sockets

Socket Programming in C/C++
c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth September 24, 2004

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

Contact Info

Mani Radhakrishnan Office 4224 SEL email mradhakr @ cs . uic . edu Office Hours Tuesday 1 - 4 PM

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

TCP UDP

Introduction

Sockets are a protocol independent method of creating a connection between processes. Sockets can be either connection based or connectionless: Is a connection established before communication or does each packet describe the destination? packet based or streams based: Are there message boundaries or is it one stream? reliable or unreliable. Can messages be lost, duplicated, reordered, or corrupted?

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets

TCP UDP

Socket characteristics

Socket are characterized by their domain, type and transport protocol. Common domains are: AF UNIX: address format is UNIX pathname AF INET: address format is host and port number Common types are: virtual circuit: received in order transmitted and reliably datagram: arbitrary order, unreliable

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth

Socket Programming in C/C++

sockets TCP UDP Socket characteristics (cont’d) Each socket type has one or more protocols. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . Ex: TCP/IP (virtual circuits) UDP (datagram) Use of sockets: Connection–based sockets communicate client-server: the server waits for a connection from the client Connectionless sockets are peer-to-peer: each process is symmetric.

recvfrom: read from connection (listen) shutdown: end the call c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . protocol (buy a phone) bind: assigns a name to the socket (get a telephone number) listen: specifies the number of pending connections that can be queued for a server socket.sockets TCP UDP Socket APIs socket: creates a socket of a given domain. (call waiting allowance) accept: server accepts a connection request from a client (answer phone) connect: client requests a connection request to a server (call) send. sendto: write to connection (speak) recv. type.

sockets TCP UDP Connection-based communication Server performs the following actions socket: create the socket bind: give the address of the socket on the server listen: specifies the maximum number of connection requests that can be pending for this process accept: establish the connection with a specific client send.recv: stream-based equivalents of read and write (repeated) shutdown: end reading or writing close: release kernel data structures c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

recv: (repeated) shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP TCP client Client performs the following actions socket: create the socket connect: connect to a server send.

sockets TCP UDP TCP-based sockets server socket client socket bind connect listen accept close send/recv send/recv shutdown shutdown close close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . The type argument can be: SOCK STREAM: Establishes a virtual circuit for stream SOCK DGRAM: Establishes a datagram for communication SOCK SEQPACKET: Establishes a reliable. Returns a file descriptor (called a socket ID) if successful. i n t p r o t o c o l ) .sockets TCP UDP socket API #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . h> 4 i n t s o c k e t ( i n t domain . Note that the socket returns a socket descriptor which is the same as a file descriptor. The domain is AF INET. -1 otherwise. i n t t y p e . connection based. so that type defines the connection within domain. two way communication with maximum message size.) protocol is usually zero. (This is not available on most machines. h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t .

portNumber] c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP bind #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . In internet protocol the address is [ipNumber. h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . i n t l e n ) Where sid: is the socket id addrPtr: is a pointer to the address family dependent address structure len: is the size of *addrPtr Associates a socket id with an address to which other processes can connect. h> 4 i n t bind ( i n t sid .

the second parameter of bind (of type sockaddr in *) must be cast to (sockaddr *). short sun family . char sun path [ 1 0 0 ] . g minimum ) 6 } When using internet sockets. // an I P a d d r e s s For unix sockets (only works between processes on the same machine) 2 4 struct sockaddr un { uint8 t sun length . // i s a p o r t number sin addr . // // = AF LOCAL // n u l l t e r m i n a t e d pathname // ( 1 0 0 i s p o s i x 1 . // = AF INET sin port . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP sockaddr For the internet family: 2 struct sockaddr sa family t in port t 4 struct in addr } in { s i n f a m i l y .

