CONTENTS 1.0 2.0



4.0 5.0


Applicable Codes / Standards Different Welding Processes 2.1 Submerged / Shielded Metal ARC Welding (SMAW / MMAW) 2.2 Gas Tungsten ARC Welding (GTAW / TIG Welding) 2.3 Gas Metal ARC Welding (MIG) 2.4 Flux Cored ARC Welding (FCAW) 2.5 Submerged ARC Welding (SAW) 2.6 Electro gas Welding 2.7 Electro slag Welding 2.8 Friction Welding 2.9 Resistance Welding 2.10 Stud Welding 2.11 Brazing 2.12 Soldering Materials 2.13 Explosion Welding Power Sources for ARC Welding 3.1 AC Welders 3.2 DC Welders 3.3 Selection of Power Sources ARC Welding Consumables 4.1 Types 4.2 Classification of Mild and Low Alloy Steel Electrodes Welding Procedure Specification, Procedure Qualification Records and Welder Performance Qualification 5.1 QW / QB 422 of Section IX 5.2 Filler Metals (QW 432) 5.3 Performance Qualification of Welders 5.4 WPS Broadly Contains Inspection of Welding 6.1 Duties of Inspector 6.2 Inspection prior to Welding 6.3 Inspection During Welding 6.4 Inspection After Welding 6.5 Non Destructive Testing 6.6 Destructive Testing 6.7 Repair of Welds 6.8 Caution in Visual Inspection 6.9 Caution in Radiography 6.10 Tests for Weld Defects 6.11 NDT Inspection Techniques 6.12 Weld Defects 6.13 Acceptability Limits for Weld Defects


Some Important Welding Procedures Commonly Used in Refinery 7.1 Suggested Welding Procedure Specification for Welding of SS 304 to SS 304 7.2 Suggested Welding Procedure Specification for Welding of CS Pipe to CS Pipe 7.3 Suggested Welding Procedure Specification for Welding of CS Plate to CS Plate 7.4 Suggested Welding Procedure Specification for Welding of CS Plate (A 515 / A 516 Gr. 60) to CS Plate (A 537 CL.I)

INSPECTION OF WELDING Welding in a petroleum refinery is one of the paramount aspects. It may be appreciated that the day of the order is usage of welding as mode of construction of most of the pressure vessels and other static equipment in refinery. Hence it becomes important to know about welding, by all possible means. 1.0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2.0 2.1 APPLICABLE CODES / STANDARDS : ESSO BASIC PRACTICE – BP 18 – 7 1 – WELDING PROCEDURES ASME SECTION VIII DIV. 1 – PRESSURE VESSELS ASME SECTION IX – WELDING QUALIFICATION ASME SECTION II – C AME / ANSI B 31.3 – CHEMICAL PLANT AND PETROLEUM REFINERY PIPING API 1104 – WELDING OF PIPING AND RELATED FACILITIES AWS – WELDING MANUAL – VOLUME 1, 2 AND 5 DIFFERENT WELDING PROCESSES SUBMERGED / SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING (SMAW / MMAW)

COALESCENCE OF THE METALS IS PRODUCED BY HEAT FROM AN ELECTRIC ARC BETWEEN THE TIP OF A COVERED ELECTRODE AND THE SURFACE OF THE BASE METAL IN THE JOINT BEING WLEDED. ELECTRODE CORE CAN BE DRAWN WIRE, CAST MATERIAL OR ENCASED METAL POWDER IN METALLIC SHEATH. ARC TEMPERAT – 5000 DEG. C; VOLTAGE RANGE – 16 V – 40 V. CURRENT REQUIRED – 20 – 550 A (AC/ DC). REFER FIG. 2.1, 2.2 2.1.1 The advantages of covered electrodes are : a. b. c. d. e. Provides a gas to shield the arc and prevent excessive atmospheric contamination. Provides scavengers, deoxidizers and fluxing agents to cleanse the weld and prevent excess grain growth in the weldment. Establishes electric characteristics of electrodes. Provides a slag blanket to protect the hot weld. Provides a means of adding alloying elements to change the mechanical properties.

2.1.2 Advantages of SMAW : Most widely used process. Equipment is simple, portable, less expensive. Auxiliary gas shielding / fluxing not required.


Less sensitive to wind forces unlike GTAW. Oxidation during welding is eliminated. Suitable for most of commonly used metals / alloys (CS, SS, ALLOY STEELS, CU, CI, NI ALLOYS, AL ALLOYS ETC.)

2.1.3 Limitations of SMAW : 2.2 Lower deposition rates. Interruptions. Limitations of amperage due to resistance. Can‘t weld Pb, Sn, Sn because of low melting points. Can‘t weld reactive metals due to insufficient shield (Ti, Zr, Cb, Ta). GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW / TIG WELDING) :


2.2.1 Advantages : Produces superior quality welds, generally free of defects; Free of spatter Excellent control of root pass weld Inexpensive autogenous welds, at higher speeds Relatively inexpensive power supplies Precise control of welding parameters Almost all metals can be welded.

Refer sketches 2.2.1, 2.2.2 AND 2.2.3 2.2.2 Limitations of GTAW : Deposition rates are lower tanks SMAW More dexterity and welder coordination required than SMAW For thicker sections less economical Difficulty in shielding the pool in drafty conditions Inclusions of tungsten in the weldment Contamination of weldment if shielding is not proper




2.3.1 Advantages : All commercial metals and alloys can be welded Unlimited electrode length Higher deposition rates / welding speed Clean weld, since less slag Particularly suited to high production rate an automated applications

2.3.2 Application : Used to weld CS, LAS, Cu, Al, Mg, SS, Ti. 2.3.3 Limitations : Equipment costlier, more complex, less portable than SMAW. Difficult to use in hard to reach places. Drafty environment affect shielding. Develops high radiated heat from arc.


USES AN ARC BETWEEN A CONTINUOUS FILLER METAL ELECTRODE AND THE WELD POOL. THE PROCESS IS USED WITH SHIELDING FROM A FLUX CONTAINED WITHIN THE TUBULAR ELECTRODE, WITH / WITHOUT SHIELDING GAS. Electrode is a tubular electrode, consisting of metal sheath and a core of arious powdered materials. Two types of shielding – self shielded and gas shielded (CO2). 2.4.1 Advantages : Highly productive Metallurgical advantages that can be derived from flux Slag that supports and shapes the weld bead Excellent weld appearance + contour of horizontal fillet welds Wide thickness range


4 times greater deposition rate than SMAW Less pre-cleaning required than GMAW

2.4.2 Limitations : Only limited to welding ferrous and Ni alloys More expensive Wind / breeze affect weld in gas shielded type Complexity of equipment


PRODUCES COALESCENCE OF METALS BY HEAING THEM WIH AN ARC BETWEEN A BARE METAL ELECTRODE AND THE WORK. THE ARC AND MOLTEN METAL ―SUBMERGED‖ IN A BLANKET OF GRANULAR FUSIBLE FUSIBLE FLUX ON THE WOEK. PRESSURE IS NOT USED. 2.5.1 Significance of Flux : ARC stability Mechanical chemical properties of final weld Quality of weld Prevents contamination Cleanses the surface of base metal and electrodes Certain alloying elements to the weld can be added Can be semi automatic, automatic, machine welding

2.5.2 Base Metal that can be welded : CS, Cr-Mo STEELS, LAS, SS, Ni ALLOYS REFER FIG. 2.5 FOR REFERENCE. 2.6 ELECTRO GAS WELDING :





WHEN A HIGH ELECTRIC CURRENT IS PASSED THRU A SMALL AREA OF TWO BUTTING METAL SURFACES, HEAT IS GENERATED. AT THE COALLESCENCE OF INTERFACE, HUGE PRESSURE IS APPLIED TO THE INTERFACE TO FORM THE JOINT. 2.9.1 Applications : Sheets, tubes, wires, rods, plates. 2.9.2 Types : Spot, seam, projection, upset butt, flash butt welding. SEE FIG. 2.8.1, 2.8.2, 2.8.3 2.10 STUD WELDING : STUD IS JOINED TO THE WORK PIECE, HEATING THE STUD AND WOEK WITH AN ARC DRAWN BETWEEN THE TWO. Stud is held by stud gun and is pressed to the work, covered by ceramic ferrule. 2.10.1 Applications :

Automobile, boilers, building, bridges, ship building, industrial equipment, defence industry, fastening lining of insulation on tanks. REFER FIG. 2.9 2.11 BRAZING : JOINS METALS BY HEATING THEM IN THE PRESENCE OF A FILLER METAL HAVING A LIQUIDUS>450 DEG. C BUT BELOW THE SOLIDUS OF THE BASE METALS.

The filler metal wets the base metals, flows due to capillary action. 2.11.1 Brazing Materials :


Pb, Sn, Z, Ag, Sb, Bi. 2.13 EXPLOSION WELDING : A SOLID STATE WELDING PROCESS THAT PRODUCES A WELD BY HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF THE WORK PIECES AS THE RESULT OF CONTROLLED DETONATION. Welding takes place progressively as he explosion and the forces it creates advance from one end of the joint to the other. REFER FIG. 2.12.1 AND 2.12.2 & 2.12.3 3.0 POWER SOURCES FOR ARC WELDING :

The power sources are classified according to type of current, AC or DC. 3.1 AC WELDERS :

Transformer welders Alternators Transformer – rectifier (TIG Welder) 3.2 DC WELDERS :

Electric motor driven generators Engine driven generators Multiple output power source 3.3 SELECTION OF POWER SORUCES :

3.3.1 DC ONLY : GMAW, FCAW, EXX10, EXX15 3.3.2 DC PREFERRED : Fast freeze, Fast follow, SS < Non ferrous or surfacing with high alloy electrodes. 3.3.3 AC PREFERRED : Fast fill, where Arc blow is problem, iron powder electrodes. 3.3.4 AC OR DC : GTAW, SAW (depending on application). 4.0 4.1 ARC WELDING CONSUMABLES : TYPES :


EXAMPLES : E60XX, 70XX, 70XX-A 1 E – Indicates electrode Next digit indicate tensile strength Eg: 60 – 60000 psi 110 – 110000 psi Next digit indicates position Eg. 1 – all positions, 2 – flat and horizontal fillet, 4 – vertical down welding. Last two digits together indicate type of covering and current requirement. Eg – EXX10 – DC + ONLY, ORGANIC COVERING EXX13 – AC OR DC +/-, RUTILE EXX18 – AC OR DC +, LOW HYDROGEN + IRON POWDER. Necessary tests that are required to accept an electrodes are specified in ASME SEC II – C. Tests required in general to accept the electrodes are tests on weldments like radiography, tensile, transverse tension, longitudinal guided bend, notch toughness etc. ALSO REFER ENCLOSED FOR NONENCLUTURE AS PER AWS AND DIN. The following are the AWS SFA spec. that are specified in ASME SECTION II – C :

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. 5.0


5.1 - Carbon steel electrodes for SMAW 5.2 - Carbon and Low alloy steel rods for Oxy fuel gas welding 5.3 - Al and Al alloy electrodes for SMAW 5.4 - Stainless steel electrodes for SMAW 5.5 - Low alloy steel covered arc welding electrodes 5.6 - Copper and copper alloy covered electrodes 5.7 - Copper and copper alloy bare welding rods and electrodes 5.8 - Filler metal for brazing and braze welding 5.9 - Bare Stainless steel welding electrodes and rods 5.10 - Bare aluminum and Al alloy welding electrodes and rods 5.12 - Tungsten and tungsten alloy electrodes for arc welding and cutting 5.13 - Solid surfacing welding rods and electrodes 5.14 - Nickel and nickel alloy bare welding electrodes and rods 5.15 - Welding electrodes and rods for cast iron 5.17 - Carbon steel electrodes and fluxes or SAW 5.18 - Carbon steel filler metals for gas shielded arc welding 5.28 - Low alloy steel filler metals 5.30 - Consumable inserts


WPS IS MADE TO ENSSURE THAT WELD MENT PROPOSED FOR CONSTRUCTION IN CAPABLE OF HAVING REQUIRED PROPERTIES FOR ITS INTENDED APPLICATIONS. Weld property shall contain physical soundness as well as mechanical compatibility. Production engineers, along with QC and welding engineers align with themselves a shop floor and QA & Design engineers align themselves at the design end. The following parameters for a weldment are important from design point of view: Weld metal chemistry UTS % Elongation Yield point Hardness Impact strength


WPQ IS THE PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION OF WELDER, WHO IS INTENDED TO CARRY OUT WELDING ON THE PRODUCTION SPECIMEN. To minimize the number of Procedure Qualifications to be conducted, materials are grouped basis comparable metal characteristic such as composition, weldability and mechanical characteristics. 5.1 QW / QB 422 OF SECTION IX :

P1 – P 11 – Steels and alloy steels. P21 – P25 – Aluminium and aluminium alloys P31 – P35 – Copper and copper based alloys P41 – P47 – Nickel and Nickel based alloys P51 – P52 – Ti and Ti based alloys P61 – P62 – Zr and Zr based alloys 5.2 FILLER METALS (QW 432) :

F1 to F16: Steel and steel alloys. F21 to F24 – aluminium and al. alloys. F31 to F35 – Cu and Cu alloys. F41 F51 F61 F71 to F45 – Ni and Ni alloys. to F54 – Ti and Ti alloys. – Se and Zr alloys. to F72 – Hardfacing weld metal overlay.

A numbers: Filler metal classification based on weld metal chemistry. 5.3 PERFORMANCAE QUALIFICATION OF WELDERS:

The following are excerpts from section IX which are used to qualify the welder. 5.3.1 POSITION OF QUALIFICATIONS (QW 461). PLATE POSITIONS (QW 121): FLAT POSITION 1G: Plate in a horizontal plane with the weld metal deposited from above. HORIZONTAL POSITION 2G: Plate in a vertical plane with the axis of the weld horizontal. VERTICAL POSITION 3G: Plate in a vertical plane with the axis of the weld vertical. OVERHEAD POSITION 4G: Plate in a horizontal plane with the weld metal deposited from underneath. PIPE POSITION (QW 122):



See Annex A, B, C for specimen copy of WPS, PQR AND WPQ. 6.0 6.1 INSPECTION OF WELDING DUTIES OF INSPECTOR

The duties of inspector usually involve the performance of a number of operations, including but not limited to : 6.2 a. b. c. d. Interpretations of drawings and specs. Verification of the metal being welded. Verification of procedure and welder qualification. Checking application of approved welding procedures. Verification of proper heat treatment. Assure acceptable qualify of welds. Preparation of records and repots. INSPECTION PRIOR TO WELDING : The faces and edges of material should be examined for laminations, blisters, scabs and seams. Heavy scale, oxide films, grease, paint oil and moisture should be removed. The pieces to be welded should be checked for size and shape. Warped, bent or otherwise damaged material should be detected and removed at early stages of fabrication. Edge preparations, bevel angle, alignment of parts and fit ups should be checked with relevant joint design specified in WPS. The groove surface should be smooth (equal to machined / ground surface). The root gap should be uniform.


Tacks to hold alignment of joint must be checked for soundness. Tacks which are to be included n accordance with the welding procedure and must be of the same quality as root pass. INSPECTION DURING WELDING :


Visual inspection is employed to check details of the work while welding is in progress. The details to be considered are : a. b. c. d. e. f. g. welding process Cleaning Preheat and interpass temperatures Joint preparation Distortion Control Filler metal Interpass chipping, grinding or gouging

The inspector should be thoroughly familiar with the items involved in the qualified welding procedures. Compliance with all details of the procedure should be verified. The root pas is most important from the point of view of weld soundness. The root pass may be checked by dye-penetrant testing. The inspection of root pass offers another opportunity to inspect for plate laminations. In the case of double groove welds, slag from the root pass on the side of the plate may from slag deposits on the other side. Such deposits should be chipped, ground or gouged out prior to welding the opposite side. Where slag removal in incomplete, it will remain in the root of the finished welds. Emphasis should be placed on the adequacy of the tack welds and clamps or braces used to maintain the root opening to assure penetration and alignment. WELDING DESIGN (AS PER ASME / ANSI 31.3) : JOINT DESIGN – REF. FIG. 328.32 THRU 328.5 PREHEAT TEMPERATURES – TABLE 330.1.1 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT REQUIREMENTS – TABLE 331.1.1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR WELDS TABLE 341.3.2.A 6.4 INSPECTION AFTER WELDING :

Visual examination is the first stage in the inspection of a finished weld. The following quality factor should be checked : a. b. c. d. Dimensional accuracy of the weldment (including distortion) Conformity to specification requirement regarding extent of distribution, size, contour and continuity of the welds. Weld appearance, surface roughness, weld spatter etc. Surface flaws, such as cracks, porosity, unfilled craters and crater cracks particularly at the end of welds, undercutting, overlap, excessive reinforcement, excessive grinding etc.


f. g.

h. i. 6.5 A. B. C.

The areas where fit up lugs were attached or where handling lugs, machining block or other temporary attachments were welded on, must be checked carefully after the attachment is removed. The area must be ground smooth and any pits or tears be filled in with weld metal and ground smooth. Air hardening materials should be preheated before any thermal cutting or weld repair done. Post weld heat treatment time, temperature and heating / cooling rates should be monitored in process. For groove welds, the width of finished welds will fluctuate in accordance with the groove angle, root face, root opening and permissible tolerances. The height of reinforcement should be consistent with the specified requirements. Where not specified the inspector may have to rely on his judgment, guided by what he considers a good welding practice. The finished weld should be thoroughly cleaned of oxides and slag for its final inspection. After final inspection, the finished weld may be examined by one or a combination of the following technique : NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING : Dye penetrant testing – unless otherwise specified the extent of this test will be 100% for all root runs for alloy steel welds. Magnetic particle testing. Radiography – unless otherwise specified, the extent of radiographic examination will be as follows : C and C-Mo steels – 10% of welds. Alloy steels – 100% of the welds. The weld joint for radiography will be marked by inspector. Radiographic examination of weld joints of two dissimilar materials shall be considered as per the higher metallurgy stipulations. Ultrasonic testing Eddy current testing Ferrite determination Ultrasonic hardness testing

Hardness testing portable hardness testers may be considered as NDT method. Hydraulic testing of the equipment welded may be done to check for leaks through welds, cracks etc. 6.6 a. b. DESTRUCTIVE TESTING : Mechanical tests line tensile, bend, impact, hardness, drift, flattening etc. Chemical analysis, microscopic examination, grain size determination etc.

The method and extent of examinations will be governed by applicable code requirements.

6.7 a. b. c. d.

REPAIR OF WELDS : No repair should be carried out without prior permission on the inspector. Weld discontinuities which are beyond acceptable limits shall be removed from the joint completely by the process of chipping and grinding. Where random radiography is specified, the first weld of each welder shall be completely radiographed. In case of pipe size 150mm dia and below, the first two welds shall be completely radiographed. For each weld found unacceptable due to welder‘s fault, two additional check should be carried out on welds performed by the same welder. The above procedure shall be continued till such time when the two consecutive welds which were radiographed for the same defective weld are found acceptable. After welding, inspection tests and radiography shall be promptly done so that there is no accumulation of defective welds. The marking of areas to be repaired should be clear and of a distinctive colour so that it is not confused with other markings. After the repair is made and inspected, it should be clearly marked to indicate whether or not the repair is satisfactory. Repairs shall be done by a qualified welder using qualified welding procedure as used for the original weld joint. CAUTION IN VISUAL INSPECTION :

e. f.

g. 6.8

A good surface appearance is often regarded as indicative of careful workmanship and high weld quality. However, surface appearance is not a reliable indication of sub surface condition. In visual inspection, the judgment of weld quality must be based on the observations that have been made prior to and during welding. For instance, if the inspector knows that the plate was free of laminations, that the edge preparation was correct, that root opening was as specified, that qualified welding procedure was followed carefully, he may be reasonably safe in judging the completed weld on the basis of visual examination. 6.9 CAUTION IN RADIOGRAPHY :

For avoiding any falsification of radiographs, the radiographs selected at random should be taken to site for comparing weld ripples, contours on the actual weld joint and corresponding impressions on the radiographs. 6.10 TESTS FOR WELD DEFECTS : The following table suggests some usual tests for detecting common weld and base metal defects.

DEFECTS Dimensional defects warpage Incorrect joint preparation Incorrect weld size Incorrect weld profile Structural discontinuities Porosity, non-metallic incomplete fusion. Undercutting Cracking Surface defects DEFECTS Inadequate penetration Defective Properties Low tensile and field strength Low ductility Improper hardness Impact failure Incorrect composition Improper corrosion resistance inclusions,

METHOD OF TESTING Visual inspection with proper mechanical gauges and fixtures Visual inspection with proper mechanical gauges and fixtures Visual inspection with weld gauge Visual inspection with weld gauges Radiographic, fracture, microscopic macroscopic and ultrasonic Visual inspection, radiography and ultrasonic Visual inspection, bend tests, radiographic, microscopic magnetic particle, dye penetrate test and ultrasonic Visual inspection METHOD OF TESTING Radiographic. Microscopic macroscopic ultrasonic Tension test, fillet weld shear test Tension test, bend test Hardness tests Impact tests Chemical analysis Corrosion tests


6.11 NDT INSPECTION TECHNIQUES : The following table gives applications, advantages and limitations of different NDT inspection techniques generally employed in welding inspection. Advantages Limitations Visual Welds which have defects Economical, expedient, Limited to external on surface on the surface requires relatively little conditions only. training and relatively little equipment for many applications. Application


Most weld discontinuities including cracks, porosity lack of fusion incomplete penetration, slag, fit up defects, wall thickness, and dimensional evaluations.

