonic, stimulant and diuretic [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Paper, Cloth, Basketry, Dye, Oil, Perfumery, Summer Shade, Glass Making, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Fodder A fiber can be obtained from the stems of the hop plant [7,15,25,26,56].

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Paper, cards and textiles can be made from the pulp of this plant [7,25,26,56]. Hop stems can be used for basketry [7,25]. The leaves, flowers and shoots are the source of a brown dye [7,41,56]. The female fruiting heads also are the source of an essential oil that is used in perfumery [56]. Average yields are between 0.4 and 0.5% [56]. Plants can be trellised along a wall to provide a house with summer shade [32]. Ashes of this plant are used in making glasswares [7,25]. Leaves and spent hops provide excellent livestock fodder [25]. Plants provide birds, insects and wildlife with habitat [26]. Hop is a valuable bee plant, providing them with pollen [7].

Cultivation Details
Hops prefer moist soils and positions in full sun though plants will tolerate partial shade [7]. It is best to plant them in a relatively sheltered site [41,56]. Established plants are somewhat drought tolerant [15,56]. Planting vines along the edge of swamps, marshes or dams is ideal [38,39]. Hop shoots grow rapidly and reach a length of eighteen to twenty-five feet in a season [23]. Plants are also long lived, and grow for eighty to one hundred years [39]. Under cultivation, hops are trellised so that they can occupy available vertical space [23]. Male plants are unnecessary because female cones do not need to be pollinated to produce resin [15,41]. The female plants just won’t produce seed [15,48]. If you do want your plants to produce seed, one male is enough for five or six female plants [15]. Plants can be propagated by seed, division, basal cuttings or suckers from healthy female plants [41]. There are many named varieties of hops available for cultivation [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Juglans cinerea
Common name: Butternut Family: Juglandaceae Range: Eastern North American native [16,33,56,57]; Widespread throughout the eastern United States [1,2,33] Habitat: Dry, limestone soils [33], bottomlands, floodplains, mixed deciduous forests [14] Hardiness: 3 [24] Other Common Names: White Walnut [1,22,29,33], Oilnut [1,22] Primary Uses: Edible – nuts, oil, butter, sap, syrup, sugar and flour, Timber, Dye, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Butternut is a medium to large tree with an open rounded crown that grows to a height of about sixty to eighty feet [1,14,33]. Bark is light gray with shallow fissures in between flat ridges [2,33]. Twigs are stout, smooth to somewhat downy, greenish-gray to reddishyellow, with large chambered large dark pith segments [2]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, pinnately compound with 11 to 17 ovate to lance-shaped serrate (toothed) leaflets [1,14,29,33]. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are male or

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female, but they can both be found on the same plant) and they are pollinated by the wind [56]. Male flowers are in drooping catkins that emerge from the lateral buds of the past season’s growth, and female flowers are borne in short spikes at the new growth’s tip [33]. Flowers emerge in early spring [14]. Fruit is ellipsoid in shape, about two inches in length and is covered with a greenish bronze sticky husk [1,17,29,33].

History
The Shakers used the butternut tree to make furniture and to produce a rich purple dye [5]. Confederate partisans and soldiers were called butternuts during the civil war because the typical military uniforms were often dyed with the green nuts husks and the inner bark of this tree [1,2].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Pickle, Flour, Oil, Butter, Sap, Syrup, Sugar Harvest the ripe nut in autumn as they fall from the trees in October and November [14,56]. Some of the fruits will remain on the trees after the leaves have fallen in winter [33]. Partly grown nuts can be picked in summer for pickling [1,2,14,17,22]. They are ready when a needle will penetrate the husk [1,2,14,17]. The nuts should be dried thoroughly before using [14]. The nutmeats can be separated from the husks in the same way as for black walnut. Unfortunately, this can be a messy process, as the husks will stain your hands brown. Another method is to leave the husked nuts in an attic after they ripen, and they will gradually separate from one another, making the job much easier [16,22]. If desired, they can be ground into powder and used with flour in baking [56]. Butternuts can be used to make oil or nut butter [2,14]. The process is exactly the same as for black walnut. To pickle the nuts, scald them and remove all of the outer fuzz. Place them in a kettle, cover with water and boil until the water changes color. The water should be then changed and continue to boil the nuts. Continue this process until the water remains clear. Pack the nuts in canning jars with one dill flower, three walnut leaflets, one teaspoon of pickling spices, one teaspoon salt, and a quarter teaspoon alum. Fill the jar with boiling cider vinegar, seal and age for at least one month. [1,14,17] Butternut sap can be boiled down to make syrup and sugar in the springtime [1,2]. One hundred grams of butternuts contain 629 calories, 23.7g of protein, 61.2g of fat, 8.4g of carbohydrates and 6.8mg of iron [2,49].

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Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Cathartic, Rheumatism, Arthritis, Headaches, Dysentery, Skin Wounds The inner bark is the source of a common laxative that has been used as far back as the Revolution [1,2,37]. This was made by adding a spoonful of finely cut bark pieces to a cup of boiling water [1,2]. Decoctions of the bark can be taken as a cathartic [37]. Butternut was used by a number of Native American tribes for rheumatism, arthritis, headaches, dysentery, constipation and skin wounds [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Timber Nut hulls and bark can be used as a source of yellow to orange dyes [5,22,37,48]. They do not require a mordant [56]. The husks can be dried and stored for later use [56]. The twigs, leaves, buds and unripe fruit can be used as a source of a light brown dye [56]. They also do not require a mordant and the leaves can be dried and stored for later use [56]. Butternut is a fine timber source [5]. It is much lighter in color than the black walnut [5,10]. The grain is straight and coarse [10]. Seasoned timber is moderately weak and light [10]. It is used for joinery and interior construction, furniture and cabinet work and fuel [10]. Wood weighs twenty-five pounds per cubic foot [56].

Cultivation Details
Butternut does well in moist soils [10]. It prefers light, medium and heavy soils but it requires them to be well-drained [56]. Butternut also will tolerate acidic, neutral and basic soils, though plants prefer slightly alkaline soils with a pH between 6 and 7 [56]. Trees prefer full sun and are intolerant of shaded sites [10,56]. Also, they require shelter from strong winds [56]. At least two trees are necessary to ensure pollination [57]. Butternut is a fast growing, short-lived tree [24,56]. It will reach a height of ten feet in the first ten years of growth, but they seldom exceed eighty to ninety years in age [10,56]. They also can come into bearing within six to ten years from seed [56]. Fruiting is usually biennial [56]. Butternut requires 105 frost-free days in order to ripen a crop here in North America [56].

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Because butternut has a deep taproot, trees are intolerant of root disturbance [56]. Thus, seedlings should be planted out in their permanent positions as soon as possible [56]. Though very similar to their relatives the black walnut, butternut trees will grow in much colder climates [1,2,50,56]. They can be propagated by seed or grafting [39]. Named varieties are available for cultivation [56].

Known Hazards
The butternut, like black walnuts, are allelopathic and have an inhibitory effect on the growth of other nearby plants [46]. The roots release a chemical that slows the growth and development of plants that are competing with it for the same root space.

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Juglans nigra
Common name: Black Walnut Family: Juglandaceae Range: North American native [2,5,23]; Widely distributed throughout the Northeast [2,5] Habitat: Moist, rich, well-drained soils [33,57], bottomlands, floodplains, low mixed deciduous forest [14] Hardiness: 3-9 [32] Other Common Names: Common Black Walnut [2], Walnut Tree [2], Virginian Walnut [10], American Walnut [10], Eastern Black Walnut [10] Primary Uses: Edible – nuts and oil, Timber, Insect Repellent, Livestock Fodder, Stain, Wood Polish

Physical Characteristics
Black Walnut is a medium to large tree, usually growing to between fifty to one hundred feet, (up to 150ft tall) with an open rounded crown that has furrowed bark and dark brown wood [14,23,33]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate and pinnately compound with nine to twenty-three ovate to lanceolate, serrated leaflets [1,14,23,33]. The pith within the twigs is large, chambered and light brown in color [2]. Flowers emerge in spring [14]. Male flowers emerge as drooping catkins from lateral buds on the previous season’s growth, while female flowers are borne in short spikes at the tip of the new growth [33]. They are wind pollinated [56]. Black Walnut fruit matures and falls in autumn and is comprised of a fleshy husk, a hard shell and an edible, oily seed [14,33].

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Black Walnut and Butternut are two closely related species in the Juglandaceae family, but they can be distinguished by differences in their bark and fruit. Black Walnut bark is dark brown and divided by deep narrow furrows whereas butternut bark is light gray in color with shallow fissures [33]. Also, black walnut fruit is cylindrical in shape and about two inches in diameter while butternut fruit is more ellipsoid in shape, about two inches in length and covered with a husk that is sticky and greenish bronze in color [2,33]. One other difference is that the butternut usually has between eleven and seventeen leaflets per leaf [2].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Nuts, Pickle, Oil, Butter, Sap Black walnut fruit stays on the trees after the leaves have fallen [33]. They can be collected from late September to late December, though the optimal collecting period is mid October to early December [43]. They produce bumper crops every two or three years [33]. Individual trees can yield up to 150lbs of nuts in a single year [35]. Apparently the nuts must be harvested at just the right time, under just the right conditions for the fruit and the oil to turn out well [5]. After harvesting the fruit, remove the thick husks immediately by partially crushing them and then rubbing it off with gloved hands [14]. They may also be hulled by wearing a heavy pair of shoes and grinding them on the ground [17]. Once hulled, allow the nuts to dry well before using them [14]. To reach the actual nut, crack the shell open perpendicular to the seam [14]. Immature walnuts can be pickled as well [16]. To do so, the half-grown fruits should be harvested and submerged in salted boiling water while still inside the husk. Thoroughly wipe them off to clean off the down, and then preserve them in boiling vinegar and spice as you like. [16] To obtain an oil from the nuts, boil them for thirty or more minutes, allowing both the shells and the nutmeats to settle [14]. Skim off any oil [14]. Boil again and use a sieve to skim the nutmeats as they rise above the shells [14]. You may then dry and grind the nutmeats, using them in baking or making them into nut butter [14]. Walnuts can be used extensively in recipes both to enrich the texture and nutrition of the other foods with which it is cooked. To make walnut butter, simply grind up one cup of finely chopped walnuts to a paste either with a mortar and pestle or a blender [33]. As such, it may be used as a topping for breads, salad greens or fresh fruit. Also, if desired, add a teaspoon or two of honey to help sweeten it a bit [33].

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Black walnut yields a sweet sap that can be tapped in the spring and either concentrated into syrup or sugar or drunk as is. [56]. The nuts themselves contain a high amount of protein, fat and carbohydrate [33]. They are also an excellent source of phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A and thiamine [33]. Black walnuts are composed of 2.5% water, 27.6% protein, 56.3% fat, 11.7% carbohydrates and 1.9% ash [50]. One hundred grams of black walnuts contain 628 calories, 20.5g of protein, 59.3g of fat, 15g of carbohydrates, 570mg of phosphorus, 6mg of iron, 3mg of sodium, 460mg of potassium, 300 I.U. of vitamin A, .22mg of thiamine, .11mg of riboflavin and .7mg of niacin [2,49].

Medicinal Uses
Little to no information was available on the medicinal uses of black walnut. A number of very brief remedies are listed in Moerman’s Native American Ethnobotany, but I have chosen not to include them here because of their brevity.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Stain, Wood Polish, Timber, Livestock Fodder, Insect Repellent A dye and a stain for leather or wood can be made from the hulls of black walnut [5]. For brief information on their preparation see Nelson Coon’s Using Wild and Wayside Plants (1957). Walnuts themselves can also be used as a wood polish [15]. Simply crack them open and rub the nut into the wood, following up by wiping it off with a clean cloth [15]. Black walnut wood is very beautiful and quite valuable [15]. The grain is straight and coarse and the heartwood is dark brown in color [10]. The wood is hard, average in strength and heaviness and very durable [10]. It’s a common cabinet wood, and it’s also used for joinery and interior construction, furniture, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, veneer, gunstocks and plywood [10]. Very high prices are paid for straight walnut timber and black walnut typically yields within forty to fifty years [41]. Walnuts can be used as forage for both chickens and pigs [50]. Also, walnuts repel stable flies, houseflies and flies that live on cattle, so they are a great comfort to livestock when planted out in pastures [46]. Black walnut may also be an effective insect deterrent when planted near manure and compost piles and near entrances to barns and stables [46]. Walnut leaves also reportedly help to repel insects.

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Cultivation Details
Black walnut does best on soils that are moist, deep, well drained and have a more or less neutral pH [43]. It is not tolerant of shade [43] and requires full sun [10]. It prefers positions that are sheltered from strong winds [56]. Walnut trees usually take many years before beginning to bear nuts [15]. On that note though, there are a number of very hardy varieties from Poland that are becoming available that reportedly produce fruit within five to eight years [15]. Black walnut can reach a height of about twenty five feet in ten years [10]. Once producing, black walnuts may yield about 4.7 pounds per 100 square feet [32]. Ken Fern reports that he is growing a walnut variety called Juglans ailanthifolia cordiformis, and it produced its first few fruits for him after only six years of growth from seed [15]. Though the nut is somewhat smaller than that of the common walnut, the seed is reportedly quite tasty and in borne within a thin, easily cracked shell [15]. Once mature, these varieties reach 20m in height and have a spread of about 15m [15]. Black walnut is disease resistant [15]. Because of the allelopathic nature of walnuts (see Known Hazards), they should be planted out in a woodland so that there is no possibility of ending up with a monoculture of walnut trees [15]. To do this, try planting a mixture of cultivars in groups of two or three, spacing them very widely amongst other trees [15]. Also, walnuts cast a dense shade, which makes it even more difficult for plants to grow in their understory [15].

Known Hazards
Black walnut is allelopathic, releasing the toxic substance juglone [43], so plantings should be carefully considered. Toxins exuded from the roots, fallen leaves and fruit husks can significantly effect crops planted within the tree’s dripline [33,46]. Studies have found that though some plants are strongly effected by juglone, others actually do quite well when growing underneath black walnut [32]. Black walnut will stunt the growth or even kill tomatoes, blackberry, alfalfa, asparagus, chrysanthemum, dock, potatoes, cereal grains, pine trees and apple trees [32]. On the other hand, Russian olive, black raspberries, ferns, goldenrod, asters, mints, violets, wild grape, clovers, buckwheat, peach trees, pear trees, plum trees and Kentucky bluegrass all have been found to grow fairly well either beneath or near black walnut trees [32].

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Juncus effusus
Common name: Common Rush Family: Juncaceae Range: Temperate regions [7] Habitat: Moist areas, waterways, waterlogged soils, damp woods, acid soils [56] Hardiness: 2-4 [7] Other Common Names: Soft Rush [7], Japanese Mat Rush [7] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Fiber – basketry, cordage and paper, Soil Stabilizer, Wildlife Habitat, Water Purifier, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
The common rush is an aquatic perennial that grows to a height of about five feet [7]. Plants are in flower from June to August [56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are wind pollinated [56].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Sprouts Early rush sprouts can be eaten either raw or cooked [37,56].

Medicinal Uses

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Antiphlogistic, Depurative, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Lenitive, Lithontripic, Pectoral, Sedative, Emetic The pith of the stem is antiphlogistic, depurative, discutient, diuretic, febrifuge, lenitive, lithontripic, pectoral and sedative [56]. A decoction of the plant can be taken as an emetic [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Basketry, Cordage, Paper, Indicator Plant, Soil Stabilizer, Water Purifier, Illumination Source, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat The stems can be used as fiber for weaving chair seats and baskets [6,7,38]. This fiber can also be used to make paper [56]. This is done by harvesting the stems in late summer or autumn, splitting and cutting them into usable pieces and soaking them in clear water for twenty-four hours [56]. They should then be cooked with lye for two hours and beaten in a blender [56]. They will produce a paper that is off-white in color [56]. The presence of existing rushes in an area is an indication of wet soils [32]. Rushes can be planted as channel border plants [38]. They can be used to control erosion along stream banks [7,38]. Rushes help to purify the water in which they grow [7]. The pith inside the stems of this plant can be burned and used as a source of lighting [7]. The vegetative matter produced by these plants can be used as a source of livestock fodder [37]. Plants provide both habitat and seed for waterfowl and other aquatic wildlife [7,38].

Cultivation Details
Rushes require wet soils [7]. They prefer full sun but are also tolerant of partial shade [7]. Plants prefer acid and neutral soils [56]. They are tolerant of strong winds [56]. They would be an important and beneficial plant to include in marshes, dams and wetlands. Plants can be propagated by seed or division [56].

Known Hazards
Rushes are possibly toxic to mammals [56]. Thus, before consuming the young stalks, it is probably best to make sure that they are completely safe.

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Lathyrus latifolius
Common name: Everlasting Pea Family: Fabaceae Range: European native [8,9,16] Habitat: Hillsides, stream valleys, open woods [31], hedges, vineyards, fields, uncultivated areas [56] Hardiness: 5 [8,9] Other Common Names: Perennial Pea [9], Perennial Sweet Pea [32], Vetchling [46] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Ground Cover, Pest Repellent, Edible – seeds, pods and leaves (see notes on toxicity in Edible Uses section), Bee Forage

Physical Characteristics
Everlasting pea is a climbing perennial legume that grows to a height and spread of up to six feet [8,9]. Plants use tendrils in order to climb [9]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate and blue-green [9,31]. Flowers are pinkish-purple and pea-like [9]. They are present from summer to early autumn [9]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Seeds, Seed Pods, Leaves Though the cooked seeds and young seed pods have been eaten, they are not recommended because the excessive indulgence of eating the seed of this plant can lead to a type of poisoning called lathyrism [8,9]. Despite this, if consumed in moderation in a well-balanced diet, the seeds are innocuous [8]. Also, the young leaves can reportedly be eaten as a pot herb [56]. The earth-nut pea, Lathyrus tuberosus, is a related plant that produces edible tubers [15,16]. Apparently they are quite tasty and can even be eaten raw, though they are quite chewy [15]. They grow to about one to four inches in diameter and are very rich in starch [15]. Cooked tubers become sweet and develop a floury texture and a flavor that is compared to that of roasted sweet chestnuts [15,16].

Medicinal Uses
None known.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Pest Repellent, Ground Cover, Bee Forage Everlasting pea is a nitrogen-fixer [8,9]. Plants are very deep-rooted [9]. This plant has been found to repel field mice and other small rodents [46]. Everlasting pea can be grown as a ground cover [8,9]. As such, plants form a thick matted mass of foliage [9]. Unfortunately, they will die down in winter and give weeds a chance to establish in early spring [56]. Plants provide forage for bees [9].

Cultivation Details
Everlasting pea prefers moist soils and positions in full sun, though it will tolerate part shade [8,9]. Plants will tolerate light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils that have an acidic, neutral or alkaline pH [8,9]. Established plants are drought tolerant [56]. When planted as a ground cover, individual specimens should be spaced about four feet apart from one another [9]. They will quickly and vigorously develop a moderately dense cover [9].
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There are a number of related cultivars and species, so it may be a good idea to do some research and find the one that best suits your needs. Earth-nut pea, Lathyrus tuberosus, the species mentioned earlier that produces an edible tuber, is also a climbing nitrogen fixer, though it is only hardy to zone 6 [8]. Nonetheless, if climate is not a limiting factor for you, this species may serve as a good substitute because of its non-toxic edible root. Plants can be propagated by seed and division [56].

Known Hazards
As plants grow quickly, they can become invasive if not managed [8]. See notes in Edible Uses regarding toxicity.

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Lavandula angustifolia
Common name: Lavender Family: Labiatae Range: Mediterranean native [25,34,39] Habitat: Dry, grassy rocky slopes, calcareous soils [56] Hardiness: 5 [24] Other Common Names: None known. Primary Uses: Oil, Insect Repellent, Companion Plant, Medicine, Ground Cover, Bee Forage, Tea, Condiment

Physical Characteristics
Lavender is a small woody evergreen shrub that grows to about four feet tall and three feet wide [15,39,41,58]. Leaves are narrow and grey-blue in color [34]. Flowers are light purple spikes [34]. They are generally present from July to September [56]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) [56].

History
Lavender extracts have been used to heal wounds as far back as biblical times [63].

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In ancient Persia, Greece and Rome, lavender was used to fight infections, while the British used it during World War I and II as an antiseptic when surgical supplies ran low [63]. When Europe was swept by the Black Death that killed twenty-five million people, the only ones that didn’t fall victim were those that regularly harvested and handled lavender [63].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Oil, Condiment, Tea Lavender leaves, flowers and essential oil can be used as a condiment to flavor foods [9,15,25,58]. They can also be used to make an aromatic tea [15].

Medicinal Uses
Nerve Tonic, Antispasmodic, Carminative, Tonic, Diuretic, Sedative, Stimulant, Stomachic, Flatulence, Headaches, Dizziness Lavender tea can be taken as a nerve tonic [24]. The flowers and leaves are antispasmodic, carminative, tonic, diuretic, sedative, stimulant and stomachic [41]. Oil distilled from lavender flowers can be used to treat flatulence, migraines, fainting and dizziness [41].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Germicide, Insect Repellent, Soap, Perfumery, Companion Plant, Hedge, Ground Cover, Pest Repellent, Bee Forage Lavender oil is a powerful germicide and insect repellent [9,15,39,41]. This oil can also be used in soap making and perfumery [9,15,25,34]. Plants deter harmful insects [24]. Because of this property, lavender is a very valuable companion plant for the garden It can be grown as an insect-repellent hedge [41]. As such, individual plants should be spaced about sixteen inches apart [15]. There are several varieties that are suitable for this purpose and respond well to trimming [56].

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Lavender can also be grown as a ground cover [9]. Placing dried lavender in a clothes drawer or closet will serve to deter moths [15,24,39,41]. Leaves are also said to repel mice [15]. Lavender attracts bee and provides forage for them [9,24,39,58].

Cultivation Details
Lavender prefers dry, well-drained, neutral to alkaline soils and a sunny position [9,39,41,56]. Plants are tolerant of most soil types and pH levels [9]. Lavender is intolerant of shade [56]. It is drought-resistant and tolerant of both windy and maritime conditions [9,39,41,56]. Plants should be heavily mulched over winter in order to protect them, though they still may not survive in some climates [24]. Lavender is not a very long-lived perennial and it is probably best replaced every ten years or so [56]. It may be a good idea to attempt to grow lavender near a legume so that it is well fertilized [46]. Lavender plants are very sensitive to light, heat and soil type, and the oil that they produce will reflect any variations in these growing conditions [34]. Plants respond well to trimming after they have flowered [15]. Any trimming is best done earlier in the growing season though, as newer growth produced in autumn will most likely not be hardy enough to survive winter temperatures [56]. Lavender can be propagated by cuttings, seed and layering [39,41,56]. If growing lavender as a ground cover, varieties that are more compact and provide better cover are ‘Hidcote’, ‘Loddon Pink’ and ‘Nana Alba’ [9]. When planting out the ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about three feet apart [9]. They will spread by clumps and develop a low density cover at a moderate pace [9].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Lemna minor/oligorrhiza
Common name: Duckweed Family: Lemnaceae Range: Temperate regions and North America [7,39] Habitat: Slow moving waterways, lakes, ponds, marshes, dams Hardiness: 3-5 [7] Other Common Names: None known Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Water Purifier, Oxygenator, Wildlife/Livestock (Fish) Fodder, Compost Material, Edible Plant

Physical Characteristics
Duckweed is a tiny floating perennial aquatic plant found in high-nutrient water [38,39]. It is in flower from June to July [56]. Flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are male or female and both sexes can be found on a single plant) [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Entire Plant Duckweed can be gathered from the surface of the water body in which it grows, dried and eaten [7,38,39,49,58]. One hundred grams of duckweed contain 18 calories, 2.1g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 142mg of calcium, 4mg of phosphorus, 560 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.06mg of thiamine, 0.13mg of riboflavin, 0.6mg of niacin and 5mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Poultice, Alterative, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, Depurative, Diuretic, Febrifuge A poultice made of the wet plant can be applied to swellings [37]. Plants are alterative, antipruritic, antiscorbutic, astringent, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge and soporific [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Mulch, Compost Material, Water Purifier, Oxygenator, Insect Repellent, Livestock Fodder, Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage Plants can be skimmed off of pond surfaces and used as a high-nutrient mulch material [39]. When growing in polluted waters, duckweed may take up heavy metals, thus helping to purify them [7,39]. (Plants grown for this purpose would obviously not be consumed as a food source.) Two duckweed species, Lemna minor and Lemna trisulca have shown that they can concentrate boron, aluminum, manganese, iron, titanium, copper and cobalt in their tissue from the water in which they grow [58]. Plants can also be used to remove excess nutrients from water [58]. Plants serve to oxygenate the water in which they grow [7]. When dried, duckweed repels mosquitoes [56]. Duckweed can be grown as fodder for chickens and pigs [7,39,58]. Plants are eaten by ducks, geese, fish and pheasants [7,38,39,58].

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Cultivation Details
Duckweeds obviously require extremely wet growing conditions, as they are floating aquatic plants [7]. They also require positions in full sun [7]. Duckweed prefers neutral and alkaline conditions and water that is rich in nitrates and lime [56]. These plants should be included on the surface waters of dams, marshes and other wetlands. Duckweeds are among the most vigorously growing plants on earth [58]. Some species are able to double their numbers every three days [58].

Known Hazards
If unmonitored, duckweed has the capability of completely covering a pond and preventing any light from passing through the water’s surface [39]. Thus, it is important to monitor its spread and harvest it as it begins to grow invasive. Growth and spread can be maintained by simply scooping out the excess plants [56].

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Lindera benzoin
Common name: Spicebush Family: Lauraceae Range: Eastern North American native [1,2,16,56]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [2,4,14,16] Habitat: Rich woodlands, stream banks, moist soils [1,4,14] Hardiness: 4-5 [56] Other Common Names: Spicewood [1,2], Spice [1], Snapwood [1,2], Wild Allspice [1,2,16,22], Benjamin Bush [1,2,16,25], Feverbush [1,2], Feverwood [1,2] Primary Uses: Condiment (Edible – leaves, twigs, bark, berries), Tea, Insect Repellent, Medicine, Disinfectant

Physical Characteristics
Spicebush is a shrub that grows to about sixteen feet tall [1,2,14]. It has numerous smooth branches that possess a spicy fragrance when broken [4,14,16]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, between two and a half to five and a half inches long, entire along the margin, bright green, smooth and stalked [1,2,14,16]. They turn gold in the fall [1,2]. Flowers are small and yellow, and they are produced in dense clusters on the previous year’s twigs [1,2,4,14,16]. Plants are dioecious (only one sex can be found on a single plant) [1,2,56]. They emerge in early spring before the leaves appear [4,14]. Fruits are clustered berries that start out green and turn bright red at maturity and contain a single seed [4,14,16].

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History
Spicebush was an important source of wild tea in the early days of settlement because remoteness and wars made Asian tea blends quite scarce [1,2,22]. Spicebush fruits also provided early settlers with the a substitute for the spice that we today call allspice [22,25].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Twigs, Bark, Berries, Tea, Spice Young leaves can be harvested in spring, while the bark and twigs can be gathered all year [4,14,22]. Fruits should be picked in late autumn, and care should be taken to ensure that this is done before migrating birds consume them all first [14,22]. Also, if desired, leaves, twigs and bark can be dried and stored for later use, though it is best to dry them slowly so that they do not lose too much flavor in the process [4]. To make a tea from spicebush, steep either fifteen leaves or a handful of fresh twigs and bark in four cups of boiling water for fifteen minutes [1,2,14,16,43]. Fruits should be thoroughly dried in a warm oven [1,14]. They can then be ground and used as an allspice substitute [1,2,4,14,16,43].

Medicinal Uses
Fever, Skin Irritations, Cold Remedy, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Febrifuge, Stimulant, Tonic, Cough Remedy Tea from this plant can be taken to reduce fever [1,37]. This shrub may be used as a mild wash for minor skin irritations and wounds [4]. As a remedy for stronger irritations like poison ivy and insect stings, a stronger tea, brewed from the root bark, may be necessary in order to bring relief [4]. Bark is aromatic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, stimulant and tonic [56]. Spicebush can also be taken as a cold and cough remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Disinfectant, Insect Repellent, Scented Oil, Bird/Wildlife Forage The leaves of this shrub contain small quantities of camphor [56]. Thus, they can be used as both a disinfectant and an insect repellent [56].

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Distilled leaves yield an oil with a lavender-like fragrance, while the oil from the fruits possess an odor that resembles camphor [56]. Also, the distilled twigs and bark produce an oil that has a wintergreen odor [56]. Spicebush provides forage for birds and other wildlife [2].

Cultivation Details
Spicebush requires moist soils [2,4,56]. Plants prefer light, medium and heavy soils that are either acidic or neutral [56]. They prefer a pH range of 4.5 to 6 [56]. Spicebush can grow in very acidic soils and semi-shaded conditions and actually prefers it [56]. Because spicebush is dioecious, both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and layering [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Linum usitatissimum
Common name: Flax Family: Linaceae Range: Asian and European native [25]; Widely cultivated throughout the United States [25] Habitat: Unknown in the wild [56] Hardiness: 4 [56] Other Common Names: Linseed [15] Primary Uses: Fiber – cloth, baskets and paper, Oil, Medicine, Pioneer, Companion Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop, Edible – seeds and sprouts

Physical Characteristics
Flax is an herbaceous annual plant that grows to a height of two to three feet [29]. Leaves are narrow and alternate [31]. Plants have wiry stems and soft blue flowers [34]. These flowers have five separate petals [31]. They are present from June to July [56]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are dry, egg-shaped and divided into ten segments [31].

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History
Flax has been in cultivation for millennia [25]. It was known to the early Egyptians and is frequently mentioned in the Bible as a material for weaving [25]. Flax was cultivated by the early Romans [25]. In New England, flax cultivation commenced with the first settlements, and it received legislative attention here as early as 1640 [25].

Edible Uses
Seed, Coffee, Sprouts, Tea, Oil Flax seeds are edible [15]. They can be used in breads and cereals [15]. Roasted flaxseeds are reportedly used as a coffee substitute [56]. Seeds can also be sprouted and eaten raw in salads [15]. The seeds can be brewed to make a tea [56]. Flaxseed oil is edible, but it must be refined properly before it can be eaten [15]. It is very high in fatty acids, and thus, is a very healthy food, but it goes rancid quite easily [15]. One hundred grams of seeds contain 498 calories, 19g of protein, 35.5g of fat, 35.4g of carbohydrates, 6.8g of fiber, 3.5g of ash, 220mg of calcium, 415mg of phosphorus, 23mg of iron, 0.17mg of thiamine, 0.16mg of riboflavin and 1.4mg of niacin [56].

Medicinal Uses
Digestive/Respiratory Stimulant, Cold Remedy, Cough Remedy, Analgesic, Demulcent, Emollient, Laxative, Pectoral, Resolvent, Fever Remedy In small quantities, the cyanogenic glycosides contained in flaxseed oil act to stimulate respiration and improve digestion [15]. Flax can be taken as a cold remedy and cough medicine [37]. Seeds are analgesic, demulcent, emollient, laxative, pectoral and resolvent [56]. Cherokee traditionally poured a decoction of the plant over patients suffering from fever [37].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Soap, Fiber, Cloth, Baskets, Paper, Dynamic Accumulator, Pioneer, Companion Plant, Intercrop Flaxseeds are used to produce a very common oil that is often referred to as linseed oil [26,29,34,48]. The seeds contain between thirty and forty percent oil, and it is mainly made up of linoleic and linolenic essential fatty acids [15]. It is traditionally used by the paint, oilcloth, linoleum and protective-coating industries [48]. It is also commonly used as a sealer and surface coating for decorate surfaces [48]. Flax oil can be used in soap and leather production [48]. Flax plants provide fibers from their stems that are used to make linen, sails, baskets, nets, paper and insulating material [15,26,29,34]. After harvesting the plants, they are dried and the seedpods are removed [34]. Before the fibers can be extracted, they must be retted, which is a process that breaks down the material that binds them together [34]. This can be done by soaking them in tanks of warm water or by simply leaving it on the ground and waiting for them to decay [34]. The soaking method is several weeks faster [34]. The fibers can then be separated from the waste woody matter [34]. Finally, the fibers are combed and twisted slightly before they are spun into yarn [34]. Flaxseeds are dynamic accumulators of calcium [32]. Plants are wonderful pioneers and dramatically help to break up crusty, lumpy clay soils [46]. Flax has been found to improve carrot crops when the two species are grown together [15,46]. Also, flax has been found to significantly reduce the Colorado potato beetle populations when they are intercropped with potatoes [15,46].

Cultivation Details
Flax prefers light, well-drained, moderately fertile, humus-rich soils [15]. Plants do best in sunny, sheltered positions and are intolerant of shade [15,56]. Flax can tolerate strong winds [56]. Flax plants should never be planted on the same soil more than once in five years [46]. This is because flax plants are very heavy feeders and rapidly deplete the soil of nutrients [15]. There are two main types of flax plants, those that are grown for their oil and those that are grown for fiber [15].

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If you are growing flax for its seed, it is best to plant them at a spacing of two to four inches to encourage branching and seed production, but if they are being grown for fiber, plants should be spaced less than two inches apart so that branching is discouraged [15]. Plants are generally propagated by seed and should not be transplanted if at all possible [56].

Known Hazards
Excessive consumption of the cyanogenic glycosides that are contained in flaxseeds, can cause respiratory failure and death [15]. Despite this, there are cultivars that are low in these glycosides, which would need to be eaten in very large quantities in order to achieve a harmful dose [15].

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Malus baccata/sylvestris/coronaria
Common name: Crab Apple Family: Rosaceae Range: North American, Asian and European natives [23,48]; Widespread throughout the United States [17,22] Habitat: Woods, hedgerows [35] Hardiness: 2+ [24] Other Common Names: Wild Apple [2] Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Pectin Source, Hedge, Pollinator, Timber, Firewood, Rootstock, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Crabapples are small trees that generally grow to only about twenty feet or so, though there are varieties that get much larger [2,35]. Bark is scaly and flaky. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, oval, toothed and often tomentose (fuzzy) [2,35]. The branches are short and stubby and are marked with many spur shoots (short branch protrusions) [2]. Flowers are very aromatic and have five pink or whitish petals [2]. They are present from April to May and are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. They are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are five-celled, generally an inch or two in diameter, round and mature near summer’s end [2,35].

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History
Wild crab apples are the origin of all of the cultivated species that we have today [35]. Native Americans used to harvest crab apples in fall and bury them [22,35]. They then dug them up in spring, by which they had lost most of their bitterness [35]. Apples were planted across the United States by Johnny Appleseed, who was actually the pioneer preacher John Chapman [2]. He traveled thousands of miles between Massachusetts and Missouri, planting apple seeds and seedlings wherever he went [2].

Edible Uses
Fruit, Pectin Source, Oil, Tea Crab apples can be harvested in late summer or early fall [22]. Depending on the cultivar, fruits may range in taste from exceptional to barely palatable [15,35]. Thus, some fruits can be eaten raw off the tree while others are much better served by cooking first [15,22,35]. Fruits of all crab apple varieties can be used to make syrups, jellies or ciders [22,35,48]. The skins of these fruits contain an abundance of pectin, and thus can be used in making jams and jellies with other fruits as a substitute for commercial pectin [15,16]. The seed is a source of an edible oil, though it is most likely not a viable process [56]. Crab apple (Malus sylvestris) leaves can be used to make a tea [56]. One hundred grams of crab apples contain 68 calories, 0.4g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 6mg of calcium, 13mg of phosphorus, 0.3mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 110mg of potassium, 40 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.02mg of riboflavin, 0.1mg of niacin and 8mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Mouth Irritations, Earaches, Poultice, Astringent, Laxative An infusion of crabapple bark can be used as a wash for a sore mouth [37]. A decoction of the bark can be used as drops for earaches [37]. The bark and fruit peelings can be used to make a poultice for bruises [37]. The fruits of Malus sylvestris are astringent and laxative [56].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Pollinator, Ornamental, Dye, Rootstock, Hedge, Timber, Firewood, Livestock Fodder, Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage Most crab apple varieties are excellent pollinators for common apple trees [15,24,58]. Because of their small size, crabapples are wonderful trees for inclusion in the understory of a forest garden or along the sunny edges of a woodland [15,24]. Trees are very ornamental in spring when they are flowering [15]. A red to yellow dye can be obtained from the bark of Malus sylvestris [56]. Plants are often used as a rootstock for apple cultivars [56]. As such, they produce a vigorous tree that has increased disease resistance and cold tolerance [56]. Crab apple trees make wonderful edible hedgerows [23]. Trees can be grown as a timber source. The timber properties for two different species are as follows: Malus coronaria’s wood is light red and fine grained [10]. Seasoned timber is weak, average in heaviness and generally used for tool handles, fuel and household utensils [10]. Malus sylvestris’ wood is red-brown and fine-grained [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and heaviness, hard, difficult to split and has good shock absorbency [10]. It is used for furniture and cabinetwork, turnery, tool and handles, fuel, household utensils, carving and mallet heads [10]. If you do not find the fruits produced by your tree palatable, they will make excellent livestock fodder [41]. Trees provide forage for bird and wildlife species [2,57]. There are ninety insect species associated with crab apples [15]. They also provide forage for bees [41].

Cultivation Details
Crab apples will do well in most soils, including heavy clays [15]. They prefer moist soils and sites in full sun, though they will tolerate some shade [10]. Trees are easily

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grown [15]. They have a winter chill requirement of three hundred to five hundred hours [32]. Trees are able to produce fruit in only four years when planted from seed [56]. Crab apples are quite hardy and are often resistant to pests and disease [17,23,57]. Trees that do become infested with scab are aided by chives growing near their roots [46]. Also, nasturtiums planted around apples help to repel wooly aphis [46]. Root excretions from grass have been found to suppress the growth of the young peripheral root tips of apple trees, so it is a good idea to attempt to eliminate any competition around cultivated trees by removing the grass [46]. There are countless crab apple varieties available for cultivation. ‘Dolgo’ is a Siberian variety that is popular in North America [24]. It is vigorous and upright and bears heavy crops of olive-shaped fruit [24]. Trees are also disease resistant and hardy to zone 2 [24,57]. ‘John Downie’ is an attractive variety that bears large, egg-shaped fruit with a flavor that is described as ‘intriguing’ [24,57]. ‘Crittenden’ produces heavy crop of bright red fruits that persist on the tree throughout the winter [24]. After heavy frosts, the fruit is quite palatable off the tree [24]. ‘Whitney’ is another cultivar that is incredibly hardy [32]. Fruits are said to be quite tasty fresh off the tree [32]. Malus baccata mandschurica is a variety that grows to about twenty feet and produces fruit that is crab apple size [15]. Fully ripe fruits have a pleasant taste and are said to taste like stewed apples [15]. Plants are propagated by seed and cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
All members of the Rosaceae genus contain hydrogen cyanide in their seeds and possibly in their leaves [56]. Though apple and crab apple seeds do not contain high quantities of this toxin, they should nevertheless be consumed in very small quantities [56]. When consumed in moderate quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been found to stimulate respiration and improve digestion, but excess amounts can cause respiratory failure and even death [56].

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Medicago sativa
Common name: Alfalfa Family: Leguminosae Range: European and Asian native [7,9,25,48]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [8,48] Habitat: Waste places [56] Hardiness: 5 [7,9] Other Common Names: Lucerne [7,22,24], Buffalo Herb [22], Purple Medic [7] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure/Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Livestock Fodder, Companion Plant, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Edible – leaves, shoots, seeds and sprouts, Biomass, Compost, Soil Stabilizer, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Alfalfa is a deep-rooted perennial legume [7,24]. Plants are erect and generally reach a height of about three feet [7,9]. Leaves are bluish-green [9]. Flowers are mauve-violet and appear from June to July [9,56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) [56].

History
Alfalfa was one of the first domesticated forage plants [48]. In fact, Roman records show that it was introduced into Greece from Persia by the invading Medes approximately five centuries BCE [48].
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The first plantings of alfalfa in the United States were in Georgia in 1736 [48]. The plant was taken to California during the gold rush of 1851, and from there, it was rapidly dispersed throughout the nation [48].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Shoots, Tea, Seeds, Sprouts, Flour Leaves can be eaten raw in salads or cooked as a potherb [8,9,22,24]. The leaves can also be dried for later use [8]. Young shoots of this plant are edible as well, either raw or cooked [7,9]. Alfalfa leaves can be used to make a tea [8,22]. Alfalfa seeds can be sprouted and eaten as such [7,8,15,24]. They can also be used in cooking [7,15]. The seeds are sprouted by soaking them in warm water for twelve hours and keeping them moist in a container in a warm place to sprout [56]. They are ready in four to six days [56]. Otherwise, seeds may be ground into flour and used in baking [8,15]. Leaves are very rich in vitamins, especially A, B, C and K and are also a good protein source [8]. One hundred grams of alfalfa contain 52 calories, 6.0g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 12mg of calcium, 51mg of phosphorus, 5.4mg of iron, 3410 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.13mg of thiamine, 0.14mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 162mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Antiscorbutic, Diuretic, Haemostatic, Stimulant, Tonic, Laxative, Appetite Stimulant, Jaundice, Earache Remedy Plants are antiscorbutic, aperient, diuretic, ecbolic, haemostatic, nutritive, stimulant and tonic [8]. A tea made from the leaves of this plant serves to stimulate the appetite and is also mildly laxative [8]. Alfalfa can be used as a jaundice treatment [8,22]. Plants are a valuable source of vitamin K, which is used to encourage the clotting of blood [8,22].

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Plants can be used as a remedy for earaches by applying a poultice of heated leaves to the ear [37]. Alfalfa plant extracts are antibacterial [8,9].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Biomass, Compost, Mulch, Ground Cover, Dye, Livestock Fodder, Oil, Soil Stabilizer, Dynamic Accumulator, Companion Plant, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Bee Forage Alfalfa is a nitrogen-fixing plant [7,8,9,15,24]. As such, it is a wonderful component of forest gardens [24]. Plants can be grown as a green manure crop [7,8,9,15]. Though it is somewhat slow to establish in the first year of growth, plants become quite vigorous from the second year on [56]. They may be used as a source of biomass [8,15]. In their second year of growth, alfalfa plants produce a huge bulk of material that can be cut two or three times during the season [8,15]. This bulk material can either be composted or used as a locally available mulch source [15]. Alfalfa can be grown as a perennial ground cover [9]. All parts of the alfalfa plant can be used to produce yellow and green dyes [7,8]. Plants can be grown as fodder for livestock [7,8,22]. An oil can be expressed from the seeds of this plant, and it is used commercially in paints [8,9]. Alfalfa is incredibly deep-rooted [8,9,22,48]. In fact, they may reach depths of even fifty feet [22]!! Because of this deep-rootedness, alfalfa plants are dynamic accumulators of calcium, magnesium phosphorus, potassium, manganese, zinc, nitrogen and iron [7,8,9,32]. Alfalfa gathers 250 pounds of nitrogen per acre [32]. It is a good companion plant for fruit trees and grape vines [8]. Alfalfa attracts beneficial insects [32]. Some of these insects include minute pirate bugs, big-eyed bugs, damsel bugs, assassin bugs, ladybugs and parasitic wasps [32].

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Plants provide forage for bees [7,8,9,41]. Bees also collect honeydew from these plants [7]. Next to sweet clover, alfalfa is the most important bee forage species in the United States [41].

Cultivation Details
Alfalfa prefers dry soil conditions, though it will also tolerate some wetness [7,8,9]. Plants will tolerate all soil types and pH levels, though they will do best on those that are alkaline to neutral [8,9,48]. They also require full sun for optimal growth and are intolerant of shade [7,8,9,56]. Established plants are drought tolerant [9,48]. Plants are a bit slow growing in their first year [8]. Nonetheless, they become very vigorous from their second year on [9]. Under favorable circumstances, a single seeding may persist for as long as twelve years or more [48]. Plants may yield up to six tons/acre in dry weight [41]. When planting alfalfa as a ground cover, seeds may simply be sown in the desired area [9]. Plants will not spread, as they are a clumping species, and once established, they will cover the ground in a moderate density [9]. There are a number of named varieties available for cultivation [56]. It is possible to obtain seed that has already been inoculated with Rhizobium bacteria, so that plants are able to fix nitrogen in soils where the bacteria are not already present [56].

Known Hazards
Alfalfa is host for both the tarnished plant bug and the alfalfa mosaic virus that effects peppers [32].

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Melissa officinalis
Common name: Lemon Balm Family: Lamiaceae Range: European native [7,9,23] Habitat: Waste places, derelict land near human habitations [56] Hardiness: 4 [7,9] Other Common Names: Balm [7,9,23,24], Bee Balm [7], Sweet Balm [7] Primary Uses: Insect Repellent, Dynamic Accumulator, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Weed Border, Condiment, Livestock Fodder, Ground Cover, Cover Crop, Oil, Medicine, Edible Leaves

Physical Characteristics
Lemon balm is a bushy perennial herb that grows to about two feet [9,15,23]. Plants possess a smell that is reminiscent of lemon [24]. Stems are glandular [9]. Leaves are long-stalked, ovate and toothed or deeply crenate [23]. Flowers are white or pinkish in color and borne in axillary whorls [23]. They are present from June to October and are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Also, they are pollinated by bees [56].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Condiment, Tea, Wine The leaves from this plant are lemon-scented and can be added to salads or cooked as a flavoring [9,7,15]. A tea can be made from the leaves of this plant [9,15,23,35,46]. Plants can also be used to make wine [23,35].

Medicinal Uses
Antibacterial, Antispasmodic, Antiviral, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Digestive, Emmenagogue, Febrifuge, Sedative, Tonic, Flatulence Remedy, Fever, Cold Remedy The young flowering shoots and leaves are antibacterial, antispasmodic, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, febrifuge, sedative and tonic [56]. Lemon balm can be taken as a remedy for flatulence and fever [23]. Cherokee used lemon balm as a cold remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dynamic Accumulator, Oil, Weed Border, Cover Crop, Ground Cover, Insect Repellent, Livestock Fodder, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Bee Forage Lemon balm is a dynamic accumulator of phosphorus [7,9,32]. An oil extract from the leaves of lemon balm is used in perfumery [7,9]. Lemon balm can be grown as a border plant, helping to keep weeds from invading an area [46]. It can be grown as a cover crop amongst fruit trees or in a woodland [15,32]. Plants may also be grown as a ground cover [9]. Lemon balm helps to repel insects in the garden [15]. When hung indoors, leaf bunches will help keep flies away [15].
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When grown in pastures, lemongrass is said to promote the flow of milk in cows [46]. Plants also attract bees and beneficial insects [7,9,32,35,46].

Cultivation Details
Lemon balm prefers full sun though it is quite tolerant of partial shade [7,9,15,32]. Plants grow well in dry soils but will also succeed in most soil types [7,915]. It is drought tolerant once established [56]. This is a good plant to include in an herb garden both because it will help repel insects and because it will constantly produce leaves that can be used either as a condiment or for tea [15]. Thus, locating it in a place that is close to the house will make it easily and readily accessible. When grown as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced eighteen inches apart [9]. They spread vigorously at a moderate speed and develop a heavy cover [9]. Named varieties are available for cultivation [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, division and cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
As lemon balm is an emmenagogue, it should be avoided by pregnant women.

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Mentha spp. (Mentha x piperita and Mentha spicata)
Common name: Peppermint and Spearmint Family: Labiatae Range: European and Asian natives [29,33]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [1,14,29,33] Habitat: Waste places, damp grounds, brooksides, moist meadows, along marshes [1,14,33] Hardiness: 3 [9] Other Common Names: Information unavailable. Primary Uses: Condiment, Edible Leaves, Ground Cover, Companion Plant, Insect Repellent, Dynamic Accumulator, Oil, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Both plants are perennial and possess a strong minty odor [29,33]. They grow to between one and three feet in height [29]. Plants spread by means of a creeping rootstock [1,14,29]. Their stems are erect, purplish and square [1,5,14,33]. Leaves are opposite, between one and two and a half inches long and serrate (toothed) [1,5,14,33]. Flowers are small, blue to lavender in color and are either borne in the leaf axils or in terminal spikes [14,33]. They are present from June to October [14]. They are also hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits contain four small nutlets that are enclosed by a persistent calyx [14]. These two species can be distinguished from one another by both their physical appearance and the simple fact that crushed or broken leaves of each respective species possess the strong smell that we have come to associate with each of their names [14].

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History
Both of these plants have been in the United States since colonial times [33].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea, Condiment, Oil Mint leaves can be harvested at any stage of growth [14]. They are best picked on a dry day [14]. If you would like to store the leaves, they can be dried on paper in a warm area and kept in sealed jars [2,14]. Leaves can be used to make a tea [1,2,14,33]. They should be steeped for about ten minutes in boiling water [33]. Leaves can be eaten raw in salads [2,14]. Mint leaves can be used to make jelly [1,14,33]. Leaves from either species may also be used as a flavoring for foods or beverages [14]. Oils from both spearmint and peppermint are used as a flavoring for ice cream, candy, gum and toothpaste [1,23,29,33,34,35]. The mints, as a genus, contain 32 calories, 3.0g of protein, 0.7g of fat, 194mg of calcium, 48mg of phosphorus, 3.8mg of iron, 2mg of sodium, 179mg of potassium, 1296 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.13mg of thiamine, 0.16mg of riboflavin, 0.7mg of niacin and 64mg of vitamin C per one hundred grams [49].

Medicinal Uses
Indigestion, Cold Remedy, Fever, Skin Irritations, Nausea, Headaches, Flatulence Mint tea is a remedy for indigestion, colic and colds [22,24,33]. Mint tea can be applied externally to help bring down fevers or to alleviate skin pain [4]. Both plants can be taken for nausea, bowel complains, nervousness and headaches [4,22,37]. Plants can be taken as a remedy for flatulence [5,23,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Menthol, Wet Areas, Ground Covers, Dye, Companion Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Insect Repellent, Bee Fodder
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An essential oil can be extracted from both plants that is used in perfumery [9,34]. Mints are a commercial source of menthol [41,48]. Mints can be grown along the margins of dams and wetlands [38,58]. Both peppermint and spearmint can be grown as perennial ground covers [9]. Dyes can be extracted from the flowers, leaves and stems of peppermint [9,41]. When grown together, peppermint has been found to increase the essential oil content in chamomile [46]. Peppermint is a dynamic accumulator of magnesium and calcium [32]. Mint can be used to repel ants, black flea beetles and cabbage worm butterflies [46]. Both species provide good fodder for bees and butterflies [9,41].

Cultivation Details
Both species will do well in most soil types and pH levels as long as they are not too dry [9,56]. They will do best in moist, rich, alkaline soils [41]. Plants are tolerant of partial shade but maximum production of essential oils will occur when grown in full sun [9,24,32]. Mints are easily transplanted from the rootstalk [33]. Peppermint oil yields of 80 pounds/acre have been recorded [38]. Stinging nettle has been found to double the essential oil content in peppermint when the two plants are grown together [46]. When planted as a ground cover, mints grow quite quickly, developing a heavy cover and spreading invasively [9]. Individual plants should be initially spaced about a foot and a half apart during the establishment phase [9]. Plants can be propagated by seed and root division [41,56].

Known Hazards
Plants can become invasive if they are permitted to spread unchecked [9,41].

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Mespilus germanica
Common name: Medlar Family: Rosaceae Range: Persian native [25,41]; Naturalized and cultivated throughout Europe [35] Habitat: Woods and hedgerows [56] Hardiness: 5-9 [57] Other Common Names: Information unavailable Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Juice, Hedge

Physical Characteristics
Medlar is a small deciduous tree that grows to a height of about twenty-five feet [15,24,41]. Trees are generally much wider than they are tall [15]. Leaves are about five inches long and have a finely toothed margin [29]. Flowers are between one and a half and two inches wide and are white or pinkish in color [29]. They are borne in late May or June at the end of the tree’s short young shoots [23]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are reddish-brown, about an inch or two in diameter, possess a five-tailed calyx and resemble a giant rose hip [25,29,35]. They contain five seeds [23].

History
Medlars have been cultivated in Europe for thousands of years though they have never become commercially important [57]. This species is virtually unknown in the US [57].

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Edible Uses
Fruits, Juice Medlar fruits are best eaten fresh once they have been allowed to overripen [25,35,41]. Fruits should be harvested as late in autumn as possible [15]. This may mean that they should be allowed to remain on the tree through a frost or two [15]. After harvest, the fruits should be bletted [15,23,24,35]. This involves storing them in a cool dry place until they have almost, but not quite, gone rotten [15]. It is at this stage that the flesh will have become very soft and have turned brown [15]. Be certain not to overdo the bletting process though, as the fruits may otherwise ferment inside your stomach [15]. The taste is said to be reminiscent of that of tropical fruits [15]. Apparently, in warmer countries like Italy, medlar fruits can be eaten directly off the tree as they ripen without any bletting [23]. The fruits can be baked whole like apples or used to make jelly [35,41]. The juice of the fruit can be used as a beverage [29].

Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Astringent The fruit’s pulp is laxative [56]. Medlar leaves are astringent [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Hedge, Timber A dye can be extracted from the bark of the medlar tree [41]. Trees can be grown as a hedgerow [41]. Medlar can also be cultivated as a timber tree. Its wood is hard and flexible [56].

Cultivation Details
Medlars are very well suited to cold climates [41]. They are tolerant of most soils [41]. Trees prefer positions in full sun [41]. They are best planted in a protected spot, as they are apt to be deformed by the wind [23]. On the other hand, some sources claim that medlar is tolerant of strong winds [56]. Trees are self-fertile [57].
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The size of the tree is generally proportional to the size of the fruit it produces [23]. Plants are propagated by seed, cuttings or layering [29,41,56]. There are several named medlar varieties available for cultivation that produce larger fruits than the common wild species [15,56,57].

Known Hazards
Seeds contain hydrocyanic acid like most members of the Rosaceae family, which is toxic if eaten in quantity [56].

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Morus spp. (rubra and alba)
Common name: Mulberry (Red and White) Family: Moraceae Range: Red Mulberry – Native to US; Widely distributed throughout the eastern and midwestern United States [13,14,33] White Mulberry – Native to Asia [14,33]; Naturalized in the US Habitat: Red Mulberry – rich woods, [22,33] river valleys, floodplains, lower hill slopes, rich, moist soils [1,14] White Mulberry – fencerows, roadsides, abandoned fields, woodlands [14] Hardiness: 4-8 [13] Other Common Names: Red Mulberry – American Mulberry [10] Primary Uses: Edible Berries, Juice, Windbreak, Livestock Fodder, Timber, Bird Forage

Physical Characteristics
The mulberries are small to medium-sized trees, usually growing to thirty feet, but up to sixty [1,2,13,14,33]. They have a milky sap, flowers that are borne in dangly spikes that grow like catkins and produce blackberry-like fruit prolifically [2,14,33]. It is monoecious (male and female flowers are on a single tree) [2]. Mulberry leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, ovate and have margins that are entire, dentate (toothed) or lobed [13,14,33]. Mulberries flower from March to May [2,13].

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There are a few differences between red and white mulberries. Firstly, red mulberry has bark that is red-brown in color while white mulberry has yellow-brown bark [33]. Also, red mulberry’s leaves are usually scabrous (coarse) above and pubescent (hairy) beneath whereas white mulberry has soft, shiny leaves that are only pubescent along the veins on the underside [13,33]. Finally, red mulberry bears very palatable fruits that are dark purple, and white mulberry fruits are bland in taste and their color ranges from white to almost black [14,33].

History
Red mulberry was a popular fruit with both northern and southern Native American tribes [33]. Some southern tribes actually even cultivated the red mulberry tree [33]. American settlers used the red mulberry instead of raisins and currants and added it to syrups and drinks [33]. Prior to the American Revolution and during the early part of the nineteenth century, the Asian white mulberry tree was imported and widely cultivated in the east for both its leaves and fruit [33]. These are in fact the preferred food of silkworm larvae [33]. Though silk production never became successful, the trees still remain. During the Civil War, the Confederacy used white mulberries to make mulberry wine and to color confections [33].

Edible Uses
Berries, Flour, Cold Drink, Wine, Leaves Mulberries generally ripen from June to July [2,13,43]. They are usually completely gone by the end of July [43]. To harvest the mulberries either pick the ripe fruit from the tree or spread cloth underneath it to catch the fruit and then proceed to gently shake its branches [1,14,17,33]. Mulberries will keep well for a week or two when refrigerated [33]. Some people do not like mulberries because of their persistent stem and axis that goes part way into the fruit [17]. White mulberries tend to be very syrupy and too sweet for most people [14,17]. Thus, they can be dried like raisins and used in breads, cookies and puddings or eaten as is [14,17,50]. They should be dried until the fruit, once crushed, lacks any watery juice [14,17]. Drying time in bright sun is generally two days, four days in a warm attic, ten to fifteen hours in a warm oven [14,17]. Once dried, store the berries in sealed containers. Dried mulberries of either species can be ground up as flour [13,50]. Red mulberries, on the other hand, are wonderful as picked [14]. They can be used to make pies, jams and jellies [2,14,17,22].

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A simple summer drink can be made from mulberries by mashing two quarts of mulberries and squeezing the juice through a straining bag [1,2,22,33]. Then, stir in onequart water, lemon juice and sugar to taste, let it cool and serve [1,33]. To make mulberry wine, gather the fruits when they are red to black before noon. Dry them for twenty-four hours. Squeeze out the juice, and add one gallon of hot water, a few lemon peels, a bit of cinnamon and sassafras barks to each gallon of expressed juice. Bring this mix to a boil, leaving it for a half hour. To each gallon, add six ounces of sugar and a pint of yellow wine. Allow this solution to stand for one week, strain and keep it in a cool place. [22] When the leaves are just beginning to unfold in spring, you may pick the shoots of both species, boil for twenty minutes, drain and add butter and seasoning [2,13,14,17]. I should mention though that doing this will obviously mean that there will be no leaf growth from that point. This may be done though as a way of pruning the trees in early spring. One hundred grams of white mulberry fruits contain 53 calories, 1.7g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 30mg of calcium, 32mg of phosphorus, 3.7mg of iron, 37mg of sodium, 152mg of potassium, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.06mg of riboflavin, 0.7mg of niacin and 5mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Worm Treatment A decoction of mulberry roots was used by Alabama Indians for passing yellow urine [37]. Cherokee Indians took powdered rootbark as a laxative [4,37]. To prepare this, take a small palmful of powdered rootbark and mix it with a cup of warm water once a day [4]. Mulberry leaves can be used to repel worms in horses [46].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Cordage, Thread, Rope, Dye, Windbreak, Silkworm Cultivation, Shade, Bird Forage, Livestock Fodder, Timber, Posts The bark of the red mulberry can be used as a source of cordage, thread and rope [33]. A brown dye can be obtained from the trunk of the white mulberry [56]. Mulberries are hardy enough to be planted as edible windbreaks [32]. White mulberry is the preferred food of silkworms [29,34,46,50].
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Leafless white mulberry canopies cast about 45% shade [32]. Both species provide food for birds [29,46]. They can also be used to help deter birds from more valuable fruits like cherries [28]. Mulberries provide wonderful forage for pigs [50]. There is no need to harvest the berries because the pigs will easily harvest it themselves [50]. One mulberry tree can feed one pig during the season, while large, older trees can support even more [41,50]. Mulberry leaves can also be fed to cattle [39]. Apparently, grapevines grow well when supported by mulberry trees [46]. The trunk of mulberry trees make excellent posts [50]. The branches also make wonderful firewood [50]. White mulberry has a deep yellow wood [10]. Seasoned timber is hard and average in strength [10]. It is also brittle and splits easily. White mulberry wood can be used for furniture and cabinetwork, musical instruments and carving [10]. Red mulberry timber is red-brown in color and coarse grained [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength, average in heaviness, hard and easy to bend [10]. It can be used for fencing and posts, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage and for nails, pins and dowels [10]. Mulberries may be used for marsh and bog plantings, providing forage for ducks and fish [38].

Cultivation Details
Mulberries prefer moist, well-drained loamy soils [10,56]. Both red and white mulberry prefer plantings in full sun [10,57]. Mulberries will grow well when planted in lawns [32]. Mulberries are fast growing [50]. White mulberry may reach a height of five meters during its first ten years, while red mulberry may reach seven meters in the same time [10]. They also bear incredibly early; as early as any other fruiting tree grown in the US [50]. When begun from cuttings, mulberries may fruit after only two or three years [41]. Mulberries have a winter chill requirement of 400 hours [32]. Red mulberry is dioecious which means that both male and female plants must be grown if fruit is desired [56]. Trees are easily grown from cuttings or by layering [23]. They have very brittle roots though, so seedlings and saplings must be handled carefully when planting them out [56].

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In addition to this, mulberries reportedly bear so prolifically that it may almost become difficult to find a way in which to utilize all of the fruits [50]. As mulberries have been cultivated for quite some time now, they have developed somewhat of an immunity to pests and disease, [28,50] especially honey fungus [56]. Quite a number of mulberry varieties exist. A few of those that are more appropriate for cultivation in New England include: Black English – Fruit is large, purple black and very sweet; it is hardy to zone four but will also survive the conditions of zone nine; self-pollinating; prolific producer [28] Black Mulberry (Morus nigra) – Fruits are red to purple-black; sweet tasting to tart depending on the tree; hardiness zones 5-9; Asian native [28] Everbearing – Fruits are large and good-tasting; hardiness zones 4-8; produces a large main crop in early summer and a second smaller crop in late summer [28] Illinois Everbearing – Fruit is large, black, nearly seedless and has a sweet-tart taste; hardiness zones 5-8 (to -25°F); self-pollinating; harvest last over two months from spring through summer [28] Wellington – Fruit is large, sweet and black; hardiness zones 5-9; prolific bearer [28] For information on other mulberry varieties see Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries ed. Roger Holmes (1996)

Known Hazards
Apparently raw mulberry shoots and unripe fruits contain hallucinogens [4,14]. James Duke states that he has not found this to be true [13]. Bradford Angier also recommends eating mulberry leaves raw, with no mention of any hallucinogenic properties [2]. Mulberry’s prolific fruit production may be a nuisance for some as they stain nearly everything they touch [28]. Thus, plantings along driveways and sidewalks are most likely undesirable.

285

Myrica gale
Common name: Sweet Gale Family: Myricaceae Range: European native [8,15]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States and northern Canada [14] Habitat: Swamps, shallow water, pond and stream margins [14] Hardiness: 1 [8] Other Common Names: Bog-Myrtle [5,16,35,56], Meadow Fern [5] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Wax, Hedge, Insect Repellent, Condiment

Physical Characteristics
Sweet gale is a small shrub that can grow to a height of about seven feet though it is usually smaller [5,14,15]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, rounded, wedge shaped, dark green above, pale beneath, between one and three inches long and aromatic when crushed [14,16]. Male flowers are in spikelike catkins at the end of the twigs [14]. Plants are usually dioecious, (each sex is found on a separate plant) so female flowers are found on separate plants at the base of the leaves [14,15,35]. They are present from March to May and are wind-pollinated [56]. Fruit is small, nutlike, aromatic and resin dotted [5,14]. They have two winglike scales and are formed in small conelike clusters [14].

286

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Condiment, Tea, Fruits, Beer Leaves can be picked at any time though they are best in early summer [14]. They should be washed and then left to dry in a warm shaded area [14]. Once dry, they can be stored in sealed jars in a dark place [14]. Dried leaves can be crumbled and blended into stews and sauces [14,15]. Dried leaves can also be used for hot tea [8,14,15,16]. Nutlets can be gathered from summer through winter [14]. They can be used for seasoning just like the leaves [5,8,14]. Sweet gale was traditionally used to flavor beer in England before hops were introduced [8,15,35]. It is possible to make beer from sweet gale, though it is quite an elaborate process. If you are interested, see Richard Mabey’s Food for Free (1972).

Medicinal Uses
Abortifacient, Astringent, Stomachic, Diuretic Sweet gale is abortifacient, aromatic, astringent and stomachic [8,56]. A compound decoction of pounded branches can be taken as a diuretic [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Wax, Dye, Hedge, Oil, Insect Repellent, Bee Fodder Sweet gale is a nitrogen fixer [8]. Sweet gale fruits and leaves are covered with a waxy coating. This can be extracted by simmering them in hot water and skimming off the wax as it comes to the surface [8,15]. It melts at about 48°C [8]. This wax can be used to make aromatic candles, though it is unlikely to produce enough to make it commercially viable [8,15]. A yellow dye can be obtained from the tips of the stems and the roots [8,15,37]. Sweet gale is a wonderful plant to include along the margins of marshes, dams and bogs [38].
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Shrubs can also be planted as a hedge [8]. The fruits can be used as a source of a fragrant essential oil [8,15,56]. The entire plant, especially the leaves, repels moths and insects [8,15,37,56]. A strong decoction made from the leaves can be used to kill external body parasites [8,15,56]. Shrubs provide fodder for bees [8].

Cultivation Details
Sweet gale prefers soils that are moist or even wet [8]. They do best in acidic soils, though they will tolerate neutral and slightly alkaline soils as well [5,8,15,56]. Shrubs will grow well in light, medium and heavy soils [8]. They also prefer positions that are either in full sun or light shade [8]. Both sexes of the plant are required for fruiting to occur [8]. Shrubs spread by suckers and will form thickets if permitted [8,56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, layering and division [56].

Known Hazards
As these shrubs are an abortifacient, no parts should be eaten by pregnant women [56].

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Myrica pennsylvanica
Common name: Northern Bayberry Family: Myricaceae Range: Eastern North American native [2,8,56]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [2,33] Habitat: Dunes, dry hills, shores [33], moist woodlands, sandy soils [2] Hardiness: 2 [8] Other Common Names: Wax Myrtle [2,16], Bay [2], Candleberry [2], Common Wax Myrtle [2], Black Bayberry [2] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Condiment, Wax, Candles, Hedge, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Bird Forage

Physical Characteristics
Northern bayberry is a shrub that can reach a height of thirty feet though it commonly only grows to ten feet [2,5,8,16,33]. The shrubs will often sucker and form thickets [15]. Branches are stiff and radiate upward and outward from the main stem [33]. Bark on

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older limbs is gray in color, while it is orange-brown on some of the younger twigs [2,33]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, between one and three inches long, elliptical, tomentose (fuzzy) on top, covered with tiny wax dots on the underside and found only at the stem tips [2,33]. Flowers are borne in catkins underneath the stem tips [33]. They emerge in midspring before the leaves [33]. Flowers are monoecious (single flowers are either male or female and both sexes can be found on a single plant) and are wind-pollinated [56]. The fruits are waxy and gray and are fully mature by autumn [33]. Both the berries and crushed leaves of bayberry are highly aromatic [2,5,16,33].

History
Bayberry fruits have been used to make candles, soaps and dyes since colonial times in the eastern United States [2,33]. Also, northern bayberry was likely to be one of the first plants used medicinally by North American settlers [2].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Condiment, Fruits Leaves can be dried and used as a spice [2,8,15,16,33]. They are said to be an appropriate substitute for bay leaves [2,5,8,15,16]. If you like, they can be dried and stored for later use as well [2]. When used in cooking, the leaves should be removed before the food is served [8]. Bayberry fruits are reportedly edible either raw or cooked, though they have little edible flesh and that can be eaten is of poor quality [8]. It’s probably a much better idea to save them for candles.

Medicinal Uses
Diarrhea, Astringent, Emetic, Decongestant, Fever Remedy, Skin Irritations Dried root bark can be pounded into powder and used as a diarrhea remedy [2]. This is done by making a tea that consists of a teaspoonful of powder to a cup of boiling water [2]. The tea should be drunk cold once or twice a day [2]. Root bark is also astringent and emetic [56]. American pioneers sniffed the aforementioned root powder to relieve nasal congestion [2]. Tea made from bayberry leaves can be used as a fever remedy and as an external wash for itchy skin [8].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Wax, Soap, Candles, Dye, Tannin, Smoking Substitute, Hedge, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Bird Forage Northern bayberry is a nitrogen-fixing shrub [8]. Bayberry fruits can be used to make soaps, candles and dyes [5,8,15,33,48]. Candlemaking is probably the most common reason as to why this shrub is cultivated. This is done by gathering the fruits in early autumn and boiling a large quantity of bruised fruits in water for several hours [5,15,33]. The wax melts at only 48°C, and upon melting, it rises to the surface and can be skimmed off or allowed to cool before removing [5,8,15,33]. This brittle, green wax can used in candlemaking or also to make soap [33]. Finally, the water that the berries were boiled in can be used as a blue dye, and if mixed with the husks, leaves or bark of the walnut tree, the dye will turn black [33]. The leaves are a source of tannins [33]. Bayberry leaves can reportedly be dried and used as a tobacco substitute [42]. Bayberry can be grown as a hedge, and as such, it is best left untrimmed [15]. It is a very wind hardy plant [8,56]. Shrubs may also be planted for erosion control [8]. The fruits provide a source of forage for many bird species, namely the myrtle warbler [2,5].

Cultivation Details
Bayberry prefers moist, acidic soils [8,15]. It also prefers full sun though it is tolerant of partial shade [8]. Plants are tolerant of maritime conditions, salt, winds and soils that are both dry and neutral in pH [8,15,56]. When planting bayberry as a hedgerow, they should be spaced about thirty inches apart from one another [15]. Because plants are dioecious, you will need to plant at least one male plant for every five or six females if you want to ensure that they produce fruit [15]. Plants are propagated by seed, cuttings, layering and division [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

291

Nasturtium officinale
Common name: Watercress Family: Cruciferae Range: Eurasian native [5,14,33]; Naturalized throughout the United States [5,33] Habitat: Streams, clear cool pools, springheads, brooks, [33] slow moving water [14] Hardiness: 3-10 [7.13] Other Common Names: Pepperleaf [2], Water Nasturtium [2], Scurvy Grass [2] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves and seeds, Dynamic Accumulator, Water Purifier, Condiment, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Watercress is a succulent aquatic perennial up to three feet long with creeping or floating stems [13,33]. It usually grows in shallow water or mud [14]. These weak stems are about a quarter to one half inch in width, and from them emerge many fibrous white roots [2,14,33,44]. Watercress has alternate, pinnately compound leaves with between three and eleven dark green leaflets each [14,33]. Lateral leaflets are generally globose or oblong whereas the terminal leaflet is larger and usually globose [1,33]. Watercress flowers are small, stalked and possess four white petals [33]. They are arranged in

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narrow, elongated clusters and located toward the tips of the branches [13,14,33]. Flowers are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. Watercress fruits are narrow, linear, beaked seedpods about an inch in length that contain several small reddish-brown seeds [14,33]. Plants flower from April to July and fruit shortly thereafter until the first frost [13].

History
Watercress has been recognized as a food source since ancient times [22]. It was prized by the Mohammedans in Western India [22]. The ancient Greek historian and general Xenophon and the Persian king Xerxes observed that those who ate watercress maintained better health, and so they recommended that their soldiers include watercress in their diets [22,44].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Seeds, Mustard, Condiment, Tea Usually, watercress can be gathered year round, as the plants will live as long as the water that they are growing in does not freeze solid [1,17,33,44]. Despite this, it actually becomes more abundant and accessible once ice has occurred [33]. To harvest, simply pick the stem tips and leaves, being sure not to accidentally damage or uproot the plant itself [5,33,35]. Individual plants may be picked three to four times during the course of the growing season [22]. Some advise against picking young watercress because they are rather tasteless [35]. Instead, pick the older, sturdier specimens whose leaves are darker in color because they are much more tangy in taste [35]. I think that each individual should try for themselves to see which flavor they enjoy more. Watercress will not store well, so it should be eaten as soon as possible after collection [33]. If the plants are harvested from water that is of questionable purity, be sure to wash greens in a disinfectant bath [2,5,13,14,33]. Boiling them is obviously another way in which to ensure the sterility of the greens [44]. Watercress can be cooked and eaten as a potherb like spinach [14]. It also can be used as an ingredient in soup or eaten raw in salad [13,14,29,33]. I should mention that though watercress is often recommended as a cooked ingredient in recipes, much of its amazing nutritional content will be lost in the process, so it is in many ways desirable to consume it raw. Some explain that watercress possesses the characteristic peppery flavor of mustard [1]. The plant’s taste is reportedly improved with a little salt [35]. Watercress stems and blossoms have a similar taste to radishes and can be used as garnish or as a main salad ingredient [14,29]. Seeds can be germinated, producing sprouts that are reportedly quite tasty [13]. They can also be ground up to make a mustard like substance [13]. Leaves can be dried, powdered and used as a seasoning to flavor foods [15,44].
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A nutritious tea can also be made with watercress leaves [1,2]. One hundred grams of watercress contains 19 calories, 2.2g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 151mg of calcium, 54mg of phosphorus, 1.7mg of iron, 52mg of sodium, 282mg of potassium, 4900 I.U. of vitamin A, .08mg of thiamine, .16mg of riboflavin, .9mg of niacin and 79mg of vitamin C [22,44,49]

Medicinal Uses
Kidney/Liver Ailments, Diuretic, Expectorant, Gout, Stomach Aches, Skin Blemishes, Canker Sores Cold watercress tea can be taken as a remedy for fevers and kidney and liver ailments [13]. It is used by herbalists as a diuretic, expectorant, for gout and for stomach aches [44]. Watercress is sometimes an ingredient in herbal cosmetics that help correct skin blemishes [13]. Carrot/watercress soup is one recorded remedy for canker sores and oral blisters [13].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Bee Forage, Dynamic Accumulator, Water Purifier Watercress will attract bees [7]. Also, it will take up minerals and nutrients in water, helping purify it [7]. It is a dynamic accumulator of sodium, fluorine, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron [32]. There are current experiments taking place in which watercress plants are used as a means by which to extract heavy metals from polluted waters. The metals could then be further extracted and reclaimed from the plant itself.

Cultivation Details
Watercress grows in full sun or partial shade [13]. It prefers clean cold water that is between five and thirty centimeters (2-12in) deep [1,15]. The plant prefers a soil pH of 7.2 [56]. There are also now available watercress seeds that can be sown in moist soil [24]. Watercress can be easily propagated by cuttings. The plant’s branches will readily take root when put in water or mud [17,29]. A good way to begin plants is to simply buy a bunch of shoots from a grocer and put them in a bowl of water [15]. They will root

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within a few days and can then be potted up and placed in shallow water [15]. Once they are well rooted, they can be planted out in a pond or marsh [15]. No attempts were made to cultivate watercress as a commercial crop until the early 19th century [23]. As a commercial crop, it requires a supply of clear, uncontaminated water [23]. In good growing conditions, watercress may yield as many as ten crops a year and could continue yielding for ten years, though it is common to frequently replant it over time [23].

Known Hazards
Because watercress grows in slow moving water, it will take up any pollutants that may reside in the water [44]. As a safeguard against this, thoroughly wash any harvested watercress with a disinfectant or cook it well (that is, if it was harvested from water sources of questionable purity).

295

Nuphar advena (lutea)
Common name: Yellow Pond Lily Family: Nymphaeaceae Range: Eastern North American native [7,56]; Widespread throughout the United States [2,14] Habitat: Lakes, ponds, slow streams, swamps, tidal waters [13,14,22] Hardiness: 3-8 [7,13] Other Common Names: Spatterdock [2,7,13,14], Yellow Water Lily [2,13], Cow Lily [2,7,43], Pond Collard [2], Wokas [2] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Edible – seeds, roots, leaves, leaf stalks and flowers, Wildlife Habitat, Duck Fodder, Ornamental

Physical Characteristics
Yellow pond lily is an aquatic perennial herb [13,14]. It has large roots or rhizomes that grow up to five inches in diameter [2,13,14]. Leaves are large, alternate, deeply lobed at the base, shiny green and are usually raised above the water level, though they occasionally float [2,13,14]. Flowers are borne singly on long stalks [14]. They are one to four inches across and have numerous yellow, green-tipped petals [2,13,14]. Also,
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they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by flies [56]. Fruits are broadly urn-shaped, one to two inches long, ribbed, green and have a thick short neck and flat top [14]. They contain many small yellowish-brown ovoid seeds [13,14].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Seeds, Roots, Flour, Leaves, Leaf Stalks, Flowers, Tea Fruits can be cut free from the stalk once they ripen, which is generally in late summer or fall [14]. Roots can be harvested from autumn to spring, and they must be loosened from the mud in the bottom of the pond in which they grow [14]. The fruits should be air-dried until they pull apart and allow the seeds to be separated [14]. Pour the seeds in a bucket of water and let them sit for several hours [14]. The good ones sink and should be dried in the sun or in a warm oven [14]. Seeds will store well [14]. They can be popped like popcorn (though it swells but does not burst), added to soup as a thickener, boiled like rice or ground and used like cornmeal [2,13,14,15,16,37]. The last two uses require that the seed hulls first be removed [14]. This is done by first parching them in an oven, pounding them lightly to crack the shell and then winnowing that which remains [14]. Roots should be peeled, sliced and boiled in two changes of water [14,16,37]. They can be served like potatoes, mashed, or dried and used as a flour [2,14,37]. Some say that the taste of the roots is very undesirable, going so far as to describe it as ‘baked swamp’ [13]. Though this most certainly does not sound appetizing, I think it would be best for each individual to give them a try and make the decision for themselves. The leaves and leaf stalks are also edible when cooked though they are not incredibly tasty [13,15]. Yellow pond lily flowers can be used in teas [13].

Medicinal Uses
Anodyne, Astringent, Demulcent, Dysentery, Diarrhea, Poultice Roots are anodyne, astringent and demulcent [56]. A tea made with them is used to treat dysentery and diarrhea [56].

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A poultice of dried and powdered roots or fresh or dried leaves can be applied to cuts, sores and swellings [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Duck Fodder, Bee Forage, Ornamental, Aquatic Habitat Seeds provide a food source for ducks [38]. Yellow pond lily provides forage for bees [7]. Plants are very ornamental [56]. They also provide habitat for scores of wetland creatures.

Cultivation Details
Plants require wet sites, [7] and will grow in water that is up to nine feet deep [15]. It is best if they can be grown in still water that is about two feet deep [56]. They prefer full sun but they will go so far as to tolerate full shade [7,56]. Plants can be propagated by seed or division [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

298

Oenothera biennis
Common name: Evening Primrose Family: Onagraceae Range: Eastern North American native [1,35,56]; Widespread throughout the eastern United States [1,13,14] Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, prairies, fields [13,14] Hardiness: 4-8 [13] Other Common Names: King’s Cureall [1,2,13], German Rampion [2,22,25], Wild Beet [22], Sand Lily [2], Morning Primrose [2], Gumbo Primrose [2], Rock Rose [2] Primary Uses: Edible – roots, leaves, seeds, oil, shoots and flowers, Dynamic Accumulator, Medicine, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Cover Crop, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Evening primrose is a biennial herb that grows to a height of about six feet [1,2,14,31]. It has an elongated taproot and pubescent, (hairy) upright stems [13,14]. First year leaves are narrow, willowlike and three to nine inches long [1,13]. They form a low rosette, whereas second year leaves on the flower stalk are alternate, lance-shaped, between three and seven inches long, entire or serrate (toothed) along the margin and pubescent [13,14]. Flowers emerge in the second year of growth [14]. They are borne in an elongated terminal cluster, each with four large spreading yellow petals [14]. They frequently open after dusk and close by midmorning [1,2,13,14]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess
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both male and female organs) and are pollinated by lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) [56]. Fruits are cylindrical, four-sided pods that contain many small red seeds [1,13,14]. After producing its seeds, the plant dies [1].

History
Large evening primrose, Oenothera erythrosepala, was introduced from the United States to Britain in the early seventeenth century [1,2,22,25,31,35]. There it was quickly used as a garden plant and grown for its roots [22,25,35]. Germans also cultivated this plant, but they ate the young shoots as well [22,25,35].

Edible Uses
Roots, Leaves, Seeds, Oil, Shoots, Flowers For the most part, all parts of evening primrose are edible [13,15]. The taproots of the first year’s growth can be dug up between autumn and early spring, while the rosette leaves can be picked in autumn of the first year or early spring of the second [1,13,14,31]. Seeds are available during most of the colder months of the year [13]. They are a source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) [13]. GLA is an essential fatty acid that is not found in many plant sources and plays a role in numerous vital functions in the body [15]. Taproots can be eaten raw or cooked [13]. They are said to have a taste that is similar to salsify or parsnips [15]. Once again, they are only good to eat during the first year of growth [1,2]. They can be peeled and boiled in two changes of water for about a half hour or so [1,2,14,16]. Boiled roots can be served as is or sliced and fried [14]. They may also be candied by simmering in a sugar syrup for twenty to thirty minutes [14]. The roots can be used for pickling as well [13]. Leaves can be eaten raw in salads or boiled for fifteen to twenty minutes in two changes of water and served like any other potherb [4,14,22,31]. Seeds can be used like poppyseeds, or they can be eaten alone, but they must be fully chewed if they are to be digested [13,42]. An oil may also be obtained from the seed that is rich in GLA [15]. The young shoots of this plant can be harvested and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus [16,35,42]. Flowers can be eaten and used as a salad garnish [15].

Medicinal Uses
Cough Remedy, Digestive Aid, Skin Irritations, GLA Source, Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, Premenstrual Tension, Parkinson’s Disease, Migraine Headaches, High Blood Pressure

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Evening primrose has been used as a cough remedy [1,4]. This is done by steeping a teaspoonful of the finely cut plant in a cup of boiling water for five minutes [1]. This tea should then be taken in quarter cup doses, four times a day [4]. Dry leaves may also be used for this application in order to make a slightly milder medication [4]. They should be steeped for about fifteen minutes [4]. Dried leaf tea is also a remedy for digestive disorders and helps to soothe the digestive process [4]. An ointment is made from this plant that is used to treat minor skin irritations [1]. GLA, the essential fatty acid that is contained in the seeds of this plant, has proved to be beneficial in the treatment of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, premenstrual tension, Parkinson’s disease, migraines, eczema, high blood pressure and hyperactivity [15,34].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Cover Crop, Dynamic Accumulator, Wildlife/Bird Forage The flowers are a source of a yellow dye [56]. Plants attract beneficial insects, namely ground beetles [32]. Evening primrose can be grown as a cover crop in soils that will not be cultivated for a few years [32]. It is a dynamic accumulator of magnesium [32]. Evening primrose provides forage for birds and other wildlife [2].

Cultivation Details
Evening primrose prefers dry, well-drained sandy loam soils, though they will succeed in most soils, including very poor ones [15]. It will do best in full sun and is intolerant of full shade [15,56]. Plants are drought resistant once established [15,56]. Plants will usually self-sow freely if they are grown in a suitable position [56]. It is typically propagated by seed [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

301

Ostrya virginiana
Common name: Ironwood Family: Betulaceae Range: Eastern North American native [10,56]; Widespread throughout the eastern United States Habitat: Well drained sites, rich moist woods [56] Hardiness: 4-5 [10] Other Common Names: Hop Hornbeam, Eastern Hop Hornbeam [10,37], Canadian Ironwood [10], Leverwood [10] Primary Uses: Firewood, Timber, Ornamental, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Ironwood is a small understory tree reaching a height of about sixty feet [10]. Twigs are slender and the buds are ovoid and striated longitudinally. Bark is smooth and reddish brown when young. Later, it begins to break up into thin shaggy plates, giving it a very definitive appearance. Leaves are deciduous, simple alternate, ovate, three to five inches long with a relatively inequaliteral base and have a papery feel. Flowers appear in September and are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female and both sexes can be found on the same plant) [56]. Fruits are nutlets that are borne in a papery sac suspended in strobiles. They closely resemble the fruit of hops.

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
None known.

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Medicinal Uses
Astringent, Haemostatic, Blood Tonic, Tonic, Toothaches, Cough Syrup, Rheumatism The bark is astringent, haemostatic and blood tonic [56]. A mixture containing ironwood root can be taken as a tonic [37]. An infusion of the bark can be held in the mouth for toothaches [37]. A liquid made from the wood can be taken as a cough syrup [37]. Compound decoctions made from the heartwood can be used as an herbal steam for rheumatism [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Timber, Fuel, Ornamental Ironwood can be grown as a timber tree. The wood of this tree is light brown and fine grained [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength, durable, very heavy, very hard, has good shock absorbency, is difficult to split and is extremely dense [10]. Ironwood makes a great firewood, but it is very difficult to split [56]. It weighs fifty-one pounds per cubic foot [56]. Timber is usually used for fencing and posts, tool handles, mallets, bows and sled runners [10]. Also, aesthetically, ironwood is a very pleasing and intriguing tree and is a wonderful ornamental.

Cultivation Details
Trees prefer positions in full sun though they are tolerant of partial shade [10]. They are very easily grown and will succeed in most soils [56]. Ironwood is rather slow growing [56]. Plants are generally propagated by seed [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

303

Oxalis acetosella
Common name: Wood-Sorrel Family: Oxalidaceae Range: European and Asian native [7,9]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [4,13,44] Habitat: Waste places, shady, moist areas, woods [4,22,44] Hardiness: 3-9 [7,13] Other Common Names: Sourgrass [7,11,13,44], Trefoil [22], Shamrock [22,44], Oxalis [44], White Wood Sorrel [7], European Wood Sorrel [7], Irish Shamrock [7,9] Primary Uses: Ground Cover, Edible – leaves, fruits and flowers, Dynamic Accumulator, Wildlife Forage, Medicine, Stain Remover

Physical Characteristics
Sorrel is a low-growing perennial herb with stems that reach about eight inches in length [11,13,31,44]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate and cloverlike [13,44]. They possess three notched leaflets that arise at the tip of the long leafstalks that are deeply notched at the tip and toothless along the edges [11,13,22,44]. Leaflets spread out in sunlight and close or fold back in cloudy weather and in the evenings [44]. Flowers are either solitary or in clusters of two to nine and have five petals that are either white, yellow, red or pink [11,13,35,44]. They are present from May until August [44]. The flowers are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. The fruit is an inch-long five-celled pod that contains at least two reddish seeds in each chamber [13]. The coats on these fruits shrink so quickly that they propel the seeds quite a distance [44].

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History
Wood sorrel was being used as a salad vegetable as early as the fourteenth century [35]. It was under cultivation by the fifteenth century [35].

Edible Uses
Fruits, Leaves, Flowers, Tea The fruits, leaves, flowers and roots of this plant all can be eaten [11,13,31,44]. Unfortunately, the roots of this species are generally too small to be worthwhile to harvest, since uprooting the plant will mean that it will no longer produce greens. All parts of this plant may be collected whenever they are available [22,31,44]. They come into leaf in early spring and continue to provide a food source well into mid-summer [15]. Fruits, leaves and flowers can all be eaten alone, raw or added to salads [11,22,44]. They have a lemony, vinegary flavor [11,15,44]. Leaves and stems can be slightly fermented to make a type of sauerkraut [44]. Plants may also be brewed as a tea [4,22]. Once dried, the plant may be used as a curdling agent for plant milks [56]. One hundred grams of wood sorrel contain 0.9g of protein and 2800 I.U. of vitamin A [49].

Medicinal Uses
Kidney/Heart/Blood Purifier, Anodyne, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Expectorant, Febrifuge, Irritant, Stomachic, Poultice Sorrel can be taken to benefit the kidneys, heart and blood [22]. The leaves, fresh or dried, are anodyne, antiscorbutic, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, irritant and stomachic [56]. Flowers can be used as a poultice to relieve swelling [31].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Stain Remover, Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage Wood sorrel leaves can be used to remove iron stains from linen [7,9,44,56].

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Plants can be grown as an edible ground cover [7,9]. Since plants are well adapted to shaded conditions, they would make a wonderful cover in forest gardens and woodlots [9,44,56]. Wood sorrel is a dynamic accumulator [7,9]. Plants provide forage for bird and wildlife species [13]. Wood sorrel also provides forage for bees [9].

Cultivation Details
Wood sorrel prefers soils that are moist, fertile and humus-rich [7,9]. It also prefers growing in partially shaded conditions, and will even tolerate full shade [7,9]. Plants will tolerate all soil types and pH levels [9]. Once established, wood sorrel spreads by runners [31]. When grown as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about sixteen inches apart [9]. Plants grow at a moderate speed, spreading vigorously and eventually forming a low density cover [9]. Plants can be readily transplanted [31]. They can be propagated by seed and root division in spring [31,56].

Known Hazards
This plant contains oxalic acid, which can be toxic if consumed in large quantities [11,13,31,35]. If you suffer from rheumatism or arthritis it is probably best to completely avoid this plant [15]. As wood sorrel is an emmenagogue, it should be avoided by pregnant women. If allowed to spread unchecked, wood sorrel will become invasive.

306

Phragmites communis/australis
Common name: Common Reed Family: Gramineaceae Range: North American native [16,25]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [13,14,33]; Exotic species are also common throughout the US Habitat: Brackish water, pond borders, ditches, marshes, wet bogs [14,33,35] Hardiness: 3-7 [7,13] Other Common Names: Reed Grass [14], Phragmites [14], Reed [7], Carrizo [7], Common Reed Grass [7], Wild Broomcorn [7] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Fiber – basketry and paper, Edible – shoots, leaves, roots and seeds, Water Purifier, Wildlife Habitat, Soil Stabilizer, Biomass, Compost, Fuel, Livestock Fodder, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Reeds are tall perennial grasses that grow to about twelve to fifteen feet in height and are found in colonies in moist areas [7,14,33]. They spread by long underground rhizomes [14]. The stems are upright and between six and thirteen feet high [14]. Leaf blades are flat, narrow, smooth, sheathed and between seven and twenty-four inches long [14]. One of its most diagnostic traits is the large plume of flowers that grows at the tip of its tall,
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cylindrical, jointed stems [33]. They are formed in large dense clusters that are six to sixteen inches long [14]. These flower clusters are a rich purple in early fall and late summer while they take on a light tan color in winter [14,33,35]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are wind pollinated [56]. Seeds are very small, hard and dark brown in color [14,33].

History
Native Americans that lived south of the northern wild rice fields used the seeds of this plant as a source of grain and the rhizome, shoots and young leaves as cooked vegetables [33]. For centuries, the Marsh Arabs of Iraq have built their homes from their own native reed species [34].

Edible Uses
Shoots, Leaves, Roots, Seeds, Pickle, Flour The young shoots and leaves can be gathered in spring, and the seeds can be collected in early spring [14,33]. Also, the rhizomes can be dug up year round and roasted or baked [13,14,33]. Seed heads can be gathered in late summer and autumn, though it is common that plants do not produce seed [14]. The shoots can be eaten as a spring green or cooked for ten minutes as a potherb [14,33]. They are reportedly best when they are harvested before they have turned green [58]. They should first be peeled down to the sweet center, discarding the tougher outer layers [33]. These shoots may be pickled as well [58]. Green reeds can also be cut, dried and ground [4,13,35]. The powder that results can be sifted out into flour [4,35]. This ‘flour’ contains so much sugar that it swells when placed near fire, and it can be eaten like a toasted marshmallow [4,13,35]. The leaves can be cooked as a pot herb [33]. The rhizomes produced by this plant can be dried and ground into flour [4,41]. Seeds can be used to make a porridge that is very nutritious [14,33]. To prepare this, harvest the seeds and crush them [14,33]. Then add two cups of boiling water to each half-cup of seeds, cover, and cook slowly until they have formed a thin, reddish porridge [14,33]. Damaged stems release a sweet pasty gum [6]. This can be harvested, compressed into balls and eaten [6,7,13,42,58]. When it is placed near fire, the balls will swell and turn brown and they can be eaten like taffy [6].

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Medicinal Uses
Diarrhea, Earaches, Toothaches, Decongestant, Poultice, Antiasthmatic, Antiemetic, Antipyretic, Antitussive, Depurative, Diuretic, Febrifuge, Lithontripic, Sedative, Stomachic Apache used the roots of this plant for diarrhea, earaches, toothaches and stomach maladies [13,37]. The sugary sap of this plant has been taken by pneumonia patients in order to loosen phlegm and soothe lung pains [37]. Flour from the fresh root can be made into a paste or poultice and used for insect bites [4]. Roots are antiasthmatic, antiemetic, antipyretic, antitussive, depurative, diuretic, febrifuge, lithontripic, sedative and stomachic [56]. It is used by harvesting it in autumn and juicing or dying it for use in decoctions [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Basketry, Thatching, Paper, Structural Material, Water Purifier, Compost Material, Dye, Biomass, Fuel, Insulation, Soil Stabilizer, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Habitat Shoots can be used for weaving and thatching [7,26,33]. Thatching made from reeds can last for up to one hundred years [15]. Fiber from the stems and leaves may also be used to make paper [7,15,26,38]. The shoots can be used for fencing and trellising [13]. Phragmites can be planted as water purifiers [7,38]. They will dry out sludges and eliminate pathogens in contaminated water [38]. The plant growth can then be regularly cut down and used for compost material [15]. A light green dye can be extracted from the flowers of this plant [7,15]. Reeds are a very good source of biomass (up to 25 tons/acre) [13]. This biomass can either be used as a fuel or for insulation [13,15,26]. Plants provide erosion control on sandy banks [7,15,26,38]. The young shoots can be grown as livestock fodder [13]. Reeds also provide important cover and habitat for birds and aquatic wildlife [15,38,58].

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Cultivation Details
Reeds require wet soils and generally grow partially underwater [7]. Plants will grow in water that is as deep as five feet [58]. They prefer positions in full sun [7]. Plants are tolerant of saline water [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed and root division [41,56]. There are some named varieties that have been selected for their ornamental value [56].

Known Hazards
Like many plants, unchecked reed colonies can grow to be quite invasive, so it is important that care is taken to ensure that they do not spread excessively [15,41,58]. Many consider reeds to be a noxious weed in Vermont, and in many cases it is completely taking over waterways throughout the state.

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Physalis heterophylla
Common name: Ground Cherry Family: Solanaceae Range: North American native [7,23]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [1,2,13,14,31] Habitat: Old fields, meadows, pastures, waste sites [1,13,31], moist sites, open woodlands [14] Hardiness: 3-9 [13] Other Common Names: Clammy Ground Cherry [2,7,31], Husk Tomato [1,2,16,17,48], Strawberry Tomato [1,2,17], Bladder Cherry [2,17], Tomatillo [31], Chinese Lantern [17,31], Popweed [2,31], Dwarf Cape Gooseberry [17] Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Flour, Medicine, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Ground cherry is a branching upright annual or perennial that seldom grows larger than a foot in height, but takes up a great deal of space due to its sprawling nature [1,2,13,17]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, ovate, one to three inches long, pointed, toothed along the margin and often densely covered with soft hairs [2,13,17,23]. Flowers are greenish yellow and have five petals [1,2,13]. They are borne in May or June [13]. Also,

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they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruit is a round, yellow, multiple seeded berry that is contained in an inflated papery husk that is an inch or two long [1,2,13,14,16,17,23].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Berries, Pickle, Flour When ripe, berries can be eaten fresh as is or cooked and are said to taste something like tomatoes [7,13,14,16,29,31,48]. They usually ripen between July and September [1]. Berries can be stewed like tomatoes or made into pies, jams and jellies [2,13,14,16]. If you store the harvested berries while they are still encased in their husks, they will continue to grow sweeter for several weeks [1,2,17]. Once the husks are dry, the fruit, still encased in the husk, can be stored in a dry place for a month or more [17]. The berries can also be used in pickles [29]. Ground cherries can be canned quite easily. First, make a syrup by boiling six cups of water, three cups of sugar and the juice of three lemons for five minutes. Add to this syrup enough ground cherries to reach its top. Simmer them until they have become tender and clear, pour them into hot sterilized jars and seal [1]. When dried, the fruits may be ground and used as flour [13]. One hundred grams of ground cherries contain 40 calories, 1.6g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 10mg of calcium, 34mg of phosphorus, 0.9mg of iron, 25 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.90mg of thiamine, 0.04mg of riboflavin, 2.4mg of niacin and 6mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Skin Wash, VD, Emetic, Stomachic, Headaches Leaf and root tea can be used as a healing wash for burns, scalds and venereal disease [13,37]. It can also be taken as an emetic for bad stomachaches and as a headache remedy [13,37,56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage Plants provide forage for bird and wildlife species [2,13].

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Cultivation Details
Plants prefer dry soils and full sun though they are generally quite tolerant [7]. Ground cherry will usually succeed in any well-drained soil [56]. As ground cherry can be a vigorous weed, the case may be that there is no need for you to actually cultivate them in the garden. Instead, if they are already present on your property as a ‘weed’, relish in the fact that you will not need to go to the trouble of obtaining and planting seed, and you can instead reap all of the above benefits from wild plants. Ground cherry is a good no-till edible fruit [32]. Perennial species can be easily propagated by division, root cuttings or seed, while annuals are simply started by seed [31,56]. Tomatillos are a related Mexican species of ground cherry, and they are commonly cultivated in the United States for their fruit [31]. There are a number of related edible species that can be cultivated as annuals for their fruits [15].

Known Hazards
Ground cherry is a host for verticullum wilt, a disease that can effect stone fruits and vegetables [32]. Also, unripe green fruits and other parts of the plant may be poisonous [7,14,31,56].

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Picea glauca
Common name: White Spruce Family: Pinaceae Range: Northern North American native [10,56]; Widely distributed throughout northern North America [48] Habitat: Moist sites, old fields, good soils, stream banks, rocky hills and slope [56] Hardiness: 2 [10] Other Common Names: Canadian Spruce [10], Cat Spruce [10,16] Primary Uses: Timber, Windbreak, Water Sealant, Edible – shoots, resin, flowers and seed pods, Mulch, Insect Repellent

Physical Characteristics
White spruce is a medium to large evergreen tree that grows to a height of one hundred feet or more [10]. Needles are about a half inch long, waxy, relatively sharp-pointed, blue-green and possess a fetid odor when crushed. Twigs are brown-gray and either smooth or waxy. Flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female and both sexes can be found on a single plant) and are wind-pollinated [56]. Cones are between two and tree inches long and cylindrical, and the scales are thin and flexible and have an entire (untoothed) margin. Seeds ripen in September [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Shoots, Beer, Tea, Resin, Gum, Flower, Condiment, Seed Pod New shoots can be used year round for making spruce beer [42]. These young shoots, when stripped of their needles, are also a nutritious food [16]. Spruce leaves can be used to make a tea [1,42]. Though the young bright green tips are best, any age needles will do [1]. The resin of the white spruce can be chewed like gum [37]. Young male catkins can be eaten raw or cooked [56]. They can be used as a flavoring as well [56]. Immature female cones also can be eaten cooked [56].

Medicinal Uses
Urinary Disorders, Cough Remedy, Laxative, Digestive Stimulant, Tonic, Rheumatism, Antiseptic, Poultice An infusion of the cones can be taken for urinary troubles [37]. The inner bark can either be chewed or infused and taken as a cough remedy [37]. Spruce gum can be chewed as a laxative and also to help facilitate digestion [37]. Decoctions made from spruce bark can be taken as a general tonic [37]. A compound decoction of twigs can be used as an herbal steam for rheumatism [37]. Tea made from young spruce shoot tips has antiseptic properties [56]. The resin can be used as a poultice and applied to wounds [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Timber, Tannin, Mulch, Windbreak, Intercrop, Companion Plant, Sealant, Insect Repellent White spruce can be grown as a timber tree [10,16]. Its wood is light yellow in color and has fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is moderately weak and very light, and it is generally used for joinery and interior construction, paper pulp, agricultural implements, ladders and oars [10]. Its resonance and ability to transmit vibrations make it ideal for musical instrument construction [10,56].

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Spruce bark is a tannin source [56]. A mulch of spruce needles increases the vigor, flavor and stem strength of strawberries [46]. As trees are fairly wind resistant, they could be included as part of a shelterbelt (windbreak) planting [56]. The cultivar ‘Denstat’ is recommended for this purpose [56]. When intercropped with tamarack, white spruce has been found to reduce sawfly populations [32]. The pitch can be used as a water sealant [10,37]. Needles of the white spruce were burned by Native Americans to repel mosquitoes [37].

Cultivation Details
White spruce prefers moist, acidic soils with a pH between 4 and 6 [10,56]. Trees also have an affinity for positions in full sun [10]. They are intolerant of shade [56]. Trees can tolerate strong winds, but they are unable to withstand maritime exposure and atmospheric pollution [56]. White spruce is fast growing, especially when young, achieving up to three feet in height per year [56]. At ten years of age, white spruces can be expected to have at least reached a height of ten feet [10]. Trees that are being grown for timber will take about sixty years before they have reached maturity. Seed production begins after about twenty years of growth, but reliable crops may take twice as long [56]. Heavy crops can then be expected about every two to five years [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed and cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
Spruce roots may aggressively compete with and suppress other nearby trees [46].

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Pinus spp.
Common name: Pine Family: Pinaceae Range: Widely distributed throughout North America and the world (specific ranges depend on the species) Habitat: Rich woods [22], acidic soils [15] Hardiness: 3-10 [32] Other Common Names: White Pine – Weymouth Pine [10,22], Eastern White Pine [10], American Yellow Pine [10], Quebec Pine [10] Scots Pine – Scotch Fir [10], Redwood [10], Yellow Deal [10], Baltic Redwood [10], Scotch Pine [10] Red Pine – Norway Pine [10], Ottawa Red Pine [10], Canadian Red Pine [10], Quebec Red Pine [10] Jack Pine – Banksian Pine [10], Princess Pine [10], Gray Pine [10], Scrub Pine [10] Primary Uses: Windbreak, Edible Nuts, Timber, Firewood, Mulch, Wildlife Habitat, Wildlife Forage, Tea

Eastern White Pine – Pinus strobus

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Physical Characteristics
As a genus, pines are coniferous trees that reach a range of heights. They possess needlelike leaves in clusters of two to five that are persistent for two or more years [2]. Flowers emerge in the springtime and produce an abundance of pollen [2]. Once this pollen fertilizes the stigmas of the blossoms, their diagnostic woody cones begin to develop which may take two or even three years to reach maturity [2]. Cones are either male or female [58]. The female cones will release their winged seeds once they have fully developed. Specific physical characteristics vary greatly for each individual species. Thus, since this entry is devoted to pines as a genus, I will not proceed to describe each species.

History
Native Americans were known to commonly consume the inner bark of pine trees as a food source [16]. In fact, the name Adirondack actually means ‘tree-eaters’ [16].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Flour, Sugar, Inner Bark, Pollen, Tea Pine nuts can be collected in autumn as the cones begin to open [5,15,16,22,58]. It is typically the pines that are found in the southwestern United States, the Pinyon Pines, that are most thoroughly relished for their edible nuts. Unfortunately, most of them are only hardy to zone 5 and would be incredibly tender here in New England. Despite this, I have read that Colorado pinyon, Pinus edulis, is hardy to zone 3 [24]. The pinyon pines are slow growing and only produce heavy seed crops every few years [58]. The nuts can also be ground and used as flour [4,15]. Sugar pine, also a tender species in New England, produces nuts that are rich in sugar and oil [50]. If its sap is boiled to evaporate it, a solid sugar remains [50]. Some reports claim that sugar pine is not cold tolerant, so it would be a good idea to learn more about it if you are considering planting it [58]. The inner bark of pines can be gathered and eaten [2,5,33]. It is often first dried, ground into flour and used with wheat flour in baking [2,5]. Nonetheless, this is probably not the best idea as it is destructive to the tree [33]. Pollen from the male cones can be mixed with flour or added to soups as a thickener [4]. A tea can be made from the foliage of any pine by simply steeping it in boiling water [1,4,58].

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The nuts of Pinus edulis are 14% protein, 62-71% fat and 18% carbohydrate [58]. One hundred grams of pinyon nuts contain 635 calories, 20.5g of carbohydrates, 60.5g of fat, 13.0g of protein, 2.9g of ash, 12mg of calcium, 5.2mg of iron, 604mg of phosphorus, 30 I.U. of vitamin A, 1.28mg of thiamin, 0.23mg of riboflavin and 4.5mg of niacin [58].

Medicinal Uses
Expectorant, Cough Remedy, Rheumatism, Headaches, Poultice, Skin Irritations White pine bark is an expectorant and is used in most cough remedies [5]. Decoctions of the raw bark of white pine can be taken for rheumatism [37]. A poultice made of crushed white pine needles can be applied or inhaled by steaming as a headache remedy [37]. A poultice made of the inner bark of most pines can be used to treat wounds and other skin irritations [4,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Windbreak, Tar, Turpentine, Dye, Pioneer, Timber, Firewood, Paper, Mulch, Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage, Wildlife Habitat Pines are very good trees to plant as windbreaks because their evergreen foliage affords year-round protection [32]. The only drawback is that they are somewhat slow growing [15]. Austrian Pine, Pinus nigra, is extremely resistant to maritime exposure and has survived winds of 150 kilometers per hour with no sign of damage [15]. Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, is another good windbreak species [15]. Neither of these species are North American natives. As their respective names suggest, they have both been introduced from Europe. Pitch pine was once used as a source of pitch for tar and turpentine [15,48]. Pines are also used to produce various dyes [15,37]. Jack pine is a colonizer of open, sandy soils and can thrive on poor soils that are inhospitable to other plants, helping to rejuvenate the soil for the trees that will follow [48]. All pines can be grown as a source of timber, though some obviously have better properties than others. I’ve included an analysis of a handful of species that are hardy enough to survive here in New England.

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Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana, is a native of the United States that is hardy to zone 2 [10]. Trees will reach a height of about sixty five feet [10]. They prefer full sun and acidic soils, and their wood is red-brown and has straight, fine grain [10]. Seasoned timber is weak, light, fragrant and is used for joinery and interior construction, paper pulp, fuel, cooperage, railway sleepers and boxes and crates [10]. Ponderosa Pine, Pinus ponderosa, is a native of western North America and is hardy to zones 4 or 5 [10]. Trees prefer full sun and reach a maximum height of about 100 feet [10]. Wood is light red-brown and has straight, fine grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength, durable, light, very hard and fragrant and is often used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, railway sleepers and boxes and crates [10]. Red Pine, Pinus resinosa, is native to this region and is hardy to zones 2 and 3 [10]. Trees prefer acidic soils and full sun and reach a maximum height of 100 feet or more [10]. Wood is pale red and has coarse, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in heaviness, hard, fragrant, and is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, furniture and cabinetwork, piles, bridges and masts [10]. Pitch Pine, Pinus rigida, is also native to eastern North America and is hardy to zone 4 [10]. It prefers full sun and soils that are dry and acidic and reaches a maximum height of about eighty feet [10]. Wood is dark red-brown and has coarse grain [10]. Seasoned timber is weak, very durable, very light, hard, very brittle and fragrant and is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, furniture and cabinetwork, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, turpentine and waterwheels [10]. Eastern White Pine, Pinus strobus, is yet another eastern North American native and is hardy to zone 3 [10]. Trees prefer full sun and acidic soils and grow to over 100 feet [10]. Wood is white-yellow in color and has straight, coarse grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength, light, fragrant and is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, household utensils, roofing shingles, masts and matches [10]. Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris, is a native of Scotland and is hardy to zone 2 [10]. Trees reach a maximum height of 110 feet and can grow to twenty feet in their first ten years [10]. Wood is red-brown and has fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is weak, durable, fragrant and flexible and is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, paper pulp, veneers, railway sleepers, masts and chipboard [10]. Biodynamic research has found that a mulch of pine needles will help to increase the vigor, flavor and stem strength of strawberries [46]. All pine species provide very important habitat and forage for birds and wildlife [2].

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Cultivation Details
Pines grow well on light soils and seem to prefer poor acid sands [15]. They do not like alkaline soils [15]. Established trees are tolerant of drought and exposure [15]. Trees in this genus are often quite easy to grow [15]. Pines are generally resistant to insects and disease, though the white pine blister rust is a threat to white pines [32]. Plants can be propagated by cuttings and seed [56].

Known Hazards
A substance that is washed from pine needles in rain can inhibit the germination of seeds beneath the tree [15,46].

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Plantago major
Common name: Plantain Family: Plantaginaceae Range: European native [14,33]; Widely distributed throughout the US [1,13,14,33] Habitat: Roadsides, lawns, waste places [14,22,33] Hardiness: 3-8 [13] Other Common Names: Broadleaf Plantain [13], White Man’s Footprint [13,44], Ratstail Plantain [35], Ribwort [1,2,44], Soldier’s Herb [1,2], Cuckoo’s Bread [2,22] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves and seed, Flour, Dynamic Accumulator, Pioneer, Livestock Fodder, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Plantain is a low-growing perennial herb [13,14,33]. It has fibrous roots and a rosette of green leaves [1,14,33,44]. Leaves are lance-shaped, ribbed and can grow to a length of up to ten inches [33]. A few protracted stalks emerge from the center of the plant and bear the reddish conical flower spike of this plant at their tip [2,33]. These stalks reach from about eight inches to two feet in height [14,44]. Individual flowers are small and white and they develop on these spikes [2,4,14,33]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are wind pollinated [56]. Fruits are small capsules that are produced along the spike, each of them containing between ten and eighteen reddishbrown seeds [13,14].

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History
The English plantain (Plantago lanceolata) has been associated with humans for centuries [33]. It’s been said that wherever the English flag traveled, English plantain soon became established [33,44]. This too occurred in the American colonies [33]. Native Americans once called plantain ‘white man’s footprint’, a reference to the fact that plantain seemed to spring up wherever the white man had trodden [13,44]. Plantain seeds have been a food source for a long time. They were actually found in the stomachs of mummified ‘bog people’ who lived in fourth century northern Europe [13].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Seeds, Flour, Tea Plantain is one of the first greens available in spring [33]. Harvest the young, tender leaves before the flower stalk emerges or pick new leaves through the summer, making sure to thoroughly wash them before using [14,33]. Older leaves develop stringy veins that are difficult to chew [14]. These should be thoroughly cooked before eating. Plantain leaves can be eaten raw as a salad green or cooked as a potherb [1,2,4,33,35]. If cooking the leaves, it is best to try to do so until they have only just become tender and are still slightly crisp [1]. The fluid that remains after cooking is quite rich in vitamins and minerals and if possible, should be used in soups, sauces or anything else possible [1]. Also, the ripened seeds may be stripped from the flower stalks from late spring until fall [4,14,44]. They should then be dried thoroughly before using [13,14]. Once dry, the seeds can be ground into flour and used in baking. They can also be eaten alone, unground [4,44]. Another use for the seeds is to soak them in water until soft before cooking them like rice [44]. Seaside plantain (Plantago maritima) is found in maritime areas and commonly grows along the northeast coast of the United States [1,33]. It’s used as a summer vegetable in parts of eastern Maine and Nova Scotia [33]. The English traditionally make a tea of fresh young plantain leaves [1,2,33]. This can be made by steeping a handful of leaves in a pint of boiling water for a half an hour or longer [2,14]. The greener the leaves of plantain, the richer they are in minerals and vitamins A and C [1,2]. One hundred grams of leaf contain 184mg of calcium, 52mg of phosphorous, 277mg of potassium and 2520 micrograms of beta-carotene [44].

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One hundred grams of plantain seed contain 339mg of potassium and 305mg of phosphorus [44]. They are also quite rich in vitamin B1 [15].

Medicinal Uses
Poultice, Burn Remedy, Mouth Problems, Toothache Remedy, Decongestant, Diarrhea, Colon Purifier Plantain has been used to alleviate the pain of burns [1,13,33]. This was done by applying a moist preparation of leaves to the affected area [33]. They actually contain allantoin, which is known for alleviating skin sores [13]. The fresh leaves of plantain were also rubbed onto the skin to help relieve the pain from insect bites and nettles [13,33,44]. Making tea from plantain leaves by steeping them in warm water for forty-five minutes makes a good mouthwash for cold sores and gum problems [4]. This tea can also be used to effectively treat toothaches, slow the flow of blood from a mild cut, and as a great cough remedy, helping break up congestion [4]. Plantain leaves have been recommended as a remedy for sore and tired feet by simply binding them to the affected area [44]. Eating plantain is said to help to heal ulcers [44]. Chewing plantain root is reported to stop toothaches [44]. A tea of dried leaves or green seeds boiled in milk will stop diarrhea [44]. The seed husks of a related species, Plantago ovata, are called psyllium [44]. They serve to cleanse the colon [44]. Stir one or two tablespoons of the husks into a glass of water or fruit juice and drink the mixture in the morning in order to get the results [44].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Dynamic Accumulator, Pioneer, Indicator Plant, Canary Food, Chicken Forage, Livestock Fodder, Bee Fodder The stems, leaves and flowers of English plantain can be used to produce dyes [7]. Plantains are dynamic accumulators of silica, sulfur, calcium, potassium, iron and copper [7,15]. Plantains are deep rooted, so they do a good job preparing the soil for fruit trees [32].

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If plantain is found growing in an area, they generally indicate soils that are wet, clayey, acidic and have been cultivated or tilled in the past [32]. The mucilaginous seeds of the plantain have been used for canary food [22,33]. Also, plantain seeds can be used as chicken forage [22]. In Wales, seaside plantain has been cultivated for sheep fodder [33]. English plantain can be grown as a pasture herb [7]. Plants provide an important food source for the caterpillars of many butterfly species [56]. English plantain also provides fodder for bees [7].

Cultivation Details
Plantain grows best in rich soil, as its growth seems to be stunted in poorer soils, though they will succeed in most soils [15,44]. They prefer full light but will tolerate partial shade [7,56]. Plantains seem to thrive on rough treatment [35]. The more they are walked on or mowed, the better the plants grow [35]. Some of the better known species of plantain include: Plantago lanceolata – Ribwort Plantain – this species grows up to a foot and a half tall and eight inches wide and flowers from mid spring until mid summer [15]. This species does well in poor soils [15]. P. major – Common Plantain – this species grows to about five inches tall and four inches wide and flowers from late spring until summer’s end [15]. P. media – Hoary Plantain – this species grows to about four inches tall and four inches wide and flowers from late spring until mid summer [15].

Known Hazards
If rampant plantain growth becomes a problem, poultry delight in cropping them to the ground [22]. Unfortunately, plantain serves as a host for aphids, which can become a problematic pest with apple crops [32].

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Podophyllum peltatum
Common name: May Apple Family: Berberidaceae Range: Eastern North American native [1,5,7,56]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [1,7,13,14] Habitat: Rich deciduous woodlands, meadows, shaded road banks [1,14] Hardiness: 3-7 [13] Other Common Names: Mandrake [1,2,7,14,17,22], Wild Lemon [1,2,7,17,22], Raccoon Berry [1,2,7,17], Umbrella Plant [22], Hog Apple [2,17], Ground Lemon [7], Wild Jalap [7] Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Insecticide, Medicine, Ground Cover

Physical Characteristics
May apple is a perennial herb that grows to a height of about two feet [1,13,14,17]. It is supported by creeping underground stems and thick fibrous roots [1,14,17]. First year plants have one leaf while second year plants have two [14,17]. Leaves are large, simple, umbrellalike, nearly circular in outline, between five and fifteen inches in diameter, toothed and deeply five to nine-lobed [2,13,14]. Leafstalks attach at the center of the leaf [1,14,17]. Flowers are stalked, white, solitary and are produced at the junction of two leaves [1,14,17]. They are present from April to May [13]. Also, they are hermaphrodite

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(possess both male and female organs) [56]. Fruit is an egg-shaped, many seeded berry that is between one and two inches long and usually yellow in color [2,13,14].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruit, Juice Fruits can be gathered once they have turned yellow which is generally from late July through August [1,13,14]. When ripe, they will nearly fall from the plant into your hand [14,22]. By this time, the leaves will be turning yellow as well [14]. Ripe fruits can be eaten fresh or used to prepare preserves, jam or pies [2,14,17]. Do not eat the seeds [56]. To use the fruit in cooking, first remove both ends, cut the fruit into quarters and force it through a mill to remove the seeds [14]. To prepare may apple jam, clean about two quarts of ripe fruit and place them in the bottom of a pot. Crush them thoroughly with a potato masher. Add a half-cup of water to the pulp and heat it short of simmering for about twenty minutes, occasionally stirring it. Next, press the fruit through a colander. For every four cups of juicy pulp that remains, add one package of powdered pectin and a pinch of salt. Begin heating it again. Once it begins to bubble, stir in four cups of sugar. Bring it to a boil, remove the pot from heat, skim off the top and seal the jam in hot sterilized jars [1]. An uncooked may apple jam can also be prepared [1]. May apple juice can be combined with other juices to supplement their flavor [1,2,14,17].

Medicinal Uses
 Caution!! See Known Hazards Cathartic, Emetic, Laxative, Purgative, Cancer, AIDS May apple is cathartic and emetic [2,17]. It should be prepared by adding a finely cut teaspoonful of root to a pint of boiling water [17]. It can be used as a laxative [17,37]. Boiled may apple root has been taken as a purgative [37]. Plants have been found to possess some anti-cancer properties [13,15,34]. They have also been found to contain substances that are being used in the treatment of AIDS [15].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Insecticide May apple can be grown as a shade tolerant ground cover [7,9]. Thus, they would be a perfect plant to use in the understory of a woodlot or forest garden. An infusion of the leaves is insecticidal [9,37,56]. Some reports explain that this infusion can be sprayed on potato plants to protect them from insects [56].

Cultivation Details
May apple prefers soils that are acidic to neutral and have a pH from 4 to 7 [7,9,56]. It requires moist soils [56]. Plants also prefer partial shade and will tolerate full shade [7,9,15]. Though they may be slow to get established [15,56], plants grow very quickly [9]. Also, once established, they are very long-lived [15,56]. When grown as a ground cover, may apples will develop a heavy density and can also spread and become invasive [9]. Individual plants should be spaced about a foot apart to develop a good spread [9]. Plants are propagated by seed and division [56].

Known Hazards
Unripe fruits and other parts of the plant contain podophyllin, which is a poisonous substance [1,2,13,14,37]. Thus, though there are numerous medicinal uses for the may apple, extreme care should be taken upon employing any of them due to the known risks of poisoning. Unchecked may apple can quickly become invasive [9].

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Portulaca oleracea
Common name: Purslane Family: Portulacaceae Range: Indian and Persian native [1,17,44]; Widespread throughout the United States [5,13,14,17,44] and the world for that matter [44] Habitat: Fields, vacant lots, waste sites [13,14,44] Hardiness: 3-10 [13] Other Common Names: Pigweed [5], Pusley [1,2], Low Pigweed [2] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, flowers, pods, shoots and stems, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Material, Livestock Forage, Intercrop, Salt Substitute

Physical Characteristics
Purslane is an annual herb that lies more or less flat on the ground and quickly forms mats up to one square meter in size [13,14,17]. The main stems radiate out from the central root and all stems are smooth, fleshy, shiny and often reddish purple in color [2,13,14,44]. Leaves are alternate, opposite, between one and two inches long and have an entire margin [2,13,14]. Flowers are either single or a few clustered at the branch tips, and they have five yellow petals each [14]. They usually only open on bright sunny

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mornings [2,44]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are capsules whose top portion falls away at maturity, exposing the dark red to black seeds [1,13,14,44]. Purslane usually flowers from May until June, seeding shortly thereafter [13].

History
Purslane has been used as a food plant in India and Persia for over 2000 years [1,17,44]. It has been eaten in Europe for centuries as well [1] and is often grown today as a prized garden vegetable [17]. Purslane was introduced to the Americas in colonial days and has since spread across the continent [1].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Pods, Shoots, Seeds, Pickle, Flour, Salt To harvest purslane, pinch or cut the young leafy tips between June and September [1,14]. Larger stems should be picked in midsummer for pickles [14]. To gather purslane seeds, mature plants should be spread on a sheet to dry for two weeks, then sieved and winnowed [14,17]. Purslane leaves, flowers, pods and shoots can either be eaten raw in salad or cooked [1,13,14]. The plant has an acidic taste [1,14,17]. As purslane lies nearly prostrate to the ground, some care should be taken to ensure that it is thoroughly washed, removing all the grit, before it is added to salads or cooked. To prepare young plants as a potherb, cook for five or ten minutes (until tender) and then season with butter and salt [1,13,14,17]. Depending on how long it is cooked for, purslane either may or may not cook down at a rapid rate [1,5]. Thus, the amount of greens that you will need for a meal will depend on the length of time that you choose to cook it for. Purslane has a mucilaginous quality not unlike okra, and as such, it can be used to give consistency to soups and stews [1,17]. Stems should be pickled in the same way as cucumbers [1,13,14,17]. Tips can be blanched and frozen for later use [14]. To dry purslane, boil the thick stems in a little water for twenty minutes [14]. Drain the water, dry them in a warm shady area and store them in a paper bag for later use either in soups or stews [14]. If you would like to freeze purslane so it can be stored for winter use, fill a large pan with purslane tips and cover it with boiling water [17]. Simmer them for five minutes, then drain in a colander and run cold water over them until they have cooled [17]. Finally, pack them in jars and freeze immediately [17]. To dry purslane seed, leave it in shade for one week [14]. Then store it in a paper bag. The seed can be ground and used half and half with flour [2,14,17] or used to make porridge [17]. Ashes of burned purslane serve as a good salt substitute [13].

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Purslane is a source of omega-3 fatty acids [13,44]. USDA analyses also have found purslane to be quite high in alpha-tocopherol or vitamin E [13]. Dried purslane has been found to be nearly thirty percent protein and thirty-five percent carbohydrates [44]. One hundred grams of raw purslane contain 21 calories, 1.7g of protein, 0.4g of fat, 103mg of calcium, 39mg of phosphorus, 3.5mg of iron, 2500 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.1mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 25mg of vitamin C [2,44,49].

Medicinal Uses
Earache Remedy, Headaches, Stomachic, Reduces Cholesterol Levels, Skin Wounds Cherokee Indians squeezed purslane juice into the ear as an earache remedy [13,37]. A tea made from the leaves is used to treat stomach aches and headaches [56]. The omega-3 fatty acids that purslane contain help to reduce the body’s cholesterol levels, also reducing the risk of heart attack [44]. The Iroquois used it as a poultice to treat bruises and burns [13,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Compost Material, Livestock Forage, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop Plant As a compost material, purslane is made up of 4.5% nitrogen and has a carbon to nitrogen ratio of 8:1 [32]. Purslane is widely used for chicken and pig forage [13,44]. It is used as a chicken feed because purslane helps to enrich the egg yolks with up to ten times as much omega-3 fatty acids as are found in typical supermarket eggs [44]. Purslane is a dynamic accumulator of calcium, phosphorus and iron [32]. As a shade tolerant plant, purslane could be used in intercrops, planted beneath sun loving species [32].

Cultivation Details
Purslane prefers moist, fertile, well-drained sandy ground [1,15,17]. The plant actually will not produce good quality leaves in dry conditions [15]. It also requires a sunny position, though it will tolerate some shade [15,32].

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By clipping the new tips of purslane, the plant will in turn bush out and provide an even greater, continuous supply of greens [1,2,5,15,17]. Otherwise, if you would like a constant supply of leaves, it is best to sow seeds successionally every two or three weeks [56]. As purslane grows horizontally more than vertically, quite a bit of space would be necessary for plants cultivated in the garden [1]. Plants take about six to eight weeks before producing a crop from seed [15,56]. There are several named cultivars of purslane, and for those interested in cultivating it, the best thing to do would be to contact local seed companies [15,56].

Known Hazards
Purslane is commonly considered to be a terrible weed [13]. Thus, this may mean that you already have patches of it growing in your yard. Though cultivating it will bring a much more steady and definite supply, don’t overlook the value of foraging and harvesting wild patches of purslane from your yard. One of the reasons why purslane can become such a major invasive nuisance is because of its remarkable production of seeds. The seeds of a single plant were counted, and they amounted to 52,300 [1,2,11].

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Prunus domestica
Common name: Plum Family: Rosaceae Range: Chinese, European and American natives [28]; Widespread throughout the United States [2] Habitat: Prairies, woodlands, pastures, roadsides, riverbanks [14,31] Hardiness: 1-9 (depending on the variety) [28] Other Common Names: There are thousands of varieties of plums. Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Hedge, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Bee Forage, Medicine, Timber, Fire Protection

Physical Characteristics
Plums are small trees generally growing to a height of about twenty feet though they may reach as high as forty and cover a spread of thirty feet [14,28,56]. The branches are sometimes spiny [14,31]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, oval to oblong, between two and four inches long, sharply serrate (toothed) and taper to a long point [2,14,31]. Flowers are clustered in groups of two to five, delicate, white, fragrant and possess five petals [2,14,31]. They emerge in April and are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Also, they are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are fleshy and vary in color and size but contain a large single seed (pit) inside [2,31].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruits, Seed, Oil, Gum, Flowers, Tea Plums begin to ripen in midsummer and can be harvested on into fall [14,28]. Most of the fruit on an individual tree will ripen over a week or two [28]. When plums are ripe, they will fall into your hand with a gentle twist, so if they require a tug, they are still not ready [28]. Excess fruits can be dried in the sun or a warm oven and stored for later use [22,48]. Plum varieties that are best suited to drying are called prunes [57]. Plums can be eaten fresh off the tree or used in any existing recipes. They are most commonly prepared as pies, jams and jellies. To make plum butter, puree the pulp and skins after the juice has been extracted and used for jelly. This can then be blended with an equal amount of maple sugar or honey in a pot and baked at 330°F for three hours, stirring occasionally. The resulting butter should be stored in hot, sterilized jars. [14] Plum jam can be made by adding a half-cup of water to two cups of raw pitted fruit. Boil the fruit for about ten or fifteen minutes until the skins are tender. Add one cup of sugar for each cup of fruit pulp that you have. Mix them well and cook for about fifteen minutes until the mixture has reached the jelly stage with constant stirring. It can then be poured into sterilized jars and sealed. [14] Plum seeds can be eaten raw or cooked, though they should not be eaten if they taste excessively bitter [56]. (See Known Hazards section) Seeds also contain about twenty percent of an edible semi-drying oil [56]. Points of damage on the trunk exude an edible gum that can be collected [56]. Plum flowers can be eaten or brewed into a tea [56]. It is important to remember that harvesting the flowers will mean that they will be unable to produce fruit at that point.

Medicinal Uses
Cough Remedy, Asthma, Laxative, Stomachic Plum tree bark can be used to make a cough syrup [37]. An infusion made from the twigs can be taken for asthma [37]. Dried fruits, or prunes, are laxative and stomachic [56].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Adhesive, Timber, Hedge, Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Fire Protection, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Forage The roots and bark of plum trees can be used to produce a yellow dye [37,56]. Also, a green dye can be obtained from the leaves while the fruit is the source of a dark grey to green dye [56]. Points of damage along the trunk exude a gum that can be used as an adhesive [56]. Trees can also be grown for timber, though they are much more valuable when grown for their fruits. Plum wood is red-brown, and the grain is fine and straight [10]. Seasoned timber is average in heaviness, hard and difficult to split [10]. It is most commonly used for furniture and cabinet work, turnery, fuel and taps [10]. Plums form thickets and make an excellent hedge and/or windbreak [31,39,32]. Also, their roots retain soil quite well, so plums are effective plants for erosion control [31]. Plums have a low fire potential so they may be included among other species in a shelter belt [58]. Thicketing plants also provide wonderful wildlife habitat [2,31,39]. Plums provide good forage for bees [39].

Cultivation Details
Plums prefer full sun though they will tolerate partial shade [32,57]. European plums grow well on heavy soils while Japanese varieties prefer lighter loamy soils [57]. All plum varieties prefer soils that are slightly acidic with a pH between 6 and 6.5 [56,57]. Established trees are generally drought resistant [28]. In general, plums are an easily cultivated fruit tree [57]. Plums will often produce suckers from their roots [2,28]. Many plum varieties will bear fruit as early as three years after planting [28]. Standard trees will continue to bear well for at least fifteen years and often as long as twenty-five [28]. Plums and garlic are good companions for one another [58].

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Most plum cultivars need cross-pollination in order to produce a good crop, though many will bear a smaller quantity of fruit if grown alone [28]. Trees should be spaced about ten to fifteen feet apart from one another [57]. Dwarf plum trees may yield between thirty to sixty pounds per tree [32]. Some plum cultivars flower early [28]. If you are unsure of whether or not the tree that you’ve selected will be affected by late frosts, it may be best to plant it on a north-facing slope in order to delay flowering for a week or two [28]. On the other hand, if a plum cultivar is well suited to your climate, it is probably better to plant them along a south-facing wall as it may help to increase fruit yield [15]. Plums are susceptible to numerous diseases and insect attacks [28]. Plums grow quite readily from their stones [23]. They are also commonly propagated by cuttings and layering [28,56]. There are more than two thousand varieties of plums available [28]. The difficulty lies in selecting the one that is best for your yard. Also, it’s important to remember that it is possible to grow trees that are early, mid and late season fruiters so that you can harvest a constant supply throughout the summer.

Known Hazards
All members of the Rosaceae genus produce hydrogen cyanide, which is a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavor [56]. It is mainly found in the leaves and seed and can be recognized by its bitter taste [56]. There has been no specific mention of its presence in plum leaves or seed, but care should be taken to ensure that they are not poisonous [56]. Hydrogen cyanide, when consumed in small quantities, has actually been shown to be beneficial, but in excess, it can cause respiratory failure and even death [56].

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Prunus institia
Common name: Damson Family: Rosaceae Range: Asian and European native [25] Habitat: Fields, orchards [23], thickets, hedges, open woods [56] Hardiness: 5 [56] Other Common Names: Bullace [23,25,41], Sloe [41] Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Windbreak, Hedge, Bee Forage, Dye

Physical Characteristics
Damson is a spring deciduous tree that grows to a height of about twenty feet and a spread of about fifteen feet [41,56]. Leaves are small, shining and dark green [29]. Flowers are small, white and are borne in April [23,56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and insects [56]. Fruits are globular, about an inch long and deep blue in color [25,29]. Damsons are closely related to plums [23].

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History
The damson is the parent of the European cultivated plum [41]. It has become a naturalized hedgerow plum in England [41].

Edible Uses
Fruits, Seed Fully ripe damson fruits can be eaten raw [24]. They are said to be surprisingly sweet [24]. Fruits can also be cooked when ripe and used in making jam [23]. Damson seeds can be eaten either raw or cooked, but they should not be consumed if they are excessively bitter [56]. (See Known Hazards section)

Medicinal Uses
Febrifuge, Purgative The root bark and branches are febrifuge [56]. An infusion made from the flowers can be used as a mild purgative for children [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Hedge, Windbreak, Bee Forage The leaves are a source of a green dye, while the fruits can be used to produce a dark grey to green dye [56]. Damsons can be planted as an edible hedge [41]. They may also be grown as an edible windbreak as they are fairly wind resistant [23,24,56]. Trees provide forage for bees [41].

Cultivation Details
Damsons are well suited to plantings in cold areas [41]. They prefer moist sites and require well-drained soils [41,56]. Damsons will succeed in light shade, but the plants will fruit better in a sunny position [56]. Trees are easily grown in gardens [23]. Damsons will only flower and crop well in areas that suit their needs [23]. Fruits generally ripen late, but fortunately, trees are very hardy [24].

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Trees can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering or root suckers [41,56]. There are many available damson varieties and cultivars [41,56]. ‘Farleigh Damson’ is a variety that grows densely and prolifically and is often grown as a windbreak [24,56]. ‘Shropshire Prune Damson’ is a variety that produces deep purple, egg-shaped fruits that are richly flavored [24]. It is self-fruitful and very hardy [24].

Known Hazards
All members of the Rosaceae genus produce hydrogen cyanide, which is a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavor [56]. It is mainly found in the leaves and seed and can be recognized by its bitter taste [56]. There has been no specific mention of its presence in damson leaves or seed, but care should be taken to ensure that they are not poisonous [56]. Hydrogen cyanide, when consumed in small quantities, has actually been shown to be beneficial, but in excess, it can cause respiratory failure and even death [56].

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Prunus serotina
Common name: Black Cherry Family: Rosaceae Range: North American native; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [1,2,13,14] Habitat: Deep, moist soils, forests, roadsides, waste areas [1,2,33], mixed hardwood forests, woodlands [14] Hardiness: 3 [10] Other Common Names: Wild Cherry [2,13,31], Rum Cherry [1,2,5,10,17,22,56], Capuli [2,25], Cabinet Cherry [2], Sweet Black Cherry [2] Primary Uses: Timber, Edible – berries and bark, Juice, Wine, Fire Protection, Wildlife Forage

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Physical Characteristics
Black cherry is a tree that reaches a maximum height of one hundred feet, but generally grows to about sixty feet or so [1,2,14]. Leaves are alternate, simple, deciduous, oblong to lance-shaped, serrate (toothed), between two and six inches long and characteristically marked by an orangish ‘fuzz’ that can be found along the underside midrib of most leaves [1,2,13,14,33]. While the young bark of black cherry is reddish brown with horizontal lenticels, it breaks up with age, eventually developing into a pattern that could be best described as ‘burnt potato chips’ [2,33]. Bruised or scratched black cherry twigs have a bitter almond smell. The buds of the black cherry look incredibly similar to those of the choke cherry. Probably the best way to tell the two apart by bud is to closely examine the top of the bud scales. Black cherry buds are dark along the top of each bud scale and lighter towards the bottom. Flowers each have five white petals and are borne in elongate clusters [13,14,33]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are insect pollinated [56]. Fruits are fleshy, one-seeded, globose and dark red to black in color [13,14,33].

History
Native Americans historically ate dried or fresh black cherries and made a tea from the tree’s twigs [33].

Edible Uses
Berries/Cherries, Bark, Flavoring, Drink, Wine, Seed Black cherries are ready for harvest in autumn, and the peak season is usually from July through September [14,22,33]. They can either be handpicked or shaken loose on a tarp below [14]. The cherries can be eaten fresh as a snack, used for jelly, beverages, pies and breads [2,14,22]. They can also be dried for later use [37]. To make black cherry jelly crush one quart of unpitted cherries in a cup of water. Simmer this mixture and stir it for about thirty minutes, later straining out the juice. Cut several whole apples in quarters, cover them with water and simmer until tender. Strain off the juice. Combine two cups of this apple juice with two cups of the cherry juice and add four cups of sugar, stirring the mix until it is dissolved. Boil it rapidly until the jelly temperature is reached. The jelly can then be poured in jars and sealed. [14] Note: As black cherries do not contain pectin, apples are used in the above recipe because of their pectin content. If you would like to make black cherry jelly without apples, you will need to add pectin. An infusion of the twigs can be drunk as a beverage [56].

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An extract from black cherry bark is used to flavor candies, baked goods, soft drinks and syrups [13,56]. Black cherry can be used to make wine [33]. Seeds can be eaten raw or cooked, but they should not be eaten it they are too bitter – see Known Hazards.

Medicinal Uses
Cough/Cold Remedy, General Tonic, Diarrhea A teaspoon of the inner bark of black cherry infused with boiling water is commonly used as a cough syrup and cold remedy [1,5,37]. The inner bark of the black cherry can also be taken as a general tonic [6,37]. Black cherry bark is used as a remedy for diarrhea [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Timber, Bee Forage, Fire Belt Planting, Wildlife Forage A reddish-purple dye can be made from black cherry fruits and roots [5]. Black cherry is one of the most highly valued timber trees in North America [1,48]. It is commonly used as a cabinet wood [1,17]. The wood itself is light brown-red in color and it has fine, straight grains [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and very light [10]. In addition to furniture and cabinetwork, black cherry is used for veneer, joinery and interior construction and fuel, though I would imagine that it is far too valuable to use for the latter application [10]. Black cherry provides nectar and pollen for foraging bees [58]. Trees have a low fire potential [58]. They provide much-enjoyed forage for wildlife [2].

Cultivation Details
Black cherry prefers soils that are deep, fertile and moist [10]. Trees prefer full sun though they will grow in partial shade [10,32]. Trees are fast growing and moderately long lived [56]. Individual plants generally produce a heavy fruit crop once every four years [56].

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The average annual fruit production for a single black cherry tree is about two liters [43]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, or layering [56].

Known Hazards
The leaves and seeds of black cherry contain large quantities of hydrogen cyanide [56]. Though it is usually only present in small quantities, excessively bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten [56].

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Prunus virginiana
Common name: Choke Cherry Family: Rosaceae Range: North American native [2,33]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [1,2,17,33] Habitat: Waste areas, roadsides, swamp borders [1,2,33], moist soils, woodland margins [14,31] Hardiness: 2 [28] Other Common Names: Wild Cherry [2,22,31], Chokeberry [31] Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Soil Stabilizer, Pioneer, Livestock Fodder, Medicine, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Choke cherry is a large shrub or a small tree that can reach a height of thirty feet, but generally only grows to about ten or so feet [1,2,14,31,33,56]. Bark is smooth, gray to reddish-brown in color and is marked with small horizontal lenticels [14,33]. When scratched, choke cherry twigs give off a bitter almond odor [33]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, ovate to obovate, two to four inches long, serrate (toothed) and dark green in color [1,2,14,31,33]. Flowers are borne in umbrella-like clusters that are
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between three and six inches long [14,33]. They each have five white petals and are borne in May [14,31,33,56]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits become available in late summer and are reddish purple and globose [2,33]. They enclose an egg-shaped stone [2,14]. Young black cherries and choke cherries look quite similar, especially without leaves. The best way to distinguish the two lies in the buds. Choke cherry bud scales are light at the tip and dark at the base, whereas black cherry bud scales are dark at the tip and lighter at the bottom.

History
Native Americans used dried and leached choke cherries in making pemmican [14,33].

Edible Uses
Berries, Wine, Twigs, Tea Depending on the location, choke cherries can be harvested from midsummer to October [14]. The fruits are somewhat astringent and will most likely evoke puckered mouths when eaten fresh [22,28]. Probably the best use for these fruits is for jelly [14,28]. Juice can be prepared by crushing one quart of unpitted cherries in one cup of water. This can then be simmered, and it should be stirred for about a half hour. Strain out the juice. Quarter several apples, immerse them in water and simmer them until they are tender. Once again, strain out this juice. Next, combine two cups of apple juice with each cup of cherry juice, adding four cups of sugar and stirring the entire mixture until it is dissolved. Boil this mix rapidly until the necessary temperature is reached. The jelly may then be poured into sealed jars. [1,14,17,22] Also, a pure version of choke cherry jelly (apple-less) can be prepared with the addition of pectin [1,14]. Choke cherry is often used as a flavoring for brandy [5]. The fruits are also used to make wine [2,28,37]. A tea can be made with the twigs of this tree [31,33,42].

Medicinal Uses
Blood Tonic, Astringent, Pectoral, Sedative, Tonic, Appetite Stimulant, Cough Remedy, Skin Wash, Diarrhea, Sore Throat The roots and bark are blood tonic, astringent, pectoral, sedative, tonic and appetite stimulant [56]. An infusion of the bark can be used as a cough remedy, while an infusion of the root bark can be used as a wash for burns, sores and ulcers [37,56].

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Berry juice and a decoction of fresh root bark can be taken to relieve diarrhea [37]. Juice from the berries can also be taken for sore throats [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Soil Stabilizer, Pioneer, Wildlife/Bird Forage, Livestock Fodder Both the fruit and the roots provide a good reddish-purple dye [5]. Choke cherry spreads by means of suckers and will form thickets if permitted [56]. Thus, it can be planted for erosion control and also used as a pioneer species on abandoned and cut over lands [56]. Even though choke cherry wood is very similar to that of black cherry, it has virtually no commercial value because of its smallness [1,2]. Plants provide forage for birds and other wildlife [28,31]. Choke cherries can be grown as fodder trees for livestock [50].

Cultivation Details
Choke cherries prefer full sun [28,31,56]. They will grow in poor to average soils but will do best in rich, well-drained soils [28,56]. Once established, they are quite drought resistant [31]. Choke cherry is a fast growing shrub, though it tends to be short-lived in the wild [28,56]. There are a number of named varieties that are available for cultivation that bear fruits that are much less astringent [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, layering and division [56].

Known Hazards
The autumn and wilted leaves and fruit pits contain hydrocyanic acid, and so they should most certainly not be eaten, or if they must be eaten, it should be done in moderation [2,14,33,56]. Choke cherry is a host for X-disease, which effects cherries and peaches [32].

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Psophocarpus tetragonolobus
Common name: Winged Bean Family: Leguminosae Range: New Guinean native [24] Habitat: Unknown in the wild [56] Hardiness: 10 [56] (Plants must be grown as annuals in temperate climates) Other Common Names: Goa Bean [23,24], Asparagus Pea [24] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Edible – seeds, pods, flowers, leaves, stems and tubers, Green Manure, Cover Crop, Soil Stabilizer, Oil

Physical Characteristics
Winged bean is a perennial vine that thrives in both temperate and tropical climates [24]. When supported, plants can grow more than ten feet in height [39]. Seed pods are winged and four angled [23]. Flowers are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Seeds, Pods, Flowers, Leaves, Tubers, Stems, Oil, Coffee Every part of the plant is edible [8,24,39]. This includes seeds, pods, flowers, leaves, tubers and stems [8,23,24,39]. Tubers can be eaten either raw or cooked and contain twenty percent or more protein [39,56]. Flowers can be eaten dry like mushrooms [8,39]. Seed pods taste like French beans and should be harvested when they are six to nine inches long and an inch wide [8]. Immature seeds can be used in soups while mature seeds can be eaten cooked [8,56]. They (mature seeds) can also be roasted and eaten like peanuts or fermented and used like tempeh [8,56]. Seeds yield an edible oil [8,24,39,56]. Roasted seeds can be used as a coffee substitute [8]. The leaves and young shoots can be prepared as pot herbs, while flowers and flower buds can be eaten either raw or cooked and when sautéed, are said to have a flavor that is reminiscent of mushrooms [56]. Winged bean tubers have four times the protein content of potatoes [24].

Medicinal Uses
Winged bean seeds contain tocopherol, which is an antioxidant that increases the viability of vitamin A in the body [24].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Cover Crop, Oil, Illumination Source, Soap, Soil Stabilizer Winged bean is a nitrogen-fixing plant [24,39]. It is thus a very good green manure plant [56]. Plants actually produce a greater weight of nitrogen-fixing nodules per plant than any other member of the Fabaceae genus [56]. Plants can be grown as a cover crop and ground cover [8,39]. The oil obtained from the seeds of this plant can be used for soap and lighting [39]. The roots of these plants act as a soil stabilizer [8].

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As a climbing perennial, winged bean is incredibly well-suited to agroforestry and other multiple cropping systems [24].

Cultivation Details
Plants prefer moist, well-drained soils [8]. They will tolerate light, medium, heavy and heavy clay soils and soils that are acidic, neutral or alkaline in pH [8]. Winged beans prefer positions in full sun and are intolerant of shade [8,56]. Though winged bean is a tropical plant, it will also thrive in temperate climates [24]. It will just grow much larger in warmer climates, reaching heights of more than thirty feet [24]. Winged beans must be cultivated as annuals in temperate regions [8,56]. Because winged beans are incredibly tender here in northern latitudes, they may not even survive in colder microclimates. If you do want to attempt to grow this multi-purpose legume, it would probably be best to attempt to trellis it against a south-facing wall so that it will receive maximum sunlight during the summer months. Plants take between sixty and eighty days from sowing to the first harvest of seed pods [8,56]. The mature tubers can be harvested from 120 to 240 days after sowing, and they are unlikely to reach a significant size in temperate climates [8,56]. Most varieties will only flower when the daylight hours are about twelve per day though day-neutral varieties are being developed that will flower in summer in northerly latitudes [8,56]. Plants are exceptionally resistant to pests and disease [24,56]. Winged bean is typically propagated by seed [56]. There are many named varieties of this species [8,56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Pyrus communis (sativa)
Common name: Pear Family: Rosaceae Range: Asian and European native [10,25,29,48]; Widespread throughout the United States [29] Habitat: Woods Hardiness: 4-9 [10,28,57] Other Common Names: European Pear [10], Common Pear [10] Primary Uses: Edible Fruit, Timber, Livestock Forage, Shelterbelt

Physical Characteristics
Pear trees are deciduous and can grow to a height of about sixty feet or more, though cultivated varieties generally reach about twenty or thirty feet [10,56]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, narrow, alternate, and usually smooth [29]. Flowers are about an inch across and colored a faint pink [29]. They are present from April to May [56]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Fruit, Wine Pears are an excellent fruit when eaten fresh. Ripening dates vary depending on the variety but it can be any time from July through October [57]. Pears should be picked before they are fully ripe and allowed to ripen off the tree [28,57]. Pears that are picked early will need only a few days before they are ripe whereas those that are picked later may need to be stored in a cool dark place for a month or more before they can be left out to fully ripen [57]. The fruits can be dried, and as such, they are said to taste like candy [57]. Fruits can also be used for canning, jams or preserves [57]. Pears are often used to make cider and wine [48].

Medicinal Uses
Astringent, Febrifuge, Sedative Wild pear fruits (Pyrus communis) are astringent, febrifuge, and sedative [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Shelterbelt, Timber, Livestock Forage The leaves are a source of a yellow-tan dye [56]. Wild pear trees are sometimes utilized as part of a shelterbelt [56]. Pear trees can be grown for timber. It is described as ‘red-fawn’ in color and has straight, fine grain [10]. Seasoned timber is hard and heavy and is generally used for turnery, fuel, veneers, household utensils and musical instruments [10]. Also, pear wood is much sought after for cabinet and furniture making [10,23]. Fruits can be used as forage for livestock, especially pigs [41]. Wild pear trees could be grown in a pasture, offering livestock both shade and a localized food supply.

Cultivation Details
Pears prefer moist, well drained, slightly acidic soils and positions in full sun [10,57]. Trees will tolerate a wide range of soils [57]. They are also tolerant of drought and pollution [56]. Pear trees are very long-lived and may persist for two or even three hundred years though cultivated varieties commonly persist for about sixty years [23,57]. Trees generally take two or three years to bear fruit after planting [57].
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Individual trees should be planted at least fifteen feet apart [57]. Trees can produce yields of between fifty and one hundred pounds each [57]. Because pears are not tolerant of extremely cold conditions, it may be a good idea to plant them against a south facing wall [15] Grass growing underneath pear trees has been found to inhibit their root growth [25]. There are a number of pests and diseases that can damage pear trees, but disease resistant varieties are available [28,32]. Trees require pollination in order to set fruit so you should plant at least two trees to ensure good crops through cross-pollination [23,28,57]. Plants are commonly propagated by grafting [41]. They can also be grown from seed [56]. Hundreds of named pear varieties exist and are available for cultivation [41]. It is possible to plant early, mid and late season varieties so that you can significantly augment your yearly harvest [28].

Known Hazards
Pears can serve as hosts for the tarnished plant bug and bacterial blights that affect beans [32].

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Quercus spp.
Common name: Oak Family: Fagaceae Range: North American natives; Widely distributed throughout the United States [33] Habitat: White Oak – mixed deciduous forest, sandy, gravelly, loamy soils [14] Northern Red Oak – valleys, ravines, lower and mid slopes of hills and mountains [14] Hardiness: 3 [10] Other Common Names: Common names vary depending on specific species. Since this is a general analysis of oaks, I will not include alternate common names. Primary Uses: Edible Nuts, Coffee, Flour, Timber, Firewood, Windbreak, Insect Repellent, Coppice Material, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Forage

White Oak – Quercus alba

Physical Characteristics
Oaks are tall, long lived trees [14,33]. They have deciduous, simple, alternate leaves that vary from toothed to lobed [14,33]. The oaks are quite variable in their appearance. In fact, there can be quite a wide range of variability in the leaf shapes on an individual tree.

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One common feature of the oaks is that the terminal buds on twigs are always clustered [2,33]. Male flowers are elongated catkins, while female flowers are inconspicuous [2,33]. Trees are monoecious (male and female flowers are separate, but both are found on a single plant) [44]. Oak fruit is the well-known acorn [14,33,44]. Acorns are shelled nuts that are covered at the base by a hat that consists of overlapping scales [33]. The oaks are taxonomically separated into two major groups; the White Oak group and the Black or Red Oak group [2,5,14,17,33]. It is the members of the white oak group that produce the sweetest acorns [2,17,33]. Acorns produced by members of the white oak group require one year to fully mature, as compared with two years for the red oaks [2,14,17,33]. The other main distinguishing characteristic between the two oak groups are that the leaf lobes of members of the white oak group are rounded, whereas the lobes of members of the red oak group are angled and have bristle tips [2,14,17,33]. Members of the red/black oak group are only found in the Americas [14].

History
Acorns served as a staple food for many Native American tribes [2,44]. In fact, acorn soup or mush likely served as the main daily food of more than three-fourths of the native Californians [2].

Edible Uses
Nuts, Flour, Sprouts, Coffee Acorns can be gathered in the autumn as they turn brown and fall [14]. This is usually during September and October [44]. Harvested nuts can be stored in a cool dry place or shelled for use [14]. Because acorns produced by the red oak group may occasionally have an exceedingly bitter taste, they should be leached to release the tannic acid that gives them this bitterness [13,14,17,33]. Leaching is a time consuming process, and it also will strip some of the nutritional value from the acorns, but it is necessary if you wish to use acorns from red oaks as a food source [33]. Acorns produced by members of the white oak family do not need to be leached [13,14,24,33,43,50]. There are a number of ways by which to leach acorns. Firstly, you must dry the nuts [2,33]. One technique is to boil the dried nuts in several changes of water for three or four hours [2,4,33]. Be sure to change the water whenever it becomes brown [4,44]. Otherwise you can boil them in several changes of water for an hour, later soaking them in cold water for four or five days, regularly changing the water [33]. Once leached, the nuts can be used immediately or dried in a slow oven and stored in airtight jars [2,33]. If you are in the woods, you can leach acorns by placing a bag filled with nutmeats in a clear running stream for anywhere between one to several days [14,44].

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Dried acorns can be sautéed in oil for about ten minutes and served [33]. Acorns may also be roasted and eaten just like almonds [4]. Acorns can be finely ground into flour and used in baking [4,13,14,22,33]. This flour is probably best used half-and-half with a more traditional flour (wheat flour) [4]. Sprouting seeds can be eaten in the fall and spring [13]. Acorn nuts or shells can be chopped, roasted, ground and used as a coffee substitute [2,22,35]. One hundred grams of acorns (species unknown) contain 48 calories, 0.2g of protein, 0.1g of fat, 12mg of calcium, 314mg of phosphorus, 0.2mg of iron, 6 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.02mg of thiamine, 0.40mg of riboflavin and 0.5mg of niacin [49].

Medicinal Uses
Diarrhea, Internal Astringent, Skin Wash, Sore Throats, Fever Remedy Historically, some Native American tribes let their acorn meal accumulate a mold, which they scraped off and used to treat sores and inflammations [2]. Oak bark is used to treat chronic diarrhea and as an internal astringent [44]. When leaching acorns, save the first boiling for use as an astringent skin wash [4]. A decoction of oak bark is also used to treat skin sores and as a gargle for sore throats and cold sores [4,44]. A mild tea made by boiling a small palmful of oak bark in a cup of water for twenty minutes can be taken to reduce fever or stop internal bleeding [4]. Stronger teas will result from those made from the red oak group [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Timber, Firewood, Coppice Material, Charcoal, Basketry, Dye, Shade, Windbreak, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Ingredient, Insect Repellent, Tannins, Livestock Fodder, Cork, Wildlife Forage Oaks are one of the most important timber species in the United States [33]. In fact, they provide us with about half of the hardwood lumber that is produced in the US [2]. As there are many oak species that are cultivated for their timber, I will only include analyses of a few of them here.

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White oak (Quercus alba) produces fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is light brown, average in strength, durable, heavy, hard and easy to bend [10]. It is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage, charcoal, railway sleepers, basketry, agricultural implements and wagons [10]. Bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) produces fine grained brown timber that is average in strength and heaviness, very durable and hard [10]. It is used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage, railway sleepers, basketry, cork, agricultural implements and wagons [10]. Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) produces fine, straight grained timber that’s light redbrown in color [10]. It’s strong, average in heaviness, hard, easy to bend but not durable [10]. It is most commonly used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage, railway sleepers and household utensils [10].

Though oaks respond well to coppicing, they are relatively slow-growing, so it may need to be done on a fifty year rotation [15]. White oak is used for high-quality charcoal production [41]. Oak twigs can be used to make baskets [37]. Bark from oak trees can be used to make beige and tan dyes [5,44]. Black oak yields a permanent yellow dye [41]. Oaks are often planted as shade trees [2,33]. In winter, leafless black oaks cast about forty percent shade [32]. Oaks can also be planted to serve as windbreaks [32]. Oak bark is a dynamic accumulator of calcium [32]. Oaks are good fire sector species as they are poor burners when green [41]. The bark of white and northern red oak are an important ingredient in Quick Return (‘QR’) herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) that speeds up the fermentation process [15,46]. Oaks accumulate a tremendous amount of calcium in their bark during growth [46]. Oak trees have a very high transpiration rate, recycling up to three hundred gallons of pure water per day through its leaves [44].

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A well-rotted oak leaf mulch repels slugs, cutworms and June bug grubs [15,46]. Bark is often a rich source of tannins [57]. It has been estimated that 500 different species of insects rely on the oak tree in one way or another [34]. Acorns can be used as an abundant fodder for livestock [22,35,50]. They may be fed to hogs, cattle and poultry [22,50]. Also, there are oak species whose bark is harvested and processed into cork [50]. Oaks provide an important food source for wildlife [2,14,22]. Swamp white and pin oak (Quercus bicolor and Q. palustris) can be planted along marshes and bogs, providing fodder for ducks [38].

Cultivation Details
Suitable growing conditions for oak species are rather variable. It is best to research a specific species if you are interested in growing it on your property. Though acorns are produced prolifically by oak trees, it is generally only every three or four years that individual trees produce ‘bumper’ crops [33]. Northern red oak is said to neutralize acid soils [58]. Jim Duke claims that the Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus) is the only oak species that he has ever had that produced acorns fit to eat without processing [13]. The best way to obtain trees with good tasting seeds is to eat the nuts from many different trees until you find the ones you think are sweetest [15]. Plant these [15].

Known Hazards
Livestock that have consumed large amounts of young oak buds and foliage have become sick, and in some cases, even died [44]. Also, consuming very large quantities of raw acorns can lead to toxicity due to tannic acid, though it is unlikely that anyone would physically be able to eat enough raw acorns to feel these effects [44].

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Rhus typhina
Common name: Staghorn Sumac Family: Anacardiaceae Range: North American native [2,14,33]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States [2,4,14] Habitat: Open, dry, rocky soil [33], woodland margins, fencerows, roadsides, old fields, streambanks [4,14] Hardiness: 3 [10,56] Other Common Names: Lemonade Tree [1,2,10,22], Vinegar Tree [1,2,22], Velvet Sumac [10], Virginian Sumac [2,10,25] Primary Uses: Windbreak, Soil Stabilizer, Coppice Material, Timber, Basketry, Wildlife Forage, Fruits -- Drink

Physical Characteristics
Staghorn sumac is a small tree or a large shrub that grows to a maximum height of thirty feet and often forms wild thickets [10,13,14,33]. It has stout, soft, tomentose (fuzzy)

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branches [1,14,33]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, featherlike and pinnately compound [14,33]. They contain between eleven and thirty-one, lance-shaped, serrate (toothed) leaflets that are between two and five inches long each [1,2,14]. In autumn, these leaves turn a brilliant red [2]. Flowers are produced in cone shaped clusters [1,2,14]. They are present from June to August and are dioecious (individual flowers are male or female, but only one sex is found on any one plant) [56]. They are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruit is a four to eight inch long terminal cluster of red berries that form a pyramidal shape [14,33].

History
Native Americans used sumac as a source of leaves to smoke alone or with tobacco [6,33,37]. They also used the red fruit to make a tart drink [1,22,33].

Edible Uses
Fruits, Cool Drink, Shoots Staghorn sumac fruit may be gathered from late summer until late winter [14,33]. Once harvested, the fruits keep quite well [2,13,33]. They may also be dried and saved for winter use [1,14]. Otherwise, they will keep quite well throughout the winter if allowed to remain on the shrub [13]. It is the vitamin-rich malic acid that is contained in sumac fruits that is the ‘edible’ part of this plant [1,2,17,43]. Because malic acid is readily soluble in water, it is best to harvest the fruits before heavy rains have the opportunity to flush it out [1,2,4,17]. A lemonade-like drink can be made from the sumac fruit by washing and crushing it and then steeping it in hot water for fifteen minutes [1,2,5,14,15,24,33]. Be sure not to boil the fruit as it will release tannic acid, making it quite bitter tasting [15,16,33]. If you prefer, the juice may also be made by soaking the fruits in cold water [4,15]. Once the fruits have been soaked, strain the juice thoroughly and add sugar to taste [1,2,4,14,17,33]. Generally, you should use one fruit cluster for two cups of water [33]. The longer you soak the fruits, the stronger the flavor of the drink [15]. Sumac fruits may also be used to make a cold soup. Simply make juice from the fruits just as you would ordinarily, but instead use two fruit clusters for two cups of water [33]. Let this mixture chill and later serve in bowls topped with sour cream [33]. A jelly can be made using two cups of sumac juice [14]. Add this juice to two cups of elderberry juice and boil them with one package of powdered pectin [14]. Add five cups of sugar and bring the mixture to a hard boil for one minute [14]. Then remove from heat, skim, pour the mixture into jars and seal them [14]. Young sumac shoots can be peeled and eaten raw [42].

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Medicinal Uses
Skin Irritations, Sore Throat Remedy, Diuretic Native Americans made a poultice of bruised sumac leaves and fruit and applied it to irritated skin [1]. An astringent gargle for sore throats can be made by boiling crushed berries in a small amount of water [1,4]. A decoction of sumac leaves can be taken as a diuretic [4,37]. The mildest teas come from the berries, while stronger teas come from the leaves, and the strongest from the roots [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Tannins, Dye, Mordant, Timber, Coppice Material, Bank Stabilizer, Windbreak, Basketry, Winter Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage Sumac is an important source of commercial tannin for tanning and dyeing leather [5,34,48]. Stems, leaves and berries of the sumac plant can be used to make a dye [37]. Leaves may also be used as a mordant to fix other dyes [15]. Sumac can be cultivated as a wood source. It produces wood that is orange-green, very light and very brittle [2,10]. It is primarily used for furniture and cabinet work [10]. Because of its rapid growth, sumac could be grown as a localized source of coppice and mulch material. Coppicing is best done in early spring [56]. Staghorn sumac has an extensive root system and can be used to stabilize banks [15,56]. It may also be grown to provide shelter from the wind [15]. Stalks can be split or peeled of their bark and used in basket weaving [37]. Sumac twigs may be used for the same application [37]. Seed heads from sumac plants provide an important winter food source for many types of wildlife [2,4]. Staghorn sumac is a good bee plant because the flowers produce an abundant source of nectar and pollen [56].

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Cultivation Details
Staghorn sumac prefers dry soils [10,15]. It will succeed in most situations and is very tolerant of poor soils [15]. It prefers full sun though it will tolerate partial shade [2,10]. Plants are highly intolerant of full shade [2]. Staghorn sumac grows quite rapidly, but it is short-lived [2,56]. Once established, plants are drought resistant [56]. Staghorn sumac can be grown from seed or transplanted from root cuttings [31]. At ten years, staghorn sumac may reach a height of about ten feet [10]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, root cuttings and suckers [56].

Known Hazards
Some people may be allergic to even the non-poisonous sumacs, so use them carefully the first time [4,13]. Though there are poisonous sumac species, their berries are white and drooping, so they can be easily distinguished [2]. As staghorn sumac suckers freely, it can end up developing into a large thicket [15]. Thus, if you wish to contain its growth, it is important to consider this both when you plant it and as it develops and spreads.

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Ribes spp.
Common name: Currants and Gooseberries Family: Saxifragaceae Range: North American and European natives [14,16,23]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,16] Habitat: Open, moist sites, streams, springs, bogs [1,2], shady valleys, rocky woods [23] Hardiness: 3-8 [56] Other Common Names: There are many different species of currants and gooseberries, so I won’t begin to try and list all of their common names. Primary Uses: Edible Fruits, Wine, Hedge/Fencing, Poultry Forage, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Currants are shrubs, sometimes armed with spines, that grow to about five feet or more [14,29,44]. Their leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, serrated (toothed) and maplelike in terms of shape [2,5,14,23]. Flowers are borne in small clusters [14]. Fruit is a round, pulpy one-celled berry, containing several seeds that can be any number of colors and is even sometimes transparent [5,14,23,44]. They are most easily distinguished from gooseberries in that currants do not bear spines [2,44]. Gooseberry is a stubby, multi-branched shrub that rarely grows more than three feet high [29,35]. Leaves are simple, deciduous, alternate, three or four lobed and bluntly serrate (toothed) [2,35]. Plants have thorns at the nodes while some species also have prickles
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on the fruit [2,29,44]. Flowers are green and red-tinged and characteristically droop [35]. Fruit is usually pubescent (hairy), greenish yellow in color and egg-shaped [35,44]. They may be an inch or more long but are usually smaller [29].

History
Currants and gooseberries were commonly used by native Americans in the making of pemmican, which is a heavily pounded, nutritious, long storing mixture of meat and berries [2,44].

Edible Uses
Fruits, Leaves, Wine, Tea Harvest the fruits as they ripen from late spring to late summer (late June to mid-July) [14,28,44]. They usually turn red or bluish black once they are ready to pick [44]. They can be eaten fresh or used in any number of recipes [1,2,14,44]. Currants are often used in cooking when they’re still green [29]. The young or tender leaves of the gooseberry may be eaten raw in salads [22,44]. Berries can be dried for later use [14,2,35,44]. To do so, spread whole or mashed berries thinly on a baking sheet, and place it in the sun or in a 220°F oven until then are dry [14,22]. Then store them in a paper bag or a dry place [14]. When using them, simply add enough hot water to render them to a consistency that’s suitable for jelly or sauce [22]. No-cook currant and gooseberry preserves can be made quite easily [14]. Begin by washing and mashing the fruits thoroughly. Then slowly mix in an equal volume of sugar. Pour this mixture into jelly jars and seal. [14] To make preserves, add three quarters of a pound of sugar to one pound of washed and stemmed currants and let it sit overnight. Slowly bring this mixture to a boil and leave it for three to five minutes. Let it stand overnight, pour the mixture into jelly jars and seal. [14] Currants can be used to make wine [1,2,22]. To prepare, wash and clean ten pounds of currants and mix them with five pounds of sugar in a two-gallon crock pot. Fill the pot to within an inch of the brim with cold water, spreading cheesecloth over the top and leaving it in a warm place. During the following six weeks, stir this mixture twice a week. Strain it, and allow it to stand and settle for another two weeks. Then, strain the resulting currant wine and store in bottles. [1] A highly aromatic tea can be made from the leaves of the black currant Ribes nigrum [35,44]. Black currants contain five times more vitamin C than oranges [57].

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Medicinal Uses
Sore Throat Remedy, Diuretic, Diaphoretic, Cold/Fever Remedy Black currant juice was often given as a remedy for sore throats [35]. Black currant fruits have diuretic and diaphoretic actions and are a valuable cold and flu remedy [56]. Gooseberry tea, made from a teaspoonful of fruit to a cup of hot water, is a cold and fever remedy [22].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fencing/Hedge, Dye, Wildlife Forage, Poultry Forage, Bee Forage When thickly grown, currants and gooseberries can be planted as a natural fence [44]. Dyes may be obtained from some of these plants [56]. Shrubs may also be grown as forage for wildlife, including birds and poultry [41]. These plants also provide excellent forage for bees [41].

Cultivation Details
These species prefer moist, well-drained soils high in organic matter [2,28]. Currants prefer a soil pH of 5 to 7 [57]. They do not tolerate excessively hot climates [28]. They do well in full sun or part shade, while gooseberries also will fruit in deeper shade, ripening their fruit later than they would in full sun [15,41,57]. It is a good idea to mulch plants to the dripline, as it will not only suppress weed growth but also help keep down soil temperatures in summer [28]. Though these shrubs require about two years to begin producing fruit, they may continue to provide a good harvest for twenty years or more [28,41,57]. Both currants and gooseberries have chill requirements that are between 800 and 1500 hours [32]. These shrubs generally require annual pruning of old canes (branches) [57]. Currants can produce yields of ten to twelve pounds per bush [32]. Powdery mildew is the main disease problem for gooseberries [28]. Bio-dynamic gardeners recommend using a chive tea to spray against downy and powdery mildew [46]. This tea is made by pouring boiling water over dried chives, leaving it to infuse for

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fifteen minutes [46]. Dilute this infusion with two or three times as much water and stir [46]. Currants are generally propagated by winter stem cuttings [41,48,56]. They can be planted into their permanent locations in autumn [41,48,56]. Planting tomatoes near gooseberries has been found to inhibit certain insects from attacking the gooseberry shrubs [46]. Plants are insect-pollinated and all but a few black currants are self-fertile [28,57]. Thus, though cross-pollination isn’t necessary, it will most likely aid in fruit set and size [28,57]. Currants and gooseberries would be an important addition to the shrub layer of a forest garden [24,41]. Gooseberries are commonly cultivated as a second crop amongst orchard trees [23,28]. When dormant, currants can successfully be transplanted into a new location [31]. Some eighty species of currants and gooseberries grow throughout the United States and Canada [1]. The more well known edible species include black currant (Ribes nigrum), golden currant (R. aureum) and red currant (R. rubrum) [41]. Dozens of varieties of currants and gooseberries are also available for cultivation [28]. Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries, Roger Holmes, ed. (1996) contains brief listings of over forty different available varieties. Also, for information on available cultivars, consult seed and nursery catalogs. See source 57.

Known Hazards
All members of the family to which currants belong are hosts for an intermediate stage of the white pine blister rust [2,5,24,28,31,48]. Because of this, their production and shipment are regulated or prohibited in some states [28,31]. If a white pine grows within 1000 feet of your property, be sure to plant rust-resistant cultivars [28].

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Robinia pseudoacacia
Common name: Black Locust Family: Fabaceae Range: Eastern North American native [7,8,39,56,58]; Widely distributed throughout the United States Habitat: Woods, thickets, deep well-drained calcareous soils [56] Hardiness: 3 [7,8] Other Common Names: Robinia [7,22], False Acacia [7,22], Locust [7], Golden Oak [7], Yellow Locust [7] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Pioneer, Soil Stabilizer, Timber, Coppice Material, Charcoal, Windbreak, Fire Protection, Honey, Biomass, Livestock Fodder, Fiber, Insecticide, Edible – seeds, flowers and seed pods

Physical Characteristics
Black locust is a medium to large tree that reaches a height of about eighty-five feet and a spread of about forty five feet [7,56]. The underside of the rachis (main leaf stem) is lined with thorns [8]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate and pinnately compound. The
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leaflets are elliptical-ovate in shape, dark blue-green and have an entire margin. Bark of the black locust is very diagnostic, as it becomes reddish-brown to black and very deeply furrowed at maturity. Flowers are very fragrant and pea-like and emerge in June [22,56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are a flat brown legume that is between two and four inches long, and they contain four to ten seeds each [22].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Seeds, Seed Pods, Flowers, Beverage Seeds from the black locust can be collected in the fall [8,22]. Native Americans once cooked these seeds with their meats [6,22]. Though they are described as having a slightly acidic taste, they will lose this acidity upon boiling, becoming a nutritious, pleasant food [8,22]. The seed pods can also be dried and preserved throughout the winter if so desired [22]. Young seed pods which are poisonous raw, can be eaten once cooked [56]. The flowers of the black locust are also edible when cooked [8,56]. They are fragrant and are often used in making jams and pancakes [8,56]. Flowers can also be used to make a pleasant drink [8,16,56]. A vanilla substitute called piperonal is extracted from this tree [8,56].

Medicinal Uses
Antispasmodic, Febrifuge, Emetic, Laxative, Diuretic, Emollient, Eye Ailments, Toothache Remedy Black locust is antispasmodic, emetic, febrifuge, laxative and narcotic [8]. Flowers of this tree are diuretic and emollient [8]. They can be cooked and eaten as a treatment for eye ailments [8]. Rootbark is emetic and purgative and was traditionally chewed to induce vomiting or held in the mouth to soothe toothaches [8]. The juice of black locust leaves serves to inhibit viruses [8].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Pioneer, Compost Ingredient, Dye, Oil, Perfumery, Insecticide, Shade, Fiber, Paper, Cloth, Cordage, Soil Stabilizer, Timber, Charcoal, Windbreak, Fire Protection, Coppice Material, Biomass, Livestock Fodder, Habitat, Bee Fodder, Honey Black locust is a nitrogen-fixer [7,8,26,50,58]. This is one of the characteristics that make it a wonderful pioneer. Leaves from this tree may be collected and used for a rich compost [46]. A yellow dye can be extracted from the bark of this tree, while the leaves are also the source of a dye [8]. An essential oil is extracted from the flowers of this tree and used to make perfumes [8,5]. Black locust leaves are insecticide [8]. Trees do not cast a deep shade [51]. Black locust bark can be used as a source of fiber for papermaking [8]. These extracted fibers can also be used as a source of cloth and cordage [26]. The root systems of this plant help serve to stabilize soils [8,39,58]. Trees may be grown for timber. Wood is golden brown, and the grain is straight and coarse [7]. Seasoned timber is strong, very durable, average in heaviness, very hard and easy to bend [7]. This timber is also rot resistant [51,58]. It is most commonly used for construction, flooring, joinery and interior construction, fencing and posts, paper pulp, turnery, tool handles, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, household utensils, piles, water pipes, water pumps and machinery, boxes and crates, nails, pins and dowels and bows [10]. It weighs forty-five pounds per cubic foot [56]. Posts from this tree are wonderful for fencing [51]. Untreated poles last over twenty years in the ground [39]. Trees are also well-suited to charcoal production [58]. Trees may be grown as a windbreak [39]. Black locusts have a low fire potential [58]. Trees will vigorously coppice, but the branches can be brittle and may be liable to wind damage if exposed [8,58].

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Plants may be grown as a biomass energy crop [8,26]. The foliage is readily eaten by livestock while the seed is suitable fodder for poultry [37,39,58]. Trees provide habitat for birds, insects and other wildlife [26,58]. Black locusts provide fodder for bees [8]. Trees are also suitable for honey production, and they are well known for the honey that is produced from their flowers [58].

Cultivation Details
Black locusts prefer full sun and are intolerant of shade [7,8,56]. They also prefer soils that are dry or moist [7,8]. Trees will tolerate acidic, neutral and alkaline soils and soils that are light, medium and heavy [8]. Black locust is tolerant of atmospheric pollution and drought [8,56]. Trees are very fast growing [8]. At ten years after planting, black locusts can reach a height of about twenty-five feet [7]. They are also relatively long-lived and can reach two hundred years of age [58]. Black locusts need to be pollinated in order to set seed [8]. Trees will sucker, producing new plants from the roots [8,39,41]. Several fast growing, straight stemmed cultivars have been developed and are cultivated for good timber production [8].

Known Hazards
All parts of the black locust (except the flowers) and especially the inner bark, are poisonous [22,46,56]. These toxins are destroyed by heat [56]. Also, because of their tendency to freely sucker, black locusts can become weedy if care is not taken to confine them [58].

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Rosa spp.
Common name: Rose Family: Rosaceae Range: North American, European and Asian natives [2,14,33]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [1,2,13,14] Habitat: Fencerows, waste places, deciduous forest openings, lawns and pastures [1,13] Hardiness: 2-9 [32] Other Common Names: There are about 100 different species in the Rosa genus [33] Primary Uses: Edible – flowers, fruits, seeds, leaves and shoots, Oil, Perfume, Ornamental, Hedge, Soil Stabilizer, Medicine, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Roses are shrubs or woody vines that generally bear thorns along their branches [2,13,14,33,44]. Most plants also possess aromatic glands along their flowering stalk and foliage [33]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, serrate (toothed) and pinnately compound with three to eleven leaflets [13,14,33,44]. Flowers have five petals that range in color from white to yellow, pink and red [1,2,14,33,44]. Plants flower from May until June [13]. Also, flowers are hermaphrodite (posses both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. The fleshy ‘false fruits’ or rose hips follow the flowers [33]. The are false because the true fruits are located within the hip and consist of small hairy structures that surround a single seed [33]. Wild rose varieties are generally more medically potent and fragrant than the modern cultivated varieties [24].

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History
Rose oil has been a favored perfume since the early 1600s [33]. During World War II in England, five million pounds of rose hips were gathered from the roadsides and used to take the place of citrus fruits that had become quite rare [1,22].

Edible Uses
Flowers, Hips (Fruits), Syrup, Tea, Seeds, Leaves, Shoots Petals of rose buses should be gathered just before the flowers reach full bloom, though they are also tasty when they have begun to drop from the blossom [33]. Rose hips can be harvested from the time they ripen in autumn until the following spring [1,14,33]. They may be cooked or eaten fresh, and they can also be dried and preserved [1,14,33]. To dry the hips, cut them in half, remove the central core of seeds and dry the remaining skin and pulp quickly in a cool oven [1]. Once picked, remove the dried flower parts from the top of the hips and then split them open and remove the seeds [14]. Petals can be eaten raw, but make sure that you remove the white base of the petals as it has a rather bitter taste [15]. Rose petals can be used in many recipes. One of these is syrup of roses [1,22,23,33]. To make this syrup, boil three cups of water and remove it from heat. Add one quart of rose petals, cover and steep them for thirty to sixty minutes. Strain out the petals and stir in one and a half cups of raw sugar to each cup of juice. This mixture should be boiled again for twenty to thirty minutes over medium heat. Finally, pour it into sterilized jars and seal. [1,33] A tea can also be made from rose flowers [2]. Simply add a heaping teaspoon of dried petals to a cup of boiling water and steep for five minutes [2]. Rose hips can be used in salads jellies, jams, teas and soups [2,13,23,33,44]. Tea is made by steeping one teaspoon of dried ground rose hips in two cups of boiling water for five to ten minutes [1,33]. Seeds may be used by grinding them, boiling, straining and using the resulting fluid in place of water in recipes for jellies, syrups and jams [2]. The seeds are very rich in vitamin E [2,15]. It is important to remove the seed hairs before using the seeds [15]. This can be done by lightly scorching them or by abrading and winnowing them [15]. Young rose leaves can be dried and used to make tea [1,14,22]. The young shoots of some rose species may also be eaten raw or cooked [42].

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Three rose hips contain as much vitamin C as an orange [2]. A pound of raw hip pulp has been found to contain from 4000 to 7000mg of vitamin C [2,44].

Medicinal Uses
Antiscorbutic, Tonic, Skin Irritations, Diarrhea, Oral Disorders, Headache Remedy, Stomachic, Earaches Rose hips are antiscorbutic [33]. Plants are regarded as a tonic for the entire system, especially the heart [24]. Strong rose tea made from fresh or dried petals and hips can be used as a skin wash for infections and inflammations [4]. An infusion of the roots can be used as a remedy for diarrhea [37]. Strong doses of tea can be used as a mouthwash for many oral disorders [4]. Tea also has a sedative effect that can be used to soothe headaches and upset stomachs [4]. Warm rose tea can be used as an earache remedy by allowing it to trickle into infected ears [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Perfume, Soap, Ornamental, Dye, Soil Stabilizer, Indicator Plant, Hedge, Wildlife Forage Roses have long been cultivated commercially in Europe and Asia for use in perfumes and soaps [33]. It takes nearly 20,000 pounds of rose flowers to produce one pound of rose oil [33,48]. Roses are one of the most common and well-recognized ornamental species known [33,57]. Roses can be used to make a red dye [5]. Wild rose bushes have a very deep taproot, while some varieties have extensive root systems and can thus be planted to control erosion [31,56]. The presence of wild roses growing on a site indicates soils that are low in nitrogen [32]. Roses can be planted as an edible, protective hedge [15].

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When grown together, garlic and roses have been found to have mutually beneficial effects [46]. Roses grown with garlic have been found to produce stronger perfume in larger quantities than when grown alone [46]. Roses are also aided by parsley, mignonette and lupine [46]. Rose bushes serve to attract wildlife [32]. Bushes also provide forage for wildlife [2].

Cultivation Details
Roses do well in full sun or light shade [15,56]. Well-drained soils are essential for these plants, and they tend to prefer those that are slightly acidic [56,57]. They are tolerant of salt, wind and drought [57]. Roses require little or no fertilizing and are incredibly easy to grow [57]. Individual plants should be spaced the same distance as their ultimate height, and when planting for a hedge, they should be spaced at 2/3 their ultimate height [57]. Roses are generally disease resistant [32]. It is best to plant roses with other plants that grow deeply rather than widespread [46]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings, division and layering [56]. Both climbing and shrubby varieties of roses are available. Countless rose cultivars exist [57]. Apparently, rugosa varieties are the best for hip production [57].

Known Hazards
Roses can serve as hosts to bacterial blights that effect beans and lima beans [32]. Some species spread by suckers and can become invasive if they are not adequately maintained [15].

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Rubus spp.
Common name: Raspberry and Blackberry Family: Rosaceae Range: North American and European natives [23,33]; Widely distributed throughout north temperate zones [14,17,33] – raspberry’s range extends further north than blackberry’s [33] Habitat: Raspberry – woodland margins, clearings, roadsides, abandoned fields [14,22] Blackberry – woodland margins, old fields, fencerows, roadsides, thickets, mountain slopes [14,22] Hardiness: 3-7 [13] Other Common Names: Blackberry – Bramble Bush [22], Dewberry Primary Uses: Edible – berries, shoots and sprouts, Hedge, Wildlife Habitat, Companion Plant, Tea, Wine

Physical Characteristics
Blackberry is a perennial shrub that can reach ten feet in height [13,14,29]. Plants usually grow erect, later arching back towards the ground [14,33,35]. Stems are angled and either green or red in color [33]. They are generally armed with thorns and prickles [29,33,35]. Leaves are alternate, deciduous, serrate (toothed) and palmately lobed, generally consisting of three or five leaflets [13,14,33]. Flowers are white and have five petals [33]. They typically emerge in May, June or early July [14]. Mature blackberries grow to about a half inch and can be harvested in late July or August [14,33].

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Raspberry is a perennial shrub growing to a maximum height of seven feet [14,35]. The branches or ‘canes’ spread along the ground and are armed with thorns like blackberry [14]. Raspberries closely resemble blackberries, except for a few main differences [33]. Firstly, raspberry stems are rounded and have a whitish ‘glaucous’ bloom (powder) on it [33]. Another distinction is that when picked, the ripened raspberry separates from the stalk, leaving a hollow aggregate in the middle, whereas this ‘receptacle’ remains attracted to the blackberry when picked [33]. Also, raspberry leaves are pinnately compound, while blackberry leaves are palmately compound [14]. Raspberries mature from July until September [14].

History
The ancient Greeks used blackberry as a remedy for gout [33]. English peasants used decoctions of blackberry root and leaves as a treatment for diarrhea [33]. The English had numerous recipes for which to use blackberries, and these recipes traveled with the colonists to the Americas [33]. Native Americans commonly gathered blackberries and raspberries in the summer, also drying and storing large quantities of them for winter use [33]. Raspberries were commonly eaten amongst the ancient Greeks and Romans [33]. They’re suspected to have been cultivated in Europe for as long as two thousand years [33].

Edible Uses
Berries, Shoots, Sprouts, Tea, Wine Both raspberries and blackberries can be collected in mid-summer when the fruits have grown ripe [22]. When collecting blackberries, use only the firm fruit, as overripe berries may be indigestible if eaten fresh [33]. Berries can be eaten fresh, as is most commonly recommended, or used to make jams, jellies, juices and any number of baked goods [17]. Raspberries can be dried in the sun or in an oven and stored for later use [22]. They may also be frozen by placing them in a container, covering them with a syrup made of one part sugar to four parts water and keeping them in the freezer [17]. The young peeled fresh shoots of both raspberry and blackberry can be eaten raw [1,2,5,13,17,33]. The sprouts of some Rubus species (like black raspberry) can be eaten like rhubarb [13,37]. A tea can be made from the leaves of blackberry or raspberry by steeping them in boiling water for ten minutes [1,5,33].

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To make blackberry cordial, pour one quart of boiling water onto each gallon of blackberries and stir. Let this mixture stand for twenty-four hours and stir it occasionally. Strain the liquid into a cask and mix in two pounds of raw sugar for each gallon of juice. Cover it tightly and let it stand for two or three months in a cool room. This can then be transferred in sealed jars and stored in a cool, dark room. [1,17,33] Blackberries and raspberries can also be used to make wine [1,17,22]. One hundred grams of blackberries contain 58 calories, 1.2g of protein, 0.9g of fat, 32mg of calcium, 19mg of phosphorus, 0.9mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 170mg of potassium, 200 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.04mg of riboflavin, 0.4mg of niacin and 21mg of vitamin C [49]. One hundred grams of red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) contain 73 calories, 1.5g of protein, 1.4g of fat, 30mg of calcium, 22mg of phosphorus, 0.9mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 199mg of potassium, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.09mg of riboflavin, 0.9mg of niacin and 18mg of vitamin C [49]. One hundred grams of black raspberries (Rubus occidentalis) contain 57 calories, 1.2g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 22mg of calcium, 22mg of phosphorus, 0.9mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 168mg of potassium, 130 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.09mg of riboflavin, 0.9mg of niacin and 25mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Diarrhea, Cancer Preventative A decoction made from blackberry root can be used as a diarrhea remedy [5,33]. Simply boil one ounce of root in twenty-four ounces of water until sixteen ounces of fluid are left [33]. Children should take two to three teaspoonfuls per day and adults, a wineglassful a few times a day [33]. Recently, raspberries have been found to be high in Ellagic Acid, which is a phytochemical that has been found to help prevent cancer [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Cordage, Ground Cover, Hedges/Fencerows, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat, Indicator Plant, Interplant, Companion Plant, Bee Forage Raspberries and blackberries can be used to make a dye [5,9,26,33]. Blackberry canes can be used for cordage [26].

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In a forest garden, raspberry and blackberry species can be used to fill in a woodland understory’s herbaceous layer [15,24]. Both raspberries and blackberries can be planted and used for hedges or fencerows – their thorns can be used as an asset if you have a suitable application for them [56]. These plants provide both forage and nesting sites for birds and small mammals [15]. The presence of blackberry in an area indicates good soils [54]. When interplanted with grapes, blackberries have been found to reduce grape leafhopper populations because it acts as an alternative host for parasitic wasps [32]. Raspberries and blackberries provide wonderful bee forage [9,41].

Cultivation Details
Most species prefer moist open sites, though there are others that thrive in shaded woodland-like conditions [2,56]. Many species in the Rubus genus will tolerate all soil types and pH levels and will tolerate positions in full sun or partial shade, though they may not fruit as well in part shade [9,15]. Raspberries like soils that are rich in organic matter, slightly acidic (pH 6.0 to 6.7) and well drained, as they will not do well in waterlogged soils [28,56]. Blackberries, on the other hand, will tolerate soils with moderately poor drainage [56]. Almost all raspberry and blackberry species are self-pollinating [28,56]. Raspberry canes will bear flowers and fruit in either their first fall or their second summer [23,41]. Once the plant has fruited, the cane dies and the entire cane should be removed after the fruit has been gathered [23,41,56]. Next year’s fruit will be borne on new canes [41]. These plants can be trellised so that they don’t take up too much ground space and instead grow vertically [39]. This way, many more canes can be supported on a single plot of land. Both blackberries and raspberries have rather variable chill requirements [32]. The chill requirement for blackberry is 200 to 700 hours and for raspberry it’s 100 to 1800 hours [32]. On average, blackberries produce about 23.8 pounds of fruit per 100 square feet or between ten and thirty pounds per plant [32]. Raspberries produce about 12.3 pounds per 100 square feet and 1.5 pounds per foot of row [32].

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Raspberries will generally live for ten to fifteen years while blackberries may produce fruits for anywhere between six and twenty-five years depending on the variety [56]. As birds can become a bothersome pest, it may be necessary to net fruiting plants to keep them from stealing the harvest [39]. Blackberry cultivation began in the United States sometime after the colonists arrived [33]. Raspberries may be propagated by removing suckers from the roots of a parent plant and planting them out [41,56]. (Black raspberries do not produce suckers.) Blackberries can be propagated by both cuttings and tip layering [56]. Raspberries and blackberries should not be grown together [46]. The raspberry-blackberry genus contains between fifty and four hundred species in the United States alone, so there is considerable variation in the types of both wild and cultivated berries that one may choose from [2]. There exist both summer and fall fruiting raspberry species, and they actually have different growing habits [28]. There are a number of blackberry cultivars that have been developed that do not have thorns, but they are not as hardy as their thorny counterparts [15,28]. A seemingly endless number of bramble species and cultivars exist. I am not going to delve into detail here, as I could only even begin to hope to briefly touch upon those that are available. Probably one of the best resources to consult are seed and nursery catalogs, as they actually offer the varieties that are highlighted in their literature, though by no means do they include an even partially complete listing. I would also highly recommend referring to Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries, ed. Roger Holmes (1996), as a resource because it contains quite a bit of information on raspberry and blackberry culture and cultivation as well as a brief listing of dozens of cultivars [28]. Nonetheless, the selection is up to you and you should take all sorts of information into account when selecting the varieties that you wish to grow in your yard.

Known Hazards
Blackberry can easily become invasive [39]. It will spread by both seeds and tip-rooting [39]. One way to contain it is to ‘maroon’ plants on islands surrounded by water [39].

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Rumex spp.
Common name: Dock Family: Polygonaceae Range: European natives [15,33,44]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [1,2,14,33,44] Habitat: Swamps, waste areas, fields, rocky beaches, saline soils [33], disturbed sites, roadsides, vacant lots [1,14,22,44] Hardiness: 4 Other Common Names: Yellow Dock – Curled Dock [2,14,22], Narrow-Leaved Dock [2,5], Sour Dock [2,14], Indian Dock [44], Curly Dock [44] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, seeds and stems, Coffee, Pioneer, Cover Crop, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Ingredient, Medicine, Chicken Forage

Physical Characteristics
Docks are large herbs that are perennial or biennial, growing to a height of five feet tall [1,2,14,44]. They are most readily identified by their leaves, which are primarily basal, between six to fifteen inches long and lance-shaped [2,33]. The leaves have an acuminate (pointed) tip, a curled, wavy margin and smooth undersides [2,5,14]. Docks also have a tall, smooth, stout stalk that bears small dense clusters of greenish flowers
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[14,33]. Flowers are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are wind pollinated [56]. These flowers eventually give way to the plant’s papery winged brown fruits that bear a multitude of seeds [1,2,33].

History
Some scholars believe that the root of water dock (Rumex aquaticus) was used to cure the soldiers of Julius Caesar of scurvy in the Rhine country [33]. Docks are also relished by some Indian tribes and are commonly sought after by Eskimos [2].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Seeds, Flour, Coffee, Stems All dock species are edible, [14,33] but yellow dock (Rumex crispus or Curled/Sour/ Narrow-Leaved Dock) is one of the most flavorful [5,14]. The greens produced by these species can be eaten from the time when they first emerge in spring until they grow strong in taste [14,33]. Leaves should generally be used when they are a foot or less in length [5]. Some describe the flavor of dock greens as reminiscent of that of beet greens [14,33]. Docks will usually produce leaves that can be gathered throughout the spring, summer and fall [2,33]. Young dock leaves can either be eaten raw or boiled in a small amount of water for a few minutes [1,2,14,22,44]. Older leaves may need to be cooked longer with one or two water changes to make them tender and to remove the bitter taste [1,2,14,16]. When boiled, dock leaves lose very little bulk, so even a small amount of leaves can provide for a decent dish or salad [16]. In order to produce a winter crop of dock leaves, collect roots from a plant, cover them in soil in a box and leave them outside until after a hard freeze [17]. Bring them inside, setting the box in a warm, dry place, and in a few weeks, the roots will begin to produce pale, curled, colorful leaves [17]. These can be cut and washed and added to salads. Seeds can be harvested from the stalks in late summer or autumn [2,5,14,16,44]. They can be hulled, winnowed, ground and used alone or half and half with wheat flour [14,44]. Roasted dock seed can also be used as a coffee substitute [56]. The dock species Rumex hymenosepalus yields stems that may be used as a rhubarb substitute for sauces and pies [2,44]. The stems of other dock species may also be used for the same purpose. Dock contains more vitamin A than carrots and nearly twice as much vitamin C as oranges [45]. One hundred grams of dock contain 28 calories, 2.1g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 66mg of calcium, 41mg of phosphorus, 1.6mg of iron, 5mg of sodium, 338mg of potassium,

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12,900 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.09mg of thiamine, 0.22mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 119mg of vitamin C. [2,22,44,49] One hundred grams of yellow dock contain 21 calories, 1.5g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 74mg of calcium, 56mg of phosphorus, 5.6mg of iron, 1385 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.06mg of thiamine, 0.08mg of riboflavin, 0.4mg of niacin and 30mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Spring Tonic, Stomachic, Laxative, Skin Infections/Irritations, Nettle Remedy, Dysentery, Poultice The roots of yellow dock are recommended as a spring tonic and stomachic [5,44]. A tea made from them is also a mild laxative [44]. To prepare this mixture, steep a teaspoonful of dried, cut-up root in a cup of boiling water and drink it twice a day [5]. Dock roots should be collected in late summer [5]. Dried dock root can be used to cure skin infections and irritations [5]. When stung by nettle, dock leaves are said to help stop the sting [44]. Seeds were made into tea by the Yuki Native Americans and used as a remedy for dysentery [44]. Dock leaves may be used as a poultice [5].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Indicator Plant, Dye, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Ingredient, Pioneer, Cover Crop, Chicken Forage The presence of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifoias) on a site indicates wet, clay soils [32]. Dock species in general indicate wet soils that are acidic [32]. Curly dock’s (Rumex crispus) presence indicates soils that are too wet for fruit tree cultivation [32]. Dock roots can be used to make dark green to brown and dark grey dyes [37]. Plants are dynamic accumulators of calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron [32]. Dock is an alternative ingredient of ‘QR’ herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) [56]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to compost to speed up the bacterial activity, shortening the time necessary for decomposition to take place [56]. Because of their deep taproots, docks can be used as an important cover crop [32].

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Docks leaves may be used as forage for chickens [54].

Cultivation Details
Docks thrive in heavy, poorly drained acidic soil [54]. They also prefer wet soils [54]. Strangely enough, when growing in good soils, these plants actually seem to do worse [54]. Rumex alpinus or Monk’s Rhubarb is a dock species that is occasionally cultivated for its leaves [15]. They are very productive plants, and given the proper climate, they will produce fresh leaves from February to December [15]. Monk’s Rhubarb is very easy to grow and also forms a dense groundcover that excludes weeds [15]. Rumex patienta or Herb Patience is another dock species that may be cultivated [15]. It is reportedly easy to grow and produces fairly mild tasting leaves [15].

Known Hazards
Dock establishes itself quite readily and can become invasive if not properly managed [32,44]. Thus, be certain that you want it in your yard before planting it. If you want to prevent it from spreading, cut off the seed heads before they have a chance to mature. Dock plants can contain high levels of oxalic acid [56]. Though this is okay in small quantities, leaves shouldn’t be eaten in large amounts since the oxalic acid can lock up other nutrients in food, causing mineral deficiencies [56]. Cooking will reduce the oxalic acid content [56].

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Sagittaria latifolia
Common name: Arrowhead Family: Alismaceae Range: North American native [7,33]; Widespread throughout the United States [13,14,17,33] Habitat: Margins of ponds and rivers, wet swamps, marshes [13,14,17,33] Hardiness: 3-8 [13] Other Common Names: Duck Potato [1,13,14,17,56], Wapato [1,13,14,17,22], Arrowleaf [13,17] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Soil Stabilizer, Wildlife Habitat, Edible Tubers, Flour, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Arrowhead is a perennial aquatic herb between two to four feet high [13,14]. Plants are anchored in the soil by a small root and a number of large, stout rhizomes that bear tubers at their tip late in the season [14,33]. Leaves are all at the base and the blades are four to ten inches long [1,14]. They are shaped like arrowheads and have long pointed lobes at the base, though they can also be quite variable [1,13,14]. The flowering stalks are taller than the leaves [14]. Flowers grow in clusters of threes along the upper part of the spike

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and are present from July through September [1,14]. Each flower has three small white petals [1,2,14]. Flowers are monoecious (flowers are either male or female, but both sexes are found on the same plant) and pollinated by insects [56]. Arrowhead’s fruiting heads are more or less globe-shaped and contain a number of flat, winged seeds [1,14]. Seeds ripen from August to September [56].

History
The tubers of arrowhead were a popular food with many Native American tribes [17,33]. Arrowhead tubers have also been popular in Asia for a long time [17,33]. The Chinese and Japanese would occasionally grow it along the edges of rice fields [1,2,33].

Edible Uses
Tubers, Flour Arrowhead tubers should be harvested from late summer to early spring [14,33]. To gather them, use a rake to trace the underground runners from the main plant out to the swollen tubers (or use your toes to loosen them as the Native Americans did) which can be snipped off [13,14,17,33]. Once loosened, the tubers will float to the surface making collection easy [13,14]. The tubers are usually only about an inch in diameter, so you will need to collect a number of them [2]. Though the tubers are edible raw, they are not always tasty [1,2,14]. They are commonly cooked like potatoes [1,14,17,22,33]. Bake them or boil for thirty minutes until they are tender, peeling them after cooking [14]. They can also be substituted for potatoes in recipes [14]. The tubers may be dried for storage [13,14]. To do so, boil them until they are tender, slice them about a half-inch thick and dry them thoroughly in the sun or in a warm oven [14]. They should then be stored in a warm dry place [14]. When you wish to use them, soak them first for twenty minutes before cooking them for the same length of time [14]. Tubers can be easily ground into a flour that can be used in baking [22]. One hundred grams of arrowhead contain 107 calories, 5g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 13mg of calcium, 165mg of phosphorus, 2.6mg of iron, 729mg of sodium, 1.6mg of thiamine, 0.4mg of riboflavin, 1.4mg of niacin and 5mg of vitamin C [22,49].

Medicinal Uses
Digestive Aid, Poultice The Chippewa take an infusion of arrowhead root to soothe indigestion [37]. A poultice of arrowhead roots is used to treat wounds and sores [56].
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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Soil Stabilizer, Wildlife/Livestock Forage, Bee Forage Arrowhead can be planted along the banks of wet places to help stabilize the soil [2]. The seeds of arrowhead are browsed by ducks and other water fowl [7,38]. They can also be used as pig forage [7]. Arrowhead provides forage for bees [7].

Cultivation Details
Though arrowhead will succeed in wet soils they do best in shallow water that is between one and two feet deep [15,38]. Plants require positions in full sun [7] and cannot grow in the shade [56]. Arrowhead can be propagated by the tubers in spring or autumn [17,56]. If propagating by seed, they are best sown once ripe in a pot of standing water about two inches deep [56]. Once large enough to handle, individual seedlings can be transplanted into individual pots while gradually increasing the depth of the water as the plants grow until it is about two inches above the top of the pot [56]. They can be planted out in late spring or early summer of the following year [56]. This species is recommended for planting on berms [32]. Sagittaria sagittifolia is an arrowhead variety that is native to Britain and can reportedly produce tubers that are up to six inches or more in diameter [15].

Known Hazards
Some similar members of the Alismaceae family have arrowlike leaves, but their tubers contain large quantities of dangerous oxalate crystals [13]. Thus, if you are foraging for arrowhead tubers, be certain that you have identified it properly.

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Salix spp.
Common name: Willow Family: Salicaceae Range: North American and European natives [15]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [1,2,5,44] Habitat: Damp, fertile bottomlands, stream edges, lake rims [1] Hardiness: 2 [10] Other Common Names: There are hundreds of different willow species. Primary Uses: Soil Stabilizer, Fiber – basketry, Dynamic Accumulator, Coppice Material, Biomass, Fuel, Rooting Hormone, Fire Protection, Timber, Livestock Fodder, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
The majority of willow species are shrubby, though there are a number that become small and even large trees [1,2,44]. Willows have alternate, deciduous leaves that are usually long and thin and have either smooth or serrate (toothed) margins [1,2]. The leaves of a number of willow species have persistent leaflike appendages at their bases that are called stipules [2]. Twigs are slim, round, flexible and often brittle at their base [1,2]. Willow buds are usually flat along the twig side and roundly bulging on the other side [1,2]. One of the most diagnostic characteristics of species in the willow genus is that

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their buds are covered with a single scale [1,2]. This characteristic is shared with very few other woody plants. Willow flowers appear in early spring, generally before or with the developing leaves [2]. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers are found on separate trees) and are pollinated by bees [2,56]. Seeds are extremely light and produced prolifically [2].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Shoots, Leaves, Inner Bark It is probably best not to think of the willows as plants that provide an edible product. Though there are portions of the plants that are edible, they would most likely only be consumed in survival situations. With that said, I would not discourage anyone from trying any of the edible parts of the willows, as they may find them to be quite palatable. It is for the other, non-edible uses of the willow that I chose to include it in this directory though. In early spring, young willow shoots can be gathered [1,2]. Once they have been peeled of their outer bark, the insides can be eaten raw [1,2]. Young willow leaves, when still tender, can also be eaten raw [1,2]. Willow leaves have, on occasion, been found to be up to ten times richer in vitamin C than oranges [1]. The inner bark of willow trees can be scraped free and either eaten raw or dried and ground into flour [1,2,44]. The bark of some species possesses a bitter taste, whereas others have a taste that is somewhat sweet [1,2]. This is only recommended in survival situations though, as depriving a tree of its inner bark could cause permanent damage to it.

Medicinal Uses
Tonic, Fever, Headaches, Hay Fever, Antiseptic, Mouthwash, Skin Irritations, Rheumatism The bark of many willow species contains salicin, which is used in medicine as a tonic and to reduce fever [1,2]. Aspirin is a derivative of this compound [44,58]. The bark of younger willow shoots can be steeped in water and taken for headaches and hay fever [44]. This tea also has strong antiseptic properties and can be used as a mouthwash or applied to wounds externally [44]. Willow tea is a remedy for rheumatic pain as well [44,58].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Basketry, Rooting Hormone, Fire Retardant, Soil Stabilizer, Indicator Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Coppice Material, Biomass, Fuel, Timber, Fertilizer, Livestock Fodder, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Forage The pliable branches of some species in this genus are very useful in basketry [5,26,34,44]. After giving the branches a soak in water for about five minutes, they will grow even more flexible [44]. Make sure to scrape off the bark before using branches for basketry [44]. When put in water, willow cuttings add an unknown hormone to the water that helps other cuttings develop roots [15,44,54,58]. To prepare the solution, steep willow cuttings in water for a few days [54]. Then, to start the new cuttings, simply place them in a bucket of water with willow cuttings overnight [44,58]. These cuttings should then be placed in cutting beds in the usual manner [58]. Willows are fire retardant and will steam rather than burn [39,58]. Many species would be well planted along the banks of wetlands [38]. They are wonderful plants to grow for erosion control [15,32,58]. The presence of black willow in an area indicates wet soils [32]. Willow bark is a dynamic accumulator of magnesium, while black willow accumulates sodium [32]. Most willows will respond very well to coppicing [15,24]. Willows are exceptional biomass producers [15,24]. In several European nations, as well as here in Burlington, Vermont, willow biomass is chipped and used to produce electricity [15,24,26]. Some of the larger willow species can be grown for timber [10]. A few of these include white willow (Salix alba), cricket bat willow (Salix alba var. caerulea), pussy willow (Salix caprea), brittle willow (Salix fragalis) and black willow (Salix nigra) [10]. Unfortunately, the wood produced by willows is too soft to have any commercial value [58]. Nonetheless, I will take time to discuss the properties of two of these species. Black willow timber is red-brown in color and has straight fine grain [10]. Seasoned timber is moderately weak and light, and it is primarily used for furniture and cabinet work, paper pulp, turnery, fuel, charcoal, basketry, agricultural implements and artificial limbs [10].

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White willow is a fast growing species, reaching thirty feet in its first ten years of growth [10]. The wood of this species is pinkish, while the grain is straight and fine [10]. Seasoned timber is moderately weak, light and easy to bend [10]. Its primary applications are furniture and cabinet work, paper pulp, turnery, tool handles, boat and shipbuilding, basketry, agricultural implements, boxes and crates, clogs and shoes, toothpicks and plywood [10]. Pussy willow leaves can be used as a fertilizer [38]. Trees may be grown as a source of livestock fodder [58]. Willow is a good source of forage for some wildlife [1,2]. They also provide habitat for birds and other forms of wildlife [26]. Willows are excellent bee forage, providing them with both pollen and nectar [39,58].

Cultivation Details
Most willows prefer moist soils [10,15]. They also generally prefer full sun though they are tolerant of partial shade [10]. Plants require large amounts of water and have root systems that will reach out as far as 150 feet in search of nutrients and moisture [58]. They can generally tolerate prolonged periods of flooding [58]. Because of their water and nutrient seeking nature and widespread roots, willows should not be planted next to gardens, septic systems or orchards [58]. Trees are very fast growing [58]. Willows may be easily propagated by stem cuttings [39]. When placed in a bucket of water, most willow cuttings will root in about a week [58]. There are between 200 and 300 varieties of willow throughout the world [1,39].

Known Hazards
Willows can easily become naturalized and even rampant, especially along streams [39].

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Sambucus canadensis
Common name: Elderberry Family: Caprifoliaceae Range: Native to eastern North America [33] Habitat: Damp, rich soil; moist fields, woods, around marshes [33], stream and riverbanks, fencerows [13,14] Hardiness: 2-9 [32] Other Common Names: American Elder [2,13], Sweet Elder [2,29], Common Elderberry [2], Elder [2,44], Blue Elderberry [2], Black Elderberry [2], Mountain Blue Elderberry [2] Primary Uses: Edible – flowers, buds and berries, Wine, Insect Repellent, Compost Material, Hedge, Windbreak, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Elderberry is a large shrub that may grow to a height of ten feet or more, [17,33,44] and under some circumstances, it may reach treelike proportions of even thirty plus feet [2]. Younger stems are somewhat woody and have large white pith [14,33]. Leaves are deciduous, opposite and pinnately compound [13,33,44]. They typically have between five to eleven (usually seven) toothed, lance-shaped leaflets [14,33] that are about six to

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ten inches long [14]. Elderberry bears tiny white flowers that are grouped in branched, flattened clusters [13,33]. Blossoms appear in late spring [33] or early summer (April through June [13]). Flowers are pollinated by insects [56]. The berrylike fruits are usually purple-black, but there are some varieties that bear red, green or yellow fruit [33]. They are ripe some time after midsummer [14,33].

History
The European black elder (Sambucus nigra) has a very long reaching history [33]. It was used as a medicinal and food plant from the days of Hippocrates up until modern times [33]. When European settlers came to America, they discovered the common elder (Sambucus canadensis) growing throughout the east and used it in many of the ways that they had done with their own familiar European black elder [33]. Elderberry wine was a favorite medicinal drink in many colonies, and they used it very commonly for its ability to repel insects [33]. Some Native American tribes called elderberry the ‘tree of music’ because they made wind instruments from the plant’s straight, hollowed out stems [1].

Edible Uses
Flowers, Buds, Fritters, Tea, Berries, Bread, Pie, Juice, Jelly, Wine Young elderberry flowers and buds can be used for food [33]. When the flowers are fully open, either pick the clusters or shake old flower petals into a container [14]. Fresh elderberry flowers or flower blossoms can be cooked as fritters or added to pancake batter to give the finished product an aroma [1,2,13,14,33,44]. Flower clusters may also be dipped in fritter batter and deep-fried [1,4,14]. They can then be sprinkled with orange juice and dusted with sugar [14]. Tea can be made from the dried flowers [13,33,56]. When elder fruits are deep purple, pick the entire cluster or strip them from the twig [14]. Mature elder fruits are usually converted into wine or jelly [2,33]. They should be thoroughly washed before using. Fresh elderberry fruit does not taste good, but the flavor does improve with drying [2,14,17]. If they are going to be stewed, added to pastries, or used to make pies or bread, it is often preferable to dry them, rather than using them fresh [14,33]. They can be dried on trays in the sun or on outspread newspapers in a warm attic [1,13,14]. Once dry, they may be eaten like raisins, or they may be simmered with a little sugar and lemon [1]. Otherwise, before using the berries in breads or pies, stew them in a little water first [14]. A juice extract can be made from the berries by simmering one quart of mashed berries in a cup of water for twenty to twenty-five minutes [14]. Strain this mixture through a cloth [14]. Sweetened juice is good mixed with tart juices [14].
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To make elder and apple jelly, place about two quarts of freshly picked elder fruit in a saucepan, heating slowly. Next, crush them and add two quarts of sliced apples, simmering for about ten minutes, or until the fruit is soft. Mash it, straining the juice through a jelly bag. Use one to one and a half cups of sugar per cup of juice. Return to heat, add lemon rind and juice. Cook this mixture until it sheets when dropped from a spoon. Pour it into sterilized jelly jars and seal. [17,33] Another common use of the berries is to make wine. It is often considered to be a difficult wine to make well, but if done properly, it is beautifully colored and quite delicious [5]. There are dozens upon dozens of existing recipes for elderberry wine. Here is one that I have chosen: Gather ripe elderberries on a dry day and put them in an earthenware jar or enameled pan. Once cleaned, pour two gallons of boiling water over three gallons of berries. Press the berries into the water, cover them tightly and let them sit until the next day. Once ready, strain the juice from the fruit through a sieve, and squeeze any remaining juice from the berries. Measure the juice that is left and add three pounds of sugar, six cloves and one tablespoon of ground ginger to every gallon. This mixture should be boiled for twenty minutes, and be sure to remove any scum as it rises. Once this has cooled, put it into a dry, well-washed cask. Fill it entirely and pour into the bunghole a large teaspoon of new yeast that has already been mixed with a very small quantity of the wine. Make sure to have at least a quart of extra juice left over to fill up the cask as the wine evaporates. After about six months of ripening in the cask, the wine may be bottled. It will improve with age and is also reportedly excellent when served hot. [5] One hundred grams of elderberries contain 72 calories,2.6g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 38mg of calcium, 28mg of phosphorus, 1.6mg of iron, 300mg of potassium, 600 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.07mg of thiamine, 0.06mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin, 36mg of vitamin C [49]. Once again, there exist countless recipes that utilize parts of the elder plant. I have only chosen to include a few here. To find more, I would highly recommend Nelson Coon’s Using Wild and Wayside Plants (1957) and Euell Gibbons’ Stalking the Wild Asparagus (1962). Also, feel free to experiment and create as you will.

Medicinal Uses
Cold Remedy, Diuretic, Skin Infections/Wounds The plant’s inner bark and its fruit can be used to make a strongly purgative drink [33]. Tea made from elder flowers induces sweating and is said to be useful for colds, fevers and headaches [4,44]. The leaves can be used to make a tea that has strongly diuretic properties [33] and it can also be used as a wash for skin infections [4,44].

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Elderberry leaves can be used to prepare an ointment for skin wounds [4,33]. The plant’s flowers can be prepared as a skin wash or gentle lotion [33].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Insect Repellent, Compost, Hedgerow, Windbreak, Hollow Stems, Wildlife Forage A black dye can be extracted from the bark of older branches and roots [33]. Also, the fruit can be mixed with alum in order to make a blue dye [33,39]. If mixed with alum, elderberry leaves will create a green dye [33]. As an insect repellent (especially against flies and midges), elderberry leaves should be rubbed on the body or crushed and worn in the hat [15,33,37]. This will be an effective deterrent for two hours or more [15]. An insecticide can also be made from a decoction of the leaves [56]. Boil three to four handfuls in a liter of water, strain and allow to cool before applying [56]. This mix is effective against many insects, and as a treatment for fungal infections like leaf rot and powdery mildew [56]. Elderberry plants growing around compost and manure piles help speed up the fermentation process [46,56]. Also, humus under elderberry bushes is widely known to be light and fluffy and is of great value when added to topsoil in the garden [46]. Elderberry can be grown as a hedgerow shrub [39]. It can also be used as a thin, summer windbreak [39]. Hollow elderberry stems can be used in many ways [5]. In order to ‘cure’ them, stems should be cut in spring and dried with the leaves on [1]. You should poke out the soft pith of their interior with a hot stick or similar tool [1]. These stems are sometimes used as spouts for gathering sap from maples, birches and other trees [1,2,17]. Elderberry is a very popular plant among wild animals. Rabbits, squirrels and woodchucks eat the fruits and bark; chipmunks, mice, rats, and dozens of bird species eat the fruits; while deer, elk and moose graze the foliage [2,13].

Cultivation Details
Elderberry is a very adaptable and easily grown plant [15]. It will generally succeed in almost any planting, but it will do especially well in light shade in a woodland type environment, as it is often found growing in the wild [15]. Elderberry will grow well in any soil, [41] but prefers damp, rich sites. It does grow well in heavy clay soils [56].

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It is known for its resistance to disease, [32] especially honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) [56]. Elderberry is a plant whose cultivation requires little effort [32]. It is also easily propagated from cuttings [39]. Because of its ability to thrive in moist conditions, elderberry is a plant that is recommended for planting nearby roof downspouts, as it will most certainly benefit from the excess moisture that it will receive in such a position [32]. If starting elderberry from seed, it is best sown as it becomes ripe in the autumn in a cold frame [56]. There, it should germinate in early spring [56]. Once seedlings are large enough to handle, plant them out into pots. If they grow well, they can be placed in their permanent positions during early summer [56]. Otherwise, put them in a sheltered nursery bed or keep them sheltered in their pots, planting them out in early spring of the next year [56]. In the dormant season, elderberry may be propagated by divisions of roots suckers [56]. There are a number of elderberry cultivars that are available. For information on them, visit the Plants for a Future website at www.pfaf.org/.

Known Hazards
Elderberry does have some poisonous look-alikes that are also found in moist habitats [33]. Poison sumac (Rhus vernix) is one, and if touched, any part of the plant may cause a painful skin reaction [33]. Water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) is another look alike [33]. This plant’s tuberous roots have a parsnip-like odor, but it is deadly poisonous if eaten [33]. Both of these plants have alternate leaves, so if the plant you are looking at is opposite, then you can be certain that it is elderberry [33]. Some believe that young shoots and green fruits may contain cyanide, though there also have been studies done showing no traces of cyanide in American elderberries [13]. Whatever the case, care should be taken at least when consuming young parts of the elder plant. Some also claim that the stems, foliage and root of the plant may be poisonous if eaten [4,39,44]. They can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and general stomach upset [4].

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Sassafras albidium
Common name: Sassafras Family: Lauraceae Range: Eastern North American native [1,5,33,56]; Widespread throughout the eastern United States [1,5,14,22,33]. Habitat: Old fields, roadsides, moist, rich woods [33], bottomlands, lower slopes [14] Hardiness: 5 [10] Other Common Names: Ague Tree [2,5,17], Saxifrax [5], Cinnamon Wood [2,5,17], Saloop [5], Smelling Stick [5], Wild Cinnamon [22], Mitten Plant [22], Tea Tree [2,17] Primary Uses: Medicine, Tea, Oil, Insect Repellent, Timber, Condiment

Physical Characteristics
Sassafras is a large shrub or a medium sized tree with an open, flat topped crown that can reach up to eighty feet in height with a forty-five foot spread [14,33,56]. When mature, the bark is red-brown and deeply furrowed and the twigs are somewhat smooth and greenish-yellow [2,14,33]. All parts of the sassafras tree are aromatic [1,33]. Leaves are polymorphic (they have a variable shape), alternate, deciduous, simple, four to six inches long and bright green [1,2,14,17,33]. There are three main types of leaves that can be found on the sassafras tree. One of them is egg-shaped and not lobed; another resembles
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a mitten in that it possesses only a single lobe; the third shape has three lobes [1,2,17,33]. Flowers are clustered and greenish-yellow in color, and they emerge with the new leaves in spring [1,17,33]. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers are found on separate trees) [1,14,56]. Sassafras fruit is a polished, ovoid, blue bead-like structure that is suspended for a red stalk and enclosed at its base by a small red cup [1,14,17,33].

History
Native Americans used sassafras for a number of purposes [33]. The roots were used to make dyes of several colors, the leaves were used to thicken soups and make teas and various parts of the tree were used to make tonics for numerous ailments [33]. The colonists were thrilled with the many uses of sassafras, and they decided to bring plants from Florida to Spain near the end of the sixteenth century [33]. Upon its introduction, the use of sassafras spread throughout Europe [17,33]. Sassafras is actually believed to have been the first plant product to have been exported from New England [6].

Edible Uses
Roots, Twigs, Leaves, Tea, Condiment, Buds Generally, it is the roots of sassafras that are used to make tea [22,33]. Because getting to the roots is quite difficult, you may also use twigs and leaves [33]. Though the roots are ideally dried before use, leaves and twigs can either be used fresh or dried [22,33]. If you collect older roots, you will need to scrape off the outer bark before using them [2,17]. If you would like to harvest sassafras roots without disturbing a mature tree you can pull up suckers that surround the base of the parent tree and use their roots [14]. To make tea with the roots, boil them in water until the liquid has turned red [1,5,14,17,22,29]. It can be sweetened to taste and drunk hot or cold [14,17]. Also, the roots can be reused [1,14,17,22]. To make sassafras twig or leaf tea, add eight fresh sassafras leaves or two teaspoons of dried leaves to a cup of boiling water that has been removed from the heat source [33]. Cover the pot and let the leaves steep for ten minutes [10]. Dried and powdered root bark can be used as a pungent spice for meat [14,17]. Powder that is made from dried young sassafras leaves and twigs can be used as a thickener for soups by adding about one tablespoon of powder per pint of soup during the last fifteen minutes of cooking [5,14,22,29,33]. To prepare the powder, simply dry the plant’s young tender stems and leaves, grind them into a fine powder and sift to remove the hard parts [1,2,22].

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Green winter buds and young sassafras leaves can be used in salads [1,14,17]. To make sassafras jelly use three cups of strong sassafras tea, three ounces of powdered pectin, a half-teaspoon of citric acid and four cups of sugar [14,17]. Otherwise use two cups of tea, one package of pectin, three cups of honey and powdered root bark to taste [1,14].

Medicinal Uses
Rheumatism, Diarrhea, Alterative, Anodyne, Antiseptic, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Stimulant, Vasodilator, Mouthwash, Sore Throat Remedy, Pain Killer, Eyewash, Cold Remedy, Bronchitis, Tonic, Blood Purifier, Gastrointestinal Ailments, Kidney Ailments, Poultice Tonics made from root bark can be taken for rheumatism and by women after childbirth [33,37]. Infusions of the root bark can be taken for diarrhea [37]. The root bark and root pith are alterative, anodyne, antiseptic, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant and vasodilator [56]. Sassafras bark can be used as a mouthwash and a sore throat remedy [4,37]. It can also be used as a pain killer and to induce sweating [4]. Using the bark of the tree’s roots will result in stronger decoctions [4]. A thick eyewash can be made by steeping sassafras pith in water [33,37]. Sassafras tea is a common remedy for colds and bronchitis [33,37]. It is also used as a spring tonic and blood purifier and as a remedy for gastrointestinal and kidney ailments [56]. Dried and powdered leaves can be used as a poultice to heal open wounds and bruises [33,37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Oil, Soap, Insect Deterrent/Insecticide, Timber, Shade Sassafras can be used to make beige, yellow and tan dyes [5,15]. Sassafras oil can be used to impart a scent in soaps [37]. Wood can be put in boxes and chests as a moth deterrent [5,17]. It could also be used to build chicken houses, as the pungent oil would serve to keep out insects [5,17].

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Sassafras reportedly helps to repel mosquitoes [15,46]. Sassafras can be grown as a timber tree. Wood is orange-brown in color and is coarse grained [10]. Seasoned timber is very light and brittle, weak, durable and fragrant [10]. It is most commonly used for fencing and posts, fuel, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage and agricultural implements [10]. It weighs thirty-one pounds per cubic foot [56]. In winter, leafless sassafras canopies cast about fifty percent shade [32].

Cultivation Details
Sassafras prefers dry fertile soils that have a pH that is acidic to neutral [10]. Though it prefers full sun, sassafras is capable of growing in partial shade [10,32]. After ten years of growth, sassafras trees may reach a height of about fifteen feet [10]. Trees are long lived and moderately-fast growing [56]. They can begin flowering after only ten years and continue to produce good seed crops every two or three years [56]. Because plants are dioecious, both a male and a female plant must be grown if seed is desired [56]. Sassafras produces suckers that can form thickets if allowed [15,56]. Plants can be propagated by seed, root cuttings and suckers [56].

Known Hazards
When taken in large doses, sassafras has stimulant and narcotic effects [17].

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Scirpus acutus/lacustris (Schoenoplectus lacustris)
Common name: Bulrush Family: Cyperaceae Range: North American native [7]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [14] Habitat: Shores of ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, marshes [14,22] Hardiness: 3-7 [7,13] Other Common Names: Tule [16] Primary Uses: Aquatic Perennial, Edible – shoots, pollen, seeds, roots and buds, Fiber – thatch, paper and basketry, Water Purifier, Soil Stabilizer, Wildlife Habitat

Physical Characteristics
Bulrushes are perennial herbs that reach a height of about twelve feet [7,13,14]. They arise from large, tough underground rhizomes [14]. Stems are upright, rounded and unbranched [14]. Leaf blades, when present, are grasslike and about four inches long [13,14]. Flowering heads are densely clustered and originate from one point near the tip of the stem [14]. They are hermaphrodite and are wind-pollinated [56]. Fruits are small hard, flattened seeds [14].

History
Information unavailable.

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Edible Uses
Shoots, Pollen, Seeds, Roots, Flour, Syrup, Buds Bulrushes provide a year round food source [4,14]. The young shoots can either be harvested in early spring or once they’ve formed in autumn [4,14]. Later in the season, the cores from the bases of older stalks can be removed [14]. In summer, you can beat pollen from the stalks into a bucket, while the seeds may be harvested in the same way from summer through winter [4,14]. Roots may also be dug up year-round [4,14]. Those that are firm and sweet can be used as a vegetable or sugar source while the older ones can be dried and ground into flour [7,13,14,22]. The new shoots from this plant can be eaten raw or cooked, while older shoots can first be peeled, separating the cores from the older stalks [4,7,13,14,22,24]. These may also be eaten raw or boiled [7,13,14,24]. Firm older roots can be peeled and cut into sections [14]. They should be crushed and boiled until they have formed a white gruel [14]. Remove any fibers, and allow the gruel to dry into flour [14]. Flour can be prepared by thoroughly drying the cleaned roots, crushing them and removing any fibers. The remaining material can be ground into flour [13,14]. Roots may also be baked, roasted or fried like potatoes [14]. The rhizomes can be boiled to produce a syrup [15,37,42]. The buds that are found along the edge of the rhizomes are crisp and sweet and can be eaten raw [15,16]. Pollen can also be used as a protein-rich flour additive [7,13,14,15]. Bulrush seeds can be ground and used alone or mixed with pollen and root flour for baking [7,13,14,15].

Medicinal Uses
Haemostatic, Poultice, Skin Irritations, Cancer, Astringent, Diuretic The stem pith is haemostatic [56]. A poultice made from bulrush stem pith can be applied under wound dressings to stop bleeding [4,37]. This poultice may also be used on severe bee stings, poison ivy blisters and other skin irritations [4].

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Scirpus lacustris is a traditional cancer medicine [56]. Also, the roots of this plant are astringent and diuretic [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Thatch, Paper, Basketry, Dye, Water Purifier, Soil Stabilizer, Wildlife Forage, Wildlife Habitat Leaves and stems from these plants can be dried and used to make mats, paper, baskets and thatch [7,15,24,34,37]. The rushes can be soaked before weaving to make them more pliable [34]. After harvesting, they should be split, cut into usable pieces, soaked in water for twenty-four hours and finally cooked with lye for one and a half hours [56]. These fibers can then be beaten in a blender and used to make paper [56]. Bulrushes are wonderfully important plants to include in dams or wetlands. Dyes can be extracted from the stems of these plants [7]. Plants are good water purifiers [7,38]. The roots of these plants help to stabilize the underwater banks of ponds and slowmoving streams [7,38]. Bulrushes provide very important forage for wildlife and water fowl [7,13]. They also provide habitat for many aquatic species.

Cultivation Details
Bulrushes require waterlogged soils [7]. They prefer positions in full sun but will tolerate shade [7,56]. Plants can be propagated by seed and division [56].

Known Hazards
If you are unsure of the relative ‘cleanliness’ of the water body from which you are harvesting these plants from, it is best to boil them vigorously and be certain that germs and bacteria are killed in the process [13].

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Sonchus arvensis
Common name: Sow Thistle Family: Compositae Range: European native [1,2,7,14]; Widely distributed throughout the northern United States [1,2,14] Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, fields, gravel banks [14], damp soils, fields, farms, gardens [2] Hardiness: Information unavailable. Other Common Names: Perennial Sow Thistle [7,13], Corn Sow Thistle [35], Hare’s Lettuce [2], Beach Lettuce [2], Prickly Sow Thistle [2], Milk Thistle [2], Tall Dandelion [44], Field Milk Thistle [7,56] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, shoots and roots, Dynamic Accumulator, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Companion Plant, Insecticide, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Sow thistle is a perennial herb that grows to a height of about five feet [7,14]. It is supported by deep vertical and spreading horizontal roots [14]. Stems are smooth, upright and contain a milky sap [2,14]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, between four and fourteen inches long, deeply lobed and spiny toothed [14]. Flowering heads are produced in clusters that are elongated and loosely branched [14]. Each head is between one and two inches in diameter, has lance-shaped bracts on the outside and small yellow flowers within [2,14]. The flowers closely resemble small dandelions [2]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees, flies, lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and beetles [56]. Plants are in flower from July to October [35]. Fruits are dark brown nutlets that are very small [14].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Shoots, Roots, Coffee Leaves should be harvested in the spring when the plants are only a few inches tall [14,22]. Because of the prickles that line the leaves, it is probably best to handle and harvest them with gloves on [35]. If they aren’t too bitter, they can be mixed with other greens and eaten raw [1,2,7,14]. Otherwise they can be boiled in a small amount of water for three to four minutes, drained, and then boiled in a new change of water until they are tender [1,2,7,14,22]. Because of the abundance of soluble vitamins and minerals that are contained in this plant, it is important to use as little water as possible, while also boiling the leaves for as short a time as possible [2]. The young shoots of this plant can be eaten either raw or cooked [7]. Roots can be used as a coffee substitute, though they are inferior to the coffee that can be made with dandelion roots [7,44]. To make it, roast the roots until they turn dark brown, grind them, and use this powder to make coffee [44]. One hundred grams of the common sow thistle (Sonchus oleraceus) contains 20 calories, 2.4g of protein, 0.3g of fat, 93mg of calcium, 35mg of phosphorus, 3.1mg of iron, 2185 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.70mg of thiamine, 0.12mg of riboflavin, 0.4mg of niacin and 5mg of vitamin C [49].

Medicinal Uses
Sedative, Poultice, Anti-inflammatory, Asthma, Cough Remedy An infusion of sow thistle was taken by the Cherokee to calm the nerves [37]. The leaves can be used as a poultice and are said to be anti-inflammatory [56]. Tea made from the roots can be used to treat asthma, coughs and other chest complaints [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dynamic Accumulator, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Insecticide, Indicator Plant, Companion Plant, Bird Forage, Bee Forage Sow thistle is a dynamic accumulator of magnesium, potassium and copper [7,32].
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This plant attracts beneficial insects and helps regulate unwanted insect populations [32]. Plants are said to have insecticidal properties [56]. The presence of sow thistle in an area indicates acidic, clay soils [32]. Sow thistle is a good companion plant for onions, tomatoes, corn and members of the cucumber and squash family [56]. Seeds provide forage for birds [1]. Plants provide forage for bees [7].

Cultivation Details
Sow thistle prefers positions in full sun [7]. Plants are vigorous enough that they shouldn’t need any assistance [56]. This is a plant that I suspect many will need not cultivate. It is a common weed and can most likely be found growing in areas that have been recently disturbed. Nevertheless, sow thistle is reportedly easy to keep from spreading [32] and so there would most likely be no harm in adding it to the vegetable garden. Not only would it increase the diversity, but it also accumulates nutrients, provides an edible product and helps keep pest populations down by attracting those insects that are desirable.

Known Hazards
Sow thistle can occasionally accumulate toxic levels of nitrates [14].

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Sorbus americana
Common name: American Mountain Ash Family: Rosaceae Range: Eastern North American native [10,24,5]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern Untied States [14] Habitat: Rocky slopes, higher elevations [14] Hardiness: 2-7 [10,24] Other Common Names: Dogberry [10], Missey-Moosey [10], Roundwood [10], Mountain Ash [10] Primary Uses: Windbreak, Edible Fruits, Medicine, Winter Bird Forage, Timber

Physical Characteristics
American mountain ash is a deciduous shrub or small tree that reaches a height of about thirty feet and a spread of about twenty feet [2,10,14,56]. Trees have an open rounded crown and thin, smooth, light gray bark [2,14]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate and pinnately compound with nine to seventeen leaflets [2,14]. Leaflets are one to three inches long, lance-shaped, toothed and dull green in color [14]. Flowers are arranged in dense, flat topped clusters that are about six inches across [2,14]. Individual flowers are small and have five white petals [14]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are found in large, dense

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clusters that persist through the winter [14]. They are shiny orange-red berries that contain one or two seeds [14].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruit, Flour, Wine Fruits can be harvested in winter after the first freeze [14]. It is only then that they become palatable [14]. They are edible raw but taste much better when cooked [2,14]. Though the berries keep well, they must be dried for prolonged storage [14]. Berries can be stewed to make a sauce like that of cranberries [14]. Boil two pounds of fruits and two cups of sugar in one cup of water. Reduce the heat and let it simmer until the berries will mash easily and a drop of the sauce gels on a cold plate. Pour the mixture into storage jars. [14] The berries can also be used to make a jelly [14]. In some European countries, the berries of the related European mountain ash (Sorbus acuparia) are dried and ground into flour [16]. Wine is yet another product that can be made from the berries [14].

Medicinal Uses
Cold Remedy, Antiscorbutic, Diuretic, Laxative, Astringent, Digestive Aid, Blood Purifier, Appetite Stimulant An infusion of the inner bark or terminal buds can be taken for colds [37]. Fruits are antiscorbutic, diuretic, laxative and astringent [56]. They can also be eaten as a digestive aid [37]. Decoctions of the bark can be taken to purify the blood and stimulate the appetite [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Windbreak, Timber, Bird Forage Trees can tolerate strong winds, and thus can be included in windbreaks [56].

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American mountain ash can be cultivated for its timber. Seasoned timber is purplebrown in color and is average in strength [10]. It is generally used for fencing and posts, turnery, tool handles and fuel [10]. It appears as if its European counterpart, European mountain ash (Sorbus acuparia) has timber qualities that make it a much more desirable cultivated species [10]. It weighs thirty-four pounds per cubic foot [56]. Trees provide valuable forage for birds [2].

Cultivation Details
American mountain ash prefers soils that are moist to wet [2,10]. Trees favor positions that are located in full sun though they will also tolerate partial shade [10]. This is a very hardy tree. Wild trees are generally slow-growing and short-lived [56]. Mountain ash hybrids are available for cultivation [57].

Known Hazards
Like most members of the Rosaceae genus, the seeds most likely contain hydrogen cyanide [56]. Though it is quite safe in moderate quantities and has even been found to have beneficial effects (respiration stimulant, digestive aid), excess amounts can cause respiratory failure and even death [56].

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Stellaria media
Common name: Chickweed Family: Caryophyllaceae Range: European native [14,44,53], widely distributed throughout the US [2,13,14,44] and most of the world [2,11] Habitat: Yards, moist soils, woodlands, waste areas, disturbed sites, cultivated land [1,2,13,14,44] Hardiness: 3 Other Common Names: Common Chickweed [13], Chick Wittles [35], Cluckenweed [35], Mischievous Jack [35], Tongue-Grass [35], White Bird’s Eye [35], Stitchwort [2], Starwort [2] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, stems and flowers, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Dynamic Accumulator, Wildlife Forage

Physical Characteristics
Chickweed is an annual herb [1,13,14]. It grows to about 12 in (30cm) high [1,2,14,44]. Stems are weak [1,2,11,13,35,44] and lined with a single line of hairs [2,14,35,44]. Leaves are simple, opposite, bright green [35] about 0.4-1.4 in long (1-3.5cm) and about 2/3 as wide [1,13,14,44]. They are usually broadest near the base or the middle, the tip is

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pointed, and they have an entire margin [2,13,14,44]. Lower leaves are generally petioled while upper leaves are sessile (join the stem directly) [44]. Flowers are white [13,44], long stalked and single or in small clusters at tips [14,44]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. Each flower has five deeply lobed white petals that are shorter than the sepals [1,2,13,14,35,44]. Fruits are 0.2-0.3 in (5-8mm) reddish-brown, egg-shaped capsules with many small seeds [13,14]. Chickweed grows as a think, clumping groundcover [2,44]. Chickweed grows quite well in cool weather [12]. It is an incredibly prolific self-seeder, and so it can almost be assured that some plants will be in constant bloom [2,53].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Stems, Flowers Tender leaves and stems from young plants can be picked at any time, [14,22,42,45] though it is recommended that they not be picked when blooming [14]. In some regions, chickweed is available year round [14]. It is recommended that the taller plants be picked first so that the younger plants are allowed to continue their growth, [44] but consuming only the stem tips of mature plants is recommended in order to avoid stringiness [16,45]. Cutting them with a sharp knife or scissors is probably the best way to harvest chickweed [44,53]. This method of harvesting will also cause the plant to regrow, ensuring a continuous crop throughout the season [53]. Chickweed may be eaten by itself after rinsing in cold water or with other greens in a salad [2,4,11,13,14,42,44,53]. The taste is considered mild [13,14]. Otherwise, it may be boiled for no more than two to five minutes with other greens and served with butter or other seasonings [13,14,35]. Some recommend that chickweed’s blandness be supplemented with stronger tasting greens like dandelions or watercress [2]. Chickweed generally flowers and fruits in early spring [13]. A half cup of chickweed leaf (100g) contains 350mg of vitamin C [11], 160mg of calcium, 49mg of phosphorus [22], 29mg of iron [11] and 243mg of potassium [44]. Chickweed is also a good source of copper and B vitamins [11].

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Medicinal Uses
Decongestant, Diuretic, Laxative, Skin Ailment Remedy Chickweed is an amazing bronchial decongestant [44]. It reputedly helps to reduce inflammation of the lungs, bronchials, bowels and stomach [44]. To reap these benefits, chickweed should either be eaten raw or cooked or drunk as a tea [4,44]. Chickweed is believed by some to aid in weight loss [12,13]. It is also an effective diuretic – the leaves and stems (fresh or dried and powdered) can be infused for a tea [44]. Tom Brown reports that chickweed is a powerful laxative [4]. One should take a palmful of fresh, chopped leaves, mix them with a cup of hot water, letting them steep for a half hour. This should then be strained, squeezing the remaining juice from the plant into the hot liquid. One half cup twice a day is a strong remedy for constipation [4]. The leaves may be used as a salve or poultice to help relieve skin problems including acne, burns, cuts and scratches [1,16,44]. To get these benefits, one should apply the crushed raw herb or chickweed tea to the area, [44] or simply wrap chopped leaves in a cloth, dip it in warm water and apply it directly to the skin [4]. The Chippewa Indians would uses a strained decoction of chickweed leaves as a wash for sore eyes [16]. Chickweed also contains genistein, which is believed to prevent blood vessels from feeding developing tumors and help to prevent the growth of cancers [12].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Beneficial Insect Attractor, Dynamic Accumulator, Indicator Plant, Wildlife Forage Some have observed that predatory wasps known for controlling caterpillars will flock to chickweed, so it may be a beneficial plant to keep in the garden [30]. As an intercrop in corn in Illinois, chickweed has been found to attract parasitic wasps that in turn lead to a reduction in black cutworm populations [32]. Chickweed is a dynamic accumulator of potassium, phosphorus and manganese [32]. In addition, it is a very valuable indicator plant. The presence of chickweed will likely indicate the presence of loamy, fertile soils that have been tilled or cultivated at some point [32]. Many bird species feed on the seed of chickweed (blackbirds, buntings, doves, finches, juncoes, larks, pipits, siskins, sparrows, and towhees) [1,2,13,44]. Rabbits and sheep will also graze it [1,2,13]. Chickweed is a valuable source of chicken feed [2,13,16,44,54]. Pigs, cows and horses also are believed to like it [13].

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Cultivation Details
Chickweed is cultivated in many countries, especially in Asia [11]. Chickweed prefers light, medium and heavy soils and can even grow in heavy clay soil [56]. It requires moist soil and prefers acid, neutral and alkaline soils [56]. Plants will grow in semi-shade or full sun [56]. Chickweed may be propagated by seed, and once begun, it will need little encouragement [56]. It spreads so vigorously you will most likely be searching for ways in which to use it all. Chickweed is highly recommended for incorporation into no-till gardens [32].

Known Hazards
Unfortunately, chickweed may act as a host plant for the cucumber mosaic virus, which affects celery, lettuce and members of the cucurbit family [32]. Chickweed is an invasive plant, so its growth should be monitored to ensure that it does not overtake other desirable plants.

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Symphytum officinale
Common name: Comfrey Family: Boraginaceae Range: European native [7,9]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [4] Habitat: Ditches, river banks [35] roadsides, waste places, old fields [4] Hardiness: 5 [7] Other Common Names: Knit-Bone [7,9,24], Boneset [7], Healing Herb [7] Primary Uses: Fertilizer, Compost Material, Biomass, Dynamic Accumulator, Weed Border, Medicine, Edible – leaves, stalks, flowers and roots, Ground Cover, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Comfrey is a bushy perennial herb that reaches a height of about three feet [7,9,35]. Leaves are spear shaped and dark green in color [4,35]. They are dull and pubescent (hairy) underneath and the leaf veins are slightly sunken [35]. Flowers are bell-shaped, five lobed, clustered and white, cream, mauve or pink [4,35]. They are present from May to June [56]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Seeds ripen from June to July [56].

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History
In medieval times, comfrey was the herbalists’ bone-setter [35]. They would harvest the root in spring, grate it and use it as plaster is used today [35]. It would quickly set and harden very strongly [35].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea, Stalks, Flowers, Roots, Coffee Leaves can be prepared by cooking [4,7,9,35]. They may be used either young or old, and often it may be that the older ones have more flavor [35]. Despite this, older leaves should be cooked in two changes of water [4]. One way in which to prepare the leaves is as a pot herb, while they can also be made into a fritter by dipping them in a thin batter of egg, flour and water and quickly frying them in oil [35]. Leaves can also be eaten raw in salads though it is probably best to chop them finely [15]. Dried comfrey leaves can be used to make tea [4,15]. Blanched stalks from this plant are said to make a wonderful asparagus substitute [25]. The flowers of this plant are edible [7,9,32]. Comfrey roots can be dried, ground and used to make a coffee-like drink [7,9,15].

Medicinal Uses
Lung Disorders, Digestive Problems, Diarrhea, Ulcers, Cough Remedy, Astringent, Skin Irritations, Arthritis, Rheumatism, Poultice Comfrey contains mucilage that is used to help remedy lung disorders [24]. The dried and powdered rootstalk is the source of many of comfrey’s medicinal uses [4]. This powder can be applied directly to wounds that will not stop bleeding [4]. Simmering a small palmful of powdered root in a cup of water for a few minutes before allowing it to steep for thirty minutes will result in a strong medication that can be taken for digestive problems, diarrhea, ulcers and as a cough medication [4]. Comfrey tea has astringent qualities and can be used as a skin wash [4]. Applying crushed and simmered comfrey roots to affected areas helps to soothe arthritis and rheumatism [4].

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Also, the leaves themselves are an incredibly effective poultice for skin wounds and broken bones, speeding up the healing process remarkably [15].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fertilizer, Biomass, Compost Material, Mulch, Adhesive, Dynamic Accumulator, Weed Border, Ground Cover, Livestock Fodder, Bee Forage Comfrey leaves are an excellent soil fertilizer [24]. They can be used to make a liquid fertilizer for plants [15,39,54]. Simply ferment them in a small amount of water for about a week [54,56]. This feed is great for crops that require large amounts of potassium like tomatoes [56]. Plants are very fast growing and can be cut several times a year, producing a bulk of organic matter for mulch and compost [15]. Average yields obtained from comfrey are from fifteen to twenty tons per acre [32]. Since comfrey leaves are so rich in silica, an infusion made from them makes a good medication for fungal diseases in plants [54]. A glue can be obtained from the mucilage contained within this plant [7]. Comfrey is a dynamic accumulator of silica, nitrogen, magnesium, calcium, potassium and iron [7,9,54]. Plants are so rich in nitrogen that they can be substituted for animal manure in compost [32,54]. It can be grown around the border of the garden as a barrier to keep out weeds [54]. Plants can be grown along the margins of ponds, marshes and dams [38]. Comfrey can also be grown as a ground cover [7,9]. It would be best planted as such in the shade of trees and shrubs [9]. Leaves provide fodder for ducks and livestock [7,38,39]. This should be done in moderation though, as overfeeding has been shown to cause some liver damage in animals [39]. Dried comfrey leaves should not make up more than four percent of the animals’ daily diets [32]. Comfrey plants provide excellent fodder for bees [7,9,39].

Cultivation Details
Comfrey prefers moist soils [7]. Also, plants prefer partial shade though they will tolerate positions in full sun and full shade [7,9]. Comfrey will grow in light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils that are acidic, neutral and alkaline in pH [9].

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When grown as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced eighteen inches apart [9]. They will vigorously spread at a fast rate and develop a heavy cover [9]. Plants can be propagated by both seed and root division [15,39,41,54,56].

Known Hazards
Comfrey is rich in pyrrolizidine alkaloids and can be toxic if consumed in large quantities. Despite this, if eaten in moderation, comfrey’s health benefits should far outweigh its unhealthy effects [15]. Comfrey plants can become invasive, and because plants have deep roots, they can become very difficult to eradicate once established [15].

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Tagetes patula
Common name: French Marigold Family: Compositae Range: Mexican native [46,56]; Cultivated throughout the United States Habitat: Waste sites, pine-oak forest zones [56] Hardiness: 9 [56] Other Common Names: Mexican Marigold [24] Primary Uses: Insect Repellent, Companion Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Cover Crop, Intercrop, Oil, Condiment, Medicine, Tea

Physical Characteristics
French marigold is an annual herb that grows to a height of about one and a half feet [15,56]. Plants flower from July to October [56]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Seeds ripen in September [56].

History
Marigold species were grown as companion plants by ancient South American civilizations over two thousand years ago [15]. In the public parks of a Dutch city, the Plant Protection Service decided to try using marigolds to eliminate the nematodes that infested the soil of the rose gardens instead of chemicals [46]. They effectively controlled the nematodes, while rose beds planted without marigolds still suffered from the infestation [46].

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Edible Uses
Flowers, Drink, Leaves, Condiment, Oil, Coloring Marigold flowers can be used to make a refreshing drink [56]. The leaves of this plant are sometimes used as a food flavoring [56]. The essential oil that is obtained from this plant is also used for the same purpose [56]. Dried flowers are used to color foods yellow [56].

Medicinal Uses
Aromatic, Digestive Aid, Diuretic, Sedative, Laxative, Cough Remedy, Dysentery, Eye Disorders, Rheumatism French marigold is aromatic, digestive, diuretic and sedative [56]. It is used to treat indigestion, constipation, coughs and dysentery [56]. Plants are also used to treat sore eyes and rheumatism [56]. Marigold leaves can be harvested and used as needed during the growing season, while the entire flowering plant can be dried and stored for use later in the year [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Insect Repellent, Oil, Perfumery, Dye, Cover Crop, Dynamic Accumulator, Companion Plant, Intercrop, Ornamental The odor of the foliage and blossoms of marigolds is an effective insect repellent for cockroaches and whitefly [15,46]. Also, the roots have been found to secrete a chemical that is effective against nematodes and keeled slugs [56]. The entire flowering plant can be distilled for its essential oil [56]. This oil is used in perfumery [56]. About 2500 kg of flowers (25000 kg of herbage) are necessary to produce thirty-five kg of oil [56]. The flowers can be used to make a yellow dye [37,56]. Marigolds can be grown as a cover crop [32]. The flowers are dynamic accumulators of phosphorus [32]. Marigolds have been found to be good companions for other plants by deterring pests like aphids and nematodes [24]. Plants actually excrete a substance from their roots that kills soil nematodes [15,32,46].

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These plants may also be grown to combat potato nematodes [46]. Plants have been found to be a solution for white fly in tomato populations and are often grown in greenhouses [46]. Also, there are reports of tomatoes growing better and bearing more fruit when intercropped with marigolds [46]. Marigolds are good companion plants to grow with lettuce and beans as well [58]. The flowers produced by this plant are quite colorful and are a nice ornamental addition to gardens and yards [32].

Cultivation Details
Marigolds prefer full sun though they are tolerant of partial shade [24]. They like soils that are well-drained and moderately fertile [15,56]. Plants will tolerate most soils [56]. Though there is a perennial marigold species, (Mexican Tarragon – Tagetes lucida) it is not very cold hardy and can most likely only survive temperatures down to -5°C [15]. The dried leaves of this species can be used as a tarragon substitute or they can be brewed into an anise-flavored tea [15].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Tanacetum vulgare
Common name: Tansy Family: Compositae Range: European native [7,23,25] Habitat: Waste places [22,46] Hardiness: 4 [7] Other Common Names: Bitter Buttons [16,22], Yellow Buttons [22], Golden Buttons [7], Parsley Fern [46] Primary Uses: Companion Plant, Insect Repellent, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Intercrop, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Material, Condiment, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Tansy is a highly aromatic perennial herb that grows to a height of three to six feet and a spread of about four feet [7,23,24,56]. Leaves are deciduous, pinnately compound, deeply serrate (toothed), about nine inches long, fragrant, glandular and dark green [23]. Flowers are bright yellow and borne in a compound, flat-topped corymb [23]. They are present from August to September and are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Also, they are pollinated by bees, flies and beetles [56]. The seeds (achenes) are greenish white and very small and ripen from August to October [23,56].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Condiment, Tea, Beer Tansy leaves can be collected in spring while the flowering tops may be gathered in summer [7,22]. The chief use of tansy is as a culinary herb [7,22]. The young leaves and shoots of tansy can be used as a condiment [22,23]. They are said to have a flavor like that of nutmeg and cinnamon [22]. Tansy also is used as an excellent culinary substitute for sage [22]. This plant can also be used to make a bitter tea [23,56]. Tansy has been used as a substitute for hops in beer as well [46].

Medicinal Uses
Tonic, Stimulant, Fever Remedy, Sore Throat, Poultice, Headaches, Antiseptic An infusion of tansy can be used as a tonic and stimulant [23]. Compound infusions made from the leaves of this plant can be taken to break up a fever [37]. The dried root can be chewed for a sore throat or a decoction of the root can be gargled for the same purpose [37]. A poultice of the whole plant can be applied to the head for headaches [37]. Decoctions made from the leaves can be used as an antiseptic wash [37]. A medicinal oil can also be extracted from the leaves [7,48]. The plant should be harvested as it is beginning to flower and dried for later use [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Beneficial Insect Attractor, Insect Repellent, Companion Plant, Intercrop, Oil, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Material, Dye, Bee Forage Plants serve to attract beneficial insects [32]. In addition, they serve to repel other insects like ants, flies and moths [24,46,54]. Tansy also helps to deter slugs [24]. Because of
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this, tansy is often said to be a very good companion for fruit trees [24,46]. In addition, this trait makes them a good species to intercrop amongst other vegetables and herbs [32]. A distilled oil derived from tansy has been used as a fly and insect repellent [46]. Plants are dynamic accumulators of potassium [7,32,46]. Because of this, tansy is a wonderful plant to incorporate into compost piles [46]. A green dye can be extracted from the young shoots of this plant, while the leaves and flowers are a source of a yellow dye [7,56]. Tansy provides forage for bees [7].

Cultivation Details
Tansy prefers moist soils and full sun though it will also tolerate partial shade [7,24]. Plants are intolerant of full shade [56]. They require dry or moist soil and will thrive when grown in most soil types [56]. Tansy can tolerate strong winds [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed and root division [32,56].

Known Hazards
Ingestion of large quantities of tansy have proven fatal [56]. This plant should be avoided by pregnant women as well, as it may be an abortifactant. Also, tansy spreads vigorously at the roots, so care should be taken to ensure that it doesn’t become too invasive [56].

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Taraxacum officinale
Common name: Dandelion Family: Compositae Range: European native [14,33]; Naturalized in the US [2,13,14,33]; several species are found in the cold and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and colder regions of the southern hemisphere [33] Habitat: Lawns, grasslands, open ground, disturbed sites [14,33] Hardiness: 3-9 [13] Other Common Names: Priest’s Crown [5], Blow-ball [2,5], Timetable [5], Irish daisy [5], Red Seeded Dandelion [2], Arctic Dandelion [2], Alpine Dandelion [2] Primary Uses: Edible – leaves, flowers and roots, Coffee, Wine, Dynamic Accumulator, Pioneer, Compost Material, Cover Crop, Forage Crop, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Dandelions are perennial or biennial herbs [13,14,33] that grow to a maximum height of about one and a half feet [7]. Dandelion is a plant with a large, central taproot and basal leaves arranged in a rosette [14,33]. The leaves themselves are between three and sixteen

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inches long and a half to five and a half inches wide [14]. They also have irregularly lobed margins that are often broadest above the middle [13,14]. Flower heads are bright yellow and contain both male and female organs [33,56]. Dandelion is self-fertile [56]. Seeds are contained in a downy ball that contains many of the airy, winged seeds [33]. If untrampled, dandelion grows relatively upright in a shape that may resemble an upside down bowl, but if it has been trampled, the leaves will grow more or less parallel to the ground [33]. Dandelion’s taproot can grow up to ten inches in length and an inch in width [33,44]. It is the plant’s food storage organ, and it, like all parts of the plant, contains a think, white liquid that gives the uncooked root a bitter taste [1,13,33,44]. There are a number of plants that closely resemble dandelion, but are different species. The most definitive characteristics of the dandelion are its smooth leaves and unbranched flower stems [33]. Flowers are produced in the spring and fall, sometimes as early as June [13], and usually are only open for a few days before closing [33,44]. They are borne at the top of a hollow stemlike structure that is called the ‘scape’ [14,33]. After flowering, the scape will often lie along the ground for a few days, later becoming erect again [33]. It is at this time that the leaves that surround the flower open, exposing the white ball of seeds [13,14,33]. Seeds are easily disbursed by wind or any type of disturbance [1,14].

History
Europeans have used dandelion as a medicine, potherb and salad green for hundreds of years [33]. The dandlelion that has become common in most yards and gardens was most likely introduced to the New World by the first settlers [33]. Some even hypothesize that pilgrims on the Mayflower brought dandelion seeds with them [33]. The United States imports more than 100,000 pounds of dandelion each year for use in patent medicines [13].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Roots, Wine, Coffee The edible parts of the dandelion can be gathered throughout the year [33,44]. The plant’s tender green leaves or large flower sprouts can be picked in early spring; the flowers can be collected in midspring and fall; and the roots can be dug up all year long, [14,33] though some recommend digging them during fall and winter because they will be older [14,22] (That is, assuming that they aren’t already covered with snow.). Dandelion commonly sprouts soon after the melting of the snow [33]. It is generally best to gather dandelion greens as early in spring as possible because like other members of the lettuce family, the greens turn tough and bitter once the plant has begun to flower [1,14,17,33,44,45]. Also, all freshly cut dandelion greens should be used as soon as possible because the vitamins are gradually lost with time [33]. Raw greens

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are commonly used as an important salad ingredient [1,5,33,35]. Otherwise, they may be lightly steamed or boiled to remove their bitter taste [44]. If desired, dandelion roots may be gathered in fall and brought into a basement over winter, forcing them to produce blanched salad leaves [5,17,23]. Leaves of plants growing outdoors may also be blanched by simply covering them with earth [35]. These blanched leaves will not have the same nutritional content as leaves that are grown naturally in full sun though. There is a virtually endless amount of edible products that can be made from the dandelion. You can boil four tablespoons of salted water, adding three cups of fresh, unopened dandelion flowers or buds and cooking them over medium heat for five minutes. Then remove them from heat, stir, cover and let them stand for two minutes. They may be served as such with butter and condiments. [33] Dandelion flowers can be used as a spice to flavor and strengthen drinks [32,37]. Flowers can be used to make a delicious wine. Numerous recipes exist for dandelion wine, and I have not tried any of them myself. Eating from the Wild by Dr. Anne Marie Stewart and Leon Kronoff is one good recipe source. Dandelion roots can be boiled or baked [33]. When boiling, it may be necessary to add a pinch of baking soda and actually boil them in two changes of water to remove the bitter taste [14,17]. The roots may also be used as a coffee substitute [1,2,5,17,22,23,24,33,35,44]. To do so, dig up several dozen large roots, washing them thoroughly. Dry them in a moderate oven for about two hours or until they turn dark brown and quite brittle. Let them cool, break into pieces and crush into powder. This mix can then be stored for later use. To prepare the coffee, steep one teaspoon of powdered root in a cup of water for fifteen minutes. The powdered root may also be used as an adulterant to instant coffee by adding 1/3 teaspoon of powdered root to ½ teaspoon of instant coffee and preparing as usual. [1,2,5,17,33,35] Dandelion coffee contains no caffeine [22,24,35,44] though it does contain tonic and stimulant properties [34]. One hundred grams of dandelion greens contain about 44 calories, 2.7g of protein, 0.7g of fat, 8.8g of carbohydrates, 187mg of calcium, 70mg of phosphorus, 3.1mg of iron, 76m of sodium, 397mg of potassium, 13650 I.U. of vitamin A, .19mg of thiamin, .26mg of riboflavin, .8mg of niacin and 38mg of vitamin C [2,11,22,44,49]. One cup of cooked dandelion greens contains 8.4mg of beta carotene [44].

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Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Diuretic, Stomachic, Dyspepsia, Indigestion, Liver Ailments, Beta Carotene Source Dandelion roots contain the laxative taraxacum [1,44] and they are also a diuretic, [44] stimulating the kidneys quite healthily without robbing the body of potassium [53]. Fully grown leaves can be steeped in water and used as a stomachic or tonic for dyspepsia or indigestion [22]. When eaten fresh, the leaves purge the uric acid from the blood and are also believed to be excellent for liver ailments [44]. Dandelion greens are a rich source of beta carotene, which is believed to be a potent protector against cancer [44].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Bee and Beneficial Insect Attractor, Compost Ingredient/Activator, Dynamic Accumulator, Indicator Plant, Pioneer, Cover Crop, Forage Crop, Rubber Source A yellow dye may be extracted from dandelion flowers [5,34,41]. Dandelion is recognized for attracting bees. [7,32]. Its high pollen yield and early and long flowering times make it a very important bee forage plant [39,41]. Dandelion is also known for attracting other beneficial garden insects [7,32]. In fact, dandelion pollen is a favorite food of ladybugs [36]. Dandelion leaves are a great addition to compost piles and the flowers are an ingredient of ‘Quick Return’ herbal compost activator (See Preface under Compost for details) [15,56]. Also, a liquid plant feed can be made from an infusion of dandelion root and leaves [15]. It is a dynamic accumulator of sodium, silica, manganese, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron and copper [7,32]. Dandelion acts as an indicator plant, often growing wild in soils that have been cultivated or tilled and are acidic and clay [32,54]. Despite this, dandelion is a very versatile plant and will not only be found in these soil types. Because of its deep taproot, dandelion could be used as a cover crop, though it should most certainly be mown before it can set seed [32].

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Dandelion greens can be used as feed help to prevent or cure coccidiosis in baby chicks [46]. As a forage crop for cattle, dandelion has been found to improve milk quality and quantity [39,41]. Fresh dandelion contains one percent rubber, while the dried plant contains up to twenty percent [12,41,44]. During World War II, dandelion was actually used as a rubber source and is still grown as such in Poland, sections of western Asia and eastern Europe [44].

Cultivation Details
Dandelion prefers moist growing conditions and positions that are exposed to full sun [7]. Plants will also tolerate partial shade though [7]. Some studies have found that soil type may affect the bitterness of your dandelions [36]. Thus, plants grown in soils that have a slightly alkaline pH are much less bitter than those grown in more acidic soils [36]. Several different varieties of dandelion are available from seed companies, often boasting of thicker leaves, slower flowering time and reduced bitterness [36]. Though these cultivars are often superior to their wild relative in some respects, some of them are more likely to suffer from mildew [15]. When diluted three to one with water, urine is a good mildew treatment, but probably an uncommon one for most people [15]. When planting dandelion, either sow the seeds directly, or start them indoors or in a cold frame until the weather warms up [36]. Slugs seem to take a particular liking to dandelions [15]. Though they do no apparent damage to the dandelions themselves, they tend to use them as a resting place from which they then attack other plants in the garden [15]. If harvesting the plants for their greens, simply mow the tops off before the plants have had a chance to go to seed and new leaves will grow back from the roots [36]. If harvesting dandelion for its roots, do not be concerned about exhausting the immediate supply of plants. It will easily regenerate and repair its wounds as long as a piece of the root remains in the soil [33]. Between two and five new plants will most likely eventually sprout from this same place [33].

Known Hazards
Dandelion can be very invasive. It can spread by both roots and seed. If it spreads by root, it is somewhat difficult to control, but it can at least be somewhat contained in a single area. On the other hand, seeds can be easily dispersed throughout your property, so if you wish to prevent this, simply harvest the plant’s flowering stem before it has had the chance to set seed. This is by far the simplest method by which to attempt to control the dispersion of these useful ‘weeds’.

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Some bio-dynamic studies have found that dandelions exhale ethylene gas, which serves to inhibit the height and growth of plants grown nearby [15,46]. Also, these studies found dandelions to cause flowers and fruits of neighboring plants to mature early [15,46]. This can either be an advantage or a disadvantage. Dandelions growing underneath fruit trees are probably undesirable, but to speed up the ripening process of fruit, you may simply put the fruit in a closed container with a dandelion plant for a few hours [15].

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Thuja occidentalis
Common name: Northern White Cedar Family: Cupressaceae Range: Eastern North American native [10,16,56]; Widely distributed throughout the eastern United States [10,16,33] Habitat: Woods, swamps [16,33], limestone soils, bogs Hardiness: 2 [10] Other Common Names: Arborvitae [16,48], American Arborvitae [10], American Cedar [10], Eastern Arborvitae [10], Eastern Cedar [10] Primary Uses: Hedge, Windbreak, Fiber – basketry, Tea, Medicine, Timber, Wildlife Habitat, Insect Repellent

Physical Characteristics
Northern white cedar is a small to medium sized, conical-shaped evergreen tree that reaches heights of sixty feet or more and a spread of about fifteen feet [33,56]. Bark is arranged in vertical peely strings. Leaves are yellow-green, flat, scale-like and glandular[33]. Flowers are present from April to May [56]. Plants are monoecious

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(single flowers are male or female and both sexes can be found on the same plant) and wind pollinated [56]. Cones are erect, woody, persistent, bell shaped and between 1/3 and ½ inch long [33]. Seeds ripen from September to October [56].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea The foliage can be used to make a tea [16,25,37]. Because this tea has a very bitter taste when strong, it is best to dilute it somewhat [33]. It can be made by steeping about ¾ of a tablespoon of leaves in a cup of water [33]. The pith of the young twigs was also used by some Native Americans in soups, though its’ extraction would most likely be too difficult a process to make it worthwhile [16,42].

Medicinal Uses
Rheumatism, Poultice, Cold/Fever Remedy, Headaches, Alterative, Anthelmintic, Antiinflammatory, Antiseptic, Astringent, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Emmenagogue Cedar tea is said to be helpful for those who suffer from rheumatism [33,37]. A poultice made of the leaves can be applied to swellings, sores, bruises and cuts [37]. Branches and leaves can be used to make a steam bath for colds and fevers [37]. An infusion of the leaves can be taken for headaches [37]. Dried leafy young twigs are alterative, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic and emmenagogue [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Hedge, Windbreak, Fiber, Basketry, Oil, Perfumery, Insect Repellent, Timber, Tannin, Wildlife Habitat Northern white cedar can be grown as a hedge or windbreak. The fact that its foliage is evergreen will ensure that wind protection is provided year round. Also, trees are very tolerant of pruning and are often grown as ornamental hedges. The tough, stringy fibers of white cedar’s bark can be used in basket-making [37].

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An essential oil can be distilled from the leaves and branches and can be used in perfumes and medicines [56]. It is poisonous if taken internally [56]. This oil also has insect repellent properties [56]. Trees can also be grown for their timber, which is yellow-white in color and has fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is very brittle and light, durable, average in strength and fragrant [10]. It can be used for fencing and posts, boat and shipbuilding, cooperage, roofing shingles, exterior boarding and canoes [10]. It weighs twenty pounds per cubic foot [56]. Northern white cedar bark is a tannin source [56]. Also, northern white cedar provides important cover for wildlife, especially in winter.

Cultivation Details
Northern white cedar prefers moist soils and positions in full sun [10]. Tress will do best on alkaline soils. Trees are fairly slow-growing [48,56]. Trees can be expected to reach a height of about ten feet in their first ten years [10]. In the wild, trees live for two to three hundred years [56]. Plants can be propagated by seed and cuttings [56].

Known Hazards
The distilled essential oil of the leaves of this plant is poisonous if consumed in large doses [56]. Also, pregnant women should not use this plant as it is an emmenagogue [56].

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Tilia americana/cordata
Common name: American Basswood/Little Leaf Linden Family: Tiliaceae Range: North American/European native [10,15]; Basswood is distributed throughout the forests of the eastern United States, whereas Little Leaf Lindens are very common ornamental and street trees throughout the United States Habitat: Little Leaf Linden – Woods, fertile soils, limestone cliffs [15] Hardiness: Basswood – Rich woods [22], moist soils, bottomlands [56] 2-3 [10]

Other Common Names: Little Leaf Linden – Small-Leaved Lime [10,15], Small Leaved Linden [10], Small Leaved European Lime [10] Basswood – American Linden [10,17], Whitewood [10,17,25], Lime Tree [17,22], American Lime [10] The following information pertains to both basswood and little leaf linden unless otherwise noted. Primary Uses: Fiber – cordage, basketry, cloth and paper, Edible – leaves, flowers, fruits and sap, Windbreak, Coppice Material, Timber, Bee Forage, Honey, Medicine

Little Leaf Linden – Tilia cordata
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Physical Characteristics
The lindens (basswood and little leaf linden) are medium sized trees that can reach about 100 feet in height with a spread of about forty feet [15]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, alternate, broadly ovate, heart shaped at the base and have a serrated (toothed) margin [17,35]. Basswood leaves are quite similar to those of linden. Generally, the only difference is that linden leaves are smaller and more finely serrate. Flowers are very fragrant, creamy white and hang from stems that emerge from the leaf axils [17]. They usually emerge in late June and July [35]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are clustered nutlets that are covered with a grayish fuzz and suspended by a hanging, leafy bract. The fruits are a very diagnostic feature of these trees.

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Tea, Fruits, Chocolate, Sap, Sugar Young leaves are edible and can be used in salads, sandwiches or eaten alone [15.35]. They have a mild taste and are somewhat mucilaginous [15,35]. Flowers can be used to make an herbal tea [5,15,16,17,22,35,41]. They should be gathered while they are in full bloom and laid on trays in a warm ventilated room to dry [35]. After a few weeks, they will be ready to use [35]. They can also be eaten raw [56]. The fruits of these trees, when ground with some flowers yield a paste that can be used as a chocolate substitute [15,16,25]. Unfortunately though, it does not keep for very long [15,16,25]. Sugar can also be made from the sap of the lindens in the same way as is done with maples [25].

Medicinal Uses
Antispasmodic, Diaphoretic, Diuretic, Cold/Sore Throat/Flu Remedy, Bladder and Kidney Disorders, Eyewash, Poultice, Dysentery The leaves and flower bracts are antispasmodic, diaphoretic and diuretic [41]. Infusions made from them can be taken for colds, sore throats, influenza and mild bladder and kidney disorders [41]. Infusions made from basswood leaves can be used as an eyewash [37].

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The inner bark can be applied to wounds and sores [41]. A decoction made from it can be used as a dysentery remedy [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Cordage, Basketry, Cloth, Paper, Windbreak, Shade, Coppice Material, Timber, Charcoal, Wildlife Habitat, Bee Forage, Honey The fiber that comprises the inner bark of the lindens can be used to make rope and twine [5,26]. This is done by separating the inner bark into slender strands and weaving it into rope [5]. This process has been practiced for centuries by both Native Americans and Europeans [5]. This fiber can also be used in basketry and to make cloth, mats and paper [15,26,37]. As basswood is fairly wind resistant, it can be grown as part of a windbreak [56]. Leafless basswoods cast about 55% shade in the winter months [32]. Trees will coppice quite readily, and it is probably most effective to do so at a ten year interval [15]. Doing this will not only ensure a constant supply of leaves, but it will also permit the harvest of the inner bark fibers, the wood and a good quality charcoal [15]. Both of these trees can be grown for their timber [15]. Their wood is excellent for carving [5,10,15,41]. White piano keys are often made of basswood [34]. Basswood is light brown-red in color and has fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is very light and average in strength, and it is used for joinery and interior construction, furniture and cabinet work, fuel, cooperage, charcoal, household utensils, musical instruments, boxes and crates, wagons, matches and plywood [10]. It weighs twentyeight pounds per cubic foot [56]. The wood of the little leaf linden is yellow-brown and also has fine, straight grain [10]. Seasoned timber is average in strength and heaviness and is quite flexible [10]. It can be used for furniture and cabinet work, turnery, fuel, charcoal, gunpowder, household utensils, musical instruments, wagons and brakes [10]. The charcoal that can be made from linden wood can be used for drawing [56]. These trees provide habitat for birds, insects and wildlife [26]. Thirty-one species of insects are associated with members of the Tilia genus [15]. The flowers attract bees and provide them with forage [5,15,41]. They also have a large supply of nectar, making them valuable honey sources [17].

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Cultivation Details
The lindens are generally tolerant of most soil types and conditions [15]. Despite this, trees grow poorly in soils that are either very wet or very dry [15]. Both species are tolerant of partial shade though they prefer full sun [10]. Little leaf lindens are tolerant of pollution and are often planted along city streets. These are rather long-lived trees and can survive for five hundred years or more [41]. After ten years of growth, trees can reach heights of twenty-five feet [10]. Trees often produce a mass of young shoots that emerge from the base of this trunk, which can be used as a source of fresh young leaves from April until September [15]. Their production will be even greater if they are cut down every other year [15]. Plants can be propagated by seed, layering or suckers [41,56].

Known Hazards
Frequent consumption of tea that is made from basswood flowers may cause damage to the heart [56].

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Tragopogon porrifolius
Common name: Salsify Family: Compositae Range: European native [14,23,25,29]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,13,14] Habitat: Roadsides, fields, railroad tracks, disturbed sites [14] Hardiness: 3-7 [13] Other Common Names: Oyster Plant [2,13,14,23,25,29], Vegetable Oyster [2,13,23,24,25,29], Goatsbeard [2], Purple Oyster Plant [2], Yellow Salsify [2] Primary Uses: Edible – roots, leaves, shoots, stems, seeds, buds and sprouts, Coffee Substitute, Cover Crop, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Companion Plant, Intercrop, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Salsify is a biennial or perennial herb that grows to a height of three feet [2,13,14,23,29]. Plants have a foot-long taproot that is about two inches thick, and all parts of the plant

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exude a milky juice when broken [2,13,14,35]. Stems are upright and swollen just below the flowering heads [14]. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, lance-shaped, seven to twelve inches long, pointed at the tip and entire (smooth) along the margin [13,14]. Flower heads are solitary with six to eleven lanceolate outer bracts and several purple dandelionlike flowers [13,14,35]. The flowers are only open briefly in the morning, usually closing by eleven o’clock or noon [2,13,29]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruiting heads are fluffy and globose and consist of many small nutlets that are each tipped with featherlike bristles [14].

History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Roots, Leaves, Shoots, Coffee, Stems, Buds, Seeds, Sprouts, Flour The roots and leaves of this plant must be harvested before the flower stalk is produced in the second year of growth [2,14]. Salsify roots should be scrubbed and peeled as you would carrots [2,14,35]. To prevent discoloring, they should be put in cold water [14]. Roots can be cut into half-inch slices and cooked until tender [2,14]. If they are excessively tough, add a pinch of baking soda to the cooking water before boiling them for ten minutes, then changing the water and cooking them until done [14]. Cooked roots are said to have a flavor resembling that of oysters [2,23,25,29]. Young shoots and diced roots can be eaten in salads [2,13,25]. Roots can be ground and roasted and used as a coffee substitute [2,13,14]. If not bitter, very young leaves can be eaten raw [2,13,14,23]. Otherwise they can be boiled for five to ten minutes before serving [14]. Flowering stems and flower buds can be eaten raw or cooked and eaten like asparagus [2,13,25]. Seeds can be sprouted and eaten raw [13]. Seeds can also be burnt, parched, ground and used as a flour substitute in baking [13]. One hundred grams of salsify contain 89 calories, 1.4g of protein, 0.2g of fat, 48mg of calcium, 50mg of phosphorus, 1.4mg of iron, 0.04mg of thiamine, 0.04mg of riboflavin, 0.3mg of niacin and 10mg of vitamin C [49].

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Medicinal Uses
Indigestion Remedy, Antibilious, Aperient, Deobstruent, Diuretic, Jaundice, High Blood Pressure, Gall Bladder Ailments Native Americans used the coagulated sap of salsify as gum and took it as a remedy for indigestion [2]. The root is antibilious, aperient, deobstruent and diuretic [56]. It is used to treat the gall bladder, jaundice and high blood pressure [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Cover Crop, Companion Plant, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Intercrop Because of its deep taproot, salsify can be grown as a cover crop [32]. Salsify is a good companion for carrots, helping to repel the carrot fly [46]. Plants attract beneficial insects [32]. Salsify is a good intercrop with leafy greens because it is tall, skinny and most of the growth is underground [32]. Also, because plants are slow growing, they allow time for another crop to be grown amongst them as they are developing [32].

Cultivation Details
Salsify will grow in most soil types, though the root will grow much larger if they are planted in soils that are fertile and well drained. Plants prefer full sun, though they are shade tolerant [32]. Plants are slow growing [32]. Salsify grows well with mustard [56]. Plants are propagated by seed [56]. There are some named varieties that are available for cultivation [56].

Known Hazards
Salsify is a host for the tarnished plant bug.

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Trifolium repens
Common name: White Clover Family: Fabaceae Range: European native [7]; Widely distributed throughout the United States Habitat: Lawns, roadsides, fields [33], meadows, open woods [1,2] Hardiness: 4 [7,9] Other Common Names: Dutch Clover [7,9], White Dutch Clover [7], Shamrock [9] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop, Livestock Fodder, Edible – stems, flowers, leaves and seed pods, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Wildlife/Bee Forage, Honey

Physical Characteristics
White clover is a low-growing perennial that has creeping stems and reaches a height of about five inches [9,33]. Individual flower and leaf stalks emerge from these stems [2,33]. Leaves are trifoliate and have broadly elliptical to ovate leaflets that are a limegreen in color [2,33]. Flowers are grouped in rounded heads that reach a maximum of about an inch in diameter and are white to pinkish in color [33]. They bloom throughout the summer [33]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees [56]. Fruits are small pea-like pods that contain three or four globose seeds [2,33]. They will ripen between July and October [56].

History
When clover was first brought to Australia, it failed to reproduce until they went on to introduce bumblebees as well [2].

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Edible Uses
Stems, Flowers, Root, Leaves, Seed Pods, Condiment, Flour, Tea, Wine The blossoms of white clover can be collected throughout summer and into early fall [33]. They may either be used fresh or dried [1,7,33]. The blossoms are dried by spreading them on paper in a dry, well-ventilated room and leaving them until the clover has grown crisp [33]. They can then be stored for later use [33]. The green stems and flowers can either be eaten raw as a salad or cooked as a potherb [1,7]. Also, the root of white clover can be eaten once cooked [8]. Flowers, seed pods and leaves can be dried and used as a flavoring [9]. Seed pods and flowers can be dried and ground and used as a flour [1,8]. Clover can be used to make a nice tea [1,2,7,33]. Add 1/3 of a cup fresh white clover or one and a half teaspoons of dried blossoms to one and a quarter cups of boiling water and let it simmer over low heat for five minutes [2,33]. White clover can be used to make wine [33].

Medicinal Uses
Rheumatism, Depurative, Detergent, Tonic, Fever/Cough/Cold Remedy, Eyewash White clover is antirheumatic, antiscrophulatic, depurative, detergent and tonic [8]. An infusion of the plant can be taken for fevers, coughs and colds [37]. Infusions made from the flowers can be used as an eyewash [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Dynamic Accumulator, Intercrop, Ground Cover, Indicator Plant, Livestock Fodder, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage, Bee Forage, Honey White clover is a nitrogen-fixing plant [2,7,9]. Plants can be grown as a green manure crop [7,8]. White clover is a dynamic accumulator of nitrogen and phosphorus [32].

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As an intercrop, plants have been found to have beneficial effects when growing amongst brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and corn [32]. Also, plants can be undersown with cereals or tomatoes in a greenhouse [56]. As a ground cover, white clover does not require mowing, making it a very well-liked plant by lawn-tenders [2,7]. The presence of white clover growing in an area indicates soils that are dry and uncultivated [32]. White clover can be grown as a pasture grass to provide nutritious fodder for livestock [7,8]. White clover is a beneficial insect attractor [32]. It attracts parasitic wasps of aphids, scales and whiteflies [32]. Plants provide forage for birds and other wildlife [1,2]. The flowers of white clover attract bees and also can be grown to make a delicious honey [7,8,9,33].

Cultivation Details
White clover prefers positions in full sun though it will also tolerate partial shade [7,8,9]. It favors moist soils [7,8]. Plants will tolerate light, medium and heavy soils and soils that have an acidic, neutral and alkaline pH [8,9]. They seem to thrive in alkaline soils [8,9,15]. When grown as a ground cover, seeds can either be sown directly in the area or individual plants can be spaced at a distance of eighteen inches [9]. They will spread vigorously, growing at a moderate speed and developing a light cover [9]. When planted as a lawn, white clover will tolerate trampling though it dislikes growing with the members of the buttercup family [8,15,46]. Also, because white clover fixes nitrogen, it is a great plant to incorporate into lawns because it will take care of all of the necessary fertilizing for you [15]. Plants are propagated by seed and division [56].

Known Hazards
Plants can become invasive if their growth is not monitored. Also, plants are a host to ‘clover rot’, so they should not be cultivated in the same place too frequently [56].

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Tropaeolum majus
Common name: Nasturtium Family: Tropaeolaceae Range: Peruvian native [25,41]; Cultivated throughout the United States Habitat: Poor soils [44], cultivated in gardens [22] Hardiness: 8 [10] Other Common Names: Tall Nasturtium [25], Indian Cress [9,22,25,41,44], Creeping Canary [44] Primary Uses: Ground Cover, Dynamic Accumulator, Edible – leaves, flowers, stems and seeds, Companion Plant, Insecticide, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Nasturtium is a creeping or climbing perennial, though it is must be grown as an annual in New England [15,29,39,41,54]. Plants will grow to about two feet in height [9]. The stalks and leaf stems are thin, rounded and light green in color [44]. Single leaf stems are usually between five and six inches long, though a single main stalk can grow to up to six feet in length [44]. Leaves are alternate, irregularly round, light to bright green in color, and between a half inch to five inches in diameter [44]. Flowers possess five distinct, disconnected petals and are generally a vibrant red, yellow or orange [44]. Three of the five petals have side projections at their base that help guide insects to the nectar [44]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) [56]. Seeds are about a half-inch in diameter, two-celled and globose [44]. They ripen from August to October [56].

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History
Nasturtium was first introduced to Europe from Peru in 1686 [44].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Flowers, Stems, Seeds, Pickle, Condiment Every above ground part of the nasturtium plant can be eaten either raw or cooked [9,15,44]. Nasturtium flowers and leaves can be gathered and eaten fresh in salads or cooked as a pot herb [9,15,24,25,39,41,44,54]. They leaves are rich in vitamin C [41,44]. The stems are spicier and juicier than the leaves and are best eaten raw or in salads [9,15,44]. The seeds, while still young and green, can be eaten in salads or used for pickling [9,25,29,39,41,44,54]. They serve as an excellent caper substitute [25,29,39,41,44,54]. They can be prepared by gathering them once the blossoms are gone and putting them into cold water and salt [22]. This water should be changed each day for three days [22]. Next, prepare a pickle of nutmeg, peppercorns, horseradish and vinegar, and warm it without letting it boil [22]. Drain the seeds, place them in a jar, pour the pickle over the top and seal [22]. Mature seeds also can be ground into a powder and used as a pepper substitute [56]. They contain 26% protein and 10% oil [56].

Medicinal Uses
Antiseptic, Expectorant, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Aperient, Depurative, Diuretic, Emmenagogue, Laxative, Stimulant Nasturtium seeds are antiseptic, expectorant and can be used to treat infections [24,41]. When they are fermented they are also antimyeotic and anti-bacterial [41]. The leaves are antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, aperient, depurative, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, laxative and stimulant [56].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Ground Cover, Companion Plant, Insecticide, Dynamic Accumulator, Bee Forage, Beneficial Insect Attractor Plants make a very good edible ground cover [9,39]. It is very effective at suppressing weeds when grown in developing forest gardens.

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They are also useful plants as members of the forest garden’s vertical layer [24]. Nasturtiums are a good companion plant around fruit trees, especially those that are prone to aphid attacks [39,41,46,54]. When trained up apple trees, plants are said to deter wooly aphids [24,32]. They are also good companion plants for cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, turnips, radishes, cucumbers and zucchini [58]. An insecticide can be made from an infusion of the leaves and soap flakes [56]. Nasturtiums can be grown to combat white fly in greenhouses [46]. They are dynamic accumulators of sodium, fluorine, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and iron [54]. Growing nasturtium in an area will help boost the soil’s calcium level [54]. Nasturtiums provide a good nectar source for wasps, bees, predatory insects and birds and effectively attract beneficial insects [9,10,32,54].

Cultivation Details
Though these plants will grow most prolifically in moist garden soils, they will tolerate most soils and sites [10,39,41]. Plants are tolerant of partial shade though they will grow best in full sun [10,15,32]. Nasturtiums will grow quite well in cool areas, though they will be cut back by frosts [39,41]. These plants are very easily grown [15]. They will generally flower from early summer until they are killed by the first hard frost of autumn [15]. When planted as a ground cover, individual plants should be spaced about twenty inches apart [10]. They will rapidly and vigorously spread, forming a moderately dense cover [10]. Because they can grow well in wet soils, nasturtiums would be good ground cover plants to use along berms [32]. Plants are self-seeding [15,41,44]. Nasturtium is propagated by seed or root cuttings [41,54]. There are many named varieties of nasturtium that vary widely in habit [15]. Some of them grow much less vigorously and are less likely to overpower other nearby plants [9].

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Machua, Tropaeolum tuberosum, is a related species that is a perennial climber [15]. It reaches a height of about six feet and produces a number of large edible tubers near the surface of the soil [15]. Unfortunately, it is only hardy to zone 8, so even if it was to be productive throughout the growing season, it would most certainly need to be grown as an annual that is resown each year.

Known Hazards
Nasturtiums grow quite vigorously, and can become rampant if they are not well managed. Despite this, they grow so vigorously that excessively rampant growth can be pulled up and either used in salads or composted. Pregnant women should avoid consuming nasturtium as it is an emmenagogue.

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Tsuga canadensis
Common name: Eastern Hemlock Family: Cupressaceae Range: Eastern North American native [1,56]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States [14,33] Habitat: Hilly and open woods [33], cool moist ravines, protected valleys, lowlands [1,14] Hardiness: 4 [10] Other Common Names: Common Hemlock [10], Canada Hemlock [10], American Hemlock [10], Spruce Pine [10], Hemlock Spruce [10] Primary Uses: Timber, Wildlife Habitat, Tea, Rust Remover, Hedge, Wildlife Forage, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Eastern hemlock is a medium sized evergreen tree that reaches an average height of seventy or eighty feet and a spread of about twenty-five feet [14,33,56]. Trees tend to have a loose, irregular branching pattern [33]. Needles are evergreen, short, flat, parallel to the ground, about a half-inch long and have two white stomatal bands running along their underside [14,33]. Flower are monoecious (single flowers are either male or female and both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are wind pollinated [56]. Male flowering cones are small, yellowish and can be found at the branch tips while female

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cones are small, green and leathery [14]. Fruiting cones are pendant, light brown, about ¾ of an inch long and are borne at the tips of the twigs [1,33]. Seeds are small, ovoid and winged and ripen from November to February [1,14,56].

History
Eastern hemlock was the most important source of tannins in the United States during colonial times [48]. This only changed when chestnut wood supplanted it after 1900 [48]. Prior to this, countless trees were wastefully felled, stripped of their bark and left to rot in the woods [48]. During the nineteenth century, at its peak, most of the hemlock from Maine to the Catskill mountains in New York was exhausted by the hemlock tanning industry [48].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Tea, Bark While the needles can be harvested at any time, it is best to do so in early spring when they are young [1,14]. Hemlock leaves can be harvested and used to make a tea. About a quarter cup of stem tips and leaves should be used per cup of water. They should be steeped for five minutes before drinking. [1,33] Maple sweetened hemlock gravy is an old Iroquois recipe. This can be made by pouring a cup of boiling water over a half cup of hemlock leaves and steeping them for ten minutes. This mixture can then be sweetened with two tablespoons of maple sugar for each cup of water. [33] Young hemlock foliage was one of the ingredients in old-fashioned root beer [16]. Also, in survival situations, the inner bark of this tree can be cut off and eaten raw or boiled [1,14]. This is neither a desirable foodstuff or beneficial to the plant, so it will probably never need to be done. Hemlock tea is high in vitamin C [1,14].

Medicinal Uses
Oral Disorders, Stomachic, Diarrhea, Antiseptic, Skin Irritations, Rheumatism A tea made from a palmful of inner hemlock bark can be used as a mouthwash or a toothpaste for swollen gums [4]. This same tea also helps to settle upset stomachs and acts as a diarrhea remedy [4].

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A stronger tea is a good antiseptic and can be used as a skin wash [4]. An infusion of hemlock leaves can be taken as a remedy for rheumatism [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Timber, Basketry, Tannin, Rust, Dye, Hedge, Wildlife Habitat, Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage Eastern hemlock can be grown as a timber species. Its wood is light brown-red and the grain is straight and fine [10]. Seasoned timber is durable, very light and very brittle [10]. It is generally used for construction, joinery and interior construction, paper pulp, railway sleeper construction, exterior boarding, boxes and crates and ladders [10]. It weighs twenty-six pounds per cubic foot [56]. The inner bark of this tree can be used to make baskets [56]. Hemlock bark contains about eight to fourteen percent tannin [34,48,56]. When boiled, hemlock bark can be used to make a wash to clean rust off of steel and iron and prevent them from rusting further [56]. Bark from hemlocks can be used to make a red-brown dye [37]. Plants will tolerate trimming and can be grown as a hedge [56]. Hemlocks provide important winter cover for many types of wildlife [1]. Seeds are a food source for birds and wildlife [1].

Cultivation Details
Hemlocks prefer moist soils [10]. They also prefer full sun, though they will tolerate partial and even full shade [10]. In fact, hemlocks are probably one of the most tolerant conifers [48]. Trees are generally slow-growing and long-lived [56]. They begin to produce seed between the ages of twenty and forty and continue to produce good crops every three or four years [56]. Plants are propagated by seed [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Typha latifolia
Common name: Broad-leaved Cattail Family: Typhaceae Range: Native to the US; widely distributed throughout the country [2,13,33]; narrow-leaved cattail is common along the east coast [33]; various cattail species can be found in temperate and tropical regions around the globe [33] Habitat: Freshwater marshes [33,44], shallow lakes, ponds, bays, swamps, ditches [13,14,22] Hardiness: 3-10 [13] Other Common Names: Flag [2,5], Blackcap [5], Water Torch [5], Candlewick [5], Swamp Bulrush [22], Cossack Asparagus [2,5,7], Cattail Flag [2], Cat-o’Nine Tails [2,44], Reed Mace [2,7] Primary Uses: Edible – roots, stalks, flower stalks and pollen, Fiber – paper, basketry, and cloth, Dynamic Accumulator, Water Purifier, Biomass, Compost Material, Wildlife Habitat, Insect Repellent, Livestock Fodder

Physical Characteristics
Broad-leaved cattails are tall perennials that grow to ten feet (narrow-leaved varieties grow to four feet) [1,7,13,14,33]. They have large, stout underground rhizomes [1,14,44]. Plants have alternate, grass-like linear leaves that are several feet in length and about ¾ in wide [1,13,33,44] and have sheathing at the base of the stem [1,14]. Flowers are borne at the tip of a large, cylinder shaped stalk that is between two to eight inches long [14,33]. They are probably more familiar as the corn-dog like cattail. Male flowers are clustered above the female flowers [14,33]. Newly emerging male flowers are green, but as the pollen matures, the spike becomes yellow [13,33]. Once the pollen has been
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produced, the male spike shrivels up, falling off the stem [33]. The wider female spike is also initially green, but it gradually changes to brown upon reaching maturity [2,33,44]. Once it finally opens in autumn, a fluffy mass of downy seeds is revealed [14,33]. Cattail usually flowers from May until July, while the fruits ripen until after the first frost [13].

History
Various parts of cattail plants have been eaten by people for centuries [33]. Iroquois Indians would bruise and boil the fresh rhizome for its syrupy gluten and mix it with cornmeal pudding [33]. The rhizome also was a valuable source of sweet flour, and it was used in breads and puddings [33]. Many western Native American tribes used the thickened shoots of the rhizome as a fresh or cooked vegetable [33]. Cattails were in very high demand during World War II because they were used for filling life preservers [5]. In addition, cattails have also been used in the past as the filling for bed quilts [5].

Edible Uses
Rhizome, Flour, Stalks, Flower Spikes, Pollen At least some part of the cattail can be gathered all year long [13,17,22,33,44]. The rhizomes can be used as a vegetable or processed into flour [1,2,14,17,22,33]. To process flour from the cattail rhizome, simply dig out several dozen rhizomes, making sure that they are washed and peeled. Either dry them in the sun for several days or in a slow oven set at about 200°F for two to four hours. Grind the rhizomes, picking out the fibers by hand or by sifting. The resulting flour is especially recommended for use in making biscuits. [33] Cattail rhizomes may also be eaten raw or cooked like potatoes [15]. In early spring, the green, emerging stalks can be gathered and pickled, cooked or eaten raw [2,13,17,22,33]. To harvest, grasp the leafy stalks below the surface of the water and pull up, which will most likely break them off at the root [14,44]. After peeling away the tough, outer leafy layers, either eat the tender core raw like celery, slice it into a salad, or let them simmer in boiling water for about ten minutes [1,14,44]. This core is about a half inch in diameter and up to a foot long and is called ‘Cossack asparagus’ [1,2,14]. One hundred grams of this shoot contain 58mg of calcium, 109mg of phosphorus, 639mg of potassium and 76mg of vitamin C [44]. Later on in spring, young male flower spikes, while still green, can be collected and prepared like corn on the cob [1,2,13,14,33]. They reportedly contain a rather rich flavor [33]. To prepare the spikes like this, place them (about 16 green spikes to 2 quarts of water) in salted boiling water, cover, lower the heat and cook for ten minutes. Drain the water, place the spikes in a skillet with butter and serve. [1,2,33].

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Also, once the male spikes mature and the pollen changes in color to yellow, it can be shaken into containers, sifted and used as a very rich flour [1,2,13,14,17,22,33,44]. If collecting the pollen for flour, it is important to remember to leave a few male spikes untouched so that the female flowers in the marsh will be pollinated [33]. It will probably take between twenty or twenty-five good sized pollen heads to have enough flour for a small bread [22]. This pollen is quite rich in protein [15]. The nutritional composition of cattail flour has been computed and found to be not that much different from that of other common flour types [33]. In three separate analyses, cattail flour was found to contain between 5.5% and 7.75% protein, .65% and 4.91% fat, 79% and 84% carbohydrate, 6.5% and 8.8% water and 2.4% and 2.8% ash [33]. Despite this nutritional information, quite a bit of work is necessary to extract cattail flour, so it is quite unlikely to become a commonly cultivated crop [33,44].

Medicinal Uses
Wound Dressing, Diarrhea, Skin Irritations, Pain Remedy When the mature brown flower spikes of the cattail open, the seeds and accompanying fluffy hairs are released. This down can be pressed into wounds in order to stop the bleeding [44]. To control diarrhea, a tea made of a small palmful of cattail rootstock flour to a cup of hot water is effective [4]. A sticky substance that can be found at the base of each leaf is good for use on cuts and abrasions and may also have numbing properties [4]. Boiled cattail leaves make a good external skin wash for rashes and other skin irritations [4].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Fiber, Weaving, Basketry, Paper, Mats, Cloth, Insulation, Indicator Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Water Purifier, Livestock Fodder, Biomass, Compost Material, Fuel, Wildlife Habitat, Torch, Insect Repellent Amongst early settlers, one of the first uses of wild plants was gathering cattails and other rushes to be woven into seats [2,5,17]. The basal leaves should be gathered once the plants are fully mature, usually in midsummer [5]. Once collected, they should be fully air dried to prevent them from molding [5]. To do this, hang them in bundles, covered, allowing them to dry in the shade [17]. Before weaving with them, soak them so that they become soft and pliable [17]. Strands are then twisted together by hand as you weave the seat [17]. Furniture made from cattail leaves is said to be extremely durable and long lasting, some still being in use after over a hundred years [17].

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Outdoor Survival Skills by Larry Dean Olsen provides detailed instructions on weaving with cattails [44]. Cattail leaves may also be dried, soaked to make them pliable and used to weave matting and baskets [2,5,7]. For information on the harvest and use of fiber plants also see Toby Hemenway’s article, “Fiber Plants for the Permaculture Landscape” in the Permaculture Activist #43. Cattail stems can be used to make paper, cloth and cord [7,15,24,26]. The ‘floss’ or down found inside cattail heads is water resistant, so it may be useful as a filler for things like sleeping bags, pillows and quilts [5,15,17]. The presence of cattails in an area most certainly is an indication of wet soils [32]. Cattails are dynamic accumulators of nitrogen [32]. Cattails can be planted to help purify water [7,44] by mining unwanted minerals. In fact, cattails have been used in sewage and grey-water treatment systems to remove excess nutrients from the water [15]. Plants can later be coppiced and used for compost [15]. Cattails also help to stabilize soil along the sides of ponds and marshes [7,26]. Mature cattail stalks can be used as livestock fodder [7]. Because of their vigorous growth, cattails can be grown as valuable biomass producers, either being an important addition to compost heaps or as a source of fuel [15]. Cattails serve as valuable bird, insect and wildlife habitat [15,26]. Dried cattail stalks and mature female spikes are very useful when attempting to start a fire [33]. The mature flower spike can also be used as a torch when dipped in wax or tallow [15,32,44] Burning cattail heads also can be used to repel insects [4].

Cultivation Details
Cattails must be grown in wet conditions [7]. They will succeed in acid and calcareous soils [56]. Thus, cattails are a perfect plant for water gardens, ponds, dams, marshes and streambeds. They would also be a good plant to be used along berms because of their affinity for flooded conditions [32]. Though they prefer growing in full sun, they will also tolerate partial shade [7].

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Under cultivation, cattails are said to have attained yields of 140 tons/acre that would in turn yield about 32 tons of flour [13,22]. To propagate by seed, surface sow them in a pot and let stand in 3cm of water [56]. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible, increasing the depth of the water as the plants develop [56]. Plant them out in their desired location in summer [56]. Plants may also be propagated by root division in spring [56]. Harvest young shoots when they are about four to twelve inches tall, ensuring that at least some root is attached and plant them out into their permanent positions [56].

Known Hazards
Cattails are very vigorous and can overrun most of your other water plants if not carefully watched [15]. If cattails begin to become invasive, mowing them down after the ‘tails’ have formed (before they have ripened and turned brown), followed by a second mowing about a month later when growth is about two or three feet tall will kill at least threefourths of the plants [13]. Do not eat raw cattails that are growing in water whose purity is questionable as they may have accumulated unhealthy nutrients into their bodies [44].

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Urtica dioica
Common name: Stinging Nettle Family: Urticaceae Range: European native [25,44]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [13,44] Habitat: Very widespread [15,35] commonly found growing in moist fertile soils [13,14,44] in undisturbed areas, along the margins of woods, trails, stream banks, roadsides and vacant lots [14] Hardiness: 3 Other Common Names: Devil’s Leaf [35], Hoky-Poky [35], Great Nettle [7], Bigsting Nettle [7], Common Nettle [7] Primary Uses: Fiber – cloth and paper, Liquid Fertilizer, Companion Plant, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Oil, Edible – leaves and stems, Medicine, Livestock Fodder, Compost Material

Physical Characteristics
Nettle is a perennial [2,13,14,7] that has many small stinging bristles on its stem, petioles and leaves that contain formic acid, which is a strong irritant [1,2,14,33]. It is an herb that has cordate to lanceolate leaves, which are simple, opposite, strongly ribbed, long stalked and toothed [1,2,13,14,33]. It can grow up to six feet in height [7,13,33] depending on the fertility and moisture-content of the soil [2]. In the axils of the upper
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leaves, nettles have many small green flowers [33]. Plants are monoecious [13,14,44]. Nettle fruits are tiny, inconspicuous, hard, nutletlike clusters about 0.1 in (2mm) long [14]. The plants themselves will grow quite well in full shade and actually seem to prefer it [7,32]. Nettle will often regrow in the same place year after year [1]. Once again, nettle will do very well in moist, waterlogged soil [32].

History
A few generations ago, nettles were quite commonly used throughout Europe to fulfill a number of purposes including food, fiber, livestock feed, dye and medicine [33]. During World War I the Germans planted out thousands of acres to nettles so that their fibers could be used to manufacture military clothing [33,34,44]. Evidence exists that suggests that Scandinavians cultivated nettles in the eighteenth century, using its fibers for cloth and the leaves for food [35]. Iroquois Indians also commonly consumed cooked nettle tops in the spring [33].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Stem, Tea Nettles sprout very early in spring [1,33,44] and can be easily identified because of the prominent ribs on their leaves. They should be collected in early spring before flowering and thoroughly rinsed before consuming [5,14,33]. Some recommend that only the tops (the younger leaves) of nettle plants should be harvested for human consumption [7,15,35,44], though I think that this is a matter of personal taste and should be determined by each individual according to his or her own tastes. Older leaves are usually gritty and tough [14,35]. Gloves should usually be worn when harvesting to avoid stinging, [5,14,33] otherwise scissors allow the plant to be harvested without coming in contact with it [44]. If stung, alcohol, yellow dock or nettle juice will help to soothe the rash [2]. One common way to prepare nettle is by simply tossing some greens in a pot of salted boiling water for a few minutes [33]. Some claim that nettle should be boiled in the least amount of water possible [22]. Boiling nettle will destroy its irritant properties [1,14,44]. Once drained, they may be served [14,33]. The water it was cooked in can be used as a beverage mixed with lemon and sugar or as a soup with salt, pepper and vinegar [14]. Nettles may also be eaten raw, though most people do not do so [13] and some even strongly advise against it. James Duke claims that they quit stinging by the time they reach the throat [13]. I have witnessed nettle consumed raw, and I was told that it’s effects are virtually nil, though I would not claim this to be true for all people. I should mention that it is possible for people to have allergic reactions to raw nettle, so they should be very careful upon consuming it.
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Dried nettle leaves can be used to make a warming tea [56]. Nettle is rich in protein (5.5g per 100g), vitamins A (4,900 – 6500 IU per 100g) and C (76mg per 100g) and minerals including phosphorus and iron [1,14,22,33,44]. It also contains serotonin, boron and calcium [12].

Medicinal Uses
Arthritis Remedy, Stimulant, Skin Wound Treatment, Blood/Stomach/Lung Purifier, Digestive Aid, Appetite Stimulant, Dandruff Treatment Scattered ethnic groups reportedly use nettle’s stinging hairs as a counterirritant in arthritis, [13] while medical studies in Britain have led the elderly to use nettle to relieve the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis [12]. Nettle increases blood circulation and acts as a stimulant [46]. A poultice made of steeped nettle leaves also may be used to help relieve pain and stop minor wounds from bleeding [4,44]. Nettle tea is freely used as a blood purifier as well as a possible cure for rheumatism [5,44]. It is also used to cleanse the stomach, dissolve mucus in the lungs and chest, alleviate general bronchial problems, [4] aid in digestion and stimulate the appetite [4]. This tea may also be used to help stop diarrhea [44]. Nettle contains acetyl-choline and choline [12]. These both seem to be deficient in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients, and so there is hope that consuming nettle may help to protect us from Alzheimer’s [12]. A hair wash can be made from infused nettle leaves, which is both a tonic and an antidandruff treatment [15]. Euell Gibbons has recommended nettle as a remedy for obesity [13].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Compost Ingredient/Liquid Fertilizer, Dye, Indicator Plant, Pioneer, Companion Plant, Beneficial Insect Attractor, Oil, Fiber – Cloth/Paper, Livestock Fodder, Milk Coagulant Since this plant contains a number of trace minerals and an abundance of chlorophyll (and is about seven percent nitrogen [44]), fully grown nettle plants, once dried and finely ground, may serve as a powerful mulch and fertilizer for growing vegetables [22]. A brew of nettle plants also is a good liquid fertilizer, while the plants themselves are a very important addition to compost piles [7,46].

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A fermented extract of nettle can be made by covering the harvested plant with water and letting it decompose for three weeks. This liquid will promote plant growth and protect them against unhealthy conditions [46]. It can be sprayed directly onto the plant [46]. Dyes may be extracted from two parts of the nettle plant. Green from the aerial parts and yellow from the roots [7,33,34]. The presence of wild nettles in an area is generally indicative of fertile soils [2,44]. Nettle is considered to be a strong plant in aiding in the preparation of unfavorable soil so that it will support tree growth, and so it may be used as an important tool in afforestation projects [46]. Because nettles grow very well in wet, even waterlogged conditions, they are a good species for planting on berms [32]. Stinging nettle is considered to be a beneficial companion plant for fruit trees, though it may complicate harvest somewhat [46]. Also, as a companion plant, nettle has proven to increase the pungency and aroma of any herbs growing nearby, while nearly doubling the quantity of essential oil in peppermint plants [46,56]. Nitrogen fixing soil bacteria in the soil have been found to be stimulated by Stinging nettle as well [46]. In addition, Stinging nettle has been found to have a preservative effect on neighboring plants once they have been harvested [46]. Nettle serves as a food plant for the larvae of several butterflies, so it can make an important contribution to the wildlife population of a forest garden [15,24]. It is also fed on by at least thirty different species of insects, further enhancing a garden’s diversity [15]. Nettle serves as the food as a specific species of aphid, which will thus attract aphid predators that may then help eliminate aphids from other parts of the garden [15,32]. Nettle tea combats plant lice or aphis [46]. Oil pressed from nettle seeds may be used for lighting [7,56]. As mentioned in the History section, nettle stem fiber may be used in the manufacture of textiles [5,7,23]. In Great Britain, it has been used as a flax substitute [5]. Bradford Angier explains that in some parts of the world, you “can sleep between nettle sheets, eat off a nettle tablecloth, dine on nettle-enriched steaks and eggs ordered from a nettle-paper menu, in an emergency fish with a nettle line, and in the springtime especially revel with delectable nettle dishes washed down with nettle beer” [2]. In order to obtain the fiber contained in dry nettle stalks, they should be harvested as the plant begins to die down [15] and subsequently pounded to remove the vegetable matter and then washed so that only the fiber remains [44]. This fiber may be used as fishing line, yarn, nets, cloth, sandals, blankets and thread [44]. This fiber is easiest to weave when still wet [44]. Also, nettle fibers make excellent paper [5].

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Nettle stalks can be both dried and chopped up into cattle and horse fodder or powdered and added to chicken feed as an important source of protein [2,7,33,44]. Poultry raisers have found that feed enriched with ground nettle leaves helps prevent diseases amongst the chickens while also increasing their egg production [22,44]. Nettle juice can be used to coagulate milk [5,7,13,14].

Cultivation Details
Nettles prefer rich soils and do not respond well to acid soils [56]. They prefer sandy, loamy and clay soils, and require some degree of moisture [56]. They also prefer soils that are rich in nitrogen and phosphate [56]. Plants will grow well both in semi-shade or full sun [56]. Nettle can tolerate strong winds but not maritime exposure [56]. If a good quality fiber is required, nettles should be grown in a deep rich soil [56]. Robert Hart claims that there is no need to cultivate nettles, one should instead just keep them under control [24]. One good way to do this is to eat the tops of the plants just as they appear from the ground [24].

Known Hazards
As mentioned earlier, contact with the nettle plant will cause severe skin irritations that will last for up to two hours [44]. This can be avoided by wearing gloves. Also, relief may come from the use of aloe, dock, alcohol or nettle juice applied to the affected area. Once established, nettle may become very difficult to eradicate. It is said that cutting it down three times a year for three straight years will get rid of it [15,56].

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Vaccinium macrocarpon
Common name: Cranberry Family: Ericaceae Range: North American native [33]; Widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States [5,14,33] Habitat: Wet, acidic bog environments, swamps, shores of ponds and lakes [14,33], open coniferous woods [1] Hardiness: 3-9 [57] Other Common Names: American Cranberry [22,33], Bog Cranberry [5,22], Lingenberries [1], Lowbush Cranberries [1], Cow Berries [1], Rock Cranberries [1], Craneberry Primary Uses: Edible Berries, Flour, Bee Forage, Ground Cover, Dye, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Cranberry is a low growing evergreen shrub [1,14,29,33]. Stems are thin and flaky barked and the leaves are simple, alternate, ovate, persistent, whitish underneath and grow up to a half-inch in length [14,29,33,56]. Flowers are small, pink and urn shaped, emerging at the tip of the long stalks [14,33]. Plants are in flower from June until August [56]. Flowers are hermaphroditic (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Cranberry fruit is a tart, bright red berry, borne on a long slender stalk

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that grows up to a half inch or more in diameter, persisting on the plant throughout the winter [14,33].

History
Native Americans introduced the first American settlers to wild cranberries [22,33]. In early days, wild cranberries were gathered by the ton, packed in barrels filled with water and shipped to Europe [17]. The American cranberry has been cultivated from the early nineteenth century until the present [33,48].

Edible Uses
Berries, Flour Cranberries can usually be gathered in the fall after a frost or two (September through October) [1,33]. Because the fruits overwinter quite well and remain on the plant, they can also be harvested in the winter and spring [1,22,33]. Well-ripened cranberries keep quite well and can be preserved easily without refrigeration or cooking [33]. If picked on a clear, dry day, the berries can be kept for several months by either packing them loosely into burlap bags or by placing them in barrels of water that are kept in cool, dry area [1,17,33]. If time is taken to dry berries in the sun and place them in covered, sterilized containers, they can be kept for several years [1,14,33]. They may also be dried by placing them in an oven for four hours at 230°F [14]. To use the dry berries, simply soak them in water and boil them for a few minutes, adding sugar to taste [1,2]. Cranberries also keep well under refrigeration and can be frozen [14,22,33]. Though edible raw, cranberries have a taste described as unappetizing [1,2]. If cooked with enough sugar to mellow their acidity, they have a much more pleasing taste [1]. Some say that adding a teaspoon of salt to the fruit while cooking can take the place of half of the sugar that would otherwise be used [56]. Cranberry sauce is probably the most well known method of preparing these berries. There are countless recipes that are easily accessible for this sauce, so I won’t include one here. To make cranberry jelly, pour ¾ cup of boiling water over two cups of cranberries in a saucepan and bring them quickly to a simmer. After five minutes, add ¾ cup sugar and cook them for another five minutes. Strain the juice, pour into hot sterilized jars and seal. [1] Dried, powdered berries can be substituted for a portion of the flour called for in baking recipes [2,14].

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One hundred grams of cranberries contain 46 calories, 0.4g of protein, 0.7g of fat, 14mg of calcium, 10mg of phosphorus, 0.5mg of iron, 2mg of sodium, 82mg of potassium, 40 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.02mg of riboflavin, 0.1mg of niacin, 11mg of vitamin C [22,49].

Medicinal Uses
Poultice Near ripe cranberries can be used to make a poultice for wounds [33].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Bee Forage, Ground Cover Cranberry can be used to make a red dye, and cranberry juice can be used to dye paper or linen purple [5,33]. Cranberries provide forage for bees [9]. Some cranberry varieties can be grown as a ground cover if they are spaced one meter from one another [56]. When thriving, these plants will spread quite rapidly [56]. Berries can be kept for a very long time [33].

Cultivation Details
Cranberries are best grown in sandy soil with plenty of water [5,9]. They do best in acidic soils with a pH of 4.5 to 5.5 [38]. Strangely enough, plants will grow best in poor soil, as richer soils will result in extra foliage production at the expense of fruit [56]. Also, it is important that care be taken to protect the young buds from frost and the fruit from freezing [5]. Plants prefer full sun but will also tolerate partial shade [9]. Cranberries will not tolerate full shade [5]. Plants require shelter from strong winds [56]. A bog garden in which to grow cranberries can be made by spreading peat over a plastic sheet to restrict drainage [24]. Some say that planting cranberries in sand is better than peat [38]. It should also be mentioned though, that cranberries don’t have to be planted in a bog. A well-drained bed, amended with peat or sand will suffice [57]. Cultivated plants generally take about five years before fully fruiting, but they will then provide a crop for sixty to one hundred years [56]. If temperatures will drop below 10°F, the plants need to be mulched heavily to protect the next year’s fruiting wood [57].
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Individual plants should be spaced about 16 inches apart in rows two feet apart [9]. Cranberries can be propagated by seed, cuttings or layering [39,48,56]. Cuttings should be taken in April of six-inch long shoots and planted in a sandy mix in a cold frame to keep them moist [56]. Cuttings of half ripe wood with a heel that is between two and four inches long should be taken in August, though getting them to root is slow and difficult [56]. Layering should be done in late summer or early autumn though some say that spring is the best time to begin [56]. It will most likely take eighteen months [56]. Plants can also be propagated by sucker division in spring or early autumn [56]. Plants in this genus are resistant to honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) [56]. A number of named cranberry cultivars and varieties are available. Consult nursery and seed catalogs for information on those that may be best suited for cultivation at your site.

Known Hazards
None found.

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Vaccinium spp.
Common name: Blueberry Family: Ericaceae Range: North American native [33]; Widespread throughout eastern North America [14,33] Habitat: Bogs, swamps, dry woods, old fields [14,33], mountain slopes, dry rocky soils [14], open deciduous forests, coniferous forest edge [13] Hardiness: 2-8 [28] Other Common Names: Whortleberry, Bilberry, Oval-Leaf Whortleberry, Dwarf Bilberry, Lowbush Blueberry, Swamp Blueberry, Deerberry, Tangleberry, Bog Blueberry, Whorts, Hurts [2] Primary Uses: Edible Berries, Hedge, Medicine, Tea

Physical Characteristics
Blueberries are perennial shrubs that have characteristic speckled, slender, reddish or green twigs [33]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, small (between one and four inches long), smooth and ovate [13,23,33]. Blueberry flowers are densely clustered, white to pink in color and bell-shaped [14,23,29,33]. Flowers emerge from April to June [13]. They are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are insect pollinated [56]. Berries are usually blue to black, between a quarter to a half an inch in diameter

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and contain many seeds [2,14,23,33]. They are borne on stalks that emerge separately from the leaves [33]. Berries ripen a few months after the plants have flowered [13]. The two main blueberry varieties are lowbush and highbush [33]. Highbush blueberry is a shrub that grows to between three and fifteen feet high [14,29]. Lowbush blueberry is a low shrub that reaches a maximum of two feet and has finely toothed lanceolate leaves [23]. It is very branched and often found in thickets in the wild [14,29]. As it is distributed further north than the highbush blueberry, lowbush is hardier [23]. In the wild, blueberries are quite commonly found in areas that have been subjected to fire [2,17].

History
Blueberries were popular with the eastern Native Americans [33]. They were usually eaten fresh or crushed and mixed with water to make a cool drink [5,33]. Large quantities of blueberries were commonly dried or smoked and used along with cornmeal to make breads, pudding or soups [17,33]. Early colonists also used blueberries frequently, often preparing them in pastries, cakes and preserves [33].

Edible Uses
Berries, Leaves, Tea Harvesting the berries is quite easy. When they ripen in summer, either pick them by hand, or shake the berries onto a tarp or blanket placed below the shrub [1,14,17]. Once picked, they should be washed and drained, and then, if desired, they can be loosely packed in jars and kept for one to two weeks in the refrigerator [33]. If packed dry, berries may keep fresh for a month or more [17]. Also, blueberries can be frozen as is [2,17,22,33]. Thawed blueberries can be used just as you would fresh [17,33]. To make blueberry sauce, put equal amounts of berries and sugar in a skillet, adding enough water to just cover the berries [33]. Stir this mixture, bringing it to a boil and then lower the heat, simmering it to the desired thickness [33]. Blueberry jam can be made by weighing out your berries and an equal amount of sugar [33]. Then, place the fruit in a large kettle, crush it and cook for fifteen minutes [33]. Stir in the sugar and cook until the mix thickens to a jelly-like consistency [33]. Blueberries can also be dried for later consumption [2,14,17,33]. Iroquois Indians used to spread the berries on wood or shallow baskets and either dry them in the sun or by a fire [33]. They can also be dried by spreading them on paper or clean towels in a warm attic for about ten days or by placing them on a sheet pan and drying them slowly in the oven (200°F) for several hours [14,17,22,33].

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Once dry, berries can be added to soups, used like currants and raisins or soaked in warm water and cooked as a sauce [33]. To can blueberries, pack them into jars and cover them with a syrup that’s made of four parts water to one part sugar [17]. Seal the jar and process it in boiling water for twenty minutes [17]. The leaves and dry fruit can be used to make a tea [56]. One hundred grams of blueberries contain 62 calories, 0.7g of protein, 0.5g of fat, 15mg of calcium, 13mg of phosphorus, 1mg of iron, 1mg of sodium, 81mg of potassium, 100 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.03mg of thiamine, 0.06mg of riboflavin, 0.5mg of niacin and 14mg of vitamin C [22,49].

Medicinal Uses
Hyperglycemia, Blood Purifier, Bowel Disorders, Sore Throat/Mouth Remedy Tea made from blueberry leaves is suggested to correct hyperglycemia [13]. The leaves contain Myrtillin, which is a substance that is known to reduce blood sugar like insulin [22]. Blueberries help to purify the blood [22,56]. A root decoction can be used for bowel disorders, including diarrhea [13]. It can also be gargled for sore throats and mouths and for indolent ulcers [13].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Bee Forage, Dye, Edible Hedge/Fence Most blueberry species provide good bee forage though only one type of bee can pollinate them [9,41]. Blueberries can be used to produce a blue or gray dye [48]. Depending on the variety, blueberries can be planted as an edible hedge or even an edible fence. Blueberries also grow well in or near lawns [32].

Cultivation Details
Blueberries thrive in acid soils that are moist and well drained [1,2,9,15,28,38,39]. In fact, they do best in soils with a pH between 4.5 and 6 [15]. If the soil at least in some part of your yard does not fall within this pH range, blueberries will most likely not grow [28]. While adding elemental sulfur to the soil is probably the best way to bring down
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the pH, there are other organic amendments you can make to bring about the same result [28]. Composted leaves, pine and hemlock needles, oak, beech and chestnut leaves and bark as well as that of hardwoods and softwoods are all substances that are effective, though slow at lowering pH [28]. If you want these amendments to give you the best possible results, all added materials should be shredded, chopped or chipped very small before incorporating into the soil [28]. Since blueberries have shallow roots, amendments don’t need to be incorporated deeply into the soil [28]. For average soils, you can assume that about a half-bushel of amendments for each plant will be sufficient [28]. Test the soils’ pH after incorporation of these materials to see whether or not it matches the needs of the blueberries. It may also be a good idea to add a four or five inch annual mulch layer of acidic natural materials to help maintain the pH and attract worms and soil microorganisms [28]. Blueberries require full sun, though they will tolerate partial shade [2,9,15,28,39,41]. They generally grow rather slowly, but once mature, they form a very thick spread [9]. If the pH of your soil is beyond a reasonable level for alteration, you can grow blueberries as container plants [28]. For good fruiting, a constant supply of water is necessary [39]. Soils rich in humus and thick mulches are ideal [39]. Also, to ensure vigorous plant growth and large berry production, apply between one half to one pound of a high-nitrogen fertilizer to the plants each year such as dry manure or cottonseed or soybean meal [28]. Most blueberries will begin to bear fruit at the age of three years [28]. They are long lived and can continue to produce fruit for up to forty years [28]. Blueberries dislike root disturbance and are best grown in pots until they are eventually planted out in their permanent positions [56]. Though they are widely cultivated today, blueberries weren’t cultivated before the turn of the twentieth century [28,39]. Northern blueberry species have a chill requirement of 700-1200 hours [32]. Chill requirement represents the number of hours at cool temperatures that a plant needs to break dormancy in spring [28]. Blueberries are also generally disease and insect resistant [28,32]. There are numerous blueberry species and varieties that can be cultivated. Vaccinium corymbosum or highbush blueberry is one that is commonly recommended [15,25]. This species is widely cultivated in the United States and there are many available varieties [15]. Highbush blueberry ripens in late summer and grows up to fifteen millimeters in

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diameter [15]. Space plants between four to eight feet apart depending on your desired planting configuration [28]. Shrubs do need to be netted against birds [41]. Vaccinium angustifolium, lowbush blueberry, grows to a height of one foot and can be grown as a groundcover [41]. Though very small, lowbush blueberries are extremely cold hardy and produce prolific fruit that has a strong flavor [28]. A single lowbush plant usually will produce between one and two pints of berries [28]. In nature, lowbush blueberries spread by underground rhizomes, creating extensive colonies [28]. Vaccinium myrtillus is a blueberry species that is also known as bilberry [15]. It is native to Europe, and is sub-evergreen, usually retaining at least some of its leaves over the winter [15]. Bilberry grows to about a foot and a half and feely spreads by means of root suckers [15]. Bilberries ripen in the summer and are about ten millimeters in diameter [15]. For more information on blueberry species and cultivars, see Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries, ed. Roger Holmes (1996). It contains more detailed cultivation information as well as brief descriptions of about thirty-five different cultivars that may be suitable for planting in your yard. Otherwise, a good idea is to simply consult local nurseries or seed companies. Native plant nurseries and specialty fruit growers or edible landscaping nurseries are probably the best sources for blueberry species and cultivars [28]. Because there are so many varieties of blueberries, it is possible to plant early, midseason and late fruiting cultivars so that you can harvest berries from June through late August [28]. Plants can be cultivated by seed, cuttings, layering or root division [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Viburnum trilobum
Common name: Highbush Cranberry Family: Caprifoliaceae Range: North American native [2,5]; Widespread throughout the northern United States [2,5,14]. Habitat: Stream banks, wet thickets, moist woodlands [14,22] Hardiness: 3-9 [28,57] Other Common Names: Squashberry [1,2], Mooseberry [1,2], Cramp Bark [22], Cranberry Bush [2], Cranberry Tree [2], Pimbina [2] Primary Uses: Wildlife/Bird Forage, Edible Fruits, Hedge, Ornamental, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Highbush cranberry is a shrub that reaches a height of about fifteen feet [14,28,38]. Leaves are deciduous, simple, opposite, between two and five inches long, three lobed, coarsely serrate (toothed) and dark green in color [1,2,14]. Leaf stalks have one or two small glands [14]. Flowers are produced in dense, rounded clusters with showy white flowers along the cluster’s margin [14,28,29]. They are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. Fruits are berrylike, bright red and contain a single flat stone [1,2,14]. They develop in large clusters which makes for easy picking [1,2,28]. Highbush cranberry possesses a very distinctive musky odor that makes it easy to distinguish from other plants [2].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Fruit, Wine Fruits grow ripe in late July, but they persist on the shrub through winter, becoming less sour with age [1,2,14,28]. They are at their best for cooking just before the first frost that serves to soften them [1]. Highbush cranberries can be prepared in many of the same ways as cranberries, though the large seeds must first be removed from the fruits of the shrub [14]. The fruits are quite variable in regards to sweetness, but the best ones can be eaten fresh, while even the most bitter make wonderful jellies and sauces [28]. As the berries may develop a bad odor when cooking, lemon or orange peel shavings can be added to eliminate the undesirable smell [14,22]. Fruits may also be dried and saved for later use [37]. For many, the fruit of this shrub will be an acquired taste, though after growing accustomed to it, it is quite common to come to love them [1,2]. There are numerous recipes for jelly made from the fruits of the highbush cranberry [1,2,38]. Here’s one: Add two cups of berries to three cups of water, and bring the mixture to a boil. Mash them as they cook, and let them simmer for five minutes. Strain the resulting mix and add 2/3 of a cup of sugar to every cup of resulting juice and bring this mixture to a bubble. This may then be poured into hot, sterilized jars and sealed. [1] Fruits can be used to make wine [57]. Berries are rich in vitamin C and actually contain about 30mg per one hundred grams [2].

Medicinal Uses
Blood Purifier, Cold/Fever Remedy, Laxative A decoction of the plant can be taken as a blood purifier [37]. A compound infusion of the plant is a remedy for colds and fevers [37]. An infusion of the bark can be used as a laxative [37].

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Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Wildlife Forage, Bird Forage, Hedge, Ornamental Highbush cranberry is a wonderful shrub to plant near bogs, marshes or along the edges of dams [38]. These bushes provide great forage for birds and wildlife [2,38,57]. Highbush cranberry can be grown as a hedge plant [57]. Leaves turn a brilliant red in autumn and serve as a beautiful ornamental [28,57].

Cultivation Details
Highbush cranberry will grow well in nearly any moisture-retentive soil and will also tolerate wet sites [28,38]. Shrubs are shade tolerant, though they should be grown in full sun or partial shade if possible [32,57]. Established plants are drought tolerant [56]. Individual plants should be spaced eight feet apart, while hedge plantings should be given a spacing of four to five feet [57]. Native highbush cranberries are resistant to aphids that often plague the exotic European species that have been introduced here [5]. There are a number of named cultivars available. ‘Wentworth’ and ‘Phillips’ are supposedly two of the best-tasting varieties [28]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and layering [56].

Known Hazards
None found.

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Vicia cracca
Common name: Bird Vetch Family: Fabaceae Range: Northern temperate regions [7,8]; Widely distributed throughout the northern United States [59] Habitat: Waste places, roadsides, meadows, pastures [59] Hardiness: 5 [7,8] Other Common Names: Gerard Vetch [7,8], Tufted Vetch [7,8,56], Cow Vetch [7], Canada Pea [7] Primary Uses: Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Dynamic Accumulator, Cover Crop, Companion Plant, Edible – leaves, seeds and stems, Livestock Fodder, Compost Material

Physical Characteristics
Vetch is a perennial climber that reaches a height of about five feet [7]. Plants spread by rhizomes and form sprawling mats that densely cover the ground [59]. Leaves are alternate, deciduous, pinnately compound and have a terminal leaflet that is modified into a twining tendril [59]. There are anywhere between five and eleven linear, pointed leaflets on each leaf [59]. Flowers are bluish purple and are borne on one-sided longstalked racemes [59]. They are present from July to August [59]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by bees and flies [56]. Seed pods are flat, one inch long and light brown [59]. The seeds ripen from July to September [56].

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History
Information unavailable.

Edible Uses
Stems, Leaves, Seeds, Tea Young stems and leaves can be eaten as a pot herb [7,8]. Vetch seeds can be eaten cooked either boiled or roasted [7,8]. The leaves can be used to make a tea [8].

Medicinal Uses
None known.

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Nitrogen-Fixer, Green Manure, Cover Crop, Companion Plant, Dynamic Accumulator, Compost Material, Indicator Plant, Livestock Fodder, Bee Forage Vetch is a nitrogen-fixer [7,8]. Plants can be grown as green manure and as a cover crop [7,8,32]. It is a good plant to grow as a companion for cereal grasses, especially rye [46]. Vetch is also a good companion plant for orchard trees [46]. Vetch is a dynamic accumulator of potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, cobalt and copper [7,8,32,54]. Because of this, plants provide wonderful compost material [32]. The presence of vetch growing wild in an area indicates soils that are low in nitrogen [32]. Vetch can be grown as a source of fodder for livestock [7,8,16]. Plants provide forage for butterflies, caterpillars and bees [7,8].

Cultivation Details
Plants prefer full sun and will tolerate partial shade [7,8]. They also prefer moist soils [8]. Vetch will grow in light, medium and heavy soils as well as soils with a pH that is acidic, neutral or alkaline [8].
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There are many different species of vetch that are available for cultivation. Most of them will also share similar traits with the species that is discussed here. It is probably best to do a bit of research on the different varieties that are available before deciding which one is best for your yard. Plants are propagated by seed [56].

Known Hazards
Vetches can serve as hosts for diseases that affect peas [32].

472

Vitis spp.
Common name: Grape Family: Vitaceae Range: European and North American natives [33]; Widely distributed throughout the United States [2,13] Habitat: Roadsides, thickets, woods [33], fencerows, old fields [13] Hardiness: 3-9 [13,57] Other Common Names: There are far too many species and cultivars to begin to name them here. Primary Uses: Edible – leaves and fruits, Wine, Juice, Basketry, Wildlife Habitat, Summer Shade, Bird/Wildlife Forage, Medicine

Physical Characteristics
Grape plants are high-climbing thornless perennial vines [13,14,33]. Their tendrils (gripping surfaces) are naked and tipped while the vine itself is marked with shreddy bark [33]. Leaves are simple, deciduous, alternate, cordate (heart-shaped), toothed, generally between four and eight inches long and lobed [13,14,33]. Flowers are small, green and are borne in dense, elongate clusters [14,33]. They are present from May until June [13]. Also, they are hermaphrodite (possess both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects [56]. The flowers are followed by the round, usually purple to black colored fruits that contain one to four ovoid seeds [13,14,33]. Both the tendrils and the flower clusters grow opposite the leaves [13,33].

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History
Grapes were first put under cultivation over four thousand years ago [33]. Plants were commonly used by the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews more than 6000 years ago [22,23].

Edible Uses
Leaves, Fruits, Juice, Wine Tender, young grape leaves can be gathered during spring once they have reached their full size [2,14,17,22,33]. Fruits are generally ready for harvest by late summer or early autumn [14,33]. Grape leaves can be boiled until they are tender and served as a pot herb with other vegetables [2,13,14,17,22]. They may also be used as a ‘jacket’ for meatball fritters [22]. Grape leaves can be preserved for later use as well [2,17]. This is done by laying each leaf flat in a covered glass or earthenware dish and sprinkling them liberally with salt [17]. Continue this until the jar is full, and then cover it and store in a cool place [17]. When you wish to use these leaves, first wash them gently in fresh water several times [17]. Grapes can be dried and stored as raisins. Begin by selecting the largest, sweetest grapes and spreading them on a tray in the sun. Move them into a dry room in the evening. Repeat this process until you have raisins, and pack the product loosely for storage. [13,33] To make grape juice, begin by washing the jars that you will use to make them in a hot water bath. Then, place the grapes in the jars (two cups of grapes per quart jar) add between a half and one cup of sugar and cover them with boiling water. Seal the jars immediately and let them stand in the hot water for another twenty minutes. Let the jars cool and finally store them in a cool, dry room for three to four months. When you are ready to drink it, strain out the juice, and dilute it if you wish. [2,33] Grapes are probably the most well-known fruits used in wine making [23]. Here’s one simple recipe that may be worth a try. Express enough grape fruits to yield 2/3 of a gallon of juice. Then, wash the pulp again and express enough juice to make another 1/3 of a gallon. Add to this three pounds of sugar and allow the mixture to ferment for several days [22]. One hundred grams of concord grapes contain 69 calories, 1.3g of protein, 1.0g of fat, 16mg of calcium, 12mg of phosphorus, 0.4mg of iron, 3mg of sodium, 158mg of potassium, 100 I.U. of vitamin A, 0.05mg of thiamine, 0.03mg of riboflavin, 0.3mg of niacin and 4mg of vitamin C [2,49].

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Medicinal Uses
Laxative, Diuretic, Diarrhea, Skin Irritations, Headache, Fever Remedy Grapes are slightly laxative and diuretic [22]. Compound decoctions of grapes can be taken for diarrhea [37]. A poultice of the leaves can be applied to skin irritations, headaches and fevers [37].

Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Dye, Basketry, Summer Shade, Wildlife Habitat, Bird Forage, Wildlife Forage Grapes can be used to make a violet dye [5]. The vines can be used as material for basketry [37]. As an occupant in the forest garden, grapes are wonderful plants to use to colonize the vertical story [24]. Also, because grapes are deciduous, they are excellent plants to use to block the summer sun from a house [39]. Vines provide habitat for bird species [2,28]. Grapes also provide forage for bird and wildlife species [2,28].

Cultivation Details
Grapes favor moist, fertile, well-drained ground [2]. Soils with a pH level of 5.5 to 7.0 are ideal [28]. Plants require positions in full sun [28]. Also, it is incredibly important to protect vines from late spring frosts [28]. It is a good idea to give vines some shelter from cold winter winds [28]. Grape vines planted on the south side of a house will generally ripen a week earlier [57]. Plants require virtually no fertilization, so it is more important to ensure that you do not overfertilize them [28]. Depending on the variety, grapes have a chill requirement of between 100 and 500 hours [32]. It is essential that grape vines are given something upon which to grow [28,57]. This could be as simple as a stake or trellis [28,57].

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Grape vines will often produce yields in three to four years [41]. Plants will generally average about thirty-six inches of growth each season [32]. Most grape varieties are self-pollinating [57]. Pruning and training grape vines is probably one of the most tedious aspects of their culture [28]. Nonetheless, it is important to recognize that it does not need to be done. Grapes will produce fruit regardless of whether or not humans are there to take care of them. Despite this, pruning can be beneficial in that it may lead to more prolific fruit production and it also may help to prevent plants from becoming susceptible to some diseases and pests [28]. Once established, grape vines can live for eighty years or more [57]. If you are lacking space, grape vines can be planted in containers [28]. This is especially relevant to urban gardeners. The best time to plant grapes is in late winter or early spring before the leaf buds have begun to swell and open [28]. Vines supported by elm and mulberry trees have been found to grow better [46]. Hyssop has also been found to increase the yield of grape vines [46]. Another beneficial grape guild is an intercrop of fifteen percent mustard with legumes [46]. Intercroppings of grape with wild blackberry have been found to bring about reductions in grape leafhopper populations because the blackberries served as an alternative host plant for parasitic wasps [32]. Grapes are very susceptible to a number of pests and diseases [28]. Plants can be propagated by seed, cuttings and layering [41,56]. There are fifty native grape species in North America [14]. Hundreds of grape cultivars exist [28]. More than anything, the search for the one that best suits your needs is overwhelming.

Known Hazards
None found.

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Numbered References
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17. Gibbons, E. 1962. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 18. Goodheart Brown, A. 1996. “Garden Meanders”, The Permaculture Activist, 34: 41-42. 19. Grinnel, R. 1996. “The Value and Promise of Root Crops”, The Permaculture Activist, 34: 32-33. 20. Guil Guerrero, J.L., P. Campra Madrid and M.E. Torija Isasa. 1999. “Mineral Elements Determination in Wild Edible Plants”, Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 38: 209-222. 21. Guil, J.L., I. Rodriguez-Garcia and E. Torija. 1997. “Nutritional and Toxic Factors in Selected Wild Edible Plants”, Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 51: 99-107. 22. Harris, B.C. 1968. Eat the Weeds. Barre, Massachusetts: Barre Publishers. 23. Harrison, S.G., G.B. Masefield, B.E. Nicholson, and M. Wallis. 1969. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. New York: Oxford University Press. 24. Hart, R. 1991. Forest Gardening – Cultivating an Edible Landscape. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Press. 25. Hedrick, U.P. 1972. Sturtevant’s Edible Plants of the World. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. 26. Hemenway, T. 2000. “Fiber Plants with Multiple Functions”, The Permaculture Activist, 43: 47-48. 27. Hernandez Bermejo, J.E. 1994. Neglected Crops – 1492 from a Different Perspective. Cordoba, Spain: Botanical Garden of Cordoba. 28. Holmes, R. 1996. Taylor’s Guide to Fruits and Berries. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 29. Jaques, H.E. 1943. Plants We Eat and Wear. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, Inc. 30. Jesiolowski, J. 1994. “Four Ways that Weeds can Work for You”, Organic Gardening, 41(6): 34-36. 31. Kindscher, K. 1987. Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie – An Ethnobotannical Guide. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. 32. Kourik, R. 1986. Designing and Maintaining Your Edible Landscape Naturally. Santa Rosa, California: Metamorphic Press.

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33. Kronoff, L. and A.M. Stewart. 1975. Eating from the Wild. New York: Ballantine Books. 34. Lewington, A. 1990. Plants for People. New York: Oxford University Press. 35. Mabey, R. 1972. Food for Free. London: Collins. 36. Mattern, V. 1994. “Don’t Weed ‘em: Eat ‘em!”, Organic Gardening, 41(4): 70-73. 37. Moerman, D.E. 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. 38. Mollison, B. 1994. Useful Plants of Wetlands. Lismore, Australia: Permaculture International, Ltd. 39. _________. 1991. Introduction to Permaculture. Tyalgum, NSW, Australia: Tagari Publications. 40. _________. 1988. Permaculture – A Designer’s Manual. Tyalgum, NSW, Australia: Tagari Publications. 41. Mollison, B., and D. Holmgren. 1978. Permaculture One. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Transworld Publishers. 42. Morton, J.F. 1963. “Principal Wild Food Plants of the United States”, Economic Botany, 17(4): 319-330. 43. Munson, P.J. (ed.) 1984. Experiments and Observations on Aboriginal Wild Plant Food Utilization in Eastern North America. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana Historical Society. 44. Nyerges, C. 1999. Guide to Wild Foods and Useful Plants. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. 45. Peck, M. 1986. “Become a Weed-Eater!”, Mother Earth News, March/April: 118120. 46. Philbrick, H. 1970. Companion Plants & How to Use Them. Old Greenwich, Connecticut: The Devin-Adair Company. 47. Recht, C. and M.F. Wetterwald. 1993. Bamboos. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. 48. Schery, R.W. 1952. Plants for Man. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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49. Shosteck, R. 1986. “How Good are Wild Foods?”, Mother Earth News, July/August: 80-82. 50. Smith, J.R. 1977. Tree Crops – A Permanent Agriculture. Old Greenwich, Connecticut: The Devin-Adair Company. 51. Valley, R. 2000. “Bamboo and Black Locust – Growing Fiber for Fences”, The Permaculture Activist, 43: 53. 52. Vietmeyer, N.D. 1986. “Lesser Known Plants of Potential Use in Agriculture and Forestry”, Science, 232: 1379-1385. 53. Winterrowd, W. 1998. “A Taste for Weeds”, Horticulture, The Art of American Gardening, 95(4): 68-71. 54. Woodrow, L. 1996. The Permaculture Home Garden. Victoria, Australia: Viking. Latecoming Sources 55. McEvoy, K. 2000. “Unusual Vegetables”, Permaculture Magazine, 25: 6-10. 56. Morris, R. 2000. Plants for a Future – A Resource Centre for Edible and Other Useful Plants. http://www.pfaf.org. 57. 2001. Raintree Nursery Catalog. Morton, WA. 58. Nugent, J. and J. Boniface. 1996. Permaculture Plants – A Selection. Australia: Sustainable Agriculture Research Institute. 59. Uva, R., Neal, J.C. and DiTomaso, J.M. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates. 60. Black, H. 1996. “On the Virtues of the Autumn Olive”, The Permaculture Activist, 34: 47-48. 61. Paradine, U. 2000. “Kiwis in the Garden”, Permaculture Magazine, 26: 35-38. 62. Jeeves, A. 1994. Useful Bamboo Species. Tyalgum, NSW, Australia: Permaculture International Ltd. 63. Fletcher, D.J. 2000. Alternative Medicine. http://www.alternativemedicine.com/ whatshot/whathot49.shtml. 64. Simmons, A.F. 1972. Growing Unusual Fruit. New York: Walker and Company.

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Appendix A
Plant Characteristics and Uses By Botanical Name

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Native
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Apios americana Asclepias syriaca Asimina triloba Betula spp. Caltha palustris Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juncus effusus Lindera benzoin Malus baccata Morus spp. Myrica pennsylvanica Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Ostrya virginiana Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Picea glauca Pinus spp. Podophyllum peltatum Prunus domestica Prunus virginiana Prunus serotina Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Ribes spp.

Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Sambucus canadensis Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Sorbus americana Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vitis spp.

Exotic
Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Actinda spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Amaranthus spp. Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga Cytisus scoparius Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Foeniculum vulgare Hemerocaulis fulva

Humulus lupulus Genista tinctoria Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Linum usitatissimum Malus spp. Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Myrica gale Nasturtium officinale Oxalis acetosella Pinus spp. Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Pyrus communis Rosa spp. Rumex spp. Salix spp. Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Urtica dioica Vitis spp.

482

Plant Type
Perennial
Achillea millefolium Actinda spp. Acorus calamus Allium sativum Allium ursinum Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Asclepias syriaca Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Caltha palustris Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Crambe maritima Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oxalis acetosella Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Sagittaria latifolia

Sambucus canadensis Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tropaeolum majus Trifolium repens Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Tsuga canadensis

Shrubs
Alnus spp. Berberis spp. Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Cytisus scoparius Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Genista tinctoria Lindera benzoin Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Prunus virginiana Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sambucus canadensis Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum

Trees
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Amelanchier spp. Asimina triloba Betula spp. Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Cydonia oblongata Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Gleditsia triacanthos Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Malus baccata Mespilus germanica Morus spp. Ostrya virginiana Picea glauca Pinus spp. Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Salix spp. Sassafras albidium Sorbus americana Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp.

Biennials
Arctium minus Alliaria petiolata Oenothera biennis Rumex spp. Tragopogon porrifolius

Annuals
Amaranthus spp. Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Helianthus annus Linum usitatissimum Portulaca oleracea Stellaria media Tagetes patula

483

Aquatic
Caltha palustris Juncus effusus Lemna minor Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Phragmites communis Scirpus lacustris Typha latifolia

Edible Plants
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Actinda spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Betula spp. Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Capsella bursa-pastoris Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile

Cichorium intybus Corylus spp. Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaylussacia spp. Gaultheria procumbens Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juncus effusus Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Morus spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Oxalis acetosella Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Picea glauca Pinus spp.

Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Sambucus canadensis Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Sorbus americana Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vicia cracca Vitis spp.

484

Chocolate

Edible Parts/Uses
Bark
Betula spp. Lindera benzoin Pinus spp. Prunus serotina Salix spp. Tsuga canadensis

Tilia spp.

Coffee
Asparagus officinalis Castanea dentata Cichorium intybus Cytisus scoparius Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Fragaria spp. Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Linum usitatissimum Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Quercus spp. Rumex spp. Sonchus biennis Symphytum officinale Taraxacum officinale Tragopogon porrifolius

Nasturtium officinale Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Prunus serotina Sassafras albidium Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus

Flour
Amaranthus spp. Betula spp. Capsella bursa-pastoris Castanea dentata Corylus spp. Elaeagnus angustifolia Fagus grandifolia Gaylussacia spp. Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Juglans cinerea Medicago sativa Morus spp. Nuphar advena Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Pinus spp. Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Quercus spp. Sagittaria latifolia Scirpus lacustris Sorbus americana Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Typha latifolia Vaccinium macrocarpon

Beer
Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Betula spp. Chamaemelum nobile Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Gleditsia triacanthos Humulus lupulus Myrica gale Picea glauca Tanacetum vulgare

Condiment
Acorus calamus Allium sativum Allium ursinum Armoracia rusticana Capsella bursa-pastoris Celtis Occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Gaultheria procumbens Lavandula angustifolia Lindera benzoin Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica

Buds
Asclepias syriaca Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Cytisus scoparius Genista tinctoria Helianthus annus Hemerocaulis fulva Sassafras Scirpus lacustris Tragopogon porrifolius

Flowers
Allium sativum Arctium minus

485

Asclepias syriaca Bellis perennis Brassica nigra Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Lavandula angustifolia Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Oxalis acetosella Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rumex spp. Sambucus canadensis Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tilia spp. Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Typha latifolia

Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Lindera benzoin Malus baccata Mespilus germanica Morus spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Oxalis acetosella Physalis heterophylla Podophyllum peltatum Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pyrus communis Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sambucus canadensis Sorbus americana Tilia spp. Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vitis spp.

Prunus serotina Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Tagetes patula Vitis spp.

Leaves
Abies balsamea Achillea millefolium Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Arctium minus Armoracia rusticana Asclepias syriaca Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Betula spp. Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Capsella bursa-pastoris Cichorium intybus Crambe maritima Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Humulus lupulus Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Morus spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis

Flower Stalks
Allium ursinum Barbarea vulgaris Crambe maritima

Gum
Picea glauca Prunus domestica

Fruit
Actinda spp. Amelanchier spp. Asimina triloba Berberis spp. Celtis occidentalis Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblongata Diospyros virginiana

Juice/Drink
Acer spp. Berberis spp. Cydonia oblongata Elaeagnus angustifolia Fragaria spp. Gleditsia triacanthos Mespilus germanica Podophyllum peltatum

486

Oxalis acetosella Phragmites communis Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rosa spp. Ribes spp. Rumex spp. Salix spp. Sassafras albidium Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Urtica dioica Vaccinium spp. Vicia cracca Vitis spp.

Corylus spp. Diospyros virginiana Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Lavandula angustifolia Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Mentha spp. Oenothera biennis Prunus domestica Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Tagetes patula Urtica dioica

Robinia pseudoacacia Trifolium repens

Pollen
Pinus spp. Scirpus lacustris Typha latifolia

Resin
Picea glauca

Root
Acorus calamus Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus Caltha palustris Capsella bursa-pastoris Cichorium intybus Crambe maritima Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Physalis heterophylla Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Sagittaria latifolia Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Symphytum officinale Taraxacum officinale Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens

Pectin Source
Cydonia oblongata Malus baccata

Pickle
Allium ursinum Bambusa spp. Caltha palustris Helianthus tuberosus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Portulaca oleracea Tropaeolum majus

Nuts
Carya ovata Castanea dentata Corylus spp. Fagus grandifolia Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Pinus spp. Quercus spp.

Pods
Alliaria petiolata Asclepias syriaca Capsella bursa-pastoris Lathyrus latifolius Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

Oil
Asclepias syriaca Brassica nigra Carya ovata Castanea dentata Chamaemelum nobile

487

Typha latifolia

Sap
Acer spp. Actinda spp. Betula spp. Carya ovata Juglans cinerea Tilia spp.

Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rumex spp. Scirpus lacustris Tragopogon porrifolius Tropaeolum majus Vicia cracca

Symphytum officinale Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Shoots/Stems
Acorus calamus Alliaria petiolata Allium ursinum Amaranthus app. Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Betula spp. Brassica nigra Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cytisus scoparius Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Medicago sativa Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Phragmites communis Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rhus typhina Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Salix spp. Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media

Sprouts
Acer spp. Armoracia rusticana Capsella bursa-pastoris Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Quercus spp. Rubus spp. Tragopogon porrifolius

Seeds
Acer spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Asparagus officinalis Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Celtis occidentalis Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Foeniculum vulgare Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Lathyrus latifolius Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Phragmites communis Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Psophocarpus tetragonolobus

Sugar
Acer spp. Castanea dentata Gleditsia triacanthos Juglans cinerea Pinus spp. Tilia spp.

Syrup
Acer spp. Betula spp. Carya ovata Gaultheria procumbens Juglans cinerea Rosa spp. Scirpus lacustris

Tea
Abies balsamea Achillea millefolium Amelanchier spp. Berberis spp.
488

Betula spp. Capsella bursa-pastoris Chamaemelum nobile Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Humulus lupulus Lavandula angustifolia Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oxalis acetosella Picea glauca Pinus spp. Plantago major Prunus domestica Prunus virginiana Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sambucus canadensis Sassafras albidium Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Trifolium repens Tsuga canadensis Vaccinium spp. Vicia cracca

Vinegar
Acer spp. Betula spp. Diospyros virginiana

Wine
Actinda spp. Berberis spp. Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Melissa officinalis Morus spp. Prunus virginiana Prunus serotina Pyrus communis Ribes spp. Rubus spp. Sorbus americana Taraxacum officinale Trifolium repens Viburnum trilobum Vitis spp.

Medicinal Plants
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca

Twigs
Lindera benzoin Prunus virginiana Sassafras albidium

Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Betula spp. Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Capsella bursa-pastoris Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaylussacia spp. Gaultheria procumbens Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juglans cinerea Juncus effusus Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Morus spp.

489

Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Ostrya virginiana Oxalis acetosella Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Picea glauca Pinus spp. Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Sambucus canadensis Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Sorbus americana Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Urtica dioica

Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vitis spp.

Other Uses
Adhesive
Allium sativum Prunus domestica Symphytum officinale

Basketry
Acer spp. Acorus calamus Amelanchier spp. Cytisus scoparius Equisetum spp. Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Linum usitatissimum Phragmites communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Salix spp. Scirpus lacustris Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Vitis spp.

Bee Forage
Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Armoracia rusticana Asparagus officinalis

Apios americana Asclepias syriaca Bellis perennis Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Humulus lupulus Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Nasturtium officinalis Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Oxalis acetosella Plantago major Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rubus spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tilia spp. Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Vaccinium macrocarpon

490

Vaccinium spp. Vicia cracca

Charcoal
Alnus spp. Betula spp. Carya ovata Fagus grandifolia Quercus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Tilia spp.

Beneficial Insect Attractor
Achillea millefolium Amaranthus spp. Apios americana Asclepias syriaca Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Nasturtium officinale Oenothera biennis Sonchus arvensis Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Urtica dioica

Tragopogon porrifolius Tropaeolum majus Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Compost
Achillea millefolium Betula spp. Brassica nigra Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Lemna minor Medicago sativa Phragmites communis Portulaca oleracea Quercus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rumex spp. Sambucus canadensis Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Cloth
Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Cytisus scoparius Genista tinctoria Helianthus annus Humulus lupulus Linum usitatissimum Robinia pseudoacacia Tilia spp. Typha latifolia Urtica dioica

Companion Plants
Achillea millefolium Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Asparagus officinalis Armoracia rusticana Chamaemelum nobile Elaeagnus angustifolia Fragaria spp. Lavandula angustifolia Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Mentha spp. Helianthus annus Morus spp. Picea glauca Rubus spp. Sonchus arvensis Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare

Coppice Material
Acer spp. Alnus spp. Betula spp. Castanea dentata Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Gleditsia triacanthos Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Salix spp. Tilia spp.

Biomass
Bambusa spp. Cichorium intybus Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Medicago sativa Phragmites communis Robinia pseudoacacia Salix spp. Symphytum officinale Typha latifolia

Bird Deterrent
Amelanchier spp.

Cover Crop
Achillea millefolium Amaranthus spp. Brassica nigra

491

Cichorium intybus Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Melissa officinalis Oenothera biennis Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rumex spp. Tagetes patula Taraxacum officinale Tragopogon porrifolius Vicia cracca

Disinfectant
Allium ursinum Lindera benzoin

Dye
Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Alliaria petiolata Alnus spp. Asclepias syriaca Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Berberis spp. Betula spp. Caltha palustris Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Corylus spp. Cytisus scoparius Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Genista tinctoria

Malus baccata Medicago sativa Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Oenothera biennis Phragmites communis Pinus spp. Plantago major Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Sambucus canadensis Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tsuga canadensis Urtica dioica Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Vitis spp.

Cytisus scoparius Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Nasturtium officinale Oenothera biennis Oxalis acetosella Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Quercus spp. Rumex spp. Salix spp. Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Typha latifolia Vicia cracca

Erosion Control
Apios americana Asclepias syriaca Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Betula spp. Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Equisetum spp. Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Hemerocaulis fulva Juncus effusus Medicago

Dynamic Accumulators
Achillea millefolium Allium sativum Amaranthus spp. Arctium minus Bellis perennis Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus

492

Myrica pennsylvanica Phragmites communis Prunus domestica Prunus virginiana Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Scirpus lacustris

Typha latifolia Urtica dioica

Ground Cover
Achillea millefolium Armoracia rusticana Bambusa spp. Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Caltha palustris Chamaemelum nobile Crambe maritima Cytisus scoparius Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Genista tinctoria Hemerocaulis fulva Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Oxalis acetosella Podophyllum peltatum Rubus spp. Symphytum officinale Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Vaccinium macrocarpon

Fire Resistant
Celtis occidentalis Elaeagnus angustifolia Prunus domestica Prunus serotina Robinia pseudoacacia Salix spp.

Fertilizer
Achillea millefolium Arctium minus Chamaemelum nobile Equisetum spp. Helianthus annus Salix spp. Symphytum officinale Urtica dioica

Fuel
Abies balsamea Bambusa spp. Carya ovata Cichorium intybus Elaeagnus angustifolia Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Malus baccata Ostrya virginiana Phragmites communis Pinus spp. Quercus spp. Salix spp. Typha latifolia

Fiber
Acorus calamus Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Asimina triloba Bambusa spp. Betula spp. Corylus spp. Cytisus scoparius Helianthus annus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Genista tinctoria Juncus effusus Linum usitatissimum Phragmites communis Robinia pseudoacacia Rubus spp. Scirpus lacustris Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp.
493

Wildlife Habitat
Abies balsamea Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Elaeagnus angustifolia Humulus lupulus Helianthus annus Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Phragmites communis Pinus spp. Prunus domestica Robinia pseudoacacia Rubus spp. Salix spp. Scirpus lacustris Thuja occidentalis

Fungicide
Armoracia rusticana Asimina triloba Chamaemelum nobile Equisetum spp.

Green Manure
Helianthus annus Medicago sativa Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Trifolium repens Vicia cracca

Tilia spp. Tsuga canadensis Vitis spp.

Hedge/Shelterbelt
Acer spp. Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Bambusa spp. Berberis spp. Corylus spp. Crataegus spp. Cytisus scoparius Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Gleditsia triacanthos Lavandula angustifolia Malus baccata Mespilus germanica Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Prunus domestica Prunus institia Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Thuja occidentalis Tsuga canadensis Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum

Capsella bursa-pastoris Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Equisetum spp. Fragaria spp. Juncus effusus Plantago major Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Salix spp. Sonchus arvensis Stellaria media Taraxacum officinale Trifolium repens Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Quercus spp.

Insulation
Asclepias syriaca Phragmites communis Typha latifolia

Intercrop
Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Crataegus spp. Elaeagnus angustifolia Linum usitatissimum Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Rubus spp. Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens

Insecticide
Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Allium sativum Allium ursinum Asimina triloba Bellis perennis Capsella bursa-pastoris Chamaemelum nobile Foeniculum vulgare Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Picea glauca Podophyllum peltatum Robinia pseudoacacia Sassafras albidium Sonchus arvensis Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Thuja occidentalis Tropaeolum majus

Livestock Fodder
Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Actinda spp. Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Apios americana Bambusa spp. Brassica nigra Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Cichorium intybus Corylus spp. Cydonia oblonga Cytisus scoparius Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata

Honey
Robinia pseudoacacia Tilia spp. Trifolium repens

Indicator
Achillea millefolium Amaranthus spp. Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Bellis perennis Brassica nigra

494

Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Humulus lupulus Juglans nigra Juncus effusus Lemna minor Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Phragmites communis Plantago major Portulaca oleracea Prunus virginiana Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rumex spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Symphytum officinale Taraxacum officinale Trifolium repens Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vicia cracca

Cytisus scoparius Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Genista tinctoria Lathyrus latifolius Medicago sativa Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Robinia pseudoacacia Trifolium repens Vicia cracca

Paper
Arctium minus Asclepias syriaca Bambusa spp. Cytisus scoparius Genista tinctoria Helianthus annus Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Linum usitatissimum Phragmites communis Pinus spp. Scirpus lacustris Tilia spp. Typha latifolia Urtica dioica

Oil
Abies balsamea Achillea millefolium Chamaemelum nobile Cytisus scoparius Elaeagnus angustifolia Foeniculum vulgare Humulus lupulus Lavandula angustifolia Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Sassafras albidium Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Thuja occidentalis

Perfumery
Achillea millefolium Chamaemelum nobile Elaeagnus angustifolia Foeniculum vulgare Humulus lupulus Lavandula angustifolia Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Tagetes patula Thuja occidentalis

Mulch
Elaeagnus umbellata Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Lemna minor Medicago sativa Picea glauca Pinus spp. Symphytum officinale

Pioneer
Acer spp. Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus Betula spp. Cichorium intybus Elaeagnus angustifolia Helianthus tuberosus Linum usitatissimum Pinus spp. Plantago major Prunus virginiana

Nitrogen-Fixers
Alnus spp. Apios americana

Oxygenator
Lemna minor

495

Robinia pseudoacacia Rumex spp. Taraxacum officinale Urtica dioica

Shampoo
Chamaemelum nobile

Preservative
Acer spp.

Smoking Additive
Foeniculum vulgare Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Myrica pennsylvanica

Rooting Hormone
Salix spp.

Soap
Brassica nigra Carya ovata Foeniculum vulgare Helianthus annus Lavandula angustifolia Linum usitatissimum Myrica pennsylvanica Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rosa spp. Sassafras albidium

Rootstock
Amelanchier spp. Cydonia oblonga Malus baccata

Rubber
Apios americana Asclepias syriaca Taraxacum officinale

Seasonal Indicator
Amelanchier spp.

Tannins
Alnus spp. Castanea dentata Cydonia oblonga Cytisus scoparius Myrica pennsylvanica Picea glauca Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Thuja occidentalis Tsuga canadensis

Shade
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Actinda spp. Fagus grandifolia Humulus lupulus Morus spp. Quercus spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Sassafras albidium Tilia spp. Vitis spp.

Acer spp. Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Asimina triloba Bambusa spp. Berberis spp. Betula spp. Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Fagus grandifolia Gleditsia triacanthos Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Malus baccata Mespilus germanica Morus spp. Ostrya virginiana Picea glauca Pinus spp. Prunus domestica Prunus serotina Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Sassafras albidium Salix spp. Sorbus americana Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tsuga canadensis

Water Purifier
Acorus calamus Juncus effusus Lemna minor Nasturtium officinale Phragmites communis Scirpus lacustris Typha latifolia

Tar
Pinus spp.

Timber
Abies balsamea

496

Waterproofing Agent
Abies balsamea Picea glauca

Wax
Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica

Weed Border
Melissa officinalis Symphytum officinale

Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Sambucus canadensis Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Sorbus americana Stellaria media Trifolium repens Tsuga canadensis Viburnum triloba Vitis spp.

Wood Polish/Varnish
Corylus spp. Equisetum spp. Helianthus annus

Cultivation Details
Full Sun
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Acorus calamus Actinda spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Asclepias syriaca Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Carya ovata Castanea dentata Celtis occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile Corylus spp. Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga

Wildlife Forage
Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Asclepias syriaca Berberis spp. Capsella bursa-pastoris Celtis occidentalis Crataegus spp. Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia app. Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Juncus effusus Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Malus baccata Myrica pennsylvanica Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Oxalis acetosella Physalis heterophylla Pinus spp. Prunus virginiana Prunus serotina

Windbreak
Acer spp. Alnus spp. Bambusa spp. Carya ovata Celtis occidentalis Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Morus spp. Myrica pennsylvanica Picea glauca Pinus spp. Prunus domestica Prunus institia Pyrus communis Quercus spp. Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Sambucus canadensis Sorbus americana Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp.

497

Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaylussacia spp. Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juglans cinerea Juglans nigra Juncus effusus Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Morus spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Oenothera biennis Ostrya virginiana Oxalis acetosella Phragmites communis Physalis heterophylla Picea glauca Pinus spp. Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Pyrus communis Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Robinia pseudoacacia Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix spp. Sassafras albidium Scirpus lacustris Sonchus arvensis Sorbus americana Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Thuja occidentalis Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vicia cracca Vitis spp.

Partial Shade
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Achillea millefolium Actinda spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amaranthus spp. Amelanchier spp. Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Arctium minus

Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Bellis perennis Berberis spp. Betula spp. Caltha palustris Castanea dentata Chamaemelum nobile Cichorium intybus Corylus spp. Crambe maritima Crataegus spp. Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juncus effusus Lathyrus latifolius Lindera benzoin Malus baccata Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Nuphar advena Ostrya virginiana Oxalis acetosella Physalis heterophylla Plantago major Podophyllum peltatum Portulaca oleracea Prunus domestica Prunus institia Prunus serotina

498

Rhus typhina Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sassafras albidium Salix spp. Sambucus canadensis Scirpus lacustris Sorbus americana Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga canadensis Typha latifolia Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vicia cracca

Linum usitatissimum Medicago sativa Oenothera biennis Picea glauca Portulaca oleracea Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Sagittaria latifolia Tanacetum vulgare Vaccinium macrocarpon

Moist Soil
Abies balsamea Acer spp. Acorus calamus Actinda spp. Alliaria petiolata Allium sativum Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Apios americana Armoracia rusticana Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Bambusa spp. Barbarea vulgaris Berberis spp. Betula spp. Carya ovata Castanea dentata Cichorium intybus Crataegus spp. Cydonia oblonga Equisetum spp. Fagus grandifolia Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Genista tinctoria Helianthus tuberosus Hemerocaulis fulva Humulus lupulus Juglans cinerea

Full Shade
Abies balsamea Achillea millefolium Allium ursinum Cichorium intybus Fagus grandifolia Gaultheria procumbens Symphytum officinale Tsuga canadensis Urtica dioica

Shade Intolerant
Allium sativum Armoracia rusticana Carya ovata Celtis occidentalis Genista tinctoria Gleditsia triacanthos Juglans cinerea Lavandula angustifolia

Juglans nigra Lathyrus latifolius Lindera benzoin Malus baccata Mentha spp. Morus spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Nasturtium officinale Oxalis acetosella Picea glauca Podophyllum peltatum Portulaca oleracea Prunus institia Prunus serotina Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Pyrus communis Ribes spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Sagittaria latifolia Salix Sambucus canadensis Sorbus americana Stellaria media Symphytum officinale Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale Thuja occidentalis Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Tsuga heterophylla Typha latifolia Urtica dioica Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp. Viburnum trilobum Vicia cracca Vitis spp.

Wet Soil
Alnus spp. Caltha palustris Equisetum spp.

499

Juncus effusus Lemna minor Mentha spp. Myrica gale Nuphar advena Phragmites communis Salix spp. Scirpus lacustris Sorbus americana Viburnum trilobum

Asimina triloba Asparagus officinalis Celtis occidentalis Fragaria spp. Oxalis acetosella Plantago major Prunus serotina Prunus virginiana Sassafras albidium Tragopogon porrifolius Vitis spp.

Dry Soil
Achillea millefolium Amaranthus spp. Asclepias syriaca Bellis perennis Chamaemelum nobile Crambe maritima Gaultheria procumbens Genista tinctoria Lavandula angustifolia Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Oenothera biennis Physalis heterophylla Rhus typhina Sassafras albidium

Light/Medium Soil
Apios americana Betula spp. Foeniculum vulgare Gaultheria procumbens Gaylussacia spp. Genista tinctoria Linum usitatissimum Pinus spp. Prunus domestica

Heavy Soils
Caltha palustris Prunus domestica Rumex spp.

Poor Soil
Achillea millefolium Armoracia rusticana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata Helianthus tuberosus Oenothera biennis Pinus spp. Prunus virginiana Rhus typhina Vaccinium macrocarpon

Most Soil Types
Allium ursinum Alnus spp. Amelanchier spp. Bambusa spp. Berberis spp. Brassica nigra Capsella bursa-pastoris Carya ovata Celtis occidentalis Chamaemelum nobile Cytisus scoparius Diospyros virginiana Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnus umbellata

Equisetum spp. Foeniculum vulgare Fragaria spp. Gleditsia triacanthos Helianthus annus Hemerocaulis fulva Juglans cinerea Lathyrus latifolius Lavandula angustifolia Lindera benzoin Linum usitatissimum Malus baccata Medicago sativa Melissa officinalis Mentha spp. Mespilus germanica Myrica gale Oenothera biennis Ostrya virginiana Oxalis acetosella Physalis heterophylla Plantago major Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Pyrus communis Rhus typhina Robinia pseudoacacia Rubus spp. Sonchus arvensis Symphytum officinale Tagetes patula Tanacetum vulgare Tilia spp. Tragopogon porrifolius Trifolium repens Tropaeolum majus Viburnum trilobum Vicia cracca

Rich Soil
Actinda spp. Armoracia rusticana

500

Soil pH
Any pH
Acorus calamus Apios americana Arctium minus Barbarea vulgaris Cichorium intybus Taraxacum officinale

Acidic  Neutral pH
Actinda spp. Allium sativum Amelanchier spp. Asclepias syriaca Fragaria spp. Gaultheria procumbens Hemerocaulis fulva Juglans cinerea Juncus effusus Lindera benzoin Podophyllum peltatum Prunus domestica Pyrus communis Ribes spp. Rosa spp. Rubus spp. Sassafras albidium Vitis spp.

Alkaline pH
Alliaria petiolata Armoracia rusticana Berberis spp. Brassica nigra Caltha palustris Chamaemelum nobile Thuja occidentalis Trifolium repens

Acidic pH
Abies balsamea Corylus spp. Fagus grandifolia Gaylussacia spp. Myrica gale Myrica pennsylvanica Picea glauca Pinus spp. Rubus spp. Rumex spp. Vaccinium macrocarpon Vaccinium spp.

Alkaline  Neutral pH
Crambe maritima Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor Medicago sativa Mentha spp.

Other
Allelopathic Plants
Helianthus annus Helianthus tuberosus Juglans nigra

Neutral pH
Castanea dentata Helianthus annus Juglans nigra

501

Appendix B
Plant Characteristics and Uses By Common Name

502

Native
Alder American Beech American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Balsam Fir Basswood Black Cherry Black Locust Black Walnut Blueberry Birch Bulrush Butternut Cattail Chestnut Choke Cherry Common Reed Crab Apple Cranberry Currant Elderberry Evening Primrose Gooseberry Grape Ground Cherry Groundnut Hackberry Hazelnut Hawthorn Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Horsetail Huckleberry Ironwood Jerusalem Artichoke Marsh Marigold Maple May Apple Milkweed Mulberry Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Oak

Pawpaw Persimmon Pine Plum Rasp/blackberry Rose Rush Sassafras Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower White Spruce Willow Wintergreen Yellow Pond Lily

Exotic
Alfalfa Amaranth Asparagus Autumn Olive Bamboo Barberry Black Mustard Burdock Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Comfrey Crab Apple Daisy Damson Dandelion Day Lily Dock Duckweed Dyer’s Greenweed Everlasting Pea Fennel Flax

Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Hawthorn Hop Horseradish Kiwi Lavender Lemon Balm Linden Marigold Medlar Mint Nasturtium Nettle Quince Pear Pine Plantain Plum Purslane Rose Russian Olive Salsify Scotch Broom Sea Kale Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy Watercress White Clover Winged Bean Wintercress Wild Garlic Willow Wood Sorrel Yarrow

503

Plant Type
Perennials
Alfalfa Arrowhead Asparagus Bamboo Bulrush Cattail Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Comfrey Common Reed Daisy Dandelion Day Lily Duckweed Elderberry Everlasting Pea Fennel Garlic Ground Cherry Groundnut Hop Horseradish Horsetail Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Lavender Lemon Balm Marsh Marigold May Apple Milkweed Mint Nasturtium Nettle Plantain Rush Sea Kale Sow Thistle Strawberry Sunflower

Sweet Flag Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover Wild Garlic Winged Bean Wintercress Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Shrubs
Alder Autumn Olive Barberry Blueberry Choke Cherry Cranberry Currant/Gooseberry Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Hawthorn Hazelnut Highbush Cranberry Huckleberry Northern Bayberry Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Scotch Broom Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Sweet Gale Wintergreen

Trees
American Beech American Mountain Ash Balsam Fir Birch Black Cherry Black Locust Black Walnut Butternut Chestnut Crab Apple Damson Hackberry Hemlock Honey Locust Ironwood Linden/Basswood Maple Medlar Mulberry Northern White Cedar Oak Pawpaw Pear Persimmon Pine Plum Quince Sassafras Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Willow White Spruce

Biennials
Burdock Dock Evening Primrose Garlic Mustard Salsify

Annuals
Amaranth Black Mustard Chickweed Flax Marigold Purslane Shepherd’s Purse Sunflower

504

Aquatic
Bulrush Cattail Common Reed Duckweed Marsh Marigold Rush Watercress Yellow Pond Lily

Edible Plants
Alder Alfalfa Amaranth American Beech American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Asparagus Autumn Olive Balsam Fir Bamboo Barberry Basswood Birch Black Cherry Black Locust Black Mustard Black Walnut Blueberry Bulrush Burdock Butternut Cattail Chamomile Chestnut Chickweed Chicory Choke Cherry Comfrey Common Reed Common Rush Crab Apple
505

Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Daisy Damson Dandelion Day Lily Dock Duckweed Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Evening Primrose Everlasting Pea Fennel Flax Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Ground Cherry Groundnut Hackberry Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Hop Horseradish Horsetail Huckleberry Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Lavender Lemon Balm Linden Maple Marigold Marsh Marigold May Apple Medlar Milkweed Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Nettle Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar

Oak Pawpaw Pear Persimmon Pine Plantain Plum Purslane Quince Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Salsify Sassafras Scotch Broom Sea Kale Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover White Spruce Wild Garlic Willow Winged Bean Wintercress Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Edible Parts/Uses
Bark
Birch Black Cherry Hemlock Pine Spicebush Willow

Coffee
American Beech Asparagus Chestnut Chicory Comfrey Dandelion Dock Dyer’s Greenweed Flax Hawthorn Honey Locust Jerusalem Artichoke Oak Persimmon Salsify Scotch Broom Sow Thistle Strawberry Sunflower Winged Bean

White Clover White Spruce Wild Garlic Wintergreen

Flour
Alfalfa Amaranth American Beech American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Birch Bulrush Butternut Cattail Chestnut Common Reed Cranberry Ground Cherry Hazelnut Honey Locust Huckleberry Jerusalem Artichoke Mulberry Oak Pine Plantain Purslane Russian Olive Salsify Shepherd’s Purse Sunflower White Clover Yellow Pond Lily

Beer
Birch Chamomile Honey Locust Hop Maple Persimmon Scotch Broom Sweet Gale Tansy White Spruce Yarrow

Condiment
Black Cherry Chamomile Fennel Garlic Hackberry Horseradish Horsetail Lavender Lemon Balm Marigold Mint Nasturtium Northern Bayberry Purslane Sassafras Shepherd’s Purse Spicebush Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy

Buds
Black Mustard Bulrush Daisy Day Lily Dyer’s Greenweed Marsh Marigold Milkweed Salsify Sassafras Scotch Broom Sunflower Wintercress

Flowers
Black Locust Black Mustard Burdock Cattail Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Comfrey

Chocolate
Basswood/Linden

506

Daisy Dandelion Day Lily Dock Elderberry Evening Primrose Garlic Hop Lavender Linden/Basswood Marigold Milkweed Nasturtium Plum Purslane Rose Tansy White Clover White Spruce Winged Bean Wood Sorrel Yellow Pond Lily

Highbush Cranberry Huckleberry Kiwi Linden/Basswood May Apple Medlar Mulberry Northern Bayberry Pawpaw Pear Persimmon Plum Quince Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Serviceberry Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sweet Gale Wintergreen Wood Sorrel

Leaves
Alfalfa Amaranth American Beech Balsam Fir Barberry Black Mustard Blueberry Birch Burdock Chickweed Chicory Comfrey Common Reed Currant and Gooseberry Daisy Dandelion Dock Duckweed Evening Primrose Everlasting Pea Fennel Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Hemlock Hop Horseradish Horsetail Lavender Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Marigold Marsh Marigold Milkweed Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Nettle Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Plantain Purslane Rose Salsify

Flower Stalks
Sea Kale Wild Garlic Wintercress

Gum
Plum White Spruce

Fruit
American Mountain Ash Autumn Olive Barberry Black Cherry Blueberry Choke Cherry Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Damson Elderberry Grape Ground Cherry Hackberry Hawthorn

Juice/Drink
Barberry Black Cherry Black Locust Grape Honey Locust Maple Marigold May Apple Medlar Quince Russian Olive Staghorn Sumac Strawberry

507

Sassafras Sea Kale Serviceberry Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Strawberry Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover Wild Garlic Willow Winged Bean Wintercress Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Marigold Milkweed Mint Nettle Persimmon Plum Shagbark Hickory Sunflower Winged Bean

Root
Arrowhead Bulrush Burdock Cattail Chicory Comfrey Common Reed Dandelion Day Lily Evening Primrose Fennel Garlic Garlic Mustard Groundnut Horseradish Horsetail Jerusalem Artichoke Marsh Marigold Salsify Sassafras Sea Kale Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Flag White Clover Wild Garlic Winged Bean Yellow Pond Lily

Pectin Source
Crab Apple Quince

Pickle
Bamboo Black Walnut Butternut Common Reed Ground Cherry Jerusalem Artichoke Marsh Marigold Nasturtium Purslane Wild Garlic

Nuts
American Beech Black Walnut Butternut Chestnut Hazelnut Oak Pine Shagbark Hickory

Pods
Black Locust Everlasting Pea Garlic Mustard Milkweed Purslane Shepherd’s Purse White Clover White Spruce Winged Bean

Oil
American Beech Black Mustard Black Walnut Butternut Chamomile Chestnut Crab Apple Evening Primrose Fennel Flax Hazelnut Lavender

Sap
Birch Butternut Kiwi Linden/Basswood Maple Shagbark Hickory

Pollen
Bulrush Cattail Pine

Seeds
Alder Alfalfa

508

Amaranth Asparagus Autumn Olive Black Cherry Black Locust Black Mustard Bulrush Common Reed Damson Dock Dyer’s Greenweed Evening Primrose Everlasting Pea Fennel Flax Garlic Garlic Mustard Groundnut Hackberry Honey Locust Horseradish Maple Nasturtium Persimmon Plantain Plum Purslane Rose Russian Olive Salsify Scotch Broom Shepherd’s Purse Sunflower Vetch Watercress Winged Bean Yellow Pond Lily

Bulrush Burdock Cattail Chickweed Comfrey Common Reed Day Lily Dock Evening Primrose Fennel Garlic Mustard Hawthorn Hop Horsetail Milkweed Nasturtium Nettle Purslane Rasp/blackberry Rose Rush Salsify Scotch Broom Sea Kale Sow Thistle Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sweet Flag Vetch White Clover White Spruce Wild Garlic Willow Winged Bean Yellow Pond Lily

Shepherd’s Purse Sunflower

Sugar
Butternut Chestnut Honey Locust Linden/Basswood Maple Pine

Syrup
Birch Bulrush Butternut Maple Rose Shagbark Hickory Wintergreen

Tea
Alfalfa Balsam Fir Barberry Birch Blueberry Chamomile Choke Cherry Comfrey Crab Apple Currant and Gooseberry Elderberry Fennel Flax Hawthorn Hemlock Hop Lavender Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Mint Northern White Cedar Persimmon

Sprouts
Alfalfa Fennel Flax Horseradish Maple Oak Rasp/blackberry Salsify

Shoots/Stems
Alfalfa Amaranth Asparagus Bamboo Birch Black Mustard

509

Pine Plantain Plum Rasp/blackberry Rose Sassafras Serviceberry Shepherd’s Purse Spicebush Strawberry Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover White Spruce Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Mulberry Pear Persimmon Rasp/blackberry White Clover

Medicinal Plants
Alder Alfalfa Amaranth American Beech American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Asparagus Autumn Olive Balsam Fir Bamboo Barberry Birch Black Cherry Black Locust Black Mustard Blueberry Bulrush Burdock Butternut Cattail Chamomile Chestnut Chickweed Chicory Choke Cherry Comfrey Common Reed Common Rush Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Daisy

Twigs
Choke Cherry Sassafras Spicebush

Vinegar
Birch Maple Persimmon

Wine
American Mountain Ash Barberry Black Cherry Choke Cherry Currant and Gooseberry Dandelion Grape Hawthorn Highbush Cranberry Kiwi Lemon Balm

Damson Dandelion Day Lily Dock Duckweed Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Evening Primrose Fennel Flax Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Ground Cherry Hackberry Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Hop Horseradish Horsetail Huckleberry Ironwood Jerusalem Artichoke Lavender Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Maple Marigold Marsh Marigold May Apple Medlar Milkweed Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Nettle Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Oak Pawpaw Pear Persimmon Pine

510

Plantain Plum Purslane Quince Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Salsify Sassafras Scotch Broom Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress Wild Garlic White Clover White Spruce Willow Wintercress Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Basketry
Bulrush Cattail Common Reed Flax Grape Hemlock Hop Horsetail Linden/Basswood Maple Northern White Cedar Oak Rush Scotch Broom Serviceberry Staghorn Sumac Sweet Flag Willow

Bee Forage
Alder Alfalfa Arrowhead Asparagus Autumn Olive Black Cherry Black Locust Blueberry Chamomile Chicory Comfrey Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Daisy Damson Dandelion Dyer’s Greenweed Everlasting Pea Fennel Groundnut Hawthorn Honey Locust

Hop Horseradish Lavender Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Maple Milkweed Mint Nasturtium Persimmon Plantain Plum Rasp/blackberry Russian Olive Scotch Broom Sea Kale Sow Thistle Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover Wild Garlic Willow Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Beneficial Insect Attractor
Alfalfa Amaranth Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Dandelion Evening Primrose Fennel Groundnut Lemon Balm Milkweed

Other Uses
Adhesive
Comfrey Garlic Plum

511

Nasturtium Nettle Salsify Sow Thistle Sunflower Tansy Watercress White Clover Yarrow

Milkweed Nettle Scotch Broom Sunflower

Companion Plant
Alder Alfalfa Asparagus Chamomile Flax Garlic Horseradish Lavender Marigold Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Nettle Rasp/blackberry Russian Olive Salsify Sow Thistle Strawberry Sunflower Vetch Tansy White Spruce Wild Garlic Yarrow

Elderberry Nettle Oak Purslane Tansy Vetch Yarrow

Coppice Material
Alder Birch Black Locust Chestnut Hawthorn Hazelnut Honey Locust Linden/Basswood Maple Oak Staghorn Sumac Willow

Biomass
Alfalfa Bamboo Black Locust Cattail Chicory Comfrey Common Reed Jerusalem Artichoke Sunflower Willow

Bird Deterrent
Serviceberry

Cover Crop
Amaranth Black Mustard Chicory Dandelion Dock Evening Primrose Fennel Horsetail Lemon Balm Marigold Salsify Sunflower Vetch Winged Bean Yarrow

Charcoal
Alder American Beech Birch Black Locust Linden/Basswood Oak Shagbark Hickory

Compost
Alfalfa Birch Black Locust Black Mustard Cattail Chamomile Chicory Comfrey Common Reed Dandelion Dock Duckweed

Cloth
Black Locust Burdock Cattail Dyer’s Greenweed Flax Hop Linden/Basswood

Disinfectant
Spicebush Wild Garlic

512

Dye
Alder Alfalfa Asparagus Barberry Birch Black Cherry Black Locust Black Walnut Blueberry Bulrush Butternut Chamomile Chestnut Chicory Choke Cherry Common Reed Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Damson Dandelion Day Lily Dock Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Evening Primrose Fennel Garlic Mustard Grape Hackberry Hazelnut Hemlock Hop Horsetail Maple Marigold Marsh Marigold Medlar Milkweed Mint Nettle Northern Bayberry Oak Pawpaw

Pear Pine Plantain Plum Rasp/blackberry Rose Sassafras Scotch Broom Shagbark Hickory Staghorn Sumac Sunflower Sweet Gale Tansy Yarrow

Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover Willow Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow

Erosion Control
Alfalfa Arrowhead Asparagus Autumn Olive Bamboo Birch Black Locust Bulrush Choke Cherry Common Reed Common Rush Day Lily Dyer’s Greenweed Groundnut Honey Locust Horsetail Milkweed Northern Bayberry Persimmon Plum Rose Russian Olive Scotch Broom Staghorn Sumac Sunflower Willow Winged Bean

Dynamic Accumulator
Alfalfa Amaranth Black Mustard Burdock Cattail Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Comfrey Daisy Dandelion Dock Evening Primrose Fennel Flax Garlic Horsetail Lemon Balm Marigold Mint Nasturtium Oak Plantain Purslane Scotch Broom Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Strawberry

Fertilizer
Burdock Chamomile Comfrey Horsetail Nettle

513

Sunflower Willow Yarrow

Fiber
Bamboo Birch Black Locust Bulrush Burdock Cattail Common Reed Common Rush Day Lily Dyer’s Greenweed Flax Hazelnut Hop Linden/Basswood Milkweed Northern White Cedar Nettle Pawpaw Rasp/blackberry Scotch Broom Sunflower Sweet Flag

Honey Locust Ironwood Jerusalem Artichoke Oak Pine Russian Olive Shagbark Hickory Sunflower Willow

Sea Kale Strawberry White Clover Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow

Wildlife Habitat
Balsam Fir Black Locust Bulrush Common Reed Common Rush Dyer’s Greenweed Grape Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Hop Linden/Basswood Northern White Cedar Pine Plum Rasp/blackberry Russian Olive Sunflower Willow

Fungicide
Chamomile Horseradish Horsetail Pawpaw

Green Manure
Alfalfa Sunflower Vetch White Clover Winged Bean

Ground Cover
Alfalfa Bamboo Barberry Chamomile Comfrey Cranberry Daisy Day Lily Dyer’s Greenweed Everlasting Pea Horseradish Lavender Lemon Balm Marsh Marigold May Apple Mint Nasturtium Rasp/blackberry Scotch Broom

Fire Resistant
Black Cherry Black Locust Hackberry Plum Russian Olive Willow

Hedge/Shelterbelt
Alder Autumn Olive Bamboo Barberry Blueberry Crab Apple Currant and Gooseberry Damson Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Lavender Maple

Fuel
Balsam Fir Bamboo Cattail Chicory Common Reed Crab Apple

514

Medlar Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Plum Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Scotch Broom Serviceberry Sweet Gale

Insecticide
Black Locust Chamomile Daisy Duckweed Everlasting Pea Fennel Garlic Lavender Lemon Balm Marigold May Apple Mint Nasturtium Northern White Cedar Oak Pawpaw Sassafras Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy White Spruce Wild Garlic Yarrow

Salsify Shepherd’s Purse Tansy White Clover White Spruce

Livestock Fodder
Alder Alfalfa Amaranth American Beech Arrowhead Autumn Olive Bamboo Black Locust Black Mustard Black Walnut Cattail Chestnut Chicory Choke Cherry Comfrey Common Reed Common Rush Crab Apple Currant and Gooseberry Dandelion Dock Duckweed Fennel Groundnut Hackberry Hawthorn Hazelnut Honey Locust Hop Horsetail Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Lemon Balm Maple Mulberry Nettle Oak Pear

Honey
Black Locust Linden/Basswood White Clover

Indicator
Amaranth Black Mustard Burdock Cattail Chamomile Chickweed Chicory Common Rush Daisy Dandelion Dock Horsetail Milkweed Nettle Plantain Rasp/blackberry Rose Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Strawberry Vetch White Clover Willow Yarrow

Insulation
Cattail Common Reed Milkweed

Intercrop
Alder Amaranth Autumn Olive Black Mustard Flax Hawthorn Marigold Purslane Rasp/blackberry

515

Persimmon Plantain Purslane Quince Russian Olive Scotch Broom Shagbark Hickory Sunflower Vetch White Clover Willow Yarrow

Mulch
Alfalfa Autumn Olive Comfrey Duckweed Jerusalem Artichoke Pine Sunflower White Spruce

Chamomile Fennel Flax Hop Lavender Lemon Balm Marigold Mint Northern White Cedar Rose Russian Olive Sassafras Scotch Broom Spicebush Sweet Gale Tansy Winged Bean Yarrow

Hop Lavender Marigold Northern White Cedar Rose Russian Olive Yarrow

Pioneer
Alder Amaranth Birch Black Locust Burdock Chicory Choke Cherry Dandelion Dock Flax Horseradish Jerusalem Artichoke Maple Nettle Plantain Pine Russian Olive

Oxygenator
Duckweed

Nitrogen-Fixers
Alder Alfalfa Autumn Olive Black Locust Dyer’s Greenweed Everlasting Pea Groundnut Northern Bayberry Russian Olive Scotch Broom Sweet Gale Vetch White Clover Winged Bean

Paper
Bamboo Bulrush Burdock Cattail Common Reed Common Rush Dyer’s Greenweed Flax Hop Linden/Basswood Milkweed Nettle Pine Scotch Broom Sunflower

Preservative
Maple

Rooting Hormone
Willow

Rootstock
Crab Apple Quince Serviceberry

Oil
Alfalfa Balsam Fir Black Locust

Perfumery
Black Locust Chamomile Fennel

Rubber
Dandelion Groundnut
516

Milkweed

Tannins
Alder Chestnut Hemlock Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Oak Quince Scotch Broom Staghorn Sumac White Spruce

Seasonal Indicator
Serviceberry

Shade
American Beech Balsam Fir Black Locust Grape Hop Kiwi Linden/Basswood Maple Mulberry Oak Sassafras

Pine Plum Russian Olive Sassafras Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Staghorn Sumac White Spruce Willow

Water Purifier
Bulrush Cattail Common Reed Common Rush Duckweed Sweet Flag Watercress

Tar
Pine

Timber
Alder American Beech American Mountain Ash Balsam Fir Bamboo Barberry Birch Black Cherry Black Locust Black Walnut Butternut Chestnut Crab Apple Hackberry Hawthorn Hemlock Honey Locust Ironwood Linden/Basswood Maple Medlar Mulberry Northern White Cedar Oak Pawpaw Pear Persimmon

Shampoo
Chamomile

Waterproofing Agent
Balsam Fir White Spruce

Smoking Additive
Fennel Huckleberry Northern Bayberry Wintergreen

Wax
Northern Bayberry Sweet Gale

Soap
Black Mustard Fennel Flax Lavender Northern Bayberry Rose Sassafras Shagbark Hickory Sunflower Winged Bean

Weed Border
Comfrey Lemon Balm

Wildlife Forage
Alder American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Autumn Olive Barberry Black Cherry Bulrush

517

Chickweed Choke Cherry Common Rush Crab Apple Currant and Gooseberry Duckweed Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Evening Primrose Grape Ground Cherry Hackberry Hawthorn Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Huckleberry Milkweed Northern Bayberry Oak Persimmon Pine Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Serviceberry Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry White Clover Willow Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yellow Pond Lily

Hackberry Hawthorn Honey Locust Jerusalem Artichoke Linden/Basswood Maple Mulberry Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Oak Pear Pine Plum Quince Russian Olive Shagbark Hickory Staghorn Sumac Sunflower White Spruce

Wood Polish/Varnish
Hazelnut Horsetail Sunflower

Cultivation Details
Full Sun
Alder Alfalfa Amaranth American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Asparagus Autumn Olive Balsam Fir Bamboo Barberry

Windbreak
Alder American Mountain Ash Autumn Olive Bamboo Black Locust Damson Elderberry

Black Cherry Black Locust Black Mustard Black Walnut Blueberry Bulrush Butternut Cattail Chamomile Chestnut Choke Cherry Comfrey Common Reed Common Rush Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Daisy Damson Dandelion Day Lily Duckweed Dyer’s Greenweed Evening Primrose Everlasting Pea Fennel Flax Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Ground Cherry Groundnut Hackberry Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Hop Horseradish Horsetail Huckleberry Ironwood Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Lavender

518

Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Maple Marigold Marsh Marigold May Apple Medlar Milkweed Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Pawpaw Pear Persimmon Pine Plantain Plum Purslane Quince Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Salsify Sassafras Scotch Broom Sea Kale Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory Sow Thistle Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover White Spruce Wild Garlic Willow Winged Bean Wintercress

Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

Partial Shade
Alder Amaranth American Mountain Ash Asparagus Autumn Olive Balsam Fir Bamboo Barberry Birch Black Cherry Blueberry Bulrush Burdock Cattail Chamomile Chestnut Chicory Comfrey Common Rush Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Daisy Damson Dandelion Day Lily Elderberry Everlasting Pea Fennel Garlic Garlic Mustard Ground Cherry Groundnut Hawthorn Hazelnut Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Hop Horseradish Horsetail

Huckleberry Ironwood Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Maple Marigold Marsh Marigold May Apple Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Northern Bayberry Pawpaw Persimmon Plantain Plum Purslane Rasp/blackberry Rose Russian Olive Salsify Sassafras Scotch Broom Sea Kale Serviceberry Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress Wild Garlic White Clover Willow Wintercress Wintergreen Wood Sorrel Yarrow Yellow Pond Lily

519

Full Shade
American Beech Balsam Fir Chicory Comfrey Hemlock Nettle Wild Garlic Wintergreen Yarrow

Shade Intolerant
Alfalfa Arrowhead Black Locust Butternut Cranberry Dyer’s Greenweed Evening Primrose Flax Garlic Hackberry Honey Locust Horseradish Lavender Purslane Shagbark Hickory Staghorn Sumac Tansy White Spruce Winged Bean

Moist Soil
Alder American Beech American Mountain Ash Arrowhead Asparagus Balsam fir Bamboo Barberry Birch Black Cherry

Blueberry Black Walnut Butternut Cattail Chestnut Chickweed Chicory Comfrey Crab Apple Cranberry Currant and Gooseberry Damson Dandelion Day Lily Dock Dyer’s Greenweed Elderberry Everlasting Pea Fennel Garlic Garlic Mustard Grape Groundnut Hawthorn Hemlock Highbush Cranberry Hop Horseradish Horsetail Jerusalem Artichoke Kiwi Maple May Apple Mint Mulberry Nasturtium Nettle Northern Bayberry Northern White Cedar Pawpaw Pear Purslane Quince Rasp/blackberry Serviceberry Shagbark Hickory

Spicebush Strawberry Sweet Flag Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch Watercress White Clover White Spruce Wild Garlic Willow Winged Bean Wintercress Wood Sorrel

Wet Soil
Alder American Mountain Ash Bulrush Common Reed Common Rush Duckweed Highbush Cranberry Horsetail Marsh Marigold Mint Sweet Gale Willow Yellow Pond Lily

Dry Soil
Alfalfa Amaranth Chamomile Daisy Dyer’s Greenweed Evening Primrose Ground Cherry Lavender Lemon Balm Milkweed Sassafras Sea Kale Staghorn Sumac

520

Wintergreen Yarrow

Heavy Soil
Dock Marsh Marigold Plum

Poor Soil
Autumn Olive Choke Cherry Cranberry Evening Primrose Horseradish Jerusalem Artichoke Pine Russian Olive Staghorn Sumac Yarrow

Most Soil Types
Alder Alfalfa Autumn Olive Bamboo Barberry Black Locust Black Mustard Butternut Chamomile Comfrey Crab Apple Day Lily Evening Primrose Everlasting Pea Fennel Flax Ground Cherry Hackberry Highbush Cranberry Honey Locust Horsetail Ironwood Lavender Lemon Balm Linden/Basswood Marigold Medlar Mint Nasturtium Pear Persimmon Plantain Rasp/blackberry Russian Olive Salsify Serviceberry Scotch Broom Shagbark Hickory

Shepherd’s Purse Sow Thistle Spicebush Staghorn Sumac Strawberry Sunflower Sweet Gale Tansy Vetch White Clover Wild Garlic Winged Bean Wood Sorrel

Rich Soil
Asparagus Black Cherry Choke Cherry Grape Hackberry Horseradish Kiwi Pawpaw Plantain Salsify Sassafras Strawberry Wood Sorrel

Soil pH
Any pH
Burdock Chicory Dandelion Groundnut Sweet Flag Wintercress

Acidic pH
American Beech Balsam Fir Blueberry Cranberry Dock Hazelnut Huckleberry Northern Bayberry Pine Rasp/blackberry Sweet Gale White Spruce

Light/Medium Soil
Birch Dyer’s Greenweed Fennel Flax Groundnut Huckleberry Pine Plum Wintergreen

521

Acidic  Neutral pH
Butternut Common Rush Currant and Gooseberry Day Lily Garlic Grape Kiwi May Apple Milkweed Pear Plum Rasp/blackberry Rose Sassafras Serviceberry Spicebush Strawberry Wintergreen

Alkaline pH
Barberry Black Mustard Chamomile Garlic Mustard Horseradish Marsh Marigold Northern White Cedar White Clover

Alkaline  Neutral pH
Alfalfa Duckweed Lavender Mint Sea Kale

Neutral pH
Black Walnut Chestnut Sunflower

Other
Allelopathic Plants
Black Walnut Jerusalem Artichoke Sunflower

522

Species Index
Abies balsamea ................................................................................................ Balsam Fir Acer spp. ................................................................................................................. Maple Achillea millefolium .............................................................................................. Yarrow Acorus calamus................................................................................................Sweet Flag Actinda spp. .............................................................................................................. Kiwi Alder................................................................................................................. Alnus spp. Alfalfa......................................................................................................Medicago sativa Alliaria petiolata........................................................................................Garlic Mustard Allium sativum ........................................................................................................ Garlic Allium ursinum................................................................................................Wild Garlic Alnus spp. ................................................................................................................ Alder Amaranth ................................................................................................ Amaranthus spp. Amaranthus spp. ................................................................................................Amaranth Amelanchier spp............................................................................................ Serviceberry American Beech.................................................................................... Fagus grandifolia American Mountain Ash ....................................................................... Sorbus americana Apios americana .............................................................................................. Groundnut Armoracia rusticana .......................................................................................Horseradish Arrowhead ........................................................................................... Sagittaria latifolia Arctium minus......................................................................................................Burdock Asclepias syriaca ...............................................................................................Milkweed Asimina triloba .................................................................................................... Pawpaw Asparagus ........................................................................................ Asparagus officinalis Asparagus officinalis......................................................................................... Asparagus Autumn Olive ................................................................................... Elaeagnus umbellata Balsam Fir ................................................................................................Abies balsamea Bamboo ...................................................................................................... Bambusa spp. Bambusa spp........................................................................................................ Bamboo Barbarea vulgaris ...........................................................................................Wintercress Barberry........................................................................................................Berberis spp. Basswood................................................................................................. Tilia americana Bellis perennis ......................................................................................................... Daisy Berberis spp. ....................................................................................................... Barberry Betula spp. ................................................................................................................Birch Birch................................................................................................................Betula spp. Blackberry ....................................................................................................... Rubus spp. Black Cherry............................................................................................ Prunus serotina Black Locust ...................................................................................Robinia pseudoacacia Black Mustard............................................................................................ Brassica nigra Black Walnut ...............................................................................................Juglans nigra Blueberry .................................................................................................. Vaccinium spp. Brassica nigra............................................................................................ Black Mustard Bulrush ................................................................................................... Scirpus lacustris Burdock ......................................................................................................Arctium minus

523

Butternut...................................................................................................Juglans cinerea Caltha palustris........................................................................................ Marsh Marigold Capsella bursa-pastoris ......................................................................... Shepherd’s Purse Carya ovata .......................................................................................... Shagbark Hickory Castanea dentata ................................................................................................ Chestnut Cattail ........................................................................................................ Typha latifolia Celtis occidentalis .............................................................................................Hackberry Chamaemelum nobile...................................................................................... Chamomile Chamomile...................................................................................... Chamaemelum nobile Chestnut................................................................................................. Castanea dentate Chickweed ................................................................................................ Stellaria media Chicory .................................................................................................Cichorium intybus Choke Cherry........................................................................................ Prunus virginiana Cichorium intybus .................................................................................................Chicory Comfrey...........................................................................................Symphytum officinale Common Reed ................................................................................Phragmites communis Common Rush ............................................................................................Juncus effusus Corylus spp. ........................................................................................................ Hazelnut Crab Apple................................................................................................. Malus baccata Crambe maritima ................................................................................................ Sea Kale Cranberry.................................................................................................. Vaccinium spp. Crataegus spp. ...................................................................................................Hawthorn Currants and Gooseberries ................................................................................ Ribes spp. Cydonia oblonga.................................................................................................... Quince Cytisus scoparius ........................................................................................ Scotch Broom Daisy ......................................................................................................... Bellis perennis Damson...................................................................................................... Prunus institia Dandelion ........................................................................................ Taraxacum officinale Day Lily.............................................................................................. Hemerocaulis fulva Diospyros virginiana........................................................................................Persimmon Dock ............................................................................................................... Rumex spp. Duckweed .................................................................................................... Lemna minor Dyer’s Greenweed................................................................................... Genista tinctoria Elaeagnus angustifolia................................................................................ Russian Olive Elaeagnus umbellata................................................................................... Autumn Olive Elderberry........................................................................................Sambucus canadensis Equisetum spp. .................................................................................................... Horsetail Evening Primrose..................................................................................Oenothera biennis Everlasting Pea .....................................................................................Lathyrus latifolius Fagus grandifolia.................................................................................... American Beech Fennel ................................................................................................ Foeniculum vulgare Flax................................................................................................... Linum usitatissimum Foeniculum vulgare ................................................................................................Fennel Fragaria spp. ................................................................................................... Strawberry Garlic.........................................................................................................Allium sativum Garlic Mustard ....................................................................................... Alliaria petiolata

524

Gaylussacia spp. ............................................................................................Huckleberry Gaultheria procumbens..................................................................................Wintergreen Genista tinctoria .................................................................................. Dyer’s Greenweed Gleditsia triacanthos................................................................................... Honey Locust Grape ..................................................................................................................Vitis spp. Ground Cherry .................................................................................Physalis heterophylla Groundnut............................................................................................... Apios americana Hackberry .............................................................................................Celtis occidentalis Hawthorn ...................................................................................................Crataegus spp. Hazelnut.........................................................................................................Corylus spp. Helianthus annus .............................................................................................. Sunflower Helianthus tuberosus......................................................................... Jerusalem Artichoke Hemerocaulis fulva ............................................................................................. Day Lily Hemlock ...............................................................................................Tsuga Canadensis Highbush Cranberry............................................................................ Viburnum trilobum Honey Locust....................................................................................Gleditsia triacanthos Hop......................................................................................................... Humulus lupulus Horseradish....................................................................................... Armoracia rusticana Horsetail ....................................................................................................Equisetum spp. Huckleberry ............................................................................................Gaylussacia spp. Humulus lupulus ........................................................................................................ Hop Ironwood................................................................................................Ostrya virginiana Jerusalem Artichoke......................................................................... Helianthus tuberosus Juglans cinerea ...................................................................................................Butternut Juglans nigra ...............................................................................................Black Walnut Juncus effusus ............................................................................................ Common Rush Kiwi...............................................................................................................Actinda spp. Lathyrus latifolius ..................................................................................... Everlasting Pea Lavandula angustifolia........................................................................................Lavender Lavender ....................................................................................... Lavandula angustifolia Lemna minor.....................................................................................................Duckweed Lemon Balm .........................................................................................Melissa officinalis Linden...........................................................................................................Tilia cordata Lindera benzoin ................................................................................................ Spicebush Linum usitatissimum................................................................................................... Flax Malus baccata................................................................................................. Crab Apple Maple..................................................................................................................Acer spp. Marigold .................................................................................................... Tagetes patula Marsh Marigold ....................................................................................... Caltha palustris May Apple ..................................................................................... Podophyllum peltatum Medicago sativa..................................................................................................... Alfalfa Medlar ...............................................................................................Mespilus germanica Melissa officinalis .........................................................................................Lemon Balm Mentha spp. ........................................................................ Mint (Peppermint/Spearmint) Mespilus germanica ............................................................................................... Medlar Milkweed............................................................................................... Asclepias syriaca

525

Mint ............................................................................................................... Mentha spp. Morus spp. ..........................................................................................................Mulberry Mulberry..........................................................................................................Morus spp. Myrica gale..................................................................................................... Sweet Gale Myrica pennsylvanica ..........................................................................Northern Bayberry Nasturtium ........................................................................................... Tropaeolum majus Nasturtium officinale........................................................................................ Watercress Nettle ........................................................................................................... Urtica dioica Northern Bayberry .......................................................................... Myrica pennsylvanica Northern White Cedar ...........................................................................Thuja occidentalis Nuphar advena...................................................................................... Yellow Pond Lily Oak ...............................................................................................................Quercus spp. Oenothera biennis ................................................................................. Evening Primrose Ostrya virginiana ............................................................................................... Ironwood Oxalis acetosella........................................................................................... Wood Sorrel Pawpaw .................................................................................................... Asimina triloba Pear..........................................................................................................Pyrus communis Peppermint............................................................................................ Mentha x piperita Persimmon....................................................................................... Diospyros virginiana Phragmites communis ................................................................................ Common Reed Physalis heterophylla .................................................................................Ground Cherry Picea glauca ................................................................................................ White Spruce Pine................................................................................................................... Pinus spp. Pinus spp. .................................................................................................................. Pine Plantago major .................................................................................................... Plantain Plantain.....................................................................................................Plantago major Plum ..................................................................................................... Prunus domestica Podophyllum peltatum......................................................................................May Apple Portulaca oleracea...............................................................................................Purslane Prunus domestica...................................................................................................... Plum Prunus institia...................................................................................................... Damson Prunus serotina............................................................................................ Black Cherry Prunus virginiana ....................................................................................... Choke Cherry Psophocarpus tetragonolobus ...................................................................... Winged Bean Purslane .............................................................................................. Portulaca oleracea Pyrus communis ......................................................................................................... Pear Quercus spp. ...............................................................................................................Oak Quince ................................................................................................... Cydonia oblonga Raspberry......................................................................................................... Rubus spp. Rhus typhina ............................................................................................Staghorn Sumac Ribes spp......................................................................................Currant and Gooseberry Robinia pseudoacacia ...................................................................................Black Locust Rosa spp.................................................................................................................... Rose Rose................................................................................................................... Rosa spp. Rubus spp..................................................................................Raspberry and Blackberry Rumex spp.................................................................................................................Dock

526

Russian Olive................................................................................ Elaeagnus angustifolia Sagittaria latifolia............................................................................................Arrowhead Salix spp.................................................................................................................Willow Salsify...........................................................................................Tragopogon porrifolius Sambucus canadensis........................................................................................Elderberry Sassafras ..............................................................................................Sassafras albidium Sassafras albidium ..............................................................................................Sassafras Scirpus lacustris.................................................................................................... Bulrush Scotch Broom ........................................................................................ Cytisus scoparius Sea Kale................................................................................................. Crambe maritime Serviceberry........................................................................................... Amelanchier spp. Shagbark Hickory .......................................................................................... Carya ovata Shepherd’s Purse.......................................................................... Capsella bursa-pastoris Sonchus arvensis.............................................................................................Sow Thistle Sorbus americana .......................................................................American Mountain Ash Sow Thistle.............................................................................................Sonchus arvensis Spearmint.................................................................................................. Mentha spicata Spicebush................................................................................................. Lindera benzoin Staghorn Sumac ............................................................................................Rhus typhina Stellaria media.................................................................................................Chickweed Strawberry ...................................................................................................Fragaria spp. Sunflower .............................................................................................. Helianthus annus Sweet Flag ............................................................................................... Acorus calamus Sweet Gale..................................................................................................... Myrica gale Symphytum officinale .......................................................................................... Comfrey Tagetes patula.....................................................................................................Marigold Tanacetum vulgare...................................................................................................Tansy Tansy .................................................................................................. Tanacetum vulgare Taraxacum officinale ........................................................................................ Dandelion Thuja occidentalis...........................................................................Northern White Cedar Tilia spp................................................................................................ Basswood/Linden Tragopogon porrifolius .......................................................................................... Salsify Trifolium repens........................................................................................... White Clover Tropaeolum majus............................................................................................Nasturtium Tsuga canadensis ................................................................................... Eastern Hemlock Typha latifolia.........................................................................................................Cattail Urtica dioica..............................................................................................Stinging Nettle Vaccinium macrocarpon ................................................................................... Cranberry Vaccinium spp....................................................................................................Blueberry Vetch .............................................................................................................Vicia cracca Viburnum trilobum.............................................................................Highbush Cranberry Vicia cracca............................................................................................................. Vetch Vitis spp. ..................................................................................................................Grape Watercress ....................................................................................... Nasturtium officinale White Clover........................................................................................... Trifolium repens White Spruce ................................................................................................Picea glauca

527

Wild Garlic ............................................................................................... Allium ursinum Willow............................................................................................................... Salix spp. Winged Bean ...................................................................... Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Wintercress ...........................................................................................Barbarea vulgaris Wintergreen ..................................................................................Gaultheria procumbens Wood Sorrel............................................................................................Oxalis acetosella Yarrow...............................................................................................Achillea millefolium Yellow Pond Lily...................................................................................... Nuphar advena

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