Returns the 0 on success. or -1 if failure.sockets TCP UDP listen #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . Where size it the number of pending connection requests allowed (typically limited by Unix kernels to 5). int size ). h> 4 int l i s t e n ( int sid . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . i n t ∗ l e n P t r ) Returns the socketId and address of client connecting to socket. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . h> 4 i n t accept ( i n t sid . if lenPtr or addrPtr equal zero.sockets TCP UDP accept #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . Waits for an incoming request. no address structure is returned. and when received creates a socket for it. returns the actual value. lenPtr is the maximum size of address structure that can be called. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

and waking up the process only when new data arrives. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . When the processing on that connection is completed. Variation: the child processes are preforked and are passed the socketId. Forking server: After an accept. the socket is closed. Concurrent single server: use select to simultaneously wait on all open socketIds. and next connection can be accepted. a child process is forked off to handle the connection.sockets TCP UDP accept styles There are basically three styles of using accept: Iterating server: Only one socket is opened at a time.

however present a very fragile programming environment. unless performed with threads. Threads. Forking servers enable using multiple processors. But does not benefit from multiprocessors. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . Concurrent single server: reduces context switches relative to forking processes and complexity relative to threads.sockets TCP UDP Pro and Con of Accept styles Iterating server is basically a low performance technique since only one connection is open at a time. But they make sharing state difficult.

flag is either 0: default MSG OOB: Out-of-band high priority communication c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . const char ∗ b u f f e r P t r . h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . Returns the number of bytes sent or -1 if failure. i n t len . (Must be a bound socket).sockets TCP UDP send #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . i n t f l a g ) Send a message. h> 4 i n t send ( i n t sid .

h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . i n t f l a g s ) Receive up to len bytes in bufferPtr. i n t len . flags can be either 0: default MSG OOB: out-of-bound message MSG PEEK: look at message without removing c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . Returns the number of bytes received or -1 on failure. h> 4 i n t recv ( i n t sid . char ∗ b u f f e r P t r .sockets TCP UDP recv #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s .

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP shutdown #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . i n t how ) Disables sending (how=1 or how=2) or receiving (how=0 or how=2). h> 4 i n t shutdown ( i n t s i d . acts as a partial close. Returns -1 on failure. h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t .

i n t l e n ) Specifies the destination to form a connection with (addrPtr). h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . h> 4 i n t connect ( i n t sid . -1 otherwise. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr .sockets TCP UDP connect this is the first of the client calls #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . and returns a 0 if successful. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP Denoting Connections Note that a connection is denoted by a 5-tuple: from IP from port protocol to IP to port So that multiple connections can share the same IP and port. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

Port usage: 0-1023: These ports can only be binded to by root 1024-5000: well known ports 5001-64K-1: ephemeral ports c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .sockets TCP UDP Port usage Note that the initiator of communications needs a fixed port to target communications. This means that some ports must be reserved for these “well known” ports.

hostname pairs gethostbyname: hostent of a specified machine htons. ntohs. htonl.sockets TCP UDP APIs for managing names and IP addresses We next consider a number of auxiliary APIs: The hostent structure: describes IP. inet ntop: conversion of IP numbers between presentation and strings c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . ntohl: byte ordering inet pton.

0 on success. s i z e t nameLength ) Returns the hostname of the machine on which this command executes (What host am i?).sockets TCP UDP gethostname #i n c l u d e < u n i s t d . MAXHOSTNAMELEN is defined in <sys/param. h> 2 i n t g e t h o s t n a m e ( c h a r ∗ hostname . Returns -1 on failure.h>. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP hostent structure struct hostent { c h a r ∗ h name . 6 c h a r ∗∗ h a d d r l i s t } 2 // // // // . 4 int h addrtype . // o f f i c i a l ( c a n o n i c a l ) name o f t h e h o s t n u l l t e r m i n a t e d a r r a y of a l t e r n a t i v e hostnames h o s t a d d r e s s t y p e AF INET o r AF INET6 4 o r 16 b y t e s IPv4 or IPv6 l i s t of a d d r e s s e s Error is return through h error which can be: HOST NOT FOUND TRY AGAIN NO RECOVERY NO DATA c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . int h length . c h a r ∗∗ h a l i a s e s .

Example: struct hostent ∗hostEntity = g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( ” b e r t . 4 hostEntity− >h a d d r l i s t [ 0 ] . 2 c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . c s .sockets TCP UDP Gethostbyname Auxiliary functions #i n c l u d e <n e t d b . memcpy ( s o c k e t A d d r − >s i n a d d r . hostEntity− >h l e n g t h ) . h> 2 s t r u c t h o s t e n t ∗ g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( c o n s t c h a r ∗ hostname ) Translates a DNS name into a hostent. edu ” ) . u i c .