Advantages Radiography (Gamma Rays) Permanent record, which enables review at a later data Gamma sources may be positioned inside of accessible, objects i.e. pipes, etc. for unusual technique radiographs. Requires no electrical energy for production for gamma rays.


Radiation is a safety hazard requires special facilities or areas where radiation will be used and requires special monitoring of exposure levels and dosages to personnel. Sources decay over their halflives and must be periodically replaced. Gamma sources have a constant energy of output (wavelength) and cannot be adjusted. Radiography requires highly skilled and certified operator. High initial cost of X-ray equipment. Not portable, radiation hazard as with gamma sources, skilled and certified operators are required. Surface condition must be suitable for coupling of transducer. Couplant required. Small, thin welds may be difficult to inspect required. Requires a relatively skilled operator / inspector. Must be applied to ferromagnetic materials. Some applications require parts to be demagnetized after inspection. Magnetic particle inspection requires use of electrical energy for most applications.

Same above



Most weld discontinuities including cracks slag lack of fusion, lack of bond, thickness.

Most weld discontinuities open to the surface, some large voids slightly subsurface. Most suitable for cracks.

Radiography (x-rays) Adjustable energy levels, generally produces higher quality radiographs than gamma sources. Offer permanent record as with gamma rays radiography. Ultrasonic Most sensitive to planner type defects. Test results known immediately. Portable most ultrasonic flaw detectors do not require and electrical power outlet. High penetration capability. Magnetic Particle Relatively economical and expedient. Inspection equipment is considered portable.

Application Weld discontinuities open to surface i.e cracks, porosity, and seams.

Weld discontinuities open to the surface (i.e. cracks porosity, fusion) as some subsurface inclusions.

Advantages Liquid Penetrate May be used on all nonporous materials. Portable, relatively inexpensive equipment. Expedient inspection results. Results are easily interpreted. Requires no electrical energy sources. Eddy Current Relatively expedient, low cost. Automation possible for symmetrical parts.

Limitations Surface films such as coatings, scale, smeared metal Mask or hide rejectable defects. Bleed out from porous surface can also mask indications.

Limited to conductive materials. Shallow depth of penetration. Some indications may be masked by part geometry due to sensitivity variations. Requires the use of transducers coupled on the test part surface. Part must be in ―use‖ or stressed.

Acoustic Emission Internal cracking in welds Real time and continuous during cooling, crack surveillance Inspection. initiation and growth May be inspected remotely. rates. Portability of inspection apparatus. 6.12 WELD DEFECTS :

A weld defect is an unacceptable discontinuity or flaw in the weld structure. common weld defects are discussed below : 6.12.1 Distortion


Stresses due to high magnitude result from thermal expansion / contraction and shrinkage due to weld metal solidification and cooling of the welded structure. Such stresses tend to cause distortion. Procedure for distortion control – Distortion is best controlled at the design and assembly stages since correction after welding can be costly. The following points should be considered : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Use as small a volume of weld as possible – do not over weld. Balance the welds on either side of the neutral axis and on either side of the structure. Use mechanical welding in preference to manual welding. Reduce the number of joints to a minimum. Use square butt welds in preference to V butt welds with minimum root opening and included angle. Obtain weld penetration rather than reinforcement to give weld strength.

vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii)

Keep a uniform fit-up. Aim for a self-jigging assembly or external jigging. Use intermittent welds where possible. Use the smallest possible leg length for fillet welds. Use the minimum number of weld passes. Weld alternately on either side of a weld preparation. Use the highest deposition rte permissible. Use a planned welding sequence to distribute heat uniformly. Pre-bend or per-set members and joints. Weld towards the unrestrained end of a joint. Weld those joints that contract most first. Weld the more flexible sections first as these are most easily corrected.

Correction of distortion in a completed weld requires one of the following procedures : i) A straightening operation with or without the application of heat, ii) Removal of weld or welds causing the distortion and subsequent rewelding. iii) The addition of weld metal in specific areas. iv) A post weld heat treatment. Fig. 11.1 shows distortion in some different joint design. 6.12.2 Incorrect Weld Profile

Fig. 11.2 shows various types of acceptable and unacceptable weld profiles. The profile of one pass of a multipass weld have considerable effect on the tendency for discontinuities such as incomplete fusion or slag inclusions to be produced when subsequent layers are deposited. 6.12.3 Porosity

The primary causes of porosity are dirt, rust and moisture on the surface of the base metal, in the welding consumables (electrodes, gases) and in the welding equipment (such as cooling systems and drive rolls). Porosity can be uniformly scattered, in clusters or linear type. Linear porosity occurs generally in the root pass. Porosities differ from slag inclusions in that they contain gases rather than solids and are generally spherical in shape. Excessive current and excessive ARC lengths also cause porosity. 6.12.4 Slag Inclusions

The oxides and other non-metallic solids that are entrapped in weld metal or between weld metal and base metal are called slag inclusions. Fig. 11.3 illustrates the slag inclusions.

They are generally derived from electrode covering materials or fluxes employed in arc welding operation. Slag formed in the welding process may be forced below the surface of molten metal by the stirring action of the arc. Most slag inclusions can be prevented by proper preparation of the groove before each bead is deposited. 6.12.5 Tungsten Inclusions

This happens in gas tungsten-arc welding process, particularly in the manual process where tungsten particles may be transferred in to the weld deposit on occasional touching of the electrode to the work or the molten weld metal. Tungsten particles due to high radiation absorption properties, appear as a prominent white spot on the radiography film in contrast to the images of slag inclusions or porosity which appear darker or blacker than the average darkening of the film in the weld metal areas. 6.12.6 Incomplete Fusion

Incomplete fusion is the failure to fuse together adjacent layers of weld metal or weld metal and base metal. This may occur at any point in the welding groove. Fig. 11.3 illustrates the examples of incomplete fusion. 6.12.7 Inadequate Joint Penetrations

This term describes failure of the weld metal to completely fill the root of the weld. It could result from any of the following reasons : i) ii) The most frequent cause of this type of discontinuity is the use of groove design not suitable for the welding process or the conditions of actual construction. When a groove is welded from one side only, complete penetration is not likely to be obtained consistently if – a) Root face dimension is too great (even though the root opening is Adequate). b) Root opening is too small. c) Included angle of the V-groove is too small. Using electrodes that are too larger or electrode types that have tendency to bridge. Abnormally high rate of travel. Insufficient welding current. Undercut

iii) iv) v)


A groove formed by melting of the base metal during welding process, adjacent to the toe or root of a weld and left unfilled by weld metal is called undercut.

With a specific electrode, excessive current or too long an arc increases the tendency to undercut. Magnetic arc blow may also contribute to undercut. Fig. 11.4 shows the undercut and some typical defects in root, toe and face of fillet and groove welds. The effect of root opening on V-groove weld is also illustrated. 6.12.9 Cracks

Cracking of welded joint results from localized stresses that at some point exceed the ultimate tensile strengths of the material. After a welded joint has cooled, cracking is more likely to occur if the metal is either hard or brittle. A ductile material, by local yielding, may withstand stress concentrations that might cause a hard or brittle material to fail. Fig. 11.5 illustrates different type of cracks in welded joints. 6.12.10 Weld Metal Cracking In multilayer welds cracking is most likely to occur in the first layer of the weld, and unless repaired, will often continue through other layers as the are deposited. Weld metal cracking may be minimized by following modifications : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Change the electrode manipulation or electrical condition to improve the contour or composition of the deposit. Decrease the travel speed. This increases the thickness of the deposit and provides more weld metal to resist the stresses. Use preheats to reduce thermal stresses. Use low hydrogen electrodes. Use proper sequence of welds to balance shrinkage stresses. Avoid quenching and control cooling conditions.

Weld metal cracks can be of following types : a) b) c) Transverse cracks Longitudinal cracks Crater cracks

Whenever welding operation is interrupted, there is a tendency for cracks to form in the crater known as crater cracks. Stitch or intermittent welds are particularly susceptible to crater cracks. The occurrence of crater cracks can be minimized or even prevented by filling craters to a slightly convex shape prior to breaking the arc.

6.12.11 Base Metal Cracking i) ii) iii) Usually longitudinal in nature. Occurs within the heat-affected zone (HAZ) due to lack of ductility. Almost always associated with hardenable materials.

In shielded metal arc welding, the characteristics of the electrode as determined by its covering have considerable effect upon the tendency towards HAZ cracking. 6.12.12 Cold Cracking It occurs at or near room temperature mainly in steels. Cracks are usually transgranular. It is sometime delayed for hours or days after cooling, cold cracking in steels usually start in HAZ and appear as underbead cracks parallel to weld . The cracks may appear as toe cracks at the edge of a weld. The cause of underbead cracking is attributed to the combined effects of hydrogen, martensite formation and restraint. Corrective measures include : i) ii) iii) Use of low hydrogen electrode (or a hydrogen free welding process) Preheat and postheat treatments Base metal of lower hardenablility

Micro fissures may be either hot or cold cracks. 6.12.13 Cracking caused by ARC Strikes These represent unintentional melting or heating outside the intended weld deposit area. They usually are caused by the welding arc but can also be produced beneath an improperly secured ground connection. The result is a small melted area that can produce undercut, hardening or localized cracking depending upon the base metal. Any crack or blemishes caused by arc strikes should be ground to a smooth contour and checked to ensure soundness. 6.12.14 Lamellar Tearing Some rolled structural steels are susceptible to a cracking defect known as lamellar tearing. This occurs during welding. See fig. 11.6 for illustration. As lamellar tearing, these tears usually remain subsurface, occur adjacent to the HAZ and exhibit a terrace type separation. 6.12.15 Metallurgical Inclusions Many elements are added to steel or other base metals to produce certain desirable properties. However, certain elements may severely deteriorate the base and weld metal properties by penetrating into the molten weld metal. These include the following elements that may be in contact with a metal during welding operation :

i) ii) iii) iv)

Copper (in the form of contact tips and magnetic particle testing prods). Lead (in the form of caulking or linings). Sulfur (in the form of molecular sulfur that has been deposited while the equipment was in service). Zinc (when welding galvanized steels).

6.12.16 Burn Through A burn through is that portion of the root bead where excessive penetration has caused the weld puddle to be blown out. 6.12.17 Typical Welding Problems

Typical welding problems, their causes and remedies have been discussed in the following table : Remedies Cracking of Weld Metal High rigidity of joint Reduce cooling rate (preheat), mechanically relieve residual stresses (peening), minimize shrinkage stresses (back stepping block sequence), increase strength of weld metal or build up greater cross section of weld beads. Excessive alloy pickup from base Change current level and rate of travel; weld with metal straight polarity if possible overlay base metal at low amperages prior to joint welding. Defective electrodes (moisture, Change electrode; grind-striking ends to proper eccentricity, poor striking ends, dimension; bake electrodes (low-hydrogen). poor core wire). Poor fitup Correct the fitup, reduce root gap. Small bead Increase cross-sectional, area of weld uses larger electrode. High sulfur in base metal (carbon Use process with high level of sulfur fixing elements and low allows steels) (basic slag from EXX 15, 16, 18). Angular distortion (weld root in Change to balanced welding on both sides; consider tension) peening, preheat. Crater Cracks Fill in crater prior to withdrawing electrodes. Cracking of Base Metal Hydrogen in welding atmosphere Use hydrogen-free process (gas metal arc, gas (Under bead cracking – ferrous tungsten arc, etc; low hydrogen electrodes, metals) submerged arc); high preheats, aging or anneal. Hot short cracking of base metal Low heat input high speed welding, thin beads, (copper alloys) change material. High strength with low ductility Use annealed or stress – relieved material. Excessive stresses Redesign; change welding sequence, intermediate stress relief. Causes

Causes High hardenability

Remedies Preheat; increase welding condition to slow-cool weld beads, postheat prior to cooling from interpass temperatures. Brittle phases Solution heat treat prior to welding. Porosity Excessive hydrogen, oxygen, Use low-hydrogen process (gas metal-arc, gas nitrogen in welding atmosphere tungsten-arc, and submerged arc); use filler with high deoxidizers. High rate of weld freezing Preheat, increase heat input. Oil, paint or rust on base metal Clean joint surfaces. Dirty surface on gas metal-arc Use specially cleaned wire. length Improper arc length, current or Obtain better control of welding parameters. manipulation Galvanized coatings on steel Use E 6010 electrode with manipulation to volatilize Zn ahead of molten pool. Excessive moisture in electrode or Use dry materials. joint High sulfur base metal Use electrode with basic slagging reactions. Inclusions Failure to remove slag from Clean surfaces and previous beads. previous deposit Entrapment of refractory oxides Power wire brush previous bead. Tungston in weld metal Use high frequency to initiate arc; improve manipulation. Improper joint design Increase included angle of joint. Oxide inclusions (gas metal-arc, Provide proper shielding and coverage. gas tungston-arc 6.13 ACCEPTABILITY LIMITS FOR WELD DEFECTS Different codes specify acceptability limits for weld defects depending upon the criticality of service, nature of material, thickness, safety considerations etc. The code specified for a particular welding job should be followed. The acceptability limits given in the following codes are reproduced here for ready reference : i) ii) iii) API-1104 (1993) – Welding Pipelines & Related Facilities. ASME Sec. VIII Div-1 (1983) - Pressure Vessels. ANSI-B 31.3 (1980) – Chemical Plant & Petroleum Refining Piping. API-1104 (1983) – WELDING PIPELINES AND RELATED FACILITIES


Inadequate Penetration of Weld Root (without High-low) i) Any individual condition shall not exceed 25-4 mm.

ii) iii)

The total length of such condition in any continuous 304-8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 25.4 mm. If the weld is less than 304-8 mm long, then the total length of such condition shall not exceed 8% of the weld length.

Inadequate Penetration due to High-Low i) ii) High-low is not objectionable provided that the root of adjacent pipe and / or fitting joints is completely tied in (bonded) by weld metal. When one edge of the root is exposed (or unbounded) the length of this condition shall not exceed 50.8 mm at individual locations or 76.2 mm in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld.

Internal Concavity (at root) i) ii) Any length of internal concavity is allowable provide that the density of the radiographic image of the internal cavity does not exceed that of the adjacent base metal. If the density does not exceed that of the adjacent base metal, the dimensions of such areas shall not exceed those specified for burn-through (discussed in the following paragraphs).

Incomplete Fusion i) ii) iii) Incomplete fusion at the root of the joint or at the top of joint between the weld metal and the base metal shall not exceed 25-4 mm in length. The total length of such conditions in any 304-8 mm length of weld metal shall not exceed 25.4 mm, If the weld is less than 304.8 mm long, then the total length of such conditions shall not exceed 8% of the weld length.

Incomplete Fusion due to Cold Lap (Subsurface Defect) i) ii) Individual incomplete fusion due to cold lap shall not exceed 50.8 mm in length. The total length of incomplete fusion due to cold lap in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 50.8 mm.

Burn Through i) a) b) c) For Pipes 60.3 mm (2-3/8 inch) OD and Larger Any unprepared burn-through shall not exceed 6-4 mm or the thickness of pipe wall; whichever is smaller, in any dimension. The sum of maximum dimensions of separate unprepared burn-through in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 12.7 mm. Radiographs of repaired burn-through shall show that these have been properly repaired. Burn-through shall be considered to have been acceptably repaired if

the density of the radiographic image of the burn through does not exceed that of the adjacent base metal. ii) a) b) c) For Pipes less than 60.3 mm OD No more than one unrepaired burn-through is acceptable. It shall not exceed 6.4 mm or the thickness of pipe wall, whichever is the smaller in any dimension. Burn-through shall be considered to have been acceptably repaired if the density of the radiographic image of the burn-through does not exceed that of the adjacent base metal.

Slag Inclusions (Continuous / Broken) i) a) b) c) ii) a) b) For Pipes 60.3 mm OD and larger Any elongated slag inclusion shall not exceed 50.8 mm in length or 1.6 mm in width. The total length of elongated slag inclusion in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 50.8 mm. Parallel slag lines shall be considered as separate conditions if the width of either of them exceeds 0.8 mm. For Pipes less than 60.3 mm OD Individual elongated slag inclusions shall not exceed 1.6 mm in width or three times the normal wall thickness in length. Parallel slag lines shall be considered as separate conditions if the width of either of one of them exceed 0.8 mm.

Isolated Slag Inclusions i) a) b) c) ii) a) b) For Pipes 60.3 mm OD and larger The maximum width of any isolated slag inclusion shall not exceed 3.2 mm. The total length of isolated slag inclusions in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 12.7 mm. There shall not be more than four isolated slag inclusions of the maximum width of 3.2 mm in length. For Pipes less than 60.3 mm OD The maximum width of any isolated slag inclusion shall not exceed ½ the nominal wall thickness. The total length of such inclusions shall not exceed twice the nominal wall thickness.

Porosity i) a) b) ii) a) b) c) iii) a) b) iv) Spherical Porosity The maximum dimensions of any individual spherical gas pocket, shall not exceed 3.2 mm or 25% of the pipe wall thickness, whichever is the lesser. The maximum distribution of spherical porosity shall not exceed that shown in fig. 18 and 19 of API Standard 1104-93 (enclosed therewith). Cluster Porosity Cluster porosity, which occurs in the finish pass shall not exceed an area of 12.7 mm, diameter with the maximum dimensions of any individual gas pocket within the cluster not to exceed 1.6 mm. The total length of cluster porosity in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld shall not exceed 12.7 mm. Cluster porosity occurring in other passes will comply with the acceptability limits of spherical porosity. Piping (Wormhole) Porosity The maximum dimensions of the radiographic image associated with wormhole porosity shall not exceed 3.2 mm or 25% of the pipe wall thickness whichever is the lesser. The maximum distribution of piping porosity shall not exceed that as shown in Fig. 18 and 19 of API Standard 1104-93. Hollow Bead

Hollow bead is elongated liner porosity occurring in the root pass. a) b) c) The maximum length of the discontinuity shall not exceed 12.7 mm. The total length of hollow bead in any continuous 304.8 mm length of weld metal shall not exceed 50.8 mm. Individual hollow bead discontinuities, each exceeding 6.4 mm in length, shall be separated by at least 50.8 mm.

Cracks No weld containing cracks, regardless of size or location, shall be acceptable. Undercutting The depth of undercuts may be determined by visual and mechanical test methods. The undercutting, adjacent to the cover or root bead shall not exceed the following :

DEPTH i) Over 0.8 mm or over 12-1/2% of the pipe walls thickness whichever is smaller. ii) Over 0.4 mm through 0.8 mm or over 6 to 12-1/2% of the pipe wall thickness, whichever is smaller. iii) 0.4 mm or 6% of the pipe wall thickness whichever is smaller.

LENGTH Not Applicable.

60.8 mm in a continuous weld length of 304.8 mm or 1/6 the length of the weld Whichever is smaller. Acceptable regardless of length.

When using radiography, undercutting adjacent to the cover or root pass shall not exceed 50.8 mm in a continuous weld length of 304 mm or 1/6 the length of weld, whichever is smaller. When both mechanical and radiographic measurements are available, the mechanical measurements shall govern. 6.13.2 i) ii) iii) iv) Repair of Defects

Before repairs are made, injurious defects shall be entirely removed to sound metal. All stag and scale shall be removed. A crack can be repaired if its length is less than 8% of the weld length. The repair groove shall be examined by magnetic particle or dye penetrant test to assure complete removal of the crack. Repair will be done by qualified welder using same welding procedure as used in the making of original weld. Repairs shall be re-radiographed, or inspected by the same means as previously used.

6.13.3 ASME SEC. VIII DIV. 1-1983 PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements i) a) b) ii) A reduction in thickness due to welding process is acceptable provided the following conditions are met. The reduction of thickness shall not reduce the material of the adjoining surfaces below the minimum required thickness at any point. The reduction in thickness shall not exceed 0.8 mm or 10% of the nominal thickness of adjoining surface whichever is less. The assure that the weld grooves are completely filled so that the surface of the weld metal at any point does not fall below the surface of the adjoining base material, weld metal may be added as reinforcement on each face of the weld.

The thickness of the weld reinforcement on each face shall not exceed the following : Metal Thickness mm 2.4 2.4 to 4.8 4.8 to 25.4 25.4 to 50.8 iii) iv) a) b) c) i) ii) iii) Reinforcement thickness Mm 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2

The welds shall have complete penetration and full fusion. Welds having following imperfections as shown by radiography shall not be acceptable. Any Crack. Zone of incomplete fusion or penetration. Any elongated slag inclusion which has length greater than. 6.4 mm for thickness upto 19 mm. 1/3 of thickness for thickness 19 to 57 mm. 19.0 mm for thickness over 57 mm.

(Thickness of weld is considered here). d) Any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate length greater than ‗t‘ in a length 12 r, except when distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L (t is thickness of weld & L is the length of longest imperfection in the group). Rounded indications in excess of that specified by the acceptance standards given in ASME Sec. VIII Division – 1 (1983). Concavity due to welding process on the root side of a single welded circumferential butt weld is permitted when the resulting thickness of the weld is at least equal to the thickness of the thinner member of the two sections being joined and the contour of the concavity is smooth. Repair welding shall be performed by a qualified welder using a qualified welding procedure.

e) v)

vi) Spot Radiography Requirements The minimum length of spot radiography shall be 152 (6 inch). The acceptability of welds examined by spot radiography shall be judged as follows : i) Welds in whom the radiograph shows any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration shall be unacceptable.

ii) iii)

Slag inclusions or cavities shall be unacceptable if the length of any such imperfection is greater than 2/3T where T is the thickness of thinner plate welded. If several imperfections within the above limitation exist in line, the welds shall be judged acceptable, if the sum of longest dimensions of all such imperfections is not more than T in a length of 6 T (or proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6 T) and if the longest imperfections considered are separated by at least 3 L of acceptable weld metal, where L is the length of the longest imperfection. The maximum length of acceptable imperfections shall be 19 mm. Any such imperfections shorter than 6 mm shall be acceptable for any plate thickness. Rounded indications are not a factor in the acceptability of welds not required to be fully radiographed.


