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Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
ChE 302 Chemical engineering laboratory - II
Experiment No. 7 Name of the experiment: Group No. 03 (A2)
STUDY OF A REFRIGERATION UNIT
Submitted by: Md. Hasib Al Mahbub
Student Id: 0902045 Level: 3; Term: 1 Section: A2
Date of performance: 28/04/2013 Date of submission: 19/05/2013
Partners’ Student Id. 0902041 0902042 0902043 0902044
Department of Chemical Engineering. Bangladesh University of engineering and technology, Dhaka.
The objectives of this experiment were to be familiar with the refrigeration process and the essential parts or units of the system (i.e., evaporator, compressor, condenser, and throttling device or expansion valve) and also to know basic thermodynamics related to this process. Specifically, this experiment aimed at the vapor compression refrigeration cycle with visual observation including the investigation of the saturation pressure-temperature relationship during evaporation and condensation, effect of evaporating and condensing temperature on refrigeration rate, effect of compressor pressure ratio on system performance and to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient. This experiment was conducted by Refrigeration Unit R633 using refrigerant Forane-R141b (1,1-dichloro-1-flouroethane) to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient between R141b and water in evaporator and condenser. Overall heat transfer coefficient varied from 724.02 W/m2oC to 1148.35 W/m2oC and 583.15 W/m2oC to 805.50 W/m2oC for evaporator and condenser respectively. Graphs of Saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature, rate of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature, rate of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio for both evaporator and condenser were plotted. Comparing with the reference graphs and possible causes for discrepancies are stated in discussions.
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First of all, I would like to thank our respected teacher, Tania Tabassum Emi, Lecturer, Department of Chemical Engineering, BUET for the guidance and adjuration. Besides, I would like to thank the authority of Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) for providing us with a good facility to complete this report. Also, I would like to take the opportunity to thank the Department of Chemical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) for offering this course, Chemical Engineering Laboratory-II. In addition, I would also like to thank my group partners who helped me in doing the experiment.
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Table of Contents
Title Summary Acknowledgement 1. Introduction 2. Theory 2.1 Assumptions for Ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle 2.2 The Steps of Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle 2.3 Actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle 2.4 Heat Transfer Coefficient 3. Experimental Setup 3.1 Apparatus 3.2 Chemical Used 3.3 Schematic Diagram 3.4 R633 Valve Position 3.5 Procedure 4. Observed Data 5. Calculated Data 6. Sample Calculation 7. Graph 7.1 Graph of Saturation pressure vs. Saturation temperature for both evaporator and condenser 7.2 Graph of rate of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature for both evaporator and condenser 7.3 Graph of rate of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio for both evaporator and condenser 8. Result 9. Discussion 10. Conclusion References Nomenclature Appendices Appendix A: Choice of Refrigerant. Appendix B: Usage and Application of Refrigeration Process. Appendix C: Other Refrigeration Processes (Modification). 29 30 35 36 37 38 39 41 43 28 27 Page No. ii iii 7 9 11 12 14 15 18 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 26
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List of Illustrations
List of Figure
No. of Figure 1 2 Name of Figure Schematic diagram of a refrigeration unit Schematic and T-s diagram for the ideal vapor compressor refrigerator cycle 3 4 5 P-h diagram for the ideal vapor compressor refrigerator cycle Vapor compressor refrigerator cycle in household refrigerator Schematic and T-s diagram of an actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle 6 7 8 9 Refrigeration cycle demonstration unit R633 Schematic diagram of a refrigeration unit (R633) Different valve position of refrigeration unit R633 Saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature curve for both evaporator and condenser 10 Rate of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature curve for both evaporator and condenser 11 Rate of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio curve for both evaporator and condenser 12 The theoretical graph of saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature for both evaporator and condenser 13 Theoretical graph of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature for both evaporator and condenser 14 Theoretical graph of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio for both evaporator and condenser 15 A two-stage cascade refrigeration system with the same refrigerant in both 16 17 18 A Multistage compression refrigeration systems A Multipurpose refrigeration systems Vapor-compression refrigeration system is by multistage compression with regenerative cooling 19 20 21 Gas Refrigeration Systems Absorption Refrigeration Systems Thermoelectric Refrigeration Systems 47 48 49 44 45 46 43 33 32 31 28 27 16 19 20 26 13 13 14 Page No. 9 11
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List of Tables
No. of Table 1 2 3 Name of Table Observed Data for Vapor Compression of Refrigeration Cycle Calculated Data of vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle Tabulated data of the results (rate of heat transfer, compressor pressure ratio, and overall heat transfer coefficient for evaporator and condenser) 4 List of symbols 37 Page No. 22 23 29
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Refrigeration cycle is a sequence of thermodynamic processes whereby heat is withdrawn from a cold body and expelled to a hot body. It is a reversed heat engine cycle. In general words refrigeration refers to the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, to lower its temperature. The device whose prime function is to do the job is known as refrigerator and the working fluids used in the refrigeration cycle is called refrigerant. A refrigerator uses the evaporation of a liquid to absorb heat. The liquid, or refrigerant, used in a refrigerator evaporates at a low temperature, creating cooling or freezing temperatures inside the refrigerator.
Including thermodynamics many other phases of engineering are involved in the design, manufactures, application and operation of refrigeration system. The thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants must be known before the cycle analysis can be made. Evaporators and condensers of the system is used for the absorption and rejection of heat respectively involved the fields of heat transmission. Steady state are involved in the determination of cooling-load requirements. On the other hand, the design of reciprocating compressor involves a variety of machine problems. The physical capacity of a compressor or expender will be determined from thermodynamic factors.
The physical capacity of a compressor or expander can be determined from thermodynamic factors. The measure of effectiveness of a refrigerator is its coefficient of performance (C.O.P). It is the expression of the cycle efficiency and is stated as the ratio of the heat absorbed in the refrigerated space to the heat energy equivalent of the energy supplied to the compressor.
The first known method of artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in Scotland in 1756. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which then boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air. The experiment even created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. Today‘s refrigeration process is far more advanced, easy to use and control and more environment friendly, and thus it has become a very common system adopted at households and many other places as the first cost and operating costs had also become reasonable.
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The application of refrigeration are numerous in our daily life. The most widely used current applications of refrigeration are for air conditioning of private homes and public buildings, and refrigerating foodstuffs in homes, restaurants and large storage warehouses. In commerce and manufacturing, there are many uses for refrigeration. Refrigeration is used to liquefy gases oxygen, nitrogen, propane and methane, for example. In compressed air purification, it is used to condense water vapor from compressed air to reduce its moisture content. In oil refineries, chemical plants, and petrochemical plants, refrigeration is used to maintain certain processes at their needed low temperatures. Textile mills uses refrigeration in mercerizing, bleaching, and dyeing. Manufacturers of paper, drugs, soap, glue, shoe polish, perfume, celluloid, and photographic materials. Fur and woolen goods storage could beat the moths by using refrigerated warehouses. So it is important to have a general knowledge on refrigeration which has prompted to conduct the experiment.
The experiment has been performed to study various components of a refrigeration unit physically and operating it at different operating modes to get acquainted with this process and all of its essential parts and also to know the thermodynamic basics of refrigeration thoroughly and specially the overall heat transfer coefficient so that the operations may become well known to us and a platform for further modification is created.
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Refrigeration implies the maintenance of a temperature below that of the surroundings. This requires continuous absorption of heat at a low temperature level usually accomplished by evaporation of a liquid in a steady-state flow process. The vapor reformed to liquid state for reevaporation generally by compressing and then condensing by rejecting heat at a higher temperature consecutively Refrigeration cycle is a sequence of thermodynamic processes whereby heat is withdrawn from a cold body and expelled to a hot body, which is a reversed heat-engine cycle. According to the 2nd law of thermodynamics it required an external source of energy or external work done on the system to transfer heat from a lower temperature level to a higher one.
A refrigerator is shown schematically in figure 1. Here QL is the magnitude of the heat removed from the refrigerated space at temperature TL. QH is the magnitude of the heat rejected to the warm space at temperature TH, and Wnet in is the net work input the refrigerator (R).
QH Wnet, in (Required input) R
QL (Desired output) Cold refrigerated space Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a refrigeration unit
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In such a case the performance of refrigerators is expressed in terms of the coefficient of performance (COP), defined as
Desired output Required input Cooling effect Work input QL Wnet,in
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (2.1)
Since energy cannot be destroyed, the heat taken in at low temperature plus any other energy input must be dissipated to the surroundings. The Clausius statement of the second law of thermodynamics states that heat will not pass from a cold to a hotter region without the aid of an external agency. Thus a refrigerator will require an input of high grade energy for it to operate. The most common type of refrigerator uses a work input and operates on the Vapor compression cycle. The work input to the Vapor Compression Cycle derives a compressor which maintains a low pressure on an evaporator and a higher pressure in condenser. The temperature at which a liquid will evaporate (or a vapor will condense) is dependent on pressure, thus if a suitable fluid is introduced it will evaporate at a low temperature in the low pressure evaporator (taking in heat) and will condense at a higher temperature in the high pressure condenser (rejecting heat). The high pressure liquid formed in the condenser must then be returned to the evaporator at a controlled rate. Thus, the simple vapor compression refrigeration cycle has four main component1,
(1) An evaporator where heat is taken in at a low temperature as a liquid evaporator at a low pressure. (2) A compressor which uses a work input to reduce the pressure in the evaporator and increase the pressure of the vapor being transferred to the condenser. (3) A condenser where the high pressure vapor condenser, rejecting heat to its surroundings. (4) A flow control device which controls the fowl of liquid back to the evaporator and which brings about the pressure reduction.
The refrigeration cycle is most interesting from the thermodynamic view point. It is one of the few practical plants which operates on a true thermodynamic cycle and involves8-
(a) Nucleate boiling and film wise condensation. (b) Steady flow process, i.e. throttling, compression and heat exchange. (c) Flow control. Page | 10
(d) The thermodynamic properties, i.e. pressure, specific volume, temperature, specific enthalpy and entropy of a pure substance at all conditions between sub-cooled liquid and super-heated vapor. The refrigeration cycle can be described by and ideal process operated on a ‘Carnot cycle’ and then can be converted to the actual cycle or actual changes in entropy and enthalpy during the process. The Carnot cycle for refrigeration consists of 4 steps as well similar to heat engine. The phase changes of the refrigerant in the vapor compression cycle are the main key process of the refrigeration system and they can be represented by the T-S diagram in figure 2. 2.1 Assumptions for Ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle2 • Irreversibility within the evaporator, condenser and compressor are ignored • No frictional pressure drops • Refrigerant flows at constant pressure through the two heat exchangers (evaporator and condenser) • Stray heat losses to the surroundings are ignored • Compression process is isentropic
Warm T QH
3 Expansion Valve
QH Win Win Compressor
Evaporator QL Cold
1 QL Saturated vapor S
Figure 2. Schematic and T-s diagram for the ideal vapor compressor refrigerator cycle.5 Page | 11
2.2 The Steps of Ideal Vapor Compression Cycle: The cycle operates on following four process:6 1-2: Isentropic compression 2-3: Constant pressure heat rejection (Condenser) 3-4: Adiabatic expansion in a throttling device 4-1: Constant pressure heat absorption (Evaporator)
(1-2) Isentropic compression in a compressor: A compressor which uses a work input to reduce the pressure in the evaporator and increase the pressure of the vapor being transferred to the condenser. External work is done on the cycle to initiate the cycle to flow heat from lower temperature to higher. The saturated vapor outlet from evaporator goes in the compressor and is compressed to superheated vapor. Here the ideal process is an isentropic process but in actual case the entropy increases due to increase in temperature. The compression process is represented by line ‘1-2’ in figure 2.
(2-3) Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser: A condenser where the high pressure vapor condenses, rejecting heat to its surroundings. This is another isothermal process in which heat QH is rejected at higher temperature in the condenser. The superheated vapor from the outlet of the compressor goes in the condenser and cooled to saturated vapor and then condensed to saturated liquid by rejecting latent heat to the surrounding at higher temperature (room temperature) The condensation process is a constant pressure and temperature process which is represented by ‘2-3’ line in the figure 2.
(3-4) Adiabatic expansion in a throttling device: it is an adiabatic process and also an isenthalpic process of expansion. An expansion device (throttle valve) is used to get back the refrigerant to its original pressure at the inlet of evaporator. The pressure drop in this irreversible process results from fluid friction in the valve. At the inlet of the throttle valve the refrigerant is saturated liquid and due to expansion, it is converted to a liquid vapor mixture at outlet. This process is represented by line ‘3-4’ in figure 2.
(4-1) Constant pressure heat absorption in an evaporator: It is an isothermal step in which heat ‘QL’ is absorbed at the lower temperature in the evaporator. Here the liquid refrigerant evaporates at constant pressure and temperature absorbing the latent heat of vaporization. The inlet of the evaporator is a liquid-vapor mixture and absorbing Page | 12
heat from air of lower temperature (room temperature in this case) it becomes saturated vapor. The process in evaporator is represented by line’4-1’ in figure 2.
The P-h diagram in figure 3 is another convenient diagram often used to illustrate the refrigeration cycle. Where, process 1-2 indicates isentropic compression process, process 2-3 indicates P = constant heat rejection process, process 3-4 indicates expansion under throttling process, h = constant, process 4-1 stands for P = constant heat addition process.
Figure 3. P-h diagram for the ideal vapor compressor refrigerator cycle.7
The ordinary household refrigerator is a good example of the application of this cycleEvaporator coil Freezer compartment Capillary tube Kitchen air 25℃ -18℃ QL QH
Condenser coil 3℃
Compressor Figure 4. Vapor compressor refrigerator cycle in household refrigerator.3
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2.3 Actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle1
An actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle differs from the ideal one in several ways, owing mostly to the irreversibilities that occur in various components. Two common sources of irreversibilities are fluid friction (causes pressure drops) and heat transfer to or from the surroundings. The T-s diagram of an actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle is shown in Figure 5. Warm T 3 2 Expansion Valve 6 2` Win 5 4 67 8 1
Evaporator 7 QL Cold 8
Figure 5. Schematic and T-s diagram of an actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle.
The reason for the deviation is that, there are frictional effects that result in pressure drops as the refrigerant flows through the condenser, evaporator, and the piping connecting various components in the actual cycle. The actual compression process (process 1-2) starts in superheated vapor region, not on the saturated vapor line. The actual compression process is irreversible (not isentropic) and goes in the direction of increase of entropy (S2>S1). The isentropic efficiency of the compressor is used to evaluate the performance of the compressor and define enthalpy at the exit of the actual compressor (point 2). And at the end of the actual heat rejection process in the condenser (process 2-3) the liquid is sub cooled, not saturated.
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2.4 Heat Transfer Coefficient
Heat transfer coefficient is defined as the amount of heat which passes through a unit area of a medium or system in a unit time when the temperature difference between the boundaries of the system is 1 degree.2 The heat transfer coefficient, in thermodynamics and in mechanical and chemical engineering, is used in calculating the heat transfer, typically by convection or phase transition between a fluid and a solid: 𝑄 𝐴 × ∆𝑇 Where Q = heat flow in input or lost heat flow, J/s = W h = heat transfer coefficient, W/ (m2K) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 ∆T= difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid area ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (2.2)
From the above equation, the heat transfer coefficient is the proportionality coefficient between the heat flux, that is heat flow per unit area, q/A, and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat (i.e., the temperature difference, ΔT). The heat transfer coefficient has SI units in watts per square meter kelvin: W/ (m2K). The overall heat transfer coefficient (U) is a measure of the overall ability of a series of conductive and convective barriers to transfer heat1. It is commonly applied to the calculation of heat transfer in heat exchangers, but can be applied equally well to other problems. For the case of a heat exchanger, U can be used to determine the total heat transfer between the two streams in the heat exchanger by the following relationship: U= Where Q = heat transfer rate, W U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/ (m²·K) A = heat transfer surface area, m2 ∆TLMTD = log mean temperature difference, K Q A×∆TLMTD ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (2.3)
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With the use of refrigeration cycle demonstration unit R633 (Figure 6) in laboratory, following steps leads to the calculation of overall heat transfer coefficient (U).
Figure 6. Refrigeration cycle demonstration unit R633 Absolute pressure= Gauge pressure (pe) + Atmospheric pressure (P) Saturation pressure of Evaporator, Pe = pe + P Saturation pressure of Compressor, Pc = pc + P Rate of heat transfer for Evaporator, Qe= meCp(t1-t2) Rate of heat transfer for Condenser, Qc= mcCp(t3-t4)
Where Cp = Specific Heat of Water, (KJ/Kg .K) me = Evaporator Water Flow rate mc = Condenser Water Flow rate t1 = Evaporator Water Inlet Temperature, (℃) t2 =Evaporator Water Outlet Temperature, (℃) t3 =Condenser Water Outlet Temperature, (℃) t4 =Condenser Water Inlet Temperature, (℃)
Finally, Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U= Q
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Where each term Q, A and ∆TLMTD refer to the corresponding value for condenser and evaporator ∆TLMTD = Tin-Tout Tin ln Tout
... .... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (2.4)
Where Tin= temperature difference of water inlet and supplied refrigerant. Tout= temperature difference of water outlet and supplied refrigerant.
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3. Experimental Setup
Compressor Temperature indicator Condenser rotameter Evaporator rotameter Condenser Evaporator Condenser pressure gauge Evaporator pressure gauge Condenser inlet thermometer Condenser outlet thermometer Evaporator inlet thermometer Evaporator outlet thermometer Condenser thermometer Evaporator thermometer Throttle valve Compressor discharge thermometer Control valve Switcher Capillary tube Water reservoir Pump
3.2 Chemical Used
R141b (1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane) Water
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Outlet Condenser Thermometer Condenser Pressure Gauge Condenser Thermometer Inlet Condenser Thermometer Condenser Rotameter Temperature Indicator Inlet Evaporator Thermometer Evaporator Pressure Gauge Evaporator Thermometer Outlet Evaporator Thermometer Evaporator Rotameter Evaporator Condenser Throttle Valve Water Outlet Compressor Water Reservoir Pump
3.3 Schematic diagram
Figure 7. Schematic diagram of a refrigeration unit (R633)
3.4 R633 Valve Position
Refrigerant Pump Down
Shutdown Figure 8. Different valve position of refrigeration unit R633
3.5 PROCEDURE The main components of the refrigeration unit were identified. The piping and control system were studied. The cooling water supply and mains supply to the unit were turned on. Water supply to the unit was turned on and the evaporator water flow rate was adjusted to 10 g/s and condenser water flow rate was adjusted to 50 g/s using control valve. When the main switch was turned on, then the compressor was started and the two internal lamps were lighted. The evaporator pressure and the compressor pressure were set approximately at -75 KN/m2 and 120 KN/m2. The unit was allowed to run approximately 15 minutes in order to reach suitable temperature and pressure. The temperatures (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, t7, t8), pressure pe and pc, water flow rate me and mc were recorded. Similarly steps h - i were repeated after reducing condenser water flow rate to 40 g/s, 30 g/s, 20 g/s, 10 g/s.
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4. Observed Data
Water Coil Surface Area of Condenser, Ac= 0.032 m2 Water Coil Surface Area of Evaporator, Ae=0.032 m2 Specific Heat of Water, Cp= 4.18 KJ/Kg .K Refrigerant used= R141b (1, 1- dichloro-1-fluroethane) of approximately 800 cm3 Normal Boiling Point= 32 ℃ Local Atmospheric Pressure, P= 101.325 KN/m2
Table 1. Observed Data for Vapor Compression of Refrigeration Cycle.
Number of observation Evaporation Gauge pressure, pe (KN/m2) Absolute Evaporator pressure, Pe (KN/m2) Evaporator temperature, T5 (℃) Evaporator water flow rate, ṁe (g/s) Evaporator Water Inlet Temperature, T1 (℃) Evaporator Water Outlet Temperature, T2 (℃) Condensed Liquid Temperature, T8 (℃) Condenser Gauge Pressure, pc (KN/m2) Absolute Condenser Pressure, Pc (KN/m2) Compressor Discharge Temperature, T7 (℃) Condenser Temperature, T6 (℃) Condenser Water Flow Rate, ṁc (g/s) Condenser Water Inlet Temperature, T4 (℃) Condenser Water Outlet Temperature, T3 (℃)
1 -70 31.33 7 4 15 9 24.10 50 151.33 43 23 50 12 13
2 -68 33.33 8 7 14 10 25.40 54 155.33 44 24 40 13.5 15
3 -70 31.33 8 4 17 9 26.90 59 160.33 49 26 30 15.5 17
4 -69 32.33 6 4 18 9 28.30 65 166.33 52 27 20 17 19
5 -68 33.33 7 4 19 10 31.1 78 179.33 53 30 10 18 23
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5. Calculated Data
Table 2. Calculated Data of vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycle.
Number of Observation Saturation Pressure of Evaporator, Pe (KN/m2) Saturation Pressure of Condenser, Pc (KN/m2) Rate of Heat Transfer for Evaporator, Qe (W)=meCp(t1-t2) Rate of Heat Transfer for Condenser, Qc (W) )=mCCp(t3-t4) Compressor Pressure Ratio, Temperature difference for evaporator inlet, Tin,e= t1-t5 Temperature difference for evaporator outlet, Tout,e= t2-t5 ∆TLMTD(Evaporator)(℃)= 𝑻𝒊𝒏
,𝒆−𝑻𝒐𝒖𝒕,𝒆 𝐥𝐧 ( 𝑻𝒊𝒏
,𝒆 ) 𝑻𝒐𝒖𝒕,𝒆
209 4.83 8
250.80 4.66 6
188.1 5.12 9
167.20 5.14 12
209 5.38 12 𝑷𝒄
2 4.33 11
2 3.64 10.5
1 3.64 10.5
3 6.49 10
3 6.49 12
Temperature difference for condenser inlet, Tin,c= t6-t4 Temperature difference for condenser outlet, Tout,c=t6-t3 ∆TLMTD (Condenser)(℃)=
,𝒄−𝑻𝒐𝒖𝒕,𝒄 𝐥𝐧 ( 𝑻𝒊𝒏
,𝒄 ) 𝑻𝒐𝒖𝒕,𝒄
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (Evaporator), Ue (W/m2℃)= 𝑨×∆𝑻𝑳𝑴𝑻𝑫 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (Condenser), Uc (W/m2℃)= 𝑨×∆𝑻𝑳𝑴𝑻𝑫
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6. Sample Calculation Sample calculation for observation- 5 Atmospheric pressure = 101.325 KN/m2 Water coil surface area in Evaporator, Ae = 0.032 m2 Water coil surface area in Condenser, Ac = 0.032 m2 Evaporator gauge pressure, pe = -68 KN/m2 Evaporator absolute pressure, Pe = (-68+101.325) KN/m2 = 33.33 KN/m2 Condenser gauge pressure, pc = 78 KN/m2 Condenser absolute Pressure, Pc = (78+101.325) KN/m2 = 179.325 KN/m2 Compressor Pressure Ratio, 𝑃𝑒 =
Evaporator water flow rate, ṁe = 4 g/s Evaporator water inlet temperature, t1 = 19 ℃ Evaporator water outlet temperature, t2 =10 ℃ Rate of heat transfer to water in evaporator, Qe = ṁeCp(t1-t2) = 4×4.18×(19-10) W = 150.48 W Condenser water flow rate, ṁc = 10 g/s Condenser water inlet temperature, t4 = 18℃ Condenser water outlet temperature, t3 = 23℃ Rate of heat transfer to water in Condenser, Qc = ṁcCp(t3-t4) = 10×4.18×(23-18) W = 209 W
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For Evaporator Evaporator temperature, t5 = 7℃ Tin = ( t1- t5 ) = (19-7)℃ =12℃ Tout = (t2- t5) = (10-7)℃ = 3℃ ∆TLMTD = =
−𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ln ( 𝑇𝑖𝑛
12−3 ln ( )
= 6.49℃ For evaporator overall heat transfer coefficient, Ue = 𝐴×∆𝑇𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 0.032×6.49 W/m2℃ = 724.58 W/m2℃ For Condenser Condenser temperature, t6 = 30℃ Tin = ( t6- t4 ) = (30-18)℃ = 12℃ Tout = ( t6- t3 ) = (30-23)℃ = 7℃ ∆TLMTD = =
−𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 ln ( 𝑇𝑖𝑛
) 𝑇𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑄
12−7 ln ( )
= 9.28℃ For condenser overall heat transfer coefficient, Ue = 𝐴×∆𝑇𝐿𝑀𝑇𝐷 = 0.032×9.28W/m2.0 C = 703.79 W/m2℃ ≈ 703.8 W/m2℃
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7.1 Graph of Saturation pressure vs. Saturation temperature for both evaporator and condenser
y = 3.9667x + 59.397 R² = 0.9859
1 small square = 5 KPa Saturation Pressure, ( KPa )
y = 32.33 R² = 0
0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Saturation Temperature, ( °C ) 1 small square = 1°C Figure 9. Saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature curve for both evaporator and condenser
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7.2 Graph of rate of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature for both evaporator and condenser
y = 4.0215x + 53.305 R² = 0.9914
Rate of heat transfer for both evaporator and condenser(W) (1 square unit = 2 W)
y = 7.3825x - 70.093 R² = 0.8415
90 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Condensing temperature(°C) (1 square unit = 0.4 °C )
Figure 10. Rate of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature curve for both evaporator and condenser
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7.3 Graph of rate of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio for both evaporator and condenser
y = -68.943x + 551.33 R² = 0.3951
Rate of heat tranfer for both evaporator and condenser(W) 1 square umit = 10 W
y = 64.155x - 192.03 R² = 0.6918
80 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5
Compressor pressure ratio 1 square unit = 0.04
Figure 11. Rate of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio curve for both evaporator and condenser
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Results obtained in the experiment are shown below:
Table 3. Tabulated data of the results (rate of heat transfer, compressor pressure ratio, and overall heat transfer coefficient for evaporator and condenser).
Observation Number Rate of Heat Transfer to Water in Evaporator, Qe (W) 100.32 117.04 133.76 150.48 150.48 Rate of Heat Transfer to Water in Condenser, Qc (W) 209 250.8 188.1 167.2 209 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, Ue(W/m2.℃) 724.02 1004.81 1148.35 724.35 724.58 Over all Heat Transfer Coefficient, Uc(W/m2.℃) 622.62 805.50 604.12 583.15 703.80 Compressor Pressure Ratio, ( Pc / Pe) 4.83 4.66 5.12 5.14 5.38
1 2 3 4 5
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From the calculated data the required graphs, i.e. I. II. III. Saturation pressure vs. Saturation temperature curve, Rate of heat transfer vs. Condensing temperature curve and Rate of heat transfer vs. Compressor pressure ratio curve for both evaporator and condenser are shown above. Though the curves shows the general characteristics somewhat accurately, these experimental curves show some deviations from the theoretical curves. The major causes for the deviation of the experimental graphs4 from the theoretical graphs are discussed below.
Saturation pressure vs. Saturation temperature curve
The relationship between saturation pressure and temperature was observed in both evaporator and condenser. However variation of evaporating temperature was small for all but extreme changes in cooling water flow.
As the condenser contains refrigerants in all stages from superheated vapor through to sub cooled liquid the thermometer pocket t6 only records temperature close to saturation when the pocket is showing signs of condensed liquid. Therefore it is recommended that the pressure temperature relationship in the condenser is investigated as the condenser pressure increases. In case of investigating pressure temperature relationship by reducing the condenser pressure then the t6 thermometer pocket will be at a temperature that is higher than the surrounding vapor due to its thermal inertia. Therefore no vapor will condense on the pocket and an incorrect temperature will be measured.
The theoretical graph of saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature for both evaporator and condenser for R141b is shown below. Here the standard pressure gauge accuracy of ±1% of gauge full scale has been shown as dotted lines about a mean. We can see from the graph that, the curves of condenser and evaporator are so close and the trend line seems to be a single one. But form the experimental graph (figure. 12), it can be seen that they are far apart due to the discrepancies like reading errors, absolute accuracy of temperatures etc.
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Figure 12. The theoretical graph of saturation pressure vs. saturation temperature for both evaporator and condenser4
Rate of heat transfer vs. Condensing temperature curve
The effect of evaporating temperature on the refrigerator rate could be investigated, but due to the limited effect on evaporating temperature it is more graphic to investigate condensing temperature. The effect of increasing the condensing temperature on many refrigeration system and heat pumps is a reduction in the heat discharge from the condenser and in many cases a smaller reduction in the refrigerating effect at the evaporator.
The following theoretical graph shows that the heat transfer at the condenser decreases as the condensing temperature increases. From the graph it can be seen that the evaporator curve is parallel to x-axis and condenser curve makes a negative slope. But form the experimental graph it can be seen that the evaporator curve is not parallel to x- axis and condenser curve is different from the theoretical one. Here heat transfer rate for both evaporator and condenser increases with condensing temperature. Which may be due to the discrepancies like pressure variation, reading error etc.
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Figure 13. Theoretical graph of heat transfer vs. condensing temperature for both evaporator and condenser4
Rate of heat transfer vs. Compressor pressure ratio curve for both evaporator and condenser
The theoretical curve for the Rate of heat transfer vs. Compressor pressure ratio shows that the heat transfer at the condenser decreases as the compressor pressure ratio increases. From the graph it can be seen that the evaporator curve is parallel to x-axis and condenser curve makes a negative slope. form the experimental graph it can be seen that condenser curve is same as the theoretical one but the evaporator curve is not parallel to x- axis rather it is positively sloped and. Here heat transfer rate increases for evaporator and decreases for condenser with compressor pressure ratio.
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Figure 14. Theoretical graph of heat transfer vs. compressor pressure ratio for both evaporator and condenser4
The deviation of experimental curves and some observations of data for which the rate of heat transfer was not identical with other calculated value which might cause from the following discrepancies. The experiment and the calculations was done considering the system to be operated on ideal Carnot cycle. But in actual case the conditions vary from the ideal one. The actual compression process starts in superheated vapor region, not on the saturated vapor line. The actual compression process is irreversible (not isentropic) and goes in the direction of increase of entropy. And at the end of the actual heat rejection process in the condenser the liquid is sub cooled, not saturated.
Presence of air in refrigeration unit causes the compressor delivery pressure to rise, reducing the coefficient of performance. This increase of pressure is generally due to (i) the total pressure in the condenser is approximately equal to the sum of the refrigerant saturation pressure and the pressure of the air present. And (ii) the air tends to be swept towards the heat transfer surfaces, forming an insulated layer which reduces the heat transfer coefficient Page | 33
Because of fluid friction small pressure drops occur and some error is found in calculation. A small heat exchange also occurs with the surroundings of the system as the system can‘t be insulated in such a way so that no heat is ex changed with the surroundings. Another cause for the deviation of the vapor compression cycle applied for actual refrigeration cycles from the Carnot cycle is due to the irreversibility in expansion in the throttle valve and also in the compression process. Error is found therefor in the calculation and experimental graphs deviate from the theoretical one. Pressure of condenser was increasing very rapidly and was not stable enough to get accurate values of temperature for corresponding pressure of condenser. Mass flow rate had to be controlled by observing the flow meter as the flow rate was not constant in any certain observation. It was fluctuating a little bit.
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Modern life has reached in such position that temperature control is unavoidable in various cases which can’t be imagined without refrigeration. So it is important to have an overall knowledge about refrigeration system, its different parts and operating modes. Selection of refrigerator for any purpose depends on refrigerant types, efficiency required, system characteristics and environmental feature. In this experiment all the separate parts of the refrigeration unit, their structure and mechanisms had been well observed and studied. The objective of this experiment have been completely achieved as required and at the same time, all the parameters required to be solved have been calculated and solved accordingly. In addition, all of the experiments have eventually being done according to the procedures given systematically and appropriately. There were many discrepancies while performing the experiment due to which experimental data deviates from the theoretical one. But still it is very helpful to acquire a general idea on refrigeration.
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1. Abbot, M. M., Van Ness, and Smith, J. M., (2001), “Introduction to CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS”, 6th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, pp. 309-322. 2. Cengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., (2006), “THERMODYNAMICS An Engineering Approach”, 5th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, pp. 607-637. 3. Perry, R. H. and Green, D. W., (1997) “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook”, 7th edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 11/76-11/80. 4. “Experimental Operating and Maintenance Manual” Refrigeration cycle demonstration unit. P. A. Hilton Ltd. SI no 3080 Feb. ’96, pp. 4, 27-29, 36-38, 40-42. 5. Richard C. Jordan & Gayle B. Priester “Refrigeration and Air Conditioning”, Chapter2, pp. 16-17,423 6. C P Arora, “Refrigeration and Air conditioning”, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2000, pp. 113,119. 7. Andrew D. Althouse, Carl H. Turnquist, Alfred F. Bracciano, “Modern Refrigeration And Air Conditioning”, The Goodheart-Wilcox Company, Inc.1968, pp. 319-324. 8. Stoecker W. S., (1998), “Industrial Refrigeration Handbook”, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 115-120.
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List of symbols used throughout the report are given below: Table 4. List of symbols
Symbol COP h I P Q Qc QH QL S ΔTm Tcold Thot TH TL U W Significance Coefficient of performance Enthalpy Current Pressure Supplied heat Heat removed from cold reservoir Heat supplied to hot reservoir Amount of heat of low temperature source Entropy Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMDT) Temperature of cold reservoir Temperature of hot reservoir Temperature of condenser Temperature of evaporator Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Work °C °C °C °C °C W/m2°C J Unit (SI) Unitless J Amp KPa Watt Watt Watt Watt KJ K-1
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A. Choice of Refrigerant. B. Usage and Application of Refrigeration Process. C. Other Refrigeration Processes (Modification).
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Appendix A: Choice of Refrigerant
Factors which affect the efficiency of a refrigeration system are:
the refrigerant performance heat exchangers evaporating temperature condenser temperature compressor efficiency pipe sizing
The coefficient of performance of a carnot refrigerator is independent of the refrigerant. However, the irreversibilities inherent in the vapor compression cycle cause the COP of practical refrigerators to depend to some extent on the refrigerant. The following characteristics of a refrigerant are important in case of selection: Toxicity Flammability Chemical stability Cost Corrosion properties Vapor pressure in relation to temperature Thermal factors Ozone depletion Global warming impact
If the refrigerant is toxic or flammable it will be very hazardous and injurious to health if even a small leakage of the system takes place which is not an abnormal phenomenon. If it is flammable then explosion can take place easily in case of leakage or if pressure is built up inside somehow. Cost is also an important factor for smaller units costly refrigerant can be used but in industrial purpose optimization of cost is required. If the refrigerant is corrosive then the whole unit would be affected and would sustain smaller period of time than expected.
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The vapor pressure of the refrigerant at the evaporator temperature should be greater than atmospheric pressure so that air cannot leak into the refrigeration system. On the other hand, the vapor pressure of the refrigerant at condenser temperature should not be unduly high, because of the initial cost and operating expense of high pressure equipment. These two requirements limit the choice of refrigerant to relatively few fluids. The final selection then depends on the other characteristics.
Thermal Factors The heat of vaporization of the refrigerant should be high. The higher hfg, the greater the refrigerating effect per kg of fluid circulated The specific heat of the refrigerant should be low. The lower the specific heat, the less heat it will pick up for a given change in temperature during the throttling or in flow through the piping, and consequently the greater the refrigerating effect per kg of refrigerant The specific volume of the refrigerant should be low to minimize the work required per kg of refrigerant circulated Since evaporation and condenser temperatures are fixed by the temperatures of the surroundings- selection is based on operating pressures in the evaporator and the condenser
Ozone Depletion Potential chlorinated and brominated refrigerants acts as a catalyst to destroy ozone molecules reduces the natural shielding effect from incoming ultra violet B radiation
Global Warming Potential gases that absorb infrared energy gases with a high number of carbon-fluorine bonds generally have a long atmospheric lifetime
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Appendix B: Usage and Application of Refrigeration Process.
Refrigeration can serve us from the cradle to the grave. For some, the benefits starts at birth in the air condition delivery room and for a few in the modern incubator and nursery for premature babies. Applications are then encountered and appreciated though the often indirectly throughout life and for some, refrigeration is even applied after death in cooling the slab vault at the city morgue. The applications may be classified into one of the following five general groups. They are as follows:
1. Domestic Refrigeration 2. Commercial Refrigeration 3. Industrial Refrigeration 4. Marine and Transportation Refrigeration 5. Air-Conditioning Refrigeration
1. Domestic Refrigeration: Domestic refrigeration is rather limited in scope, being concerned primarily with household refrigerator and home freezers. However, because the number of units in service is quite large, domestic refrigeration represents a significant portion of the refrigeration industry. Domestic units are usually small in size having horsepower ratings of between 1/20 and 1/2 horsepower and were of the hermetically sealed type. Since these applications are familiar to everyone.
2. Commercial Refrigeration: Commercial refrigeration is concerned with the designing, installation and maintenance of refrigerated fixtures of the type used by retail stores, restaurants, hotels and institutions for the storing, displaying, processing and dispensing of perishable commodities of all types.
3. Industrials Refrigeration: Industrial application is larger in size than commercial application. Typical industrial application is ice plants, large food packing plants that were fish, meat, poultry, frozen foods etc.
4. Marine and Transportation Refrigeration: Marine refrigeration, of course, referrers to refrigeration aboard marine vessels and included, for example, refrigeration for boats and for vessels transporting perishable cargo as well as refrigeration for the ship’s stores on Page | 41
vessels of all kinds. Transportation refrigeration is concerned with refrigeration equipment as it is applied to trucks, both long distance transports and local delivery and to refrigerated railway cars.
5. Air-Conditioning Refrigeration: Air conditioning applications are of two types, either comfort or industrial, according to the purpose. Any air-conditioning, which has as its primary function the conditioning of air for human comfort is called comfort airconditioning. Typical installations of comfort air conditioning are in homes, schools, offices, churches, hotels, retail stores, public buildings, factories, automobiles, busses, trains, planes, ships etc. The applications of industrial air conditioning are almost without limit both in number and in variety. Generally speaking, the functions of industrial air conditioning systems are to
Control the moisture content of hydroscopic materials The govern rate of chemical and bio-chemical reactions Limit the variations in the size of precision manufactured articles because of thermal expansion and construction Provide clean, filtered air, which was often essential to trouble free operation and to the production of quality products.
In spite of some specific classifications would include as follows: Oil refining and synthetic rubber manufacturing Creation of artificial atmospheric conditions Medical and Surgical aids Heat Pump Ice making
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Appendix C: Other Refrigeration Processes (Modification)
1. Cascade refrigeration systems Some industrial applications require moderately low temperatures, and the temperature range they involve may be too large for a single vapor compression refrigeration cycle to be practical. A large temperature range also means a large pressure range in the cycle and a poor performance for a reciprocating compressor. One way of dealing with such situations is to perform the refrigeration process in stages, that is, to have two or more refrigeration cycles that operate in series. Such refrigeration cycles are called cascade refrigeration cycles.
Figure 15. A two-stage cascade refrigeration system with the same refrigerant in both
Refrigerants with more desirable characteristics can be used in each cycle. In this case, there would be a separate saturation dome for each fluid, and the T-s diagram for one of the cycles would be different. Also, in actual cascade refrigeration systems, the two cycles would overlap somewhat since a temperature difference between the two fluids is needed for any heat transfer to take place. It is evident from the T-s diagram in Fig.16 that the compressor work decreases and the amount of heat absorbed from the refrigerated space increases as a result of cascading.
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Therefore, cascading improves the COP of a refrigeration system. Some refrigeration systems use three or four stages of cascading.
The characteristics of a cascade refrigeration system are following: combined cycle arrangements two or more vapor compression refrigeration cycles are combined used where a very wide range of temperature between TL and TH is required the condenser for the low temperature refrigerator is used as the evaporator for the high temperature refrigerator 2. Multistage compression refrigeration systems In case of using same refrigerant, then we have the option to mix the refrigerant of each system with each other to attain better heat transfer properties. These type of systems are called multistage compression refrigeration systems. In order to understand the behavior, we will consider 2 stage refrigeration system.
Figure 16. A Multistage compression refrigeration systems Page | 44
By looking at the T-s diagram of the system, we can clearly see that the refrigerant expands in the first expansion valve to the flash chamber pressure, the same pressure which the interstage compressor have. At the time of doing compression, part of the liquid gets evaporated represented as state 3 and mixed with superheated vapors come from low – pressure compressor at state 2. When the mixture is prepared in the chamber then it will enter in the high – pressure compressor. The saturated liquid state then expands in the second expansion valve where it further picks up the heat from refrigerated space. Because of using flash chamber which further do direct mixing process of the refrigerant, we can relate it with the regeneration process where we extract heat from one process of the cycle and then delivers the same amount of heat to the other process in the same cycle.
3. Multipurpose refrigeration systems There are many practical applications in which we require refrigerating effect at more than one temperature. So to attain this phenomenon either we can do throttling process by installing the separate throttling valve or to install compressor for each evaporator having unique temperatures. But the installation of either systems will be too bulky and uneconomical, therefore we need to make this system much more efficient and economical. For this reason, we redirect the route of all exit streams from each evaporator to the single compressor. In order to understand the behavior, we consider ordinary refrigerator – freezer unit usually installed in the houses. Normally the temperature of the freezer compartment is – 18°C but to do heat transfer, the refrigerant temperature should be – 25°C.
Figure 17. A Multipurpose refrigeration systems Page | 45
Now if we have single expansion valve and evaporator then the same refrigerant will pass through both freezer compartment and then to the evaporator coils where ice formation will start. But to reduce the problem of evaporator coil freezing, we can throttle it to the minimum pressure so that we can use it in the freezer compartment. From where it is then compressed by single compressor to the condenser pressure. 4. Liquefaction of gases Another way of improving the performance of a vapor-compression refrigeration system is by using multistage compression with regenerative cooling. The vapor-compression refrigeration cycle can also be used to liquefy gases after some modifications.
Figure 18. Vapor-compression refrigeration system is by multistage compression with regenerative cooling.
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5. Gas Refrigeration Systems The power cycles can be used as refrigeration cycles by simply reversing them. Of these, the reversed Brayton cycle, which is also known as the gas refrigeration cycle, is used to cool aircraft and to obtain very low (cryogenic) temperatures after it is modified with regeneration. The work output of the turbine can be used to reduce the work input requirements to the compressor. Thus, the COP of a gas refrigeration cycle is
Figure 19. Gas Refrigeration Systems
6. Absorption Refrigeration Systems
Another form of refrigeration that becomes economically attractive when there is a source of inexpensive heat energy at a temperature of 100 to 200℃ is absorption refrigeration, where the refrigerant is absorbed by a transport medium and compressed in liquid form. The most widely used absorption refrigeration system is the ammonia-water system, where ammonia serves as the refrigerant and water as the transport medium. The work input to the pump is usually very small, and the COP of absorption refrigeration systems is defined as
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Figure 20. Absorption Refrigeration Systems
7. Thermoelectric Refrigeration Systems
A refrigeration effect can also be achieved without using any moving parts by simply passing a small current through a closed circuit made up of two dissimilar materials. This effect is called the Peltier effect, and a refrigerator that works on this principle is called a thermoelectric refrigerator. The thermoelectric device, like the conventional thermocouple, uses two dissimilar materials. There are two junctions between these two materials in a thermoelectric refrigerator. One is located in the refrigerated space and the other in ambient surroundings. When a potential difference is applied, as indicated, the temperature of the junction located in the refrigerated Page | 48
space will decrease and the temperature of the other junction will increase. Under steady-state operating conditions, heat will be transferred from the refrigerated space to the cold junction. The other junction will be at a temperature above the ambient, and heat will be transferred from the junction to the surroundings. A thermoelectric device can also be used to generate power by replacing the refrigerated space with a body that is at a temperature above the ambient.
Figure 21. Thermoelectric Refrigeration Systems
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Marking scheme: Formal Report on ‘Study of a Refrigeration Unit’ Name: Md. Hasib Al Mahbub Student number: 0902045 Section and marks allocated Summary (10) Introduction (5) Theory (10) Experimental setup (10) Observed data (5) Calculated data (5) Sample calculation (5) Graphs (15) Results and Discussions (10) Conclusion (5) References and Nomenclature (10) Overall (10) Total (100) Marks
ChE 302 – Chemical Engineering Laboratory – II PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SHEET
Experiment No : 7 Name of Experiment : STUDY OF A REFRIGERATION UNIT Following is the list of contributions each of the members of the group conducted while performing the experiment: Student Number 0902041 Experiment Contribution Report Group No : 03 (A2)
Has drawn the experimental Has drawn Graphs in Microsoft setup and observed all data Excel Has done sample calculation in Microsoft word
Has done Calculation
Has observed all temperatures Has of evaporator and condenser
other Has tabulated all observed and
temperature of system, water calculated data in Microsoft word flow rate, pressure 0902045 Has collected all observed data Has drawn graphs and all other in tabulated form necessary work necessary for
creating a formal report
I hereby announce that every statement I provided above is true and I will be responsible for any misinformation.
Sign above the line Name (Group Leader): Md. Hasib Al Mahbub Student Number: 0902045
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