2 // Host t o n e t w o r k b y t e o r d e r f o r s h o r t s ( 1 6 b i t ) u i n t 1 6 t htons ( u i n t 1 6 t v ) . (Sparc is big endian.sockets TCP UDP Network byte ordering Network ordering in big endian. o r d e r f o r long (32 b i t ) v ). o r d e r f o r long (16 b i t ) v ). Intel is little endian). c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 4 // Host t o n e t w o r k b y t e uint 32t htonl ( uint 32t 6 // Network t o h o s t b y t e 8 u i n t 1 6 t ntohs ( u i n t 1 6 t 10 // Network t o h o s t b y t e o r d e r f o r l o n g ( 3 2 b i t ) uint 32t ntohl ( uint 32t v ).

c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . dotted decimal) Fully qualified domain name Only the last needs an outside lookup to convert to one of the other formats. Hence. ’p’ stands for presentation. Hence. these routines translate between the address as a string and the address as the number. we have 4 representations: IP number in host order IP number in network order Presentation (eg.sockets TCP UDP IP Number translation IP address strings to 32 bit number In what follows.

Finally.sockets TCP UDP inet pton #i n c l u d e <a r p a / i n e t . h> 2 4 i n t i n e t p t o n ( i n t family . The strPtr is the IP address as a dotted string. addrPtr points to either the 32 bit result (AF INET) or 128 bit result (AF INET6). returns 1 if OK. -1 error Where family is either AF INET or AF INET6. void ∗addrPtr ) . const char ∗strPtr . 0 if presentation error. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

addrPtr points to either the 32 bit (AF INET) or 128 bit (AF INET6). h> 2 4 i n t i n e t n t o p ( i n t family . The strPtr is the return IP address as a dotted string.sockets TCP UDP inet ntop #i n c l u d e <a r p a / i n e t . Length is the size of destination. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 0 if presentation error. char ∗s tr Pt r . s i z e t l e n ) . returns 1 if OK. Finally. const char ∗addrPtr . -1 error Where family is either AF INET or AF INET6.

. } Note that the above is an iterative server. 10 s e r v e r A d d r . 5). shutdown ( c o n n e c t F d . // any i n t e r n e t i n t e r f a c e on t h i s s e r v e r . r e a d and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s on c o n n e c t F d . serverAddr . 22 c l o s e ( connectFd ) . 12 b i n d ( l i s t e n F d . s i n p o r t = htons ( 1 3 ) . SOCK STREAM . 8 s e r v e r A d d r . 20 // . 14 l i s t e n ( listenFd . 2 s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . . 16 for ( . 2 ) . ) { 18 i n t connectFd = a c c e p t ( l i s t e n F d . s a d d r = h t o n l (INADDR ANY ) . 4 // g e t a t c p / i p s o c k e t i n t l i s t e n F d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . ( s o c k a d d r ∗ ) NULL . which means that it serves one connection at a time. &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . 0 ) . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) .sockets TCP UDP Example: TCP/IP Server Code Without error checking. . s i n a d d r . NULL ) . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . 6 b z e r o (& s e r v e r A d d r . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . sockaddr in serverAddr .

and then loops back to the accept to wait for another connection request.sockets TCP UDP Concurrent Server To build a concurrent server: a fork is performed after the accept. The child process closes listenFd. and communicates using connectFd. The parent process closses connectFd. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . 4 // g e t a t c p / i p s o c k e t i n t s o c k F d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . 0 ) . 12 c o n n e c t ( sockFd . 6 b z e r o (& s e r v e r A d d r . 14 // . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . s e r v e r A d d r . 2 s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . 8 s e r v e r A d d r . 2 ) . s e r v e r N a m e . shutdown ( sockFd . .sockets TCP UDP Example: TCP/IP Client code sockaddr in serverAddr . s i n a d d r ) . serverAddr . s i n p o r t = htons ( 1 3 ) . s i z e o f ( s e r v e r A d d r ) ) . . SOCK STREAM . r e a d and w r i t e o p e r a t i o n s on s o c k F d . s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . // h o s t I P # i n d o t t e d d e c i m a l f o r m a t ! 10 i n e t p t o n ( AF INET . 16 c l o s e ( s o c k F d ) .

sockets TCP UDP Connectionless communication Communication is symmetric (peer-to-peer) socket bind: bind is optional for initiator sendto. recvfrom (repeated) shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP Connectionless communication client socket bind sendto/ recvfrom shutdown close c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ .

sockets TCP UDP UDP variations It is not necessary for both sockets to bind The receiver gets the address of the sender It is possible for a UDP socket to connect In this case. Asynchronous errors can be returned (using ICMP) c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . send/recv (or write/read) must be used instead of sendto/recvfrom.

Returns number of bytes sent or -1 on error. s i z e t bufferLength . bufferPtr. const void ∗bufferPtr . h> 4 6 i n t sendto ( i n t sid . of length bufferLength to address specified by addrPtr of size addrLength.sockets TCP UDP sendto for connectionless protocols #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . s o c k l e n t addrLength ) Send a buffer. s t r u c t sockaddr ∗addrPtr . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . int flag . h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t .

h> 2 #i n c l u d e < s y s / s o c k e t . void ∗bufferPtr . Returns number of bytes receive or -1 on error. Sender address returned in addrPtr.sockets TCP UDP recvfrom for connectionless protocols #i n c l u d e < s y s / t y p e s . int bufferLength . i n t f l a g . h> 4 int recvfrom ( int sid . of size *addrLengthPtr. c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . sockaddr ∗addrPtr . i n t ∗addrLengthPtr ) Receive a buffer in bufferPtr of maximum length bufferLength from an unspecified sender.

// a l l o w c o n n e c t i o n t o any a d d r on h o s t // f o r h o s t s w i t h m u l t i p l e n e t w o r k c o n n e c t i o n s // and a s t s e r v e r p o r t . s i z e o f ( a d d r ) ) .sockets TCP UDP Example: UDP—server i n t s o c k e t I d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . bufferSize . 0 . s e r v e r A d d r . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 // r e c e i v e from a c l i e n t int size = sizeof ( clientAddr ). SOCK DGRAM. s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . recvfrom ( socketId . size ). s i n a d d r . s e r v e r A d d r . // a s s o c i a t e p r o c e s s w i t h p o r t b i n d ( s o c k e t I d . buffer . close ( socketId ). s o c k a d d r &c l i e n t A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) c l i e n t A d d r . &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t . serverAddr . sockaddr in serverAddr . s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . c l i e n t A d d r C a s t . bufferSize . 0 ) . clientAddr . clientAddrCast . // r e p l y t o t h e c l i e n t j u s t r e c e i v e d from sendto ( socketId . s a d d r = INADDR ANY . sin port = htons ( s e r v e r P o r t ) . 0 . &s i z e ) . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . buffer .

memcpy ( ( c h a r ∗)& s e r v e r A d d r . serverAddr . c Mani Radhakrishnan and Jon Solworth Socket Programming in C/C++ . close ( socketId ). s o c k a d d r &s e r v e r A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) s e r v e r A d d r . s i n a d d r . // s p e c i f y s e r v e r a d d r e s s .sockets TCP UDP Example: UDP—client i n t s o c k e t I d = s o c k e t ( AF INET . sendto ( socketId . s e r v e r A d d rC a s t . s t r u c t h o s t e n t ∗ hp = g e t h o s t b y n a m e ( hostName ) . &s i z e ) . buffer . p o r t s e r v e r A d d r . 0 . 0 . serverAddrCast . // no n e e d t o b i n d i f n o t p e e r −to−p e e r int size = sizeof ( serverAddr ). s i n f a m i l y = AF INET . s o c k a d d r &c l i e n t A d d r C a s t = ( s o c k a d d r &) c l i e n t A d d r . SOCK DGRAM. s i z e ) . bufferSize . 0 ) . hp− >h l e n g t h ) . ( c h a r ∗ ) hp− >h a d d r . buffer . bufferSize . clientAddr . 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 recvfrom ( socketId . sockaddr in serverAddr . sin port = htons ( s e r v e r P o r t ) .

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