6.13.4 ANSI B 31.3 – 1980 – Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping The limitations on weld defects as per this code are given in the table 341.3.2 A of the code, which is enclosed herewith. ---

7.0 7.1



















TRAVEL OTHER SPEED RANGE (mm/MIN.) 60-100 70-100 70-100 70-100 N.A.

SIDE – 1 ROOT 1 2 3



E308L-16 2.5MM - DO – 3.15MM - DO – 3.15MM - DO – 3.15MM N.A.

+VE 50-90 +VE 60100 +VE 60100 +VE 60100 N.A.

22-26 - DO - DO - DO N.A.












TO P. MO. 1



ASTM A 106 GR. B TO ASTM A 106 GR. B

5.0 MM TO 20 MM



2‖ TO 24‖








N.A. N.A. N.A.









E6013 2.5MM - DO 3.15MM - DO 3.15 MM - DO – 3.15MM N.A.

+VE 50-80 +VE 60-100 +VE 60-100 +VE 60-100 N.A.

22-24 - DO - DO - DO N.A.

60-100 70-100 70-100 70-100 N.A.












2.0 MM TO 20 MM












E7018 2.5MM - DO 3.15MM - DO 3.15 MM - DO – 3.15MM - DO – 3.15MM

-VE 100-130 -VE 130-190 -VE 130-190 -VE 130-190 -VE 130-190

22-24 - DO - DO - DO - DO -

60-100 70-100 70-100 70-100 70-100




DATE : 14.10.98 DATE : SMAW








TO P.NO. 1






100 TO 150 DEG. C 200 DEG. C



: :

-VE 22-26V





CURRENT POLARITY‘ AMP. RANGE -VE 100-130 -VE 130-190 -VE 130-190





22-24 - DO - DO -

60-100 70-100 70-100





CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. Stages of Inspection for heat exchanger shell, shell cover, channel. Stages of Inspection for Tube Bundle & Parts. General Requirement.

1.0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

STAGES OF INSPECTION FOR HEAT EXCHANGER SHELL, SHELL COVES, CHANNEL : Identification of plate materials and other bought out items by vendor e.g. flanges, nozzles, RF pads, pipes etc. Longitudinal joint set ups-releasing for welding with dimensional check. Back chipping and D. P. Radiography. Circumferential seam set up (with acceptance of dimension). Back chip, D. P. and radiography. Inspection of girth flanges, correlating with test certificates and witnessing ultrasonic flaw detection testing (at HPCL‘s discretion). All girth flanges should meet ultrasonic flaw detection requirements as per ASME Sec. VIII Div.2. Set up of girth flanges and all nozzles along with dimensional checks. Witnessing back chipping / D.P. – wherever applicable. Final radiography. Final dimensional check including dummy pass test (for shells only). Pneumatic test for R F pads. Hydraulic test wherever applicable.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

* Stress relieving / normalizing for shell cover dish and channels wherever applicable; review of heat treatment charts.

2.0 1. 2. 3.

STAGE OF INSPECTION FOR TUBE BUNDLE / BUNDLE PARTS : Identification of tube sheets (forgings, ultrasonically tested), Ultrasonic flaw detection testing as ASTM A 578 for tube sheets made out of plates. Template inspection and approval prior to commencement of drilling. Exchanger tubes procurement under third party inspection or HPCL inspection supplier to be approved by Inspection Division. Exchanger tubes inspection at vendor‘s shop. Inspection of tube sheets and baffles in stacked condition by inserting tube sections - (In case bundle assembly is not in vendor‘s scope). All drilling to be as per TEMA; hole size to be checked by Go, No-Go gauges as per TEMA close fit tolerances unless mentioned differently in Purchase Order. Tube hole grooves to be checked using proper tools. Measurement and recording of ligaments dimension. Same to be as per TEMA requirements strictly. In case of bundle assembly, rolling calculations to be offered along with actual measurements before actually expanding the tubes in tube sheets. Rolling adequacy to be offered for inspection by providing proper tools / means. Baffle O.D. measurements to be checked / offered with calipers. In case of U tube Bundles Minimum radius tube to be checked for flattering by handling after approval of samples tube. Minimum radius tube to be offered for thinning check as per TEMA requirement on outer fiber. U tubes to be inspected for radius checks by drawing on ground or by any other means to ensure correctness of the radius / curvature. If stress relieving of entire tube bundle is not recommended in the drawing, then stress relieve the formed U portion of the inner most two row tubes. In a U tube of the inner most two tubes to touch each other (TEMA requirement also).

4. 5.

6. 7.

8. 9. i) ii) iii) iv)


Vendor to prepare mock-up piece in case desired by Inspection Division to show adequacy of tube expansion limits.

3.0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS : All stage of inspection to be discussed with Inspection Division before commencement of job & prepare an quality Assurance Plan (QAP). All welding procedures and welds to be qualified. For all plate for pressure vessels usage, edges to be ground and checked by D. P. Shell courses to be made by rolling plates in longitudinal direction. All plates ordered as per A-515 or better to be used in normalized condition. Use IS 2062 Gr. A plate material instead of IS 226 in case of non-availability of IS 226 material. Plates above 16 mm thick to be ultrasonically checked as per ASTM A 435 & plates above 50 mm to be checked ultrasonically as per ASTM A 578. All single sided joints to be done by TIG Welding. Forgings like girth flanges may be witnessed by HPCL Inspection personnel at the forging shop : vendor to take prior approval about the supplier. For final dimensional checks vessel to be properly leveled in horizontal or vertical plane as required and all tools and facilities to be provided by vendor for checks accurately. Welding electrodes / filler wires only approved by HPCL inspection Division to be used. All fabrication are to be as per relevant ASME or TEMA stds. Unless any deviation from same are specifically mentioned. All formed heads to be 100% radiographed. Formed head to be heat treated as per code requirement. Vendor to take prior approval of the dish / spinning making shop from HPCL. Vendor to give min. thickness measured at knuckle of the formed head. Simulated test coupons / plates testing to be carried out for forging / dish forming under identical condition of forging and heat radius. All U bends & formed dishes to be checked by D.P. at outer radius. 3 mm monel lining to be effective 3 mm monel thickness i.e. without any contamination 3 mm monel. Same may require depositing more monel weld

11. 12. 13.

14. 15. 16.

metal. Monel purity to be checked by Potassium Ferricyanide Test before the final run as per HPCL standard procedure. ---

C H A P T E R – XV



C H A P T E R – XV

SECTION – A : INSPECTION OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0 Introduction Scope Definition & types of pressure relieving devices 3.1 Definition 3.2 Types of pressure relieving devices 3.2.1 Types of Safety relief devices 3.2.2 Rupture disc 3.2.3 Pressure Vacuum Relieving Devices Role of Inspection









Inspection of New Pressure Relieving Devices 5.1 Inspection at Manufacturer‘s shop 5.2 Inspection on receipt at site 5.2.1 General Information 5.2.2 Checklist for Pressure relief devices 5.2.3 Checklist for inspection of rupture disc 5.2.4 Checklist for inspection of PV vent valve 5.3 Inspection prior to installation Pre-Commissioning check list for inspection of pressure relieving devices 6.1 Safety relief valve 6.2 Rupture Disc 6.3 Pressure vacuum relief valves / devices Causes of improper performance & likely location of deterioration 7.1 Causes of improper performance 7.2 Likely location of deterioration 7.2.1 Relief valves / Safety Relief valves 7.2.2 Rupture Disc 7.2.3 Breather valves 7.2.4 Vents Frequency of inspection and testing 8.1 General 8.2 Inspection frequency 8.2.1 Safety relief valves 8.2.2 Breather valves 8.2.3 Rupture Disc 8.2.4 Vents Inspection of online pressure relieving devices 9.1 On stream inspection 9.1.1 Safety valves / relief valves 9.1.2 Pressure and Vacuum relief valve on storage tanks 9.1.3 Rupture Disc 9.2 Shutdown inspection 9.2.1 Safety valves / relief valves 9.2.2 Rupture Disc 9.2.3 Pressure vacuum relief devices Testing procedure for pressure relieving devices 10.1 Safety relief valve 10.1.1 Set pressure test 10.1.2 Leak test 10.1.3 Locking 10.2 Safety Valves on Boilers 10.3 Inspection and testing of pilot operated safety relief valve 10.4 Inspection and testing of PV valves Documentation Annexure I to VII Figure 1 to 14



Pressure Relieving Devices are installed on Process Equipment, Tankages and Piping to release excess pressure resulting from operational upsets and other causes like fire etc. malfunctioning of these devices could result in process upsets and / or failure of equipment and hence the necessity for proper inspection and maintenance of these devices. 2.0 SCOPE

This inspection standard outlines the minimum inspection and testing requirement applicable for all pressure relieving devices including those for vacuum service used in the petroleum industry. Control valves as means of relieving pressure into flare systems however are not covered in this standard. 3.0 3.1 DEFINITION AND TYPES OF PPRSSURE RELIEVEING DEVICES DEFINITIONS

Definitions of teams related to pressure relieving devices are given Annexure-I. Graphic relationship between these terms are illustrated in Annexure – II & III. 3.2 (a) TYPES OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES SAFETY VALVES

Description Safety valves are automatic, spring-loaded, pressure relieving devices actuated by the static pressure upstream of a valve and characterized by rapid full opening or pop action. These valves are usually supplied with the spring fully exposed from contact with escaping steam. They are not normally pressure-tight on the downstream side of the valve. Also they are usually supplied with a lifting lever with which to open the valve manually to insure that the working parts are free. The set pressure of a safety valve is the pressure at which the valve pops. Figure 1 illustrates a wing-guided-type safety valves, and Figure-2 shows a top-guided nozzle-type valve. The nozzle-type valve has a greater capacity for a given size because of its improved flow characteristics. Application Safety valves are used on stream-boiler drums and super heaters. They may; also be used for general air and steam services in a refinery. When discharge piping is employed it usually contains vented drip pan elbows. Limitation Safety valves should not be used : In corrosive refinery services. In any back-pressure service. Where the discharge must be piped to a remote location. Where the escape of lading fluid around the blowing valve is not desirable. In liquid service. As pressure-control or bypass valves. (b) RELIEF VALVES

Description Relief valves are automatic, spring-loaded, pressure-relieving devices actuated by the static pressure upstream of valves, which lifts in proportion to the increase in pressure over the opening pressure. Relief valves are usually pressure-tight on the downstream side of the valve and are not furnished with a lifting lever to operate the valve manually. Figure 3 illustrates one type of relief valve. Application

Relief valves are used primarily in liquid services. Limitation 1. 2. 3. (c) In steam, air, gas or vapour service. In variable back-pressure service. As pressure-control or by pass valves. SAFETY – RELIEF VALVES

Description Safety-relief valves are automatic, spring-loaded, pressure-relieving devices actuated by the static pressure upstream of valve. They are characterized by rapid full opening or pop action on gas or vapors and are suitable for use as either a safety or relief valve, depending upon the application. There are two types of safety-relief valves : conventional and balanced. Application Safety-relief valves were designed for use by process industries where the martial discharged by the valve may be flammable or toxic and may have to be discharged at a remote safe point through a closed discharge system. Safety-relief valves are generally used in refinery process service. Safety-relief valves are normally used : 1. 2. 3. 4. In general refinery service for gas, vapour, steam, air or liquids. In corrosive refinery services When the discharge from the valve must be piped to a remote point. When the escape of the lading fluid around the open valve is not desirable.

Limitation Safety-relief should not be used : 1. 2. On stream-boiler drum or super heaters. As pressure-control or bypass valves.

3.2.1. Types of Safety Relief Valves Types of safety relief valves in use are : 1. 2. 3. Conventional Balanced and Pilot operated valves.


Conventional safety Relief Valve

Conventional safety relief valves are susceptible to both superimposed and built up back pressure and are not recommended when the total back pressure exceeds 10% of the set pressure. These type of vales are shown in figure 4 and 6. In figure 6 a, the bonnet is open vented to atmosphere and pressure. In figure 6b, the bonnet is vented to valve outlet and the effect of back pressure is to increase is to increase the set pressure. (ii) Balanced Safety Relief Valve

The balanced safety relief valve incorporates means of minimizing the effects of back pressure on the performance characteristics, set pressure; reseat pressure lift and relieving capacity. These valves are of the two types. (a) Piston type (b) Bellows type (a) Piston Type

A typical piston type balanced valve is shown in figure 7. In this valve, the guide is vented so that the back pressure on opposing faces of the discs cancels itself. The top face of the piston which has the same area as the nozzle seat area is subjected to atmospheric pressure by venting the bonnet. The bonnet vented gases from balanced piston type valve should be disposed of safety. (b) Bellows Type

Typical bellows type valves are shown in figure 5 and 7b, in the bellows type of balanced valve, the effective bellows area is the same as the nozzle seat area and by attachment to the valve body, excludes the back pressure from acting on the top side of the area of the disc to provide for a possible bellows failure or leak. The bonnet must be vented separately from the discharge to a safe location. (iii) Pilot Operated Safety Valves

In pilot operated safety valves (Figure 8) the main Safety Valve opens through a pilot valve. Both the pilot and the main valve contain flexible membranes which can withstand only ordinary service temperatures. Because of this and the risk of fouling, their use is limited to very clean services. 3.2.2 Rupture Disc A rupture disc is a thin metal diaphragm held between flanges. It is actuated by inlet static pressure and designed to function by the bursting of the disc. Once burst it is not reusable and has to be replaced. 3.2.3 Pressure & Vacuum Relief Devices


Breather Valve

Pressure and vacuum relief valves are automatic pressure or vacuum relieving devices actuated by the pressure or vacuum in the storage tank. These valves are usually weight loaded on both the pressure and very low pressures. Although pressure and vacuum valves are available as separate units, they are usually built as combination units as an integral body and frequently referred to as breather valves. These valve shall be used on the Tankages where the following condition apply : 1. 2. 3. The stock stored has a flash point below 1000 F. Temperature of the stored product is above or within 150 F of its flash point at the highest operating temperature. The stock stored are valuable & have a low vapour pressure.

The PV vent shall not be used in asphalt service. b) Hydraulic Safety Valve / Liquid Seal Valves

In liquid seal valve, a liquid provides the closure against flow through the vent until over pressure or over vacuum occurs. c) Vents

Vents are open pipes of suitable capacity fitted on tanks and are meant to function as breather valves. 4.0 ROLE OF INSPECTION

The following are the responsibilities of the inspection division : (i) (ii) To prepare inspection schedule guided by experience and requirements of statutes and assure their implementation.

To inspect & determine the physical condition of the different parts (sub assemblies) of the device, record abnormalities and suggest repairs wherever necessary. (iii) To study the abnormalities/deterioration with a view to : (a) Prevent the damage by suitable remedial measures or reduce the extent of deterioration, (b) Plan procurement of spare device/spare parts, well in time. (iv) To inspect quality of maintenance. (v) To witness and certify ‗after-maintenance testing‘ of the device and ensure that the device is fitted back at its own place. (vi) To provide feed back to the operations department as to the condition of the devices.

(vii) (viii) 5.0

To maintain Data Sheets and History sheets of all pressure relieving Devices and keep them updated. To assure the quality of new devices and spares. INSPECTION OF NEW PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES.

New pressure relieving devices shall be inspected in three phases. (i) At the manufacturers shop. (ii) On receipt at the users work site and (iii) Prior to installation 5.1 INSPECTION AT MANUFACTURER’S SHOP

The pressure relieving device shall be inspected at the manufacturer‘s shop during various stages of fabrication and assembly. The inspection shall include following aspects as applicable. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) 5.2 A check for compliance with the specifications and codes-as enumerated in the purchases order. Identification of materials. Physical inspections of the device and its sub assemblies. Inspection of Castings/weld joints if any. Hydraulic testing of the parts/sub-assemblies. Bench test for Set Pressure blow down and leak test. Material quality and thickness performance test in the case of rupture disc. Weight of the pallets and performance test in case of PV valves. Quality of sealing liquid and performance test in case of liquid seal type PV valves. Stamping of device after inspection. INBSPECTION ON RECEIPT AT SITE

On receipt at site, the new Pressure relieving Device shall be checked as per the following checks list : 5.2.1 General Information The following information shall form part of the check list Plant Purchase order No. Duty Flange Sizes Nozzle Sizes Manufacturer‘s Serial Number & Type Date of Inspection Inspector 5.2.2 Check List for Pressure Relief Valves

Action 1) Check physical Condition 2) Check Name Plate 3) Verify Capacity & Set Pressure 5.2.3 Check List for Inspection of Rupture Disc. (i) (ii) Check Check a) b) c) d) e) f) g) physical condition Name Plate for Manufacturers identification/Marks Material of Construction Lot number Size Bursting pressure Design Temperature Capacity

5.2.4 Check List for Inspection of PV Vent Valves The following checks shall be carried out on PV-vent : a) b) c) d) e) 5.3 Check physical condition Check the name plate Verify Set pressure & capacity Check proper weight of pallets Check type & level of oil/sealing liquid. Inspection Prior to Installation

All pressure relieving devices shall be bench tested for Set Pressure, Blowdown & leakage-as applicable prior to installation. 5.0 PRE-COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST FOR INSPECTION OF PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES

Before installation & commissioning the following shall be assured : (i) All new devices have been inspected and tested as detailed in Section 5-0. (ii) That the upstream system has been flushed thoroughly. (iii) Before start-up of the installation the test gag, if any shall be replaced by a test plug. 6.1 SAFETY RELIEF VALVE

The following shall be checked : 1. Tag number for proper location and service.

2. Name plate for capacity & set pressure. 3. Gasket, nuts & bolts for correct specifications. 4. Installation of valve. 5. Relief valve insulation valves are in line and in locked open position. 6. Connection pipelines do not strain the valve. 7. Outlet piping is connected to a safe location away from all likely sources of ignition. 6.2 RUPTURE DISC

The following shall be checked. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6.3 Disc tag number for proper location & service. The name plate for capacity, pressure & temperature. Isolation valve is in line and locked open. Use of proper gasket, nuts & bolts. Outlet piping is connected to a safe location. When used in combination with pressure relief valve, vent for the intervening space, if specified, is provided. PRESSURE VACUUM RELIEF VALVES/DEVICES

The following shall be inspected. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The tag number for proper location and service. The name plate for pressure/temperature & capacity. Use of specified gasket, nuts & bolts. In the case of breather valves, the checks shall be for : a) Correct weight & free movement of pallets. In the case of hydraulic safety valves, check shall be for : a) Right type of sealing liquid. b) Proper level of the sealing liquid. In case of vents, check shall be for a) Proper size of vent b) Proper size of mesh of flame arrestor, if provided. CAUSES OF IMPROPER PERFORMANCE Corrosion

7.0 (a)

Practically all type of corrosion are present in refinery service, and it is the basic cause of most of the difficulty encountered. Corrosion is apparent in pitting difficulty encountered. Corrosion is apparent in pitting of the valve parts, breaking of he various parts in the valve, deposits of corrosive residue, which interfere with the operation of the moving parts, or general deterioration of he material in the relieving device. This corrosive attack can usually be retarded by the selection of more suitable valves or materials or by better workmanship in the shop‘s maintenance repair section to ensure

greater valve tightness. It is well know that a leaking valve allows corrosive fluids to circulate in the upper parts of the valve, thereby contributing to possible corrosion of the movable parts of the valve. (b) Damaged Seating Surface

Seating surfaces on pressure-relief valves must be maintained to optical precision, for example, 3 light beads flatness. This is a specific requirement of this type of valve because of the relatively small differential loading that must prevent leakage of the lading fluid (see API Standard 527 for leakage rates). Any imperfection in these seating surface will contribute to improper valve action in service. These are many causes of damaged valve seats in refinery service. Some of the conditions that damage pressure-relief valve seating surfaces are : 1. 2. Corrosion. Foreign particles, such as mill scale, welding spatter or slag, corrosive deposits, coke, or dirt that get into the valve inlet and pass through the valve when it opens. This may destroy the precision seat contact required for tightness in most pressure-relief valves. This damage can occur either in the maintenance shop or on the unit the valve is protecting. Improper or lengthy piping to the valve inlet or obstructions in the line. This causes valve chatter. Careless handling, such as bumping , dropping, jarring or scratching of the valve parts during maintenance procedures. Leakage past the seating surfaces of a valve after it has been installed on the unit. This may be caused by inadequate maintenance or installation procedures, such as misalignment of the parts: by piping strains resulting from improper support; or by complete lack of support of discharge piping. Broken Springs Two

3. 4. 5.


Broken springs in pressure-relief valves are almost always caused by corrosion. types of corrosion are most prevalent in this type of failure in refineries : 1.

General corrosion that attacks the spring surface until the cross-sectional area of the spring is finally no longer sufficient to provide the necessary strength. It may also produce pits that act as stress heighteners and cause cracks in the spring surface with subsequent spring failure (see Figure 9). Stress corrosion that sometimes results in quite rapid spring failure. This type is particularly insidious because it is very difficult to detect until the spring breaks. A brittle type spring failure resulting from stress corrosion is shown in Figure 10. Hydrogen sulfide is one medium that frequently causes this type of spring failure in refineries. Spring failures are also dependent on the type and strength of the corrodent, the stress level in the spring, the spring material itself, and time.




Where corrosion is prevalent, two courses of preventive action may be taken. First, a spring material agent may be used. Second, the spring surface can be plated or protected with a material that resists the medium causing the corrosion but is sufficiently ductile to flex with the spring. Improper Setting


Improper setting is usually the result of carelessness on the part of maintenance personnel, inadequate testing equipment in the maintenance shop, or lack of knowledge regarding the proper adjustments required in the pressure-relief valve. (e) Plugging & Sticking

In refinery service various parts of the valve, as well as the piping connected to the valve, can sometimes become plugged by process solids such as coke or solidified products. Figure 11 shows the inlet nozzle of a valve plugged solid with a mixture of coke and catalyst, and Figure 12 shows the outlet nozzle of a valve plugged with deposits attributed to other valves discharging into a common discharge header. These are extreme variations. (f) Improper Differential Between Operating and Set Pressure

The differential between operating and set pressures provides seat loading to keep the pressure-relief valve closed tightly. 7.2 LIKELY LOCATION OF DETERIORATION

Different parts of the various pressure relieving devices are likely to deteriorate due to any one or more of the following reasons. 7.2.1 RELIEF VALVES / SAFETY RELIEF VALVES SR. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) LOCATION Inlet and outlet Nozzle LIKELY AREA OF DETERIORATION Fouling plugging due to deposits, Foreign material and corrosion products. Flanges of inlet and outlet Pitting and roughening due to corrosion, mechanical nozzle damage. Disc and nozzle Roughening uneven surface fouling and Corrosion, chattering mark. Stem Roughening wear, corrosion. Guide Roughening wear, corrosion. Spring Bending, corrosion, cracking, loss of Stiffness. Bellows Corrosion and Cracking. Body and Bonnet Metal loss, corrosion and mechanical Damage.


SR. a) b)

LOCATION Disc Disc holding flanges

LIKELY NATURE OF DETERIORATION Cracks, Fatigue. Mechanical distortion, wire drawing, damage in gasket seating face.

7.2.3 BREATHER VALVES SR. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) LOCATION Body Inlet and opening Oil Pallets LIKELY NATURE OF DERTERIORATION Mechanical damage external corrosion. discharge Fouling obstruction in the opening.

Contamination of Oil or fall in level. Fouling obstruction to movement, loss in weight, corrosion/surface roughening. Flame arrestor body Mechanical damage, external corrosion. Flame arrestor inlet and Fouling, obstruction in the openings. discharge opening Flame arrestor internal Deposit/fouling/blockage corrosion and erosion. corrugated sheets / mesh

7.2.4 VENTS SR. a) b) c) d) 8.0 8.1 LOCATION Body Flame Arrestor body Flame outlet Flame arrestor internal mesh LIKELY NATURE OF DETERIORATION Blockage, internal & external corrosion. Mechanical damage, external corrosion. Fouling obstruction in the openings. Deposits/fouling blockage corrosion and erosion.


The frequency of inspection depends upon : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Statutory requirements Service Vibration and pulsating loads Difference between set and operating pressures History



8.2.1 Safety Relief Valve Location I. a) i) ii) Battery Area New Unit Corrosive & high temperature area Non critical areas Within a year of commissioning Within 2 years of commissioning Every turnaround but not later than 4 Once in a year Each statutory turn around. Once in 5 years. Frequency

b) Existing Unit years. II. III. IV. LPG Bullet/Sphere, chemical storage & pressure storage tanks (API 620) Steam Offsite piping

8.2.2 Breather Valve i) ii) a) b) Insitu inspection Shop-Inspection & testing Corrosive Service Non Corrosive Service Once in two years. Once in four years. Once in 6 months.

8.2.3 Rupture Disc Inspection and cleaning 8.2.4 Vents Inspection an cleaning Once in a year. Every turn around

9.0 9.1


9.1.1 Safety Valves / Relief Valves An onstream visual inspection should be carried out at least once in every 6 months to check the following. a) b) c) d) e) f) 9.1.2 Gags, blinds do not exist. Upstream and down stream isolation valves if any, are opened an sealed. Seals protecting the spring setting have not been broken. Relief device is not leaking. This may be checked visually and by thermography, contact thermometers or by hand touch at outlet nozzle wherever practicable. The continuous operation of hat tracing provision, if any provided, for low temperature application on valve and discharge piping. Condition of insulation and cladding on the heat traced piping and valves. Pressure and Vacuum Relief Valve on Storage Tanks

The following inspection checks shall be carried out once every six months for breather valves on storage tanks. a) b) c) d) 9.1.3 Discharge opening should be checked for obstruction. Flame arrestor wherever provided shall be inspected, for fouling, bird nests or clogging. Element shall be inspected for mechanical damage, deposits, scaling etc. and cleaned before onset of monsoon. Oil filled type liquid seal valve shall be inspected for oil level, fouling, bird nests, foreign materials etc. Free movement of pallet shall be checked. Rupture Disc

The integrity of the rupture disc shall be verified with the help of thermography, temperature – including crayons, and contact thermometers or by hand touch. 9.2 SHUTDOWN INSPECTION

9.2.1 Safety Valves / Relief Valves Following inspection and tests shall be carried out : a) Inspection and test of the valve in as received condition. This is important and helps in establishing the frequency of inspection.


Before the valve is dismantled, it is generally considered important to determine the pop pressure of the valve when removed from service. Test procedures for determining relieving pressure vary with local plant practices. In general this test is done by mounting the pressure – relief valve on the test block and slowly increasing the pressure on the valve. The operator determines relieving pressure by watching a pressure gauge and noting the point at which the valve pops or relieves. If the valve opens at the set pressure, it need not be tested further to determine the as-received relieving pressure. If the initial pop is higher than the set pressure it is advisable to test a second time. If the valve then pops at approximately the set pressure, this indicates that the valve does not pop near the set pressure, originally or may have been changed during operation. A low initial pop indicates that the spring has either become weakened or that the setting was changed during operation. The ―as-is‖ test pressure should be recorded for review and facilitation of any necessary corrective action.

c) i) etc. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix)

Visual inspection of different parts of safety valve shall be done after dismantling to check the following : Condition of flanges for pitting, roughening, decrease in width of seating surface Spring, for evidence of bending, corrosion or cracking, free length of spring. Bellows (if applicable) or damage. Position of set screws and opening in bonnet. Inlet / outlet nozzles for evidence of deposits foreign material and corrosion. Condition of external surface and evidence of mechanical damage. Body wall thickness. Conditions of stem guide disc, nozzles etc. for evidence of wear and corrosion. Seating surface of disc and nozzle shall be critically examined for roughness or damage, which could result in valve leakage and may need correction. Care must be taken to ensure flatness of seats. It is recommended that springs be tested for stiffness : a) 10th year after installation and subsequently every 5 years.



Immediately where malfunctioning is suspected. If load and compression valves do not match with original valves, the spring should be replaced.

9.2.2 Rupture Disc During shutdown inspection, the rupture disc shall be examined for : i) ii) Cracks and fatigue of the disc. Mechanical distortion, wire drawing, and damage in gasket seating face of the disc holding flanges.

It is however recommended that rupture disc should be replaced on schedule guided by manufacturer’s recommendations & past experience. 9.2.3 Pressure Vacuum Relief Devices These devices shall be checked for the following damage, depending on the type of the device. i) ii) iii) iv) Loss in weight / fouling of pallets. Corrosion and surface roughening of pallets. Quality of sealing liquid. Internal corrosion of vents & flame arrestor bodies.

10.0 TESTING PROCEDURE FOR PRESSURE RELIEVING DEVICES Testing of all pressure relieving devices shall be carried out at frequencies indicated in Chapter – 8.0. 10.1 SAFETY RELIEF VALVE 10.1.1 Set Pressure Test

It shall be ensured that correct calibrated test gauge is used. All safety relief valves shall be tested in accordance with the relevant code to which the protected equipment is designed. After final adjustment the valve shall be popped at set pressure at least once to prove the accuracy of setting. PSV test pressure tolerance shall be 0.5% of the set pressure. Allowance for hot setting shall be made as per manufacturer recommendations. The set pressure adjustment shall be sealed. Reseat pressure shall be checked during testing of safety valve. The spring in a pressure relief valve in service for pressures up to and including 250 psi shall not be reset for any pressure more than 10% above or 10% below that for which the valve is marked. For higher pressures, the spring shall not be reset for any pressure more than 5% above or

5% below that for which the safety or relief valve is marked. Working of hand popping device shall be checked during testing. 10.1.2 LEAK TEST

Leak test shall be performed in accordance with the relevant code. 10.1.3 LOCKING

After set pressure test and leak test, the valve shall be sealed after tightening the lock nut of gas, as well as hand popping (if provided). 10.2 SAFETY VALVES ON BOILERS Safety valves shall be tested as per IBR at the time of the statutory inspection. Initial setting of the safety shall be checked in workshop. Reseating Pressure and Blowdown shall also be checked as per IBR, by adjusting Blowdown rings. The Blowdown shall be kept within 305 of set pressure. When a safety valve fails to operate at the set popping pressure, attempt should not be made to free it by striking the body or other parts of the valve. The valve shall be popped by means of the lifting leer and allowed to reseat, after which the pressure of the boiler should be raised to the set pressure. If the valve does not still pop, the boiler shall be taken out of operation an safety valve attended. It is advisable to check lifting lever for free operation when there is at least 75% of full working pressure on boiler. This ensures that moving parts are free to operate. 10.3 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF PILOT OPERATED SAFETY RELIEF VALVE Inspection of pilot operated valves is divided into two separate phases, the pilot mechanism & the main valve the pilot can be blocked off from the vessel for inspection and testing while the spring loaded in both the pilot and the main valve of certain design shall be inspected and replaced, if necessary with the main valve in service. Manufacturer recommendation for inspection, testing and repairs shall be followed. 10.4 INSPECTION & TESTING OF PV VALVES PV Valves shall be inspected and tested for tightness & positive operation at 1.3 inch of water pressure & vacuum. 11.0 DOCUMENTATION The documents to be maintained shall include i) Data sheets covering the type make design, and constructional aspects of the device.

ii) iii)

History card depicting the number and frequency of failures/repairs with probable causes type of failure/repair. Test/inspection report revealing the status of the device and its parts, its suitability for continued use and suggestions for present/future repair and maintenance.

Typical formats of combinations of above three documents are given in Annexure-5,6 & 7. ---

DEFINITION OF RELATED TERMS 1. Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP)

Maximum allowable working pressure is the maximum pressure at designated temperature or its equivalent at any metal temperature other than design temperature at which a vessel may be operated consequently, for that metal temperature, it is the highest pressure at which the primary pressure relieving device is set to open. 2. Set Pressure

In a relief of safety relief valve on liquid service, set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve starts to discharge under service conditions. In a safety or safety relief valve on gas services, the set pressure is the inlet pressure at which the valve pops under service conditions. Set pressure should not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure. However, where more than one safety valve is installed, any one valve need to be set to open at or below maximum allowable working pressure. The additional valve may not be set at maximum 105% of MAWP. If the pressure relieving devices are used for protection against fire or any other external heat, the additional devices can be set a pressure not exceeding 110% of MAWP. 3. Relieving Pressure

Relieving Pressure is the operating pressure increased by the amount of over pressure at full lift of relief valve. 4. Accumulation

Accumulation is the pressure increase over the maximum allowable working pressure of the vessel during discharge through the pressure relief valve and is expressed as percentage of the maximum allowable working pressure.


Over Pressure

Over pressure is the pressure increase over the set pressure of the vessel during discharge through the pressure relief valve and is expressed as percentage of the maximum allowable working pressure. It may be greater than the accumulation if the valve is set at a lower pressure than MAWP or vice versa. 6. Blow Down

Blow down is the difference between the set pressure and reseating pressure and normally expressed as percentage of the set pressure. 7. Back Pressure Back Pressure is the pressure existing at the outlet of the pressure relief device due to pressure in the discharge system. 8. Superimposed Back Pressure

Superimposed back pressure is the pressure in the discharge heater before the safety relief valve opens (where more than one device discharges into a common header). 9. Built up Back Pressure

Built up back pressure is the pressure in the discharge header, which develops as result of flow after the safety valve opens. 10. Lift

The rise of the disc in a pressure relief valve is called lift. 11. Chatter

Chatter is an abnormal reciprocating notion of the movable parts of a pressure relief valve in which the disc contact the seat, producing sound. 12. Simmer

Simmer is the audible escape of fluid between the seat and disc at end inlet pressure below the popping pressure. In this, valve is only slightly open and therefore discharging a small percentage of its rates capacity. 13. Crack Pressure

Crack pressure is supply pressure at which gas flow begins at the pilot exhaust. This term is frequently used in connection with pilot operated safety relief valves. 14. Cold differential test pressure

Cold differential test pressure is the inlet pressure at which a pressure relief valve is adjusted to open on the test bench. This test pressure includes correction for service conditions of back pressure and / or temperature.


A typical test arrangement for determining seat tightness for safety relief valves is shown figure (6). Leakage measurement shall be made with the use of 0.8 mm OD tubing. The tube end shall be cut square and smooth. It shall be parallel to end 13 mm below the surface of water. B. Procedure

With the valve mounted vertically the leakage rate in bubbles/mnt shall be determined with reassure at the pressure, immediately after popping. The test pressure shall be applied for minimum of 1 minute for valves of inlet sizes through 50 mm, 2 mins, for sizes 63 mm, 75 mm and 100 mm, 5 mins for 150 mm and 200 mm. Air at approximate ambient temperature shall be used as the pressure medium. C. Tightness Standard

The leakage rate in bubbles per minute shall not be exceed the value indicated in figure in the graphs.

C H A P T E R – XV
SECTION – B : INSPECTION AND TESTING OF VALVES CONTENTS 1.0 Valves 1.1 General 1.2 Gage Valves 1.3 Globe Valves 1.4 Plug Valves 1.5 Ball Valves 1.6 Diaphragm Valve 1.7 Butterfly Valve 1.8 Check Valve 1.9 Slide Valve Material 2.1 Shell 2.2 Body Seat Rings 2.3 Bonnet Gasket 2.4 Gate 2.5 Yoke 2.6 Hand Wheel, Chain Wheel and Nut 2.7 Stem Nut 2.8 Gland Flange and Gland 2.9 Trim 2.10 Lantern Ring 2.11 Stem Packing 2.12 Bolting 2.13 Plug 2.14 Bypass Pressure Tests





3.1 Test Location 3.2 Tests Required 3.3 High Pressure Closure Test 3.4 Test Fluid 3.5 Test Pressures 3.6 Test Duration 3.7 Test Leakage Pressure Test Procedures 4.1 General 4.2 Shell Test 4.3 Back Seat Test 4.4 Low Pressure Closure Test 4.5 High Pressure Closure Test 4.6 End loading under Test Valve Certification and Retesting 5.1 Certificate of Compliance 5.2 Retesting Table A-C Figures

1.0 1.1


The basic types of valves are gate, globe, plug, ball, diaphragm, butterfly, check, and slide valves. Valves are made in standard pipe sizes, materials and pressure ratings that permit them to be used in any pressure-temperature service in accordance with ASME B 16.34 or API Standards 593, 594, 599, 600, 602, 603, 606 or 609 as applicable. Valve bodies can be cast, forged, machined from bar stock or built up by welding a combination of two or more materials. The seating surfaces in the body can be integral with the body or they can be made as inserts. The insert material can be the same as or different from the body material. When special nonmetallic material that could fail in the event of a fire is used to prevent seat leakage, metal-to-metal backup seating surfaces can be provided. Other parts of the valve trim may be made of any suitable material and can be cast, formed, forged or machined from commercial rolled shapes. Valve ends can be flanged, threaded for threaded connections, recessed for socket welding or beveled for butt welding. Although many valves are manually operated, they can be equipped with electric motors and gear operators or other power operators to accommodate a large size or inaccessible locations or to permit actuation by instruments. Body thickness and other design data are given in API Standards 593, 594, 599, 600, 602, 603, 606 or 609. 1.2 GATE VALVES

A gate valve basically consists of a body that contains a gate which interrupts flow. This type of valve is normally used in a fully open or fully closed position. Gate valves larger than 2 inches usually have port openings that are approximately the same size as the valve end openings. Figure 1 shows a cross section of a full-ported wedge gate valve. Venturi-type gate valves body and port openings that are smaller than the end openings. Venturi valves should not be used as block valves associated with pressure relief devices or in erosive applications, such as slurries or lines that are to be ―pigged‖. If venture valves are chosen, the following measures should be taken.

a. b. 1.3

The pressure drop in the design of the piping should be increased and the section modulus and flexibility of the piping should be reduced. Drain should be installed at low points to drains to pockets caused by the use of the venture valves. GLOBE VALVES

A globe valve, which is commonly used to regulate fluid flow, consists of valve body that contains a disk, which moves axially to the disk centerline against a seat. The stream flows upwards through the seat against the disk and then changes direction to flow through the body to the outlet. The seating surface may be flat or tapered. For finethrottling service, a very steep tapered seat may be used; this particular type of globe valve is referred to as a needle valve. A globe valve is commonly constructed with its inlet and outlet in line and with its inlet and outlet in line and with its port opening at right angles to the inlet and outlet Figure 2 illustrates a cross section of a globe valve. 1.4 PLUG VALVES

A plug valve consists of a tapered or cylindrical plug fitted snugly into a correspondingly shaped seat in the valve body. Plug valves usually function as block valves to shut off or open flow. When the valve is open, an opening in the plug is in with the flow openings in the valve body. The valve is closed by turning the plug so that its opening is at right angles to the opening in the valve body. Plug valves may be operated by a gearoperated device or by turning a wrench on the extended stem. Plug valves are either lubricated or non lubricated; figure 3 illustrate both types. 1.5 BALL VALVES

A ball valve is similar to a plug valve except that the plug in a ball valve is spherical instead of tapered or cylindrical Ball valves usually function as block valves to shut off or open flow. They are well suited for conditions that require quick on/off or bubble tight service. A ball valve is typically equipped with an elastomeric seating material that provided good shutoff characteristic; however, all metal, high pressure ball valves are available. Figure 4 illustrates a ball valve. 1.6 DIAPHRAGM VALVES

A diaphragm valve is a packless valve that contains a diaphragm made of flexible made of a flexible material that functions as both a closure and seal. When the valve spindle a screwed down, it forces the flexible diaphragm against a seat, or dam, in the valve body and blocks the flow of the fluid. Figure 4 illustrates a diaphragm valve. 1.7 BUTTERFLY VALVES

A butterfly valve consist of a disk mounted on a stem in the flow path within the valve body. The body can be flanged or of the lug or wafer type. A 90-degree turn of the stem changes the valve from closed to completely open. Butterfly valves are most often

used in low-pressure service for coarse flow control. They are available in a variety of seating materials and configurations for tight shutoff in low and high-pressure services. Large butterfly valves are generally mechanically operated. The mechanical feature is intended to prevent them from slamming shut in service. Figure 6 illustrates the type of butterfly valve usually specified for water service. 1.8 CHECK VALVES

A check valve is used to automatically prevent back flow. The different types of check valve are swing, lift-piston, ball and spring-loaded water check valve, figure 7 illustrates cross sections of each type of valve; these views portray typical methods of preventing back flow. 1.9 SLID VALVES

The slide valve is a specialized gate valve generally used in erosive or high-temperature service. It basically consists of a flat plate that slides against a seat. The slide valve utilizes a fixed orifice and one or two child slides that move in guides, creating a variable orifice that make the valve suitable for throttling or blocking. Slide valve do not make a gas tight shutoff. Figure 8 illustrates a slide valve. 2.0 2.1 MATERIAL Shell

The body and bonnet shall be made of the material specified in the purchase order, using a material listed in ASME B 16.34. 2.2 Body Seat Rings

If an overlay deposit is used for the seating surface of the body seat ring, the corrosion resistance of the seat ring base material shall be least equal to that of the shell material. 2.3 Bonnet Gasket

2.3.1 The bonnet flange gasket shall be (a) corrugated or flat solid metal, (b) corrugated or flat filled metal jacketed, or (c) a metal ring joint. A filled spiral wound metal gasket is acceptable provided the gasket incorporates a centering/compression control to ensure the proper seating of the gasket. The gasket filler material shall be suitable for the conditions specified in 2.3.3. 2.3.2 The metallic portion of the gasket exposed to the service environment shall be made of a material that has corrosion resistance at least equal to that shell. 2.3.3 Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, the gasket shall be suitable for the pressure rating of the valve within a valve design temperature range from -20 F (-29 C) to 1000 F (538 C).

2.3.4 A light lubricant not heavier than kerosene may be used to facilitate the make up of metal gasketed joints, but the use of a sealing compound or grease is prohibited. 2.4 Gate

A gate on which seating surface are weld deposited shall be made of a material with corrosion resistance that is at least equal to that of the material of the shell. 2.5 Yoke

A yoke that is separate from the bonnet shall be made of carbon steel or of the same material as the shell. 2.6 Hand Wheel, Chain Wheel and Nut

2.6.1 Hand wheel and chain wheel shall be made of carbon steel, ductile iron, or malleable iron. Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, they shall be cast, forged, or fabricated from other carbon steel products, provided the strength and toughness are comparable to that of hand wheels and chain wheels made by casting or forging. A hand wheels shall be free from burrs and sharp edges. 2.6.2 The hand wheel of chain wheel nut shall be made of nonferrous copper alloy, austenitic stainless steel, malleable iron, ductile iron or carbon steel. Chains shall be made of steel. Stem Nut


The stem nut shall be made of nonferrous copper alloy or austenitic ductile iron, ASTM 439-Type d-2 or type D-2C shall have a minimum melting point of 1750 F (954 C). 2.8 Gland Flange and Gland

The gland flange shall be of steel material. The gland proper shall be made of a material. The gland proper shall be made of a material that has a minimum melting point of 1750 F (954 C). 2.9 Trim

2.9.1 The trim is comprised of the following: a) b) c) d) e) Stem. Body seating surface. Gate seating surface. Bushing or a deposited weld, for the backseat and stem hole guide. Small internal parts that normally contact the service fluid, excluding the pin that is used.


To make a stem-to-gate connection. (This pin shall be made of an austenitic stainless steel material).

2.9.2 The trim material, except as stated in Items a-d below, shall be the manufacturer‘s standard material for the type listed in table A for the trim number specified in the purchase order. The typical specifications included in Table A Represent some acceptable grades. a) b) c) If a trim number listed in table B is specified, then an alternative trim number as shown in Table B may be furnished. If a single trim (trim number 1,2,3,4,5,5A,9,10 or 13) is furnished both the seating surface of the body seat ring and the seating surface of the gate shall be made of the type material shown in Table A. If a combination trim (trim number 6,7,8,8A,11,12 or 14) is furnished, the seating surface of the body seat ring shall be made of one of the two types of material shown in Table A, and the seating surface of the gate shall be made of the other type of material shown. The stem, the back seat and stem hole guide and the small internal parts shall be of the type of material and hardness listed in Table C. The stem shall be a wrought material.


2.10. Lantern Ring If a lantern ring is furnished it shall be made of a material whose corrosion resistance is at least equal to that of the shell material. 2.11 Stem Packing Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, the packing shall be suitable for stem and petroleum fluid for the pressure rating of the valve within the valve design temperature range from-20 F (-29 C) to 100 F (538 C). The packing shall contain a corrosion inhibitor. 2.12 Bolting 2.12.1 The bonnet bolts shall be ASTM A 193 , Grade B7 and the nuts shall be ASTM A 194, Grade 2H, unless another bolt material is specified in the purchase order for a temperature less than -20 F (-29 C) or greater than 850 F (454 C) or increased resistance to corrosive environments. 2.12.2 The material used for the gland and yoke bolting shall be at least equal to ASTM A 307, Grade B. 2.13 Plug The material used for pipe plugs for tapped connections shall have the same nominal composition as the shell material.

2.14 Bypass The material used for any bypass valve and its piping shall have the same nominal composition as the shell material. 3.0 3.1 PRESSURE TESTS TEST LOCATION

Pressure tests shall be performed by the valve manufacture at his plant. 3.2 TEST REQUIRED

3.2.1 The pressure tests listed in Table 1 shall be made on each valve. They shall be performed accordance with written procedures that comply with this standard. 3.2.2 At the manufacturer‘s option, the backseat test for valves that have the backseat feature may be either a high-pressure or a low pressure test unless stated otherwise in the purchase order.



The high-pressure closure test is required for several valve types, as shown in Table 1. For the valve types for which, according to table 1, the high-pressure closure test is optional, the valves are still required to be able to pass the test (as a test of the design of the valve closure structure). 3.4 TEST FLUD

3.4.1 For shell, high pressure backseat and high-pressure closure tests, the fluid shall be air, inert gas, kerosene, water or a non-corrosive liquid whose viscosity is no higher than that of water. The test fluid temperature shall not exceed 1250 F (520 C). The test fluid temperature may be specified in the purchase order for low-temperature valves. 3.4.2 For the low-pressure closure and low-pressure backseat tests, the test fluid shall be air or inert gas. 3.4.3 When air or gas is used closure, shell or backseat tests, the valve manufacturer shall be capable of demonstrating the adequacy of the method of leakage detection. Table 1 – Pressure Test Requirements by Valve Type

Test Description Shell Backseat Lowpressure closure High – pressure closure





Floating Ball Required NA Required Optional

Required Required Required Optional

Required Required Optional Required

Required NA Required Optional

Required NA Optional Required

Butterfly & Turnnion Mounted Ball Required NA Optional Required

Note : NA = not Applicable. The backseat test is required for all valves that have this feature. ―For Lubricated plug valve, the high-pressure closure test is mandatory and the lowpressure closure test is optional. If agreed to by the purchaser, the valve manufacturer may use a low-pressure closure test instead of the high-pressure closure test. For metal-seated ball and butterfly valves, the low-pressure closure test is required and the high-pressure closure test is optional. The high-pressure closure test of resilient-seated valves may valves degrade subsequent performance in low-pressure service. For power-operated globe valves, the high-pressure closure test shall be performed at 110 percent of the design differential pressure used for sizing of the power operator. 3.4.4 Water used for any test may contain a water-soluble oil a rust inhibitor. When specified by the purchaser, a wetting agent shall be included in the water. For testing of austenitic stainless steel valves, potable water or water whose chloride content does not exceed 100 parts per million shall be used. 3.5 TEST PRESSURES

3.5.1 The shell test pressure shall be as listed in Table 2. Table – 2 – shell Test Pressure Valve Type Ductile iron Cast iron NPS 2-12 NPS 14-48 Cast iron NPS 2-12 Class 150 300 125 250 875 61 Shell Test Pressure (minimum) Psig Bar 400 26 975 66 350 265 25 19

NPS 14-24 Steel Flanged and butt-weld

150-2500 800

525 a b


Screwed and socket1500-2500 a weld a. Per ASME B 16.34. b. For Class 800 valves, the shell test pressure shall be 1.5 times the pressure rating at 1000 F (380 C), rounded off to the next higher increment of 25 pounds per square inch gauge (or 1 bar). 3.5.2 Other test pressure shall be as listed in Table 3. Table – 3 – Other Test Pressure Minimum Test Pressure Psig Bar Valves Except Butterfly and Check High-pressure closure and backseat a


Low-pressure closure High-pressure closure Low-Pressure closure Test

60 - 100 Butterfly Valve

4-7 4 -7

60 - 100 Minimum Test Pressure Psig Bar Check Valve

High-pressure closure Class 125 (cast iron) NPS 2-12 NPS 14-48 Class 250 (cast iron) NPS 2-12 NPS 14-24 Class 150 (ductile iron) Class 300 (ductile iron) Carbon alloy, stainless steel And special alloys Low-pressure closure (see table 1)

200 150 500 300 250 640
a, d

14 11 35 21 17 44 4-7


The backseat is required for all valves that have this feature.

b c d

10 percent of maximum allowable pressure at 1000 F (380 C) in accordance with the applicable purchase specification. 110 percent of design differential pressure at 1000 F (380 C) in accordance with the applicable purchase specification. Per ASME B 16.34. TEST DURATION


For each type of test, the required test pressure shall be maintained for at least the minimum time specified in tables 4A and 4B. Table 4A – Duration of Required Test Pressure Minimum Test Duration (seconds) Shell Backseat Closure Check Valves Other Check Valves Other Valves (APL std Valves (API Std 594) 594) 60 15 15 60 15 60 60 60 60 60 60 120 60 60 120 120 300 60 120 120

Valve Size (NPS) <2 21/2-6 8-12 > 14

The Test duration is the period of inspection after the valve is fully prepared and is under full pressure. Table – 4B – Duration of required Test Pressure : Butterfly Valves Valve Size (NPS) <2 2½ - 8 > 10

Minimum Test Duration for Butterfly Valves Shell Closure 15 15 60 30 180 60

The test duration is the period of inspection after the valve is fully prepared and is under full pressure. 3.7 TEST LEAKAGE Table - 5 – Maximum Allowable Leakage Rates For Closure Tests All resilient Seated valves a.b

All Metal Seated Valves except Check Valve c

Metal Seated Check Valve

Valve Size (NPS) <2 2½ 8-12 > 14

0 0 0 0

Liquid Test (drops per minute) 0 12 20 28

Gas Test (bubbles per minute) 0 72 120 168

Liquid Test
d d d d

Gas Test
e e e e

There shall be no leakage for the minimum specified test duration (see Tables 4A and 4B). b Lubricate plug valves are considered resilient – seated valves. c The maximum permissible leakage rate shall be 0.18 cubic inch (3 cube centimeters) per minute per inch of nominal pipe size. d The maximum permissible leakage rate shall be 0.18 cubic inch (3 cubic c.) per minute per inch of nominal pipe size. e The maximum permissible leakage rate shall be 1.5 standard cubic feet (0.042 cubic meter) of gas per hour per inch of nominal pipe size. 3.7.1 For shell and backseat tests, no visible leakage is permitted. If the test fluid is a liquid, there shall be no visible evidence of drops or wetting of the external surfaces (no visible leakage through the body, body liner, if any, and body to-bonnet joint and no structural damage). If the test fluid is air or gas, no leakage shall be revealed by the established detection method. 3.7.2 For both the low-pressure closure test and the high pressure closure test, no visual evidence of leakage through the disk, behind the seat rings, or past the shaft seals (of valves that have this feature) and no structural damage are permitted (plastic deformation of resilient seats and seals is not considered structural damage). The allowable rate for leakage of test fluid past the seats, for the duration of the tests, is listed in table 5. When volumetric devices are used to measure leakage, they shall be calibrated to yield results equivalent to the units per minute listed in Table 5, Volumetric devices shall be calibrated with the test fluid and at the same temperature as used for the production tests. 3.7.3 The allowable leakage rate for closure tests of valves with non resilient, nonmetallic seat materials shall be equal to that specified in Table 5 for a metal-seated valve of equivalent size. 4.0 PRESSURE TEST PROCEDURES



4.1.1 Valves designed to permit emergency introduction of an injectable sealant to the area shall be tested with the injection system empty and not in use. 4.1.2 When a liquid is used as the test fluid, the valve shall be essentially free air during the test. 4.1.3 Required protective coatings, such as paint, which may mask surface defects, shall not be applied to any surface before inspection or pressure testing. (Phosphatizing and similar chemical conversion processes used to protect valve surfaces are acceptable even if applied before the tests, provided that they will not seal off porosity. 4.1.4 When closure testing gate, plug, and ball valves, the valve manufacturer shall use a method of testing seat leakage that fills and pressurizes the body cavity between the seats and the bonnet area, as applicable, with the test fluid to ensure that no seat leakage can escape detection because of gradual filling of these volumes during the test period. 4.2 SHELL TEST

Except as provided in 4.3.2 the shell test shall be made by applying the pressure inside the assembled valve with the ends closed, the valve partially opened, and any packing gland tight enough to maintain the test pressure, thereby also tightening the stuffing box. No adjustable shaft seals (O ring, single rings and the like) shall not leak during the shell test. 4.3 BACKSEAT TEST

4.3.1 The backseat test is required for all valves that have the backseat feature and shall be performed by applying pressure inside the assembled valve with the valve ends closed, the valve fully open, and the pacing gland loose. The backseat test may be made immediately after the shell test, and all packing glands shall be re-tightened after the backseat test. The successful completion of the backseat test shall not be construed as a recommendation by the valve manufacturer that, while the valve is pressurized, the valve stuffing box may be repacked or the packing may be replaced. 4.3.2 Upon agreement between the purchaser and valve manufacturer, the backseat teat not be combined with the shell test when volumetric devices are used to monitor leakage from the shell and backseat. When tested by this method, the packing shall be loose. The manufacturer shall be responsible for demonstrating that the packing will not leak at the valve‘s rated pressure at 100 F.



4.4.1 The low-pressure closure test shall be made with the seats clean and free from oil, grass and sealant. If necessary to prevent galling, the seats may be coated with a film of oil that is not heavier than kerosene. This requirement does not apply to a valve that uses a lubricant as its primary seal. 4.4.2 The low-pressure closure test shall be made in accordance with one of the following procedures, as applicable. a. For a valve (other than a double block and bleed valve) designed to close against pressure from both directions, the pressure shall be applied successively to each side of the closed valve with the other side open to the atmosphere to check for leakage at the atmospheric side of the closure. For a valve designed to close against pressure from one direction only and so marked, the pressure shall be applied on the pressure side of the valve only. For a check valve, the pressure shall be applied on the downstream side. Any leakage at the seat behind the seat ring or through the disk on the open side of the valve shall be detected when bubbles are observed coming from the closure (disk, seat and seat ring), which is either covered with water or coated with a soap or similar solution. As an alternative, a displacement measuring device may be used provided that the detectable leakage rate is equivalent to that given in Table 5 and the device has been accepted by agreement between the purchase and the manufacturer. b. For a gate valve with other than a one piece solid wedge upon agreement between the purchaser and the valve manufacturer test pressure require by table 3 may be applied to the body cavity between the seats through a tapped connection, both seats shall be checked for leakage either simultaneously. Leakage shall be detected as specified in procedure a. c. For a double block and bleed valve, the pressure shall be applied successively to each side of the closure through the valve port. For other than a double block and bleed valve and for NPS 2 and smaller gate valve, pressure may be applied simultaneously to both seats. Leakage into the body cavity between the seats shall be checked at the packing chamber (with no pacing present) or through observation at a tapped opening between the seats. Valves shall be tested in the vertical upright position. Leakage from the seats shall not exceed that shown in table 5. If a tapped connection in the body cavity is made to permit procedures described in Procedures b and c, the connection shall not exceed NPS ½ in accordance with ASME B

1.20.1 and shall be fitted before shipment with a solid pipe plug (in accordance with ANSI B 16.11) whose material composition is equivalent to that of the valve shell. 4.5 HIGH – PRESSURE CLOSURE TEST

4.5.1 The procedure for the high pressure closure test shall be the same as the procedure for the low pressure closure test that in the case of a liquid test leakage shall be detected when drops, not bubbles as described in 4.4.2 procedure a, are observed. 4.5.2 A closure test is required in only one direction for butterfly valves furnished with encapsulation or resilient internal liners and designed for use with Class 125 or class 150 flanges. For other resilient-seated butterfly valves, the closure test is required in both directions. For valves with a preferred flow direction, the closure test in the non preferred direction shall be based on the reduced differential pressure rating in that direction. 4.6 END LOADING UNDER TEST

External forces that affect seat leakage shall not be applied to valve ends during seat test unless the valve is a lug-or wafer-type butterfly or check valve that depends on adjacent flanges for intended functioning. If the valve manufacturer uses an end-clamping test fixture, the valve manufacturer is responsible for demonstrating to the satisfaction of the purchase that the end-clamping test fixture does not affect the seat-sealing capability of the valve being tested. 5.0 5.1 VALVE CERTIFICATION AND RETESTING CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE

When specified in the purchase order, the valve manufacturer shall submit to the purchase a certificate of compliance with the purchase order. 5.2 RETESTING

A completed valve is not required to be retested unless inspection by the purchaser is specified in the purchase order. This retesting may be waived by the purchaser‘s inspection upon written certification by the manufacturer that the valve has been inspected, tested, and examined for conformance with the requirements of this standard. Painted valves need not have paint removed for retesting. Stored valves shall be commercially cleaned before retesting and before shipment. TABLE – A NOMINAL SEATING SURFACE MATERIALS
Trim Nominal Seat Surface Material Type Typical specification (Grade)



Hardness (HB, a minimum)


Cast 13 Cr 18 Cr – 8 Ni 25 Cr – 20 Ni Hard 13 Cr C0 – Cr A 9 Ni – Cr 13 Cr Cu – Ni 13 Cr Hard 13 Cr 13 Cr Co – Cr A 13 Cr Ni – Cr Ni – Cu alloy 18 Cr – 8 Ni


Welded AWS A 5.9 ER 410 AWS A 5.9 ER 308 AWS 5.9 ER 310 AWS A 5.13 ER CoCr – A

1 2 3 4 5 5A 6 7 8

F6 304 F 310 Hard F 6 Hard faced Hard faced F 6 and Cu-Ni F 6 and Hard F 6 F 6 and Hard faced



750e 350e 350e 250i 175i 300i 750i 300i 350i 300i 350i
d d

ASTM A 217 ASTM A 182 (CA 15) (F 6 a) ASTM A 251 ASTM A 182 (CF 8) (F 304) ASTM A 182 (F 310)

ASTM A 217 ASTM A 182 (CA 15) (F 6 a)

AWS A 5.9 ER 410 AWS A 5.9 ER 410 AWS A 5.9 ER 410 AWS A 5.13 ER CoCr – A AWS A 5.9 ER 410

ASTM A 217 ASTM A 182 (CA 15) (F 6 a)

ASTM A 217 ASTM A 182 (CA 15) (F 6 a) ASTM A 217 ASTM A 182 (CA 15) (F 6 a) Manufacturer‘s standard ASTM A 351 ASTM A 182 (CF 8M) (F 316) Manufacturer‘s standard ASTM A 351 ASTM A 182 (CE 8 M) (F 316) ASTM (CN 7 ASTM (CN 7 A 351 ASTM B 473 M) A 351 ASTM B 473 M)

8A 9 10 11 12

F 6 and Hard faced Monel 316 Monel and Hard faced 316 and Hard faced




Ni – Cu alloy Trim 5 or 5 A 18 Cr – 8 Ni Trim 5 or 5 A 19 Cr – 29 Ni 19 Cr – 29 Ni Trim 5 or 5 A


13 14

Alloy 20 Alloy 20 and Hard faced



AWS A 5.9 ER 316 See Trim 5 or 5 A AWS A 5.9 ER 316 See Trim 5 or 5 A AWS A 5.9 ER 320 AWS A 5.9 ER 320 See Trim 5 or 5 A

Note : Cr = chromium; Ni = nickel; Cu = copper.


HB (formerly BHN) is the symbol for the Brinell

Case hardened by nit riding to a thickness of 0.13 millimeters (0.005 inch) minimum.

hardness number per AST b Free-machining grades of 13Cr are prohibited. c Body and gate seat surface should be 250 HB minimum with a 50 HB mini differential between the body and gate surface. d Manufacturer‘s standard hardness. e Dismantle hardness between the body and standard surface is not required.


This classification includes such trademarked materials as Stelite 6TM, Stoody 6TM, and Wallex 6TM. h Manufacturer‘s standard hard facing with a maximum iron content of 25 percent. i Hardness differential between the body and gate seat surface shall be the manufacturer‘s standard. j Manufacturer‘s standard with 30 Ni minimum.



TRIM NUMBER 1 2 3 4 through 8A 9 and 11 10 and 12 13 and 14 MATERIAL TYPE 2 13Cr 18Cr-8Ni 25Cr-20Ni 13Cr Ni-Cu alloy 18Cr-8Ni 19Cr-29Ni TYPICAL SPECIFICATION (TYPE)

HARDNESS (HB) BACKSEAT STEAM BUSHING 200 min., 275 max. Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard 200 min., 275 max. Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard 250 min. Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard 250 min. Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard Manufacturer‘s standard

ASTM 276 – T 410 or T 420 ASTM A 276 – T 304 ASTM A 276 – T 310 ASTM A 276 – T 410 or T 420 Manufacturer‘s standard ASTM A 276 – T 316 ASTM B 473

Note : Cr = chromium; Ni = nickel; Cu = copper.
a b

Free machining grades of 13 Cr are prohibited. See Table A for typical backseat weld deposit material.


CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 Introduction Visual Inspection Identification Review of Mill Test Certificate Sampling Dimensional Check Physical and Chemical Tests NDT Tests

1.0 INTRODUCTION Quality control checking of various materials supplied by manufactures and suppliers plays a vital role on the safety and smooth operation of the Refinery is concerned. Many different types & very wide range of metallurgy of materials viz., PLAIN CARBON STEELS ( CS ) , KILLED CARBON STEELS (KCS) , LOW ALLOY STEEL (LAS), CAST IRONS, ALLOY STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL, Cu & COPPER ALLOYS, Ni & Ni ALLOYS are used in the Refinery ( As listed in the chapter ―Material Selection for Process Equipm ent in Refinery‖). Among these items, mostly plates, pipes, tubes, pipe fittings, valves and fasteners etc are manufactured in as rolled, forged, cast, fabricated and formed condition of various sizes. The following stage wise inspection is carried out to ascertain the quality of the incoming materials: 2.0 VISUAL INSPECTION Visual inspection is necessary for all the items. It gives an idea of physical condition, surface defects and mechanical damage while handling or transportation and finish etc. Visual inspection normally gives the maximum information about the quality of the items supplied. 3.0 IDENTIFICATION Identification of the supplied lot of items is carried out as per the purchase order terms and conditions for quantity, quality and proper certification etc. 4.0 REVIEW OF MILL TEST CERTIFICATE Mill test certificates and third party inspection reports, if any, are reviewed and co-related with the items supplied for ordered size, material of construction, manufacturing procedure , manufacturers identification mark etc. 5.0 SAMPLING Sampling of items for testing will be followed as per applicable ASTM stds. 6.0 DIMENSIONAL CHECK

Detailed dimensional checks are carried out as per relevant ASTM & ANSI codes etc . The tolerances are considered while taking dimensions. XVI.1



Chemical analysis & physical testing are carried out as per relevant applicable codes. For the critical items, supplementary tests may be carried out. These test results are verified with exact composition as reported in their test certificates for any deviations. This also helps in establishing the reliability of the suppliers. 8.0 NDT TESTS Depending on critically of the items, certain NDT tests such as Ultrasonic thickness measurement (UTM) Ultrasonic flaw detection (UFD) and Liquid Dye penetrant Test(LPT) are carried out. For reference, copies of tabulated chart of ASTM DESIGNATION OF MATERIALS and a few CERTIFICATES are being attached.








C H A P T E R – XVII (A)
CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0 Introduction Scope Definitions 3.1 Hot & Cold Insulation 3.2 Preformed Insulation 3.3 Blanket Insulation 3.4 Block Insulation 3.5 Fibrous Insulation 3.6 Moisture Barrier 3.7 Thermal Conductivity Hot Insulation 4.1 Insulating Materials 4.2 Procedure for Application of Hot Insulation 4.3 Insulation Procedures for Specific Equipment / Components 4.4 Inspection Cold Insulation 5.1 Insulation Materials 5.2 Procedure for Application of Cold Insulation 5.3 Insulation Procedures for Specific Equipment Components 5.4 Inspection.





The need for effective and efficient thermal insulation has become more important with increasing energy costs & higher operating temperatures. The requirement to keep a product at the appropriate temperature is necessary either due to process requirements or to maintain the flow characteristics. These liquids loose their heat energy, through metal surfaces in which they are contained or flowing. As this heat loss amounts to the loss of energy, methods to minimize these losses need attention. The minimization of heat loss can be achieved by judicious application and maintenance of thermal insulation. It also serves the purpose of reduction of pressure relief loads in event of fire. 2.0 SCOPE

This standard lays down the minimum inspection/maintenance practices and procedures adopted for external hot & cold insulation on static / rotary and mobile equipment/vessels and pipelines in oil and gas industries. The standard also covers in brief inspection checks at the time of installation. The design aspects like need for providing insulation at particular location does not fall under the scope of this standard. 3.0 3.1 DEFINITIONS HOT & COLD INSULATION

For the purpose of this standard insulation material used at service temperature of approx.5 o C and below is termed as ―cold insulation‖ whereas, insulation material for service temperature of approx. 60 o C and above is termed as ―Hot Insulation‖. 3.2 PREFORMED INSULATION

Thermal insulation material which is prefabricated in such a manner that at least one surface comforts to the shape of the surface to be covered and which, when handled, will maintain its shape without cracking, breaking crumbling or permanent deformation. 3.3 BLANKET INSULATION

A flexible insulation material composed of felt fibrous material without binder but reinforced with confining media. XVII A-1


BLOCK INSULATION with or without facing and with or

Straight or segmental blocks of board insulation, without attachment for application purposes. 3.5 FIBROUS INSULATION

Insulation material composed of filaments generally circular in cross section and of length considerably greater than the diameter. 3.6 MOISTURE BARRIER

Material used to heat to restrict the transmission of water /vapour. 3.7 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

The quantity of heat flow per unit time (in the steady state) through one square centimeter cross-section of an infinite piece of material, when the temperature difference between two planes normal to thermal flux and one centimeter apart is one degree unit. 4.0 4.1 HOT INSULATION INSULATING MATERIALS

There is a wide range and choice of insulation materials used for thermal insulation. However, it is necessary that materials used should conform to relevant IS standards like IS – 3144 etc for properties like chloride content, toxicity, incombustibility. Some of the commonly used insulating materials are described below. 4.1.1 Glass Wool Glass wool is made from molten glass in form of staple fiber, continuous filaments mattresses on semi rigid bonded slabs. It can be used for insulation on surfaces having temperature not exceeding 550 o C. However when bonded the same can be used on surfaces with temperature not exceeding 400 o C. 4.1.2 Mineral Wool (Rock Wool)

Mineral wool is made from molten mineral rocks by centrifugal spinning process. They can be applied to hot surfaces with temperatures not exceeding 700 o C both as blanket and preformed sections.

4.1.3 Ceramic Fibers


Ceramic fibers are made by spinning or blown process by making fibers out of molten Aluminium Oxide and Silica (Ceramic). They are pressed to form a blanket. They are suitable for use upto temperature of 1400oC. 4.1.4 Calcium Silicate Calcium silicate block & pipe thermal insulation are composed principally of hydrous calcium silicate reinforced with mineral fibers (except slag wool). It is suitable for temperature upto 800 o C. 4.2 PROCEDURE FOR APPLICATION OF HOT INSULATION

Effectiveness and better operational life of insulation depends on the way it has been installed. An improper installation may not only lead to higher heat losses and reduced life, but also it may lea to corrosion of insulated surfaces. Following minimum standards are recommended for installation of insulation on equipment, storage tanks and pipelines. 4.2.1 Surface Preparation and Paint application The surface to be insulated shall be cleaned thoroughly by solvent cleaning/thorough wire brushing or pressure blasting. Based on service conditions, metallurgy and environment, an appropriate primer/paint coat shall be applied immediately after surface preparation. All equipment operating below 175oC needs to be painted before insulation and also equipment likely to remain idle for longer periods need painting as per the local environmental condition and irrespective of operating temperature. In case of repairs of thermal insulation, thorough manual cleaning may be resorted to. 4.2.2 Moisture Barrier (Aluminum Foil) Aluminum foil of 0.1 mm thickness may be used on bare pipe/equipment as a moisture barrier and also as confining material whenever required. Aluminum foil shall not be used for inner jacketing of hot SS equipment. Moisture barrier is generally not required for equipment operating above 200oC.

4.2.3 Insulation Fixing Arrangements Insulation shall be properly held in position by welding lugs or supporting rings at XVII A-3

suitable intervals. Binding /strapping materials like binding wire or band strips and self tapping screws are to be used for proper fixing of the insulating material. Lugs should be welded on the equipment before final hydrotest and stress relieving, if any. The outside diameter of support rings should be equivalent to the outside diameter of the insulation. In order to minimize direct heat conduction through the stays, a packing of insulation shall be provided at the joint of stays and equipment. 4.2.4 Insulation fixing procedures a) Blanket Insulation Blanket insulation mattresses are wrapped on the surface to be insulated and then tied with wires to hold it in position. After making the blanket/mattress to require thickness, G.I chicken wire mesh shall be placed over it to give it requisite mechanical/structural strength. While wrapping blankets on surfaces, chicken mesh shall remain outside. After wrapping blanket on surface and positioning it correctly, the joining end circumferential as well as longitudinal shall be closed with stitching using galvanized wire. After blankets are stitched up in position, a GI wire shall be helically wrapped over it and tightened suitably. This is to give extra strength and uniform shape to the blankets. b) Preformed / Fabricated Sections Preformed shapes shall fit snugly to the surfaces and shall butt closely to each other. Joints should be staggered and gaps or cavities avoided by trimming the insulation to fit. Where this is not practical, loose-fill or trowelled-in material having comparable thermal insulation properties to the main material should be used. Where shown to be more economical or technically advantageous, the insulation shall consist of two or more layers of dissimilar materials, provided their respective temperature limits are appropriate for the duty. All multi-layer insulation shall have individual layers secured by banding wires or by self adhesive tapes and all longitudinal and circumferential joints staggered. XVII A-4

4.2.5 Procedures for Fixing outer cover a) Cladding:   Thickness and metallurgy of outer cover sheet should be selected considering service consideration metallurgy of equipment and environment. All the joints (longitudinal & circumferential) shall have sufficient overlap after wrapping of outer cover sheet. The overlap shall be arranged to shed water at all times. The minimum overlap is 50 mm for piping insulation and 80mm for vessel insulation. In case of corrugated cover sheets, the overlap should at least be one corrugation on vertical joint and 80 mm on horizontal joints. Sheet shall be fixed using self-taping screws (also known as Parker screws) at a maximum pitch of 150 mm. Screws are not provided in case of joints needing expansion / contraction. Aluminum /GI cover sheets wherever required shall be fixed to insulation supports using self-tapping screws. In vertical equipment and storage tanks, outer cover sheets shall be provided in such a way so as to avoid ingress of water at the joints. Outer cover sheets provided on equipment shall have their joints in such a manner so as to avoid ingress of water into the insulation. For tall columns, tanks and vertical pipelines, where extra strengthening to outer cover sheets is required, GI/AI/SS strips or bands shall be provided. All openings and joints shall be properly sealed with bituminous mastic to prevent ingress of water. Aluminum sheets may be protected on the side in contact with the insulation with bituminous anticorrosive paint. Parker / tapping screws may be locked against vibration using synthetic resins.

       b)


One coat of hard sealing compound of required thickness troweled to smooth finish is to be provided. The finishing layer will be of a suitable waterproofing XVII A-5

compound reinforced with additional GI hexagonal wire netting. Plastering is generally used for offsite piping. 4.3 INSULATION PROCEDURES FOR SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT / COMPONENTS

4.3.1 Carbon / Alloy Steel Equipment The general guideline on procedure for installation of insulation shall be as per para 4.2. However, additional care as given below shall be taken during insulation of the following a) Pipes / Elbows & Tees

For preformed fibrous insulation (Rigid insulation), the insulation shall be carried out with the least number of material pieces as possible. The longitudinal joints between the two segments shall be staggered. All the circumferential joints shall be closely fitted and the gap, if any, shall be filled with insulating material. The insulation shall be fastened using galvanized steel wire and/ or strapping bands at suitable intervals. A band shall be fastened at suitable distance from either end. The ends of the binding wire shall be tightly twisted together, bend under and pressed into the surface of insulation. Strapping bands shall be crimped suitably. In the case of Flexible fibrous insulation, the blankets, cut to adequate size, shall be applied with the galvanized chicken wire netting on the outside and be fastened into position with galvanized wire. The chicken wire mesh shall be stitched on to one side of insulation blankets with annealed galvanized wire. On horizontal lines, loose support rings with stays of carbon steel shall be attached to the pipe at suitable intervals to support the outer sheets and to prevent sagging cover of the insulation. On vertical piping or piping inclined at more than 45o from the horizontal and where straight runs are in excess of 3 mtr, an insulation support shall be provided in form of a metal ring or part ring either clamped or welded to the pipe. Alternatively, angle studs may be used to prevent downward displacement of the insulation. Support shall be located at the bottom of run and suitable interval thereafter. For preformed / flexible insulation on elbows and bends, insulation material shall be XVII A-6 mitered and shall be same as that applied on pipe. Each mitered section shall be suitably secured with wires/bands. In the case of preformed/flexible fibrous insulation on Tees, the insulation material shall be same as that applied on pipe. Preformed pipe sections/flexible mattress shall be carefully cut and shaped around ―Tee‖ junctions and

applied to the parent pipe without the creation of voids and gaps at the junction. Insulation shall be adequately secured by wire/band. Insulation at solid welded or clamped supports shall be cut and shaped to fit around the support and bonded securely. b) Steam Traced Lines

The steam tracings that are used with main lines shall be held in position. The pipe and steam tracer shall than be wrapped with a galvanized hex chicken wire mesh/aluminum foil and bound with GI wire at suitable intervals. The insulating material, cut to adequate size, shall be provided with the galvanized chicken wire netting on the outside. An outer insulating cover shall be then provided and suitably fastened. The section of the steam tracer that is not required to be in touch with main line shall be wrapped using 25-mm dia asbestos rope. The winding shall be tight with no gap. The grooves and notches shall be filled with quick setting plaster. After drying with quick setting plaster. After drying of plaster, bituminous weather proofing coat shall be applied. c) Flanged joints and Valves

Flanged joints and valves shall be insulated with prefabricated removable aluminum covers, lined with preformed/flexible fibrous wool insulation. The insulation shall be carried out after commissioning and hot bolting of the system. Care shall be exercised to seal the gaps from where rainwater may ingress. In case of valves, the stuffing box shall be kept outside to replace the packing without damaging insulation. d) Horizontal Equipment

The vessel shall be provided with insulation support at the horizontal center line and ring support at radial lines. The insulation supports shall be designed to prevent the channeling and entrapment of the water. These supports shall have holes/fasteners for insulation securement. Both the dish end heads may be provided with a suitable ring made of steel rod for insulation securement. XVII A-7

When preformed insulation is used, the insulation shall be applied with dimension parallel to the axis of the equipment. Where the total thickness exceeds 75 mm, multi layer should be used and no layer shall exceed thickness. When blocks are applied in multiple layers, all joints in successive

the longer of the slab 75 mm in layers shall

be parallel to the long axis and staggered between 3 O‘ Clock and 9 O‘ Clock position. The gaps, if any, shall be filled with insulating material. e) Vertical Equipment

The vessel shall be provided with suitable insulation supports for insulation securement. The insulation support on vessels shall be spaced to suit the standard size of insulation but in no case shall exceed 3 mtr vertical pitch. The insulation shall be applied on the shell, top and bottom in similar manner as described for horizontal equipment. Care should be taken while designing insulation and its support for bottom dish end. f) Pumps, Compressors, Turbines & Irregular Surfaces

These shall be insulated with portable removable type aluminum/steel boxes lined with fibrous wool insulation. g) Flanged Nozzle, Exchanger channels/covers, Manway etc.

These parts shall be insulated with removable prefabricated covers lined with preformed fibrous/flexible insulation and secured suitably. Insulation shall be stopped short of uninstalled flanges, and nozzles etc by leaving a sufficient distance to permit withdrawal of bolts without affecting the remainder of the insulation. Insulation shall be weather proofed and sealed. The insulation shall be carried out after commissioning and hot bolting of the system. It is preferable to lead the nozzle reinforcement pads tell-tale holes to outside of insulation through proper connection with a 90o bend. h) Vertical Storage Tanks

Vertical storage tanks shall be provided with insulation supports. The insulation shall be applied between rings in horizontal mode. Mattress insulation shall be applied with joints tightly butted and laced together with galvanized lacing wire. The outside of the insulation shall have a galvanized chicken wire netting stitched on to one side of insulation blankets. Bottom 150 mm of the shell should not be insulated to prevent wicking action. XVII A-8

The protective sheeting is to be further fastened by application of strapping bands externally over it. i) Tank Trucks

Mobile tank truck vessel shall be provided with insulation supports at the horizontal center line and ring supports circumferentially ‗L‘ Shaped lugs shall be welded to the tank shell for supporting the circumferential rings and providing, additional supports in longitudinal direction, in addition the provision of long lugs of appropriate size welded at suitable intervals on either side to hold the insulation. Insulation blanket of suitable thickness shall be then impaled through the lugs. The entire insulated area is then covered with GI wire netting. In order to prevent conduction between L-lugs and the circumferential rings, asbestos miller board of required thickness to be provided. Finally the outer cover sheet of aluminum is to be provided and fixed in position. Care shall be taken that all grouped lap joint of cladding shall face downwards and sealed to avoid ingress of water into the joint. 4.3.2 Stainless Steel Equipment Inner jacketing (between metal surface and insulation) shall be carried out using austentic stainless steel foil of 0.1 mm thickness. Aluminum shall never be used for inner jacketing. If aluminum cover sheet is used over insulation, care shall be taken to avoid contact between aluminum and stainless steel. Only materials that contain less than 25 PPM of Chlorides shall be used over stainless steel surfaces. However mineral wool shall not be used. After application of insulation the joints & extreme ends of the weather protectors are to be sealed properly to avoid ingress of water into the insulation. 4.4 INSPECTION

Inspection of insulation plays a vital role to obtain desired results out of it. Inspection will guarantee that the work is carried out according to laid down norms/procedures and desired quality obtained. 4.4.1 Inspection of new Insulation during installation Inspection at following stages shall be carried out to ensure conformance to design specification. XVII A-9


Material Inspection

All materials used for insulation shall be inspected and checked for their conformance to relevant specifications. b) Welding Insulation Supports / Rings

Only qualified welders and approved welding procedures shall be used for welding of insulation supports like lugs, rings etc. care shall be taken not to induce any injurious defects on the equipment during welding. c) Surface Preparation and Painting

The surface of equipment/pipelines to be insulated shall be prepared for application of coating of surfaces as described in 4.2.1 The painting applied after thorough cleaning is checked for its quality and required dry film thickness. d) Fixing/Wrapping of Insulation

Holding arrangement or any other fixing arrangements as required shall be inspected prior to fixing of the insulation. After wrapping of insulation it shall be checked for proper fitting, uniformity and moisture ingress, if any. e) Application of Moisture Barrier

Wherever required, moisture barrier shall be applied over the fibrous insulation. After its application the same shall be inspected to ensure no left out or uncovered surfaces. While tightening tapping screws, care should be taken that moisture barrier does not get damaged. f) Fixing of Outer Cover

Inspection of outer cover shall be carried out after fixing of the same on the insulated material. Following shall be checked:    Bituminous anti-corrosive paint, where ever applicable Overlapping between longitudinal and circumferential cover joint. The pitch at which the screws are fixed. XVII A-10


Sealing of Joint/Nozzles

All the seal joints as well as the sealing around nozzles and locations where insulation ends shall be inspected and ensured that proper sealing is achieved.


Strengthening of insulation.

Strengthening of insulation with strapping bands as required shall be inspected. 4.4.2 Periodic inspection of existing insulation a) (i) Frequency of Inspection Visual inspection

Frequency of Visual inspection shall be once a year for plants and mobile equipment, and once in 3 years for offsite. This visual inspection shall be preferably carried out before monsoon, to check for any damage/deterioration and record the same. (ii) Comprehensive Inspection

Frequency of comprehensive inspection shall be once in 3 years in case of plants and once in 5 years for offsite. The inspection should preferably coincide with M&I shutdown of the equipment. b) Inspection Procedure

The following procedure shall be adopted for inspection of existing insulation. (i) Insulation having inspection windows

The inspection windows shall be opened, insulation material removed and the surface underneath inspected for paint failure, corrosion etc. (ii) Inspection at random locations

Outer cover sheets shall be removed at random locations, which are prone to deterioration/corrosion

The insulation material shall be removed and the surface underneath shall be inspected for paint failure or corrosion. The insulation shall then be checked for deterioration, if any. XVII A-11


Inspection at corrosion prone locations.

Insulated equipment/pipelines operating below 1200 C are more prone to external corrosion underneath the insulation. Additional attention should therefore be given during inspection.


Thermographic Inspection

Thermographic scanning may be carried out on insulated equipment/pipelines for assessing effectiveness of insulation. The surface temperatures will indicate the condition of the insulation. (v) General Remarks

After inspection and repairs if any, the inspection windows shall be refilled with insulation material and the covers fixed back securely in position. Wherever insulation has been removed to facilitate inspection the same shall be refixed after repairs. 5.0 5.1 COLD INSULATION INSULATION MATERIALS:

5.1.1 Mineral Wool Mineral Wool is made from molten mineral rocks by centrifugal spinning process. They can be applied to cold surfaces with temperatures not below (-) 100oC both as blanket and preformed sections. 5.1.2 Expanded Polystyrene The insulation material shall be self-extinguishing with closed cell structure in accordance with IS 4671 type SE. These materials are prepared from styrene homo polymer or copolymer containing an expanding agent. They can be applied to cold surface with temperatures not below (-) 195oC. 5.1.3 Polyurethane foam Polyurethane foam is used in the form of slabs or half sections of uniform closed structures, free from unreacted materials, shrinkage, distortion with a self-extinguishing quality. They can be applied to cold surface with temperatures not below (-) 180oC. XVII A-12

Polyurethane foam in the liquid form is also being used and application is by insitu pouring method. 5.1.4 Cellular Glass Cellular glass is alumino silicate cellular glass with a specially elaborated composition, totally inorganic, contains no binders. Its unique properties are as follows a) water vapour proof b) water proof c) dimensionally stable d) non combustible e) vermin proof f) Resistance to all common acids and its fumes. Due to very low coefficient of expansion, provision of expansion/contraction joints is not necessary. Due to this wide range of operation, and various other qualities, cellular glass is widely used for both hot and cold insulation applications. For cold insulation application no vapour barrier is required. Only weather proofing to be done at the joints. They can be applied to cold surfaces with temperatures not below (-) 260oC 5.2 PROCEDURE FOR APPLICATION OF COLD INSUALTION

The following applies to all types of cold insulated equipment and piping. 5.2.1 Surface Preparation & Paint Application Surface of the equipment and piping shall be free o dust, foreign matter and loose paint. One coat of anticorrosive primer shall be applied over carbon/alloy steel surfaces and allowed to dry for minimum six hours before application of insulation. Austenitic stainless steel surfaces need no painting. 5.2.2 Insulation Fixing Procedures Slabs of suitable width cut longitudinally with notch of suitable size spaced at proper XVII A-13 spacing so as to form a radial segment to match with the profile of the equipment. All insulation joints to be sealed with bituminised joint sealer. When more than one layer is

applied, each layer shall be bonded separately, with applicable adhesive. The joint sealer shall be applied to ends, edges of all sections, including those in the inner most layer to seal all joints. All the layers except the final layer shall be secured in position by metallic bands at suitable intervals. The final layer to be first secured by GI wire net and then with metallic bands. All the cracks/voids has to be filled up with applicable filler material. 5.2.3 Vapour Barrier A wet coating of vapour seal mastic is applied on the surface of insulation immediately after application and then glass cloth of open weave is to be laid over the surface and embedded in the mastic. Care to be taken to ensure that the glass cloth is laid smooth and free from wrinkles and no pockets of air are trapped beneath the surface. At junctions in the glass cloth, suitable overlap to be provided. A second coating of mastic shall be applied after approximately twelve hours. Care must be taken to ensure that individual coats are not thicker than 3 mm (especially in corners), otherwise some cracking of dried coat may result. Vapour barrier shall be protected by cladding with aluminum/GI sheets t be secured by aluminum/GI bands after the vapour barrier is completely dried up. Self-tapping screws shall never be used to secure cladding as they may puncture the vapour barrier. Hence the following should be ensured: a) There is no puncture in the vapour barrier b) Mastic vapour barrier should be applied to uniform design thickness. c) Joints should be overlapped and sealed adequately d) Where insulation has to be terminated, vapour barrier should be flushed over all the way up to surface. 5.2.4 Contraction Joints When specified on a pipelines or vessel drawing or where deemed necessary to allow movement and contraction of the pipe or vessel without producing random cracking of the insulation, contraction joints shall be provided in the insulation. At contraction joint location, provision is made in cladding to accommodate contraction of pipe or vessel. XVII A-14 5.2.5 Procedure for Fixing Outer Cover a) Cladding  Cladding/outer cover material is generally aluminum / GI sheet

 

All the joints (longitudinal & circumferential) shall have sufficient overlap after wrapping of outer cover sheet. Aluminum sheeting shall be secured in position by tensioned metallic bends installed circumferentially in case vapor barrier has been applied. In case where vapours barrier is not used, cladding is fixed using self-tapping screws. Aluminum cover sheets provided on equipment shall have their joints in such a manner so as to avoid ingress of water into the insulation. End covers shall be provided at the end of insulation. For tall columns, tanks and vertical pipelines, where extra strengthening to outer cover sheets is required, GI/Al strips r bands shall be provided. All openings and joints shall be properly sealed with bituminous mastic to prevent ingress of water. Aluminum sheets may be protected on the side in contact with the insulation with bituminous anticorrosive paint.

     b)


One coat of hard sealing compound of required thickness troweled to smooth finish is to be provided. The finishing layer will be of a suitable waterproofing compound reinforced with additional GI hexagonal wire netting. Plastering is generally used for offsite piping. 5.3 INSULATION PROCEDURES FOR SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT COMPONENTS:

5.3.1 Using Insulation Slabs The general guidelines on procedure for installation shall be as per Para 5.2 However additional care should be taken during installation of the following. XVII A-15

a) (i)

Vertical Vessels : Top Heads

Slab insulation sections to be installed on top head bonded and butted tightly to each other. Insulation shall be held in position by use of suitable supports. The insulation shall be held in position by use of the radial metallic bands, one end of which shall be

fastened to the floating ring and the other end shall be anchored to the bands placed around the cylindrical section close to the head radial, bands shall be properly spaced measured around the circumference of the vessel. The final layer of insulation shall be held in position also by metallic wire net laced at the nozzle location by 2-3 loops of galvanized wire and to the wire net over insulation on the shall of the cylindrical section close to the head. When there exists no nozzle on the top of the vortex, the insulation shall be held in position by wire netting and metallic bands stretched and anchored on the cylindrical section close to the head by circumferential metallic bands on the shell and near the head. (ii) Bottom Heads

In all the skirt supported vessels, insulation supports are provided inside the skirt. Suitable supports around the nozzle and bends shall be used to support downward falling of insulation. If the nozzle is nor existing, metallic bands to be stretched across the bottom head and anchored with legging support angle ring inside the skirt. All the wire ends of wire netting shall be cut short and turned into the insulation. Cladding jacket shall be secured in position by radial tensioned metallic bands anchored suitably. Openings in metal jackets for nozzles man ways, brackets etc. Shall be cut as close as possible for a snug fit. Sufficient space should be provided for maintenance of flanges. b) Horizontal Vessels

Care should be taken to keep all the longitudinal joints in the aluminum sheet below the horizontal plane passing through the axis of the vessel to prevent water or other spillage from entering into the insulation. XVII A-16 Openings in metal jackets for nozzles manways, brackets etc. shall be cut as close as possible for a snug fit. c) Spherical Vessels

Insulation to be applied shall be shaped according to the contour of the sphere and bonded to the vessel with applicable adhesive. All insulation joints should be sealed with joint sealer. The inner layer of insulation shall be held in position by aluminium bands. These bands are tied up with the floating rings made of SS rod at the top & bottom of the sphere. The bands shall be staggered at

successive layers and the clips of the bands recessed into the insulation. Over the outermost layer galvanized wire netting shall be spread over and laced together. Aluminum cladding of each hemisphere of spherical vessel shall be done with aluminum sheets placed horizontally and a thick circumferential tensioned band shall be used at the equator to hold the radial metallic bonds. d) Heat Exchangers

Heat exchanger shells shall be insulated exactly in the same manner as indicated for the vessels. Only exchanger channels, channel covers including flange bolting shall be insulated with removable aluminum covers lined with insulation slabs of required thickness. e) Machinery

In general wherever cold insulation is required, aluminum boxes lined with slab insulation of adequate thickness shall be used for insulation of machinery after giving a coat of anticorrosive paint. f) (i) Piping Horizontal Piping:

Application of cold insulation methods are same as indicated for horizontal type vessel shells. Insulation of piping shall be stopped short of flanges to allow for withdrawal of bolts for maintenance. For pipe fittings, the insulation shall be completed by applying cut segments of the same insulation sections used for pipes. For long run pipes, the ends of insulation section shall be sealed off at proper intervals and vapour barrier to be carried out upto the metal surface at the point of sealing. Contraction joint shall be provided at proper intervals. XVII A-17


Vertical Piping

The procedure is same as indicated for horizontal piping. Only insulation supports/spacer rings be provided at adequate intervals. (iii) Pipe Supports and Hangers

In all the supporting arrangements of both horizontal and vertical piping, dry hard wood pipe support bearing blocks coated with fire retardant paint/mastic shall be used. Metal cradles, metal pipe supports, hangers shall be attached to outside of the pipe support

bearing blocks and not directly to bare pipe. Provision to be made to prevent seepage of water into the insulation from pipe hangers. (iv) Flanges and Valves

Removable type covers shall be provided over all flanges and valves. These covers should be fitted with quick release clips. (v) Cold Insulation of Piping at or below Ground level

For cold insulation of piping at or below ground level or where there is likelihood of foot traffic, instead of providing aluminum cladding over the final layer of vapour barrier, bituminised self finishing roofing felt confirming to IS-1322, type –3 grade-1 shall be wrapped over the final layer of vapour barrier after it has fully dried with sufficient overlap both on longitudinal and circumferential joints. The roofing felt shall be secured with the G.I wire. A 3 mm coat of bitumen emulsion mastic shall be applied for water and weather proofing. When bitumen emulsion has completely dried, the surfaces to be painted with two coats of bitumen based aluminum paint. g) Stainless Steel Piping and Equipment

All pipes, vessels and equipment of stainless steel construction to be wrapped with aluminum foil (moisture barrier) with adequate overlap having barium chromate sealer interposed in the joint prior to application of insulation. Foil shall be secured in position by aluminum bands, taking every precaution to avoid formation of pinholes or cracking in the aluminum foil. Aluminum/GI cladding to be done after providing the insulation and vapour barrier as described earlier. 5.4 INSPECTION

Inspection of insulation plays a vital role to obtain desired results out of it. Inspection will guarantee that the work is carried out according to laid down norms/procedures and desired quality obtained. XVII A-18

5.4.1 Inspection of New Insulation during Installation Inspection at following stages during installation shall be carried out to ensure conformance to design specification. All the materials used for insulating surface shall be inspected and checked for their conformance to specifications as specified. a) Welding Insulation Supports / Rings

Only qualified welders and approved welding procedures shall be used for welding of insulation supports like lugs, rings etc. Care shall be taken not to induce any injurious defects on the equipment during welding.


Surface Preparation and Painting

The surface of equipment/pipelines to be insulated shall be prepared for application of coating of surfaces as described in 5.2.1 The painting applied after through cleaning is checked for its quality and required dry film thickness. c) Fixing/Wrapping of Insulation

Holding arrangement or any other fixing arrangements as required shall be inspected prior to fixing of the insulation. After wrapping of insulation it shall be checked for proper fitting and moisture ingress. d) Application of Moisture Barrier

Moisture barrier shall be inspected for its thickness after its application and also no holiday or uncovered surfaces should be ensured. e) Fixing of Outer Cover

Inspection of outer cover shall be carried out after fixing of the same on the insulated material. Following shall be checked.    Bituminous anti-corrosive paint wherever applicable Overlapping between longitudinal and circumferential cover joint and sealing of joints. Securing of cladding in position using proper fixing arrangement. XVII A-19


Sealing of Joint/Nozzles

All the seal joints as well as the sealing around nozzles and locations where insulation ends shall be inspected and ensured that proper sealing is achieved. 5.4.2 Periodic Inspection of Existing Insulation a) (i) Frequency of Inspection Visual Inspection

Frequency of visual inspection shall be once a year for plants and mobile equipment and once in 3 years for offsite. This visual inspection shall be preferably carried out before monsoon, to check for any damage/deterioration, sweating of cladding sheet iceformation and record the same. (ii) Comprehensive Inspection

Frequency of comprehensive inspection shall be once in 5 years. The inspection should preferably coincide with M&I shutdown of the equipment. If during plant operation some of the cold insulation cladding joints are found covered with green algae formation, or some of the places on the cladding are found sweating, then during turnaround / shutdown, these areas to be exposed completely and a comprehensive inspection of the area is required to be carried out. b) (i) Inspection Procedure Continuous Insulation

Outer cover sheets shall be removed at locations where deterioration is recorded during plant operation of which are prone to detonation/corrosion. The insulation material shall be removed and the surface underneath shall be inspected for moisture barrier failure or corrosion. The insulation shall then be checked for deterioration, if any. (ii) Refixing of Insulation

After inspection and repairs, if any the inspection windows shall be refilled with insulation material and the covers fixed back securely in position.

C H A P T E R – XVII (C)




1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

General Surface Preparation Prime coat Glass fibre Final coat Curing



1.0 Surface Preparation

2.0 Priming Operation 3.0 Preparation of Coating Material 4.0 First Coat Enamel with Fibre Glass Wrapping 5.0 Final Coat and Kraft Paper Wrapping 6.0 Testing and Repairs



Solvent free epoxy coating systems are characterised by thick non porous and highly resistant film as compared to conventional solvent containing paints which give thin films with inherent porosity. Solvent free epoxy system enjoys wide application in protection of underground pipelines etc.


Remove rust particles preferably by shot blasting. Degreasing or removal of oil or moisture to be carried out using inflammable solvents like carbon tetrachloride and traces of moisture or left over solvent to be removed by using blast of hot air.

The pre-requisites of good adhesion of the coating are cleanliness, roughness and dryness of surface.



One brush coat of the following system is recommended on prepared surface as prime coat.

Araldite Hardener Hardener Flow Control Agent


- 250 - 830 - 850

100 30 30 2 to 5

Part by Weight Part by Weight Part by Weight Part by Weight

For preparation of epoxy resin system suitable weight scales volumetric gauges shall be used for gauging quality of resin and hardener. Application of resin and within ½ hour of mixing of components.



Chopped strand fibre glass mat. Cut to appropriate dimension shall be wrapped on the surface while the first coat is still tacky. Wrapping shall be accompanied again by coating with resin mixture so that glass mat gets impregnated with same. The fibre glass mat. Should be applied in a single piece upto maximum manufactured width. In order to build the thickness a second layer of fibre glass mat. Shall be similarly wrapped. Glass fibre should be of type E chopped strained mat. And should be manufactured as per BIS – 11551 or BS – 3496.




After wrapping the fibre glass mat. A final coat of resin mixture shall be applied over the glass mat. Before the resin mixture with which it is impregnated sets hard. The top coat must completely cover all the glass fibres.

Total DFT of the coating should be 3 mm.



Post curing at 70-80 deg. C is strongly recommended. Heating can be effected by infra-red lamps, steam, hot water. Post curing enhances the mechanical strength beside ensuring complete curing.

Subsequent to the post curing the lining should be air dried for 24 hrs. before putting service.




Remove rust particles preferably by shot blasting. Degreasing or removal of oil or moisture to be carried out using inflammable solvents like carbon tetrachloride and traces of moisture or left over solvent to be removed by using blast of hot air.

The pre-requisites of good adhesion of the coating are cleanliness, roughness and dryness of surface.



Apply coal tar primer over the entire surface by means of mechanical priming machine / hand brushing. Insure a thin even coating of primer over the entire surface. The primer coat must be dry before the first enamel coat is applied. Drying time should be sufficient to allow primer to be firm to the touch. Further, any pipe which has been expose to weather for more than 24 hours after the primer coat is applied shall be given another primer coat before application of the coal tar enamel. 3.0 PREPARATION OF COATING MATERIALS

Pipelines enamel shall be cut up at location, which is free from dirt weeds or other from of contamination. The broken enamel shall then be heated in clean metal. Melting spot on a reduce fire for the first 30 minutes or so until there is quantity of melted enamel at the bottom of cattle. It shall then be slowly raised to the application temperature, steering frequently with metal agitator, without reaching at any point in the pot a temperature in excess of the manufacturer recommendation. All metallic pots shall be clean whenever cokes or other deposit form on the heating surface. Kettles shall not be use as a continuous supply source by adding unmelting coating materials after application temperature has been reach. Kettles shall be completely emptied of one charge and clean it necessary before recharging. All suitable for the temperature to be encounter and the melted enamel shall be maintained at temperature as specified during application. Enamel that has been heated in kettle to a temperature in excess of manufacturer recommendation or otherwise over heated through long application of high temperature shall not be used.




The heated enamel should be strained through a 1/16‖ mesh strength in such way that

it can be readily applied. Prier to the application, the surface must be clean and dry. Simultaneously with the first coat of coal of coal tar enamel the fiberglass mat must be applied. Sufficient tension shall be applied to the rolls to embed it in the enamel before its sets. The lap of the mat shall not be less then 12 mm. 5.0 FINAL COAT AND KRAFT PAPER WRAPPING

After application of 1st enamel coat and fiber glass mat the final coat of coal tar enamel shall be applied. Along with the final enamel coat, Kraft paper shall be spirally wound around the pipe with minimum 15 mm overlap. The thick of the final coating of enamel shall be so adjusted that the total thickness of wrapping and coating is maintained between 3.5 to 4.5 mm. The coating must be free from pinholes and holiday. 6.0 TESTING AND REPAIRS

All the finish insulation shall meet with the spark tests to be applied with holiday detector of 10000 Volt out put. All holidays and damage coating shall be repaired by cutting out the defective coating in manner that will be provide a tapering edge on the firmly bounded coating around the damage area. If the damage area is larger than 25 mm in dia meter, the patch shall be made by applying of coat enamel, followed by a patch of glass fiber applied to the soft enamel with a minimum overlap of 12 mm at the bonded coating. A coat of enamel shall be applied over the glass fiber, so that the patch shall have a thickness greater then that of the parent coating. If the damage area is smaller than 25 mm in diameter the repair may be made by applying enamel coating with thickness greater than that of the parent coating. Electronic holiday detector shall rest all holiday repairs. The holiday detector of approved make shall be used on the job after approval of the equipment by the inspector.


C H A P T E R – XVII ( D)




As nothing can be made totally safe from the effects of fire, the term ―Fire Proofing‖ is therefore misleading. Nonetheless, the term continues to be ―Fire Proofing‖ refers to selection and

application of the materials that provide a degree of fire resistance to protect substrates like vessels, piping and structures for a predetermined time period. All commonly used structural materials lose their strength on being exposed to fire. The primary role of passive fire protection is to delay and limit the temperature rise of substrates. This is to enable structural integrity to be maintained and to gain valuable time, during which vessels can be depressurized, evacuation of personnel can be carried out and the fire can be brought under control. Passive fire protection therefore seeks to minimize the consequences of a fire and to prevent fire escalation.

This standard covers the technical details of the material used for fire proofing and inspection during application of material and periodic inspection of Fire Proofing. 2.0 DEFINITION

Fire Proofing : Fire proofing is an insulation that provides a degree of fire resistance to
protect substrates like vessels, piping and structures for a predetermined time period against fire. 3.0 3.1 FIRE PROOFING MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS GENERAL

Passive fire proofing materials and systems should conform to the following parameters:

a) It should fulfill its protection role by limiting the temperature of substrate of a vessel or structure to be within the guaranteed maximum temperature over a specified time period. b) The fire protection should not fail at the end of this specified period, but should continue to offer a reasonable measure of protection beyond this period. c) It should have a system integrity so that the protection remains in place during a fire, and can withstand both the thermal stresses and impingement of fire water from hoses/monitors. Test checks as necessary should be carried out. XVII D-1

d) The fire protection must be non-corrosive to the substrate and be compatible to environmental conditions. It must not in itself become a hazard in a fire condition whether by spalling, spreading flame, or producing toxic fumes. e) Selection of the fire proofing system must take into account the weight limitations imposed on the strength of steel supports to be fireproofed especially for existing installations. f) The materials should have adequate adhesion, strength and durability. g) The fire proofing system should be adequate for the desired fire rating hours. h) The fire proofing material/coating should be resistant weather effects such as chalking and erosion. Top coat, wherever provided, must be resistant to solar ultra violet radiation. 3.2 TYPES OF FIRE PROOFING MATERIALS

Materials normally used for fireproofing are dense concrete, light weight concrete, mastic and prefabricated panels. Prior to use, these materials should be checked to relevant specifications. 3.2.1 Dense Concrete This traditional material has been used for decades as fire proofing and is the standard by which other materials are judged. Tough and dense, (approx. density 2200-2400 Kg/cum) Thermal protection is afforded by mechanisms of heat absorption through sensible energy rise and breakdown of the chemically attached water in the Portland cement. Their sheer mass provides enough heat sink in most fire environments. Concrete must be poured into forms and requires steel reinforcements. Gunnite is a mixture of sand and Portland cement which is pumped and sprayed into reinforcing mesh installed around the steel. Adequate protection should be taken for equipment This material provides adequate service for long periods of time. If failure occurs, it is usually because of the intrusion of moisture and/or acid & airborne salts through cracks or porous areas and may spall during water exposure in a fire. In SO2 or other corrosive environments, a top coat of suitable anticorrosive paint may be provided. Dense concrete is generally used for fire proofing of supporting structural of pipe racks, vessels, furnaces, air fin coolers exchangers etc. XVII D-2 3.2.2 Light Weight Concrete

This concrete is made of light weight aggregates such as vermiculite, mica, perlite and cements. Dry densities range from 640 to 960 kg/cum. Lightweight materials are usually sprayed on but they may be trowelled or formed in place using light reinforcing mesh. Lightweight concrete materials are fairly durable and have limited maintenance requirements. They are capable of withstanding direct flame impingement upto 1093 deg C (2000 deg F ) and can withstand thermal stresses and high pressure water streams. These materials are applied by qualified and trained applicators. These materials can be applied over any configuration in varying climatic conditions. As these materials are susceptible hairline cracks, a good paint system for the substrate and top coat of fire proofing is desirable. Light weight concrete is normally used for fire proofing of vessels and supporting structurals of pipe racks, vessels, furnaces, air fin coolers, exchangers etc. 3.2.3 Mastics The mastic coating system has good durability, corrosion protection and resistance to environmental conditions. In addition, such systems are very light weight and lend themselves to application on any shape. All mastics are sprayed on the substrate in one or two coats, depending on the degree of the fire resistance/protection required. A positive mechanical reinforcements such as reinforcing fabric or wire is required to ensure the integrity of the system during fire situation if thickness of coating is higher. Following materials are covered under mastics. a) Subliming Coating Subliming coatings consist of two components applied with reinforcement. They absorb large amount of heat in the event of fire and they change directly from solid to gaseous state. b) Intumescent Mastics Intumescent mastics provide protection by expanding during heating and forming an insulation layer of char. The quality of char and resistance to Oxidation determines the performance of the material. The material is applied along with reinforcement. These materials are durable, light weight and also provide long term corrosion protection to steel. However, they need stringent surface preparation. XVII D-3

c) Ablative Coatings

Ablative mastics absorb heat as they lose mass. These materials have good bond strength, high coefficient of elongation and are also resistant to most industrial chemicals and solvents. However, stringent surface preparation is required for these materials. 3.2.4 Pre-Fabricated Panels Preformed inorganic panels are precast or compressed fire resistant panels made of a lightweight aggregate and a cement binder or a compressed inorganic insulating material such as calcium silicate. The panels are attached to the substrate by mechanical fasteners that are designed to withstand exposure to fire without exposure to fire without appreciable loss of strength. These panels are convenient and clean during installation and not much of surface preparation is required. However, this material cannot be used for small steel members and complicated shapes. When panels are used outdoors, an external weather-proofing system is usually required to prevent moisture from penetrating. All joints must be caulked or sealed with fire rated mastic. Preformed materials are advantageous because they can be applied cleanly, they have no curing time, and they have low conductivity. Preformed materials are more susceptible than dense concrete to damage from impact. 4.0 AREAWISE APPLICATION

Determination of fire proofing needs involves a three step procedure that establishes:

a) The location of fire-exposed envelope. b) The size of the fire-exposed envelope and c) The rating or thickness of fire proofing material that need to be applied within each of the fire-exposed envelope. 4.1 FIREPOOFING INSIDE THE PROCESSING UNITS

4.1.1 Multilevel Equipment Structures a) When structures support fire-potential equipment, fireproofing should be used for the vertical and horizontal steel support members from the grade up to the highest level at which the equipment is supported. XVII D-4

b) Elevated floors and platforms that could retain significant quantities of liquid hydrocarbons should be treated as though they were on the ground floor level.

c) When structures support non-fire potential equipment, fireproofing should be considered for the vertical and horizontal steel members from grade up to and including the level that is nearest to a 30-foot (9.1 meter) elevation above grade if the collapse of unprotected structural supports could result in substantial damage, that would involve nearby fire-potential equipment. d) Fireproofing should be used for knee and diagonal bracing that contributes to the support of vertical loads or to the horizontal stability of columns if it is located within the fire-exposed envelope. Knee and diagonal bracing that is used only for wind, earthquake or surge loading need not be fireproofed. e) When reactors, towers, or similar vessels are installed on protected steel or reinforced concrete structures, fireproofing materials should be used for protection of supporting steel brackets, lugs, or skirts. The insulating effect of the fireproofing material must be considered in the design of supports for vessels that operate at high temperatures. f) Except for the upper surface of the top flange, fireproofing should be considered for beams that support equipment in fire-exposed areas. g) The earthing lugs should be kept clear of the fire protection. 4.1.2 Support For Pipe Racks a) When a pipe rack is within a fire-exposed envelop, fireproofing should be used for all vertical and horizontal supports upto and including the first level. If a pipe rack carried piping that has a diameter greater than 6 inches at levels above the first horizontal beam or large hydrocarbon pumps are installed beneath the rack, fireproofing should be considered upto and including the level that is nearest to a 30-foot (9.1 meter) elevation. Wind or earthquake bracing and non-load bearing stringer beams that run parallel to piping need not be fireproofed. b) If air fin-fan coolers are installed on top of a pipe rack, fireproofing should be used for all vertical and horizontal support members on all levels of the pipe rack including support members for the air fin-fan coolers, regardless of their elevation above grade. XVII D-5 c) Fireproofing should be considered for knee and diagonal bracing that contributes to the support of vertical loads. Knee or diagonal bracing that is used only for wind or earth-quake loading need not be fireproofed. d) Frequently, the layout of piping requires that auxiliary pipe supports be placed outside the main pipe rack. These supports include small laterals pipe racks,

independent stanchions, individual T columns, and columns with brackets. Whenever these members support piping with a diameter greater than 6 inches or important piping such as relief lines, blow down lines, or pump suction lines from accumulators or towers, fireproofing should be considered. e) Consideration should be given for installing a fireproofed catch beam or bracket, beneath larger piping (greater than 6 inches) that is supported by exposed steel spring hangers or rods. Sufficient clearance should be provided between the bracket or beam and the pipe to permit free movement. 4.1.3 Grade-Level Air Coolers Fire-proofing should be considered for supports for air fin-fan coolers in hydrocarbon service. 4.1.4 Tower & Vessel Skirts a) Fire-proofing should be used for the exterior surfaces of skirts that support tower and vertical vessels. Consideration should also be give for fireproofing interior surfaces of skirts if there are flanges or valves inside the skirt. Interior surfaces of skirts need not be fireproofed if there is only one manway opening through the skirt and its diameter is not greater than the single manway may be closed with removable steel plate at least ¼ inch (6.4 millimeters) thick. Consideration should be given to minimizing, the effect of draft through vent openings and space that surrounds pipe penetrations in the skirt. b) Fireproofing should be used for brackets or lugs that are used to attach vertical reboilers or heat exchangers to towers or tower skirts. 4.1.5 Leg Supports For Towers & Vessels If towers or vessels are elevated on exposed steel legs, fireproofing the leg supports to their full load-bearing height should be used. XVII D-6

4.1.6 Supports for Horizontal Exchangers, Coolers, Condensers, Drums, Receivers and Accumulators Fireproofing should be considered for steel saddles that support horizontal heat exchangers, coolers, condensers, drums, Receivers and Accumulators and have a diameter greater than 30 inches (0.76 meter) if the vertical distance between the concrete pier and the shell of the vessel exceeds 18 inches (0.46 meter). 4.1.7 Fired Heaters

a) Fireproofing should be used for all supports for fired heaters in hydrocarbon service. Heaters are often supplied with short, steel legs that are set on reinforced concrete piers, consideration should be given to fireproofing these legs from the concrete piers upto the point where the steel columns are welded to the steel floor plate of the firebox. b) If structural supports is provided by horizontal steel beams beneath the firebox of an elevated heater, fireproofing should be used for the beams unless at least one flange face is in continuous contact with the elevated firebox. c) If common chimneys or stacks handle flue gas from several heaters fireproofing should be considered for the structural support for ducts or breaching between heaters and stacks. d) When fired heaters in other than hydrocarbon service, such as steam superheaters or catalytic cracking unit air heaters, are located within a fireexposed envelope, fireproofing should be considered for their support members if a collapse would result in damage to adjacent hydrocarbon processing equipment or piping. 4.5 FIREPROOFING OUTSIDE THE PROCESSING UNITS:

4.5.1 Pipe Racks a) Fireproofing should be considered for pipe rack supports outside processing units if they are located within a fire-exposed envelope. Bracing for earthquakes, wind or surge protection and stringer beams that run parallel to piping need not be fireproofed. b) If important pipe racks run within 20-30 feet of open drainage ditches or channels that may contain oil waste or receive accidental spills, either fireproofing should be considered for the pipe rack supports or the ditch should be covered. XVII D-7

4.5.2 Storage Spheres/Vessels & its supports Fire proofing protects the LPG vessel by reducing the heat input to the vessels and also by controlling the rate of rise of vessel wall temperature. Fireproofing provides protection in case water supply is interrupted. Fire proofing of all LPG vessels, their supports and connected/nearby pipelines should conform to the requirements stipulated in OISD-STD-144. Fireproofing shall be provided on the aboveground portion of the vessel‘s supporting structures. The fireproofing shall cover all support members required to support static

load of the full vessel. Fireproofing shall not encase the points at which the supports are welded to the vessel. 4.5.3 Horizontal Pressurized Storage Tanks Horizontal pressurized storage tanks should preferably be installed on reinforced concrete saddles. Fireproofing should be considered for exposed steel tank supports that are more than 18 inches (0.46 m) high, measured at the lowest point of the tank shell. 4.5.4 Flare Lines Fire proofing should be considered for supports for flare lines if they are within a fireexposed envelope or if they are close to open ditches or drainage channels that may receive large accidental spills of hydrocarbons. 5.0 5.1 METHODS OF APPLICATION OF FIRE PROOFING GENERAL

The process of fire proofing application consists of but not limited to attaching pins for retention of metal/fabric mesh reinforcement, abrasive blasting where required, priming with appropriate and approved primer system, installation of reinforcing mesh, masking where necessary, mixing, spraying, trowelling and leveling, rolling top coating if required, and demasking. 5.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF APPLICATORS

The application shall be performed by qualified applicator having training, equipment and experience. Supervisory or lead personnel involved with the application shall be or have been trained by the manufacturer of fire proof coating material. Applicator shall submit written verification of such training in case of proprietary products. XVII D-8



The applicator shall follow standard industrial hygiene practices for the handling of chemical coatings and shall confirm to applicable codes of practice and regulations. Necessary personal protective equipment as detailed in OISD-STD-155 should be used. 5.4 STORAGE OF MATERIAL

The coating material shall be stored of the ground in a covered area and shall be protected from severe temperatures. 5.5 SAMPLE PREPARTION

Prior to actual production work, an approved sample or a sample area will be coated with fire proof coating following all pertinent procedures and specifications. This sample should be typical of the work to be done. This sample or sample area will then be approved by the Client‘s Representative, Applicator‘s Representative, Consultant‘s representative and any other party as defined and required by the contract, for quality of surface finish and adherence to procedures 5.6 WORK START-UP

Applicator will obtain a release from the client for a given area to start on. 5.7 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Environmental conditions are important for every aspect of the Application System. Environmental specifications for blasting where required and priming are as per manufacturer or relevant standard which include but are not limited to ambient temperature, substrate temperature, relative humidity and dew point. environmental specifications for the system provided by the manufacturer of fire proof coating, these conditions shall be recorded, for each systems since conditions can vary considerably depending on location. Record daily environmental conditions. Where water is required to be added, it should be clean, potable and of a quality suitable for use in blending with fireproofing coatings and should have chloride content less then 50 PPM.




5.8.1 Dense Concrete A typical composition of dense concrete is one part cement, two and half part gravel passing through 9.5 mm sieve. Water should not exceed 802 liter / cubic meter of cement in the case of pneumatically applied concrete the ratio shall be one part of cement and four parts sand. Water cement ratio shall remain same as above. Dense concrete can be formed in place or pneumatically sprayed to the required thickness using steel reinforcement. 5.8.2 Lightweight Concrete

a) Substrate Preparation It is recommended that in a refinery/petrochemical environment, the steel should be suitably primed, painted or galvanised prior to the application of fireproof coating. Paint surfaces must be chemically resistant and stable at a pH of 12 to 12.5 when exposed to portland cement. Paints based on two-pack epoxy resins, chlorinated rubber or solvent based vinyl are normally satisfactory when applied in accordance with the manufacturer‘s instructions. All paints must be fully cured under the conditions specified in the Manufacturer‘s Data Sheet. b) Mesh Retaining Pins Pins should be fixed to the structural substrate at maximum 400 mm centers on a staggered pitch. Stud fixing may necessitate the local removal of the priming system which should be reinstated tot he original paint specification after the fixing of pins welding need not be done for fixing pins on pressure vessels as the same can be fixed using other techniques. c) Mesh Reinforcement Attach reinforcing mesh (made of GI/SS) to previously installed pins using suitable arrangements. The mesh should be pulled away from the substrate so as to lie substantially within the center of the final fireproof thickness. XVII D-10 Mesh shall be overlapped at all joints and no more than three mesh thicknesses are permitted at any one joint. Cut ends may be twisted together to make a more secure joint. Alternatively, galvanised wire ties at 150 mm centers may be used. For pressure vessels where pins are not permitted, reinforcing mesh is attached to a system of floating rings and tensioning wires to construct a monolithic reinforcement. d)Fireproof Coating The light weight concrete shall be mixed in accordance with the manufacturer‘s instructions for application and spray applied in the minimum number of coats or by using trowel to the required thickness as per manufacturer‘s recommendation. The coating is generally float finish to close down the texture. e) Water Shedding

Where water shedding cowls are not provided, top surfaces and all terminations of fire proof coating against steel must be sloped and floated to shed water. A ―U‖ shape shall be cut at the concrete steel junction to receive mastic sealant. f) Top coating – Weather Barrier After the concrete coating has been allowed to cure and dry for at least five days, suitable top coat as recommended by manufacturer may be applied, if required. g) Sealing of Concrete Coating / Steel Junctions: Apply a suitable flexible sealant in the groove which may be polysulphide based or silicone rubber based. All sealant must be suitable for use with a concrete mixture and be weather resistant and remain flexible. 5.8.3 Mastics

a) Mesh Retaining Pins
Pin Installation wherever required shall be done in accordance with the procedure outlined in the Manufacturer‘s Application manual. Embedded mesh reinforcement shall be used based on manufacturer‘s recommendation. XVII D-11

b) Substrate Preparation
Substrate preparation shall be done in accordance with product requirements. The blast finish/profile shall be accepted prior to priming. In the event that the applicator does not perform the actual blasting and priming, the applicator is responsible for obtaining documentation certifying the steel meets acceptable blast finish criteria and priming criteria as per the manufacturer‘s application manual.

c) Priming Procedure
Priming of substrate shall be done in accordance with paint manufacturer‘s application guideline. Only primers approved by material manufacturers can be used.

d) Mesh Reinforcement

Meshing of substrate shall be done in accordance with the procedures outlined by mastic material manufacturers application manual.

e) Masking
Any surfaces or equipment in the spraying areas which do not receive mastic must be masked off using polyethylene or equivalent. Regardless of the structural configuration being worked on, overspray is always a concern.

f) Intumescent / Subliming Coating
Solvent based or solvent less application of Intumescent / Subliming materials shall be done in accordance with the procedure outlined by the intumescent Subliming materials manufacturers application manual upto the required thickness. Mixing of material components is automatically achieved at the correct ratio by the equipment volumetric ratioing pumps. Although the equipment has off ratio detection devices built into the system, actual ratio checks must be taken. The ratio check should be performed at start-up and shut down daily.

g) Surface Finish and Inspection
Surface finish is a visual standard for sprayed intumescent / Subliming material which includes various structural configurations. Visual inspection should be performed to ensure that there is no exposed mesh, debonding at terminations or bubbles below the finish surface layer. XVII D-12 Physical inspection would consist of drilling holes in the intumescent / subliming material to determine actual thickness tapping with a hammer to detect possible hollow areas or delamination between sprayed layers of coating not visible. 6.0 6.1 QUALITY CONTROL IN APPLICATION OF FIRE PROOFING INTRODUCTION

Quality control during application is of prime importance. Satisfactory performance of the fireproofing material over its expected life time depends on the user‘s and the applier‘s knowledge of materials and application techniques and on continuous inspection by qualified plant personnel. Attention to the following points will ensure a quality job: 6.2 QUALIFIED PERSONNEL

Both the user and the applicator should have a detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the fireproofing material and the application techniques that are necessary to achieve the desired degree of fire resistance. The appllicator should be qualified as per para 5.2



Materials should be stored at site in accordance with the manufacturer‘s recommendations, since some materials are temperature sensitive and others must remain upright in their containers for the proper sealing. Material should not be used if its shelf life ahs exceeded. 6.4 MOCK-UP APPLICATION

The contractor/applier is required to provide a sample of the finished work so that there is no misunderstanding about the desired texture, smoothness and soundness of the finished coating. Before start of the application job mock-up application should be carried out over 1Mx1M surface area to ascertain the skill of the applicator. 6.5 SURFACE PREPARATION

Substrate surfaces must be cleaned so that they are free from oil, grease, liquid contaminants, rust, scale and dust. If a primer is required it ,must be compatible with the fire proofing material. XVII D-13



It is to be ensured that the materials must be applied in accordance with the manufacturer‘s recommendations for dry thickness and use of reinforcing materials. Thickness of material must be ensured as some of the mastic coating shrink as much as 30 per cent when cured. 6.7 CURING

Some materials require a controlled curing period ot develop full strength and prevent serious cracking in the future. Hence, proper curing is to be ensured. 6.8 RANDOM CORE SAMPLE CHECK

Random core samples should be taken after application to verify coat thickness proper bonding, and lack of voids. Defects, if any should be rectified properly. 7.0 7.1 PERIODIC INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE DETERIORATION DURING SERVICE LIFE

As fireproofing materials age, problems can develop that affect the usefulness of the coating and weaken the protected structural supports. Any fireproofing material is subject to a certain amount of degradation over time, however, some applications have been known to fail completely at a rapid rate. The failure may be caused by materials that are improperly selected in most cases, however, the failure results from poor applications. Cracking or bulging of the surface of the material is the first sign of a problem. If the problem is not corrected moisture, chemicals, corrosive vapour, and marine condensation can enter and lead to corrosion of both the substrate and the reinforcement materials. Weathering or the use of the wrong top coat can cause the fireproofing t become permeable to moisture and vapour. This permeable to moisture and vapour. This permeability can lead to serious corrosion and deterioration. Loss of bonding to the substrate seriously affects the materials performance and may be caused by moisture, penetration corrosion, the use of an improper primer on the substrate, or poor preparation of the substrate before the fireproofing is applied. XVII D-14

Fire proofing is sometimes scrapped or knocked off equipment during construction or maintenance. The weathering effects of sunlight and chemical atmospheres have been known to affect some mastic materials to the extent that they lose a significant amount of their insulating ability due to development of cracks, disbonding peeling off top coat. 7.2 INSPECTION

To reduce the risk of structural failure from hidden corrosion or the risk from fire because of fireproofing loosened or damaged by underlying corrosion, all fireproofed surfaces should periodically be inspected and tested as per schedule prepared by the owner based on local environmental conditions and criticality of the equipment. An inspection and testing program should include the following steps. a) Survey the coating for surface cracking. b) Selectively remove small sections of fireproofing to examine conditions at the face of the substrate and the surface of reinforcing wire c) Visually check for the loss of fireproofing materials as a result of mechanical abuse.

d) When the fireproofing material is applied, coat and set aside several pieces of structural steel for periodic fire testing over expected life of the coating. In the event of a fire, the affected area of coating should be thoroughly examined including substrate if required and necessary jobs carried out.


C H A P T E R - II
CONTENTS 1.0 General 1.1 Relationship of the Inspection Problem to causes of Deterioration 1.2 Summary of Causes Deterioration 2.0 Corrosion 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Corrosive components of crude oil 2.2.1 Hydrogen Chloride and organic and inorganic chlorides 2.2.2 Hydrogen Sulfide Mercaptans and organic sulfur compounds 2.2.3 Carbon Dioxide 2.2.4 Dissolved oxygen and water 2.2.5 Organic acids 2.2.6 Nitrogen Compounds 2.2.7 Corrosive Materials Added to the Process 2.2.8 Sulfuric Acid and Hydrogen Fluoride 2.2.9 Phenol 2.2.10 Phosphoric Acid 2.2.11 Caustic – Sodium Hydroxide 2.2.12 Mercury 2.2.13 Ammonia 2.2.14 Chlorine 2.2.15 Aluminum Chloride 2.3 Environmental Corrosion 2.3.1 Refinery Atmospheres 2.3.2 Discussion of specific problems 2.4 Corrosion at high temperatures 2.4.1 Oxygen 2.4.2 High – Temperature Steam 2.4.3 Vanadium Oxide 2.4.4 Effect of sulfur Dioxide and Hydrogen sulfide 2.4.5 The effect of Hot Corrosive Gases on Cast Iron 2.5 Important Corrosion Phenomena 2.5.1 Intergranular Corrosion 2.5.2 Graphic Corrosion of Cast Iron 2.5.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking 2.5.4 Polythionic Acid Corrosion 2.5.5 Dezincification 2.5.6 Galvanic Corrosion

2.5.7 2.5.8 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 4.0 1.1 1.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 5.0 5.1 5.2 6.0 5.0 7.1 7.2 6.0 8.1 8.2 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.3

Contact Corrosion Biological Corrosion Corrosion Occurrence with attempts at corrosion control Inhibitors Neutralizers Cathodic Protection Erosion Introduction Discussion Effect of Temperatures High Temperature strength Introduction Creep Stress Rupture Properties for High temperature strength Subnormal and Ambient Temperature effects Brittle Fracture Excessive Pressures Introduction Cause of excessive pressure Added Heat in Excess of Normal operation Blocking off against a pressure source Thermal expansion of trapped liquid Hydraulic Hammer or Resonant Vibration Inadequate or Defective Vents on storage tanks Effects of Excessive Pressures Overloading Introduction Evidences of overloading Earthquakes and earth settlements Mechanical and wind damage Example of Mechanical and wind damage Causes of Mechanical and Wind damage Faulty Material and equipment Introduction Situations leading to improper selection of material and Equipment Errors New Processes Use of Low-Cost Materials Evidences of Faulty Material and Equipment

1.0 1.1

GENERAL Relationship of the Inspection Problem to causes of Deterioration

Practically all refinery equipment suffers deterioration as a result of the conditions to which it is subjected. Under normal operating conditions this deterioration is usually, but not always, gradual. It generally occurs as metal loss, and occasionally as structural or chemical changes in the metal, which result in weakening with no loss of metal. When equipment is subjected to abnormal conditions, deterioration may be much more rapid. Abnormal conditions may result from operational upsets caused by such things as instrument failure, or water in normally dry feedstock ; or they may be the result of occurrences such as fires, earthquakes, or high winds. New equipment and materials purchased for Refinery use are generally bought according to specifications. These specifications take into account the expected conditions at which the equipment will operate and are usually based on recognized codes and standards. New equipment is also built by refinery or contractor forces. The design and fabrication of such equipment are as a rule also based on accepted codes and standards. Inasmuch as the primary function of any inspection organization is to assure that equipment is safe to operate it is of utmost importance that conditions causing deterioration and failure be recognized and understood. New materials and equipment purchased or fabricated in the refinery must be inspected to determine whether or not they meet the standards specified and, if they do not, whether they should be rejected or accepted. Operating equipment must also be inspected periodically to establish metal loss rates, because such rates determine the frequency of inspection and the predicted life of the equipment. When deterioration is not accompanied by loss of metal, it often shows up as cracking or as difficulties in making welding repairs. In such cases, metallurgical examination may be required to determine the exact cause. This Chapter covers the more common causes of deterioration of refinery equipment. An understanding of these causes will not only permit the inspector to carry out his primary function better, but will make it possible for him to make sound recommendations for repair and materials. 1.2 Summary of Causes Deterioration

Many of the contaminants in oil and chemicals handled in process units react with metals in such a way as to cause corrosion. Some materials fed or formed in process operations can cause erosion. In some operations both erosion and corrosion occur. When this happens the losses in metal thickness are often greatly in excess of losses that would be estimated from the separate effects of corrosion and erosion. In general, metal losses take place over


a period of time. Accurate records of such losses are not always constant, but are a function of such variables as salt and sulfur content of crude oils, chemicals used in refining, and operating temperatures and pressures. It is essential, therefore, that the inspector be generally aware of the day to day operation of equipment and that he reestablish metal loss rates at frequent intervals. Stress reversals in parts of equipment are quite common, particularly in reciprocating parts. If stresses are high enough and reversals frequent enough, failure of parts occurs by fatigue. The possibility of such failures in machinery parts, for example in pumps and compressors, is taken into consideration in the design of such equipment. Less frequent, but usually more serious, are fatigue failures in piping and pressure vessels that result from cyclic temperature and pressure changes. Fatigue failures in machinery start as cracks at the surface of the metal and progress with each stress reversal at first slowly and then more rapidly. In the final stages, crack propagation can be exceedingly rapid. Periodic inspection of reciprocating parts will frequently establish the presence of fatigue cracks before complete failure occurs. Similarly inspection of piping and vessels that operate under cycling conditions will often permit repairs or replacement before failure. Locations where metals having different thermal coefficient of expansion are joined by welding are often susceptible to thermal fatigue , and cracks sometimes start when equipment is shut down and cooled off. Where equipment is subjected to temperatures above those for which it is designed, distortion often occurs and because metals become weaker at higher temperature , such distortion may result in failure particularly at points of stress concentration. If temperatures become excessive, structural and chemical changes in the metals may also take place and may permanently weaken equipment. Such changes can occur as a result of fires, and any equipment that has been exposed to fire may be considerably weakened. Excessive metal temperature, due to fire exposure or even a severe process upset can result in the failure of a vessel at or below its design pressure. At subfreezing temperatures, water and some chemicals handled in refinery equipment may freeze and cause bursting of piping and vessels. In northern refineries, where freezing conditions often occur, equipment prone to freezing is kept warm by heating using steam, hot oil, or electrical means. Equipment is particularly susceptible to damage in freezing weather. Carbon steels are susceptible to brittle failure at ambient temperatures or below. A number of tank failures have been attributed to the brittle condition of the steel at low temperatures, combined with high loads that have been imposed by thermal stresses set up by rapid temperature changes.


Excessive pressure seldom contributes to failure of equipment under normal conditions because protection is provided by safety valves or by the equipment being designed for the maximum pumping pressure to which it may be subjected, or both. Failure under such conditions can, