Distillation

Outline
 Definitions and Application  Principle of Distillation  Boiling Point of Liquid Mixture  Important points concerning vapor pressure  Processing Sequence  Type of Column Internals  Type of Distillation Columns

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Definition & Application Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatilities of components in a boiling liquid mixture.  It can be operated as: o Batch mode for small or laboratory scale o Continues for large or industrial mode.  It is widely used in petroleum refineries. 3 . food and pharmaceutical industries.

the individual molecules within the liquid are continuously in motion. Vapor Pressure.Principles of Distillation (1/3)  For any liquid. P atm molecules attain enough kinetic energy to leave the liquid phase.  This exerts an opposing pressure on the atmosphere above the solution known as the vapor pressure.  A small percentage of these Atmospheric pressure. P 4 .

in the form of heat. is imparted to the solution the vapor pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure and the liquid begins to boil P < P atm P ≥ P atm 5 .Principles of Distillation (2/3) When enough energy.

will recondense to a liquid known as the distillate The complete process is called a distillation 6 . once cooled.Principles of Distillation (3/3) The vapor obtained from a boiling liquid.

Ptotal = PA + PB  If “Ptotal” is equal to the external pressure.Boiling Point of Liquid Mixture  Raoult’s Law “mixture of two liquids will have a boiling point that is between the boiling points of the pure liquids” PA = PoA YA Where: PA is the partial pressure of component A PoA is vapor pressure of pure component A YA is the mole fraction of component A in mixture  Total vapor pressure of mixture “Ptotal” is the sum of the partial pressures due to A and B. 7 . boiling occurs.

Important points concerning vapour pressure  Energy input raises vapour pressure  Vapour pressure is related to boiling  A liquid is said to „boil‟ when its vapour pressure equals the surrounding pressure  Liquids with high vapour pressures (volatile liquids) will boil at lower temperatures  The vapour pressure and hence the boiling point of a liquid mixture depends on the relative amounts of the components in the mixture 8 .

fractionation. removing a heavy component from a light product. We will call these major categories are called stripping. making two products. or making more than two products. 9 . and complex fractionation.Processing Sequence ►Fractionation systems have different objectives. rectification. The major processing objectives set the system type and the equipment configuration needed. The common objectives include removing a light component from a heavy product.

Processing Sequence ►Stripping systems remove light material from a heavy product. ►Rectification systems remove heavy material from a light product. 10 10 . ►Fractionation systems remove a light material from a heavy product and a heavy material from a light product at the same time.

A good example of a multiple product tower is a refinery crude distillation tower making rough cuts of naphtha (gasoline). kerosene (jet fuel). and diesel from the same tower.Processing Sequence ►Complex fractionation makes multiple products from either a single tower or a complex of towers combined with recycle streams between them. 11 11 . A good example of a complex tower with internal recycle streams is a Petlyck (baffle) tower making three on-specifications products from the same tower.

(Equipment Type) Type of Column Internals ► Distillation equipment includes two major categories. Packing creates a surface for liquid to spread on. ► ► Trays force a rising vapor to bubble through a pool of descending liquid. The thin liquid film has a high surface area for mass-transfer between the liquid and vapor. trays and packing. 12 .

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there is a problem with the When the desired task is achieved. unit. Types of Mode Operation Batch column Continues column The feed to the column is introduced Continuous columns process a batch-wise. The column is charged with continuous feed stream. used in organic chemistry lab) Disadvantages:  large amounts of material  long residence times Advantages: More stages improve separation 14 . a 'batch' and then the distillation process No interruptions occur unless is carried out. (Batch is always unsteady-state. a column or surrounding process next batch of feed is introduced.

condense the vapour and collect the distillate. Pot Still in Series • Boil the mixture. Repeat the procedure until the desired purity is obtained.1. 15 .

the purity of the top product will fall. so that overall the product distilled is at 90% purity. as an average. 16 . as the top product will be relatively rich in the more volatile component.  As a result. or 2. If. the liquid at the bottom will become steadily weaker in this component. say 85%. Batch Distillation  When the still is operating. set column to initially operate at 95 % purity and run until purity is at some value less than 90%. 90 % purity is required. To counter this fall off in purity. one of the following procedures can be considered: 1. The reflux ratio is gradually increased.2. say.

hence the name. Flash Distillation In flashing operation a liquid is introduced into a chamber at a pressure below that of the vapor pressure of the feed liquid.3. A portion of the liquid immediately vaporises or “flashes”.  Used on a large scale in petroleum refining  Not effective for separating closely boiling mixtures 17 .

Fractional Distillation (1/3)  Each vapor-condensation (or mini-distillation) cycle is known as one theoretical plate  The length of distillation column required to provide one theoretical plate of separation is known as the height equivalent theoretical plate (HETP) 18 .4.

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4. Reflux is a part of the top product return to the column to control the temperature inside the 21 . Fractional Distillation (2/3) A typical distillation contains several major components:  a vertical shell where the separation of liquid components is carried out  column internals such as trays/plates and/or packings which are used to enhance component separations  a reboiler to provide the necessary vaporisation for the distillation process  a condenser to cool and condense the vapour leaving the top of the column  a reflux drum to hold the condensed vapour from the top of the column.

Fractional Distillation (3/3)  Section above feed: enriching or RECTIFYING section removes less volatile components from vapour (vapour is enriched in the volatile component)  Section below feed: STRIPPING section the volatile component is stripped from liquid  Top product  DISTILLATE  Bottom product  RESIDUE or BOTTOMS.4. 22 .

The solvent will increase the difference in the boiling points by increasing the BP of one of the components. Such mixtures cannot be separated by simple distillation. This enables the new three-part mixture to be separated by normal distillation. The method of extractive distillation uses a separation solvent. Extractive Distillation The method is used for mixtures having a low value of relative volatility.g. where the isooctane relative volatility increases. The solvent interacts differently with the components of the mixture thereby causing their relative volatilities to change. An example is the separation of toluene (boiling point=110.3 °C) using phenol (boiling point=181. which is generally nonvolatile.4 °C) as a solvent. has a high boiling point (bp) and is miscible with the mixture. Isooctane (boiling point=99.5. 23 .8 °C) from paraffin hydrocarbons E.

No further separation can occur. 24 . Once ethanol composition reaches 95% (at atmospheric pressure). no further ethanol purification is possible.6. Azeotropic Distillation ► Azeotropic systems are those where the vapor and the liquid reach the same composition at some point in the distillation. Ethanol-water is a perfect example.

Conclusion thank you for your attention 25 .

Presented by : ALI AL-MADYPRI #311440 Abdulrahman AL-mughamisi (GL) #312044 Abdulrahman Faisal #311061 26 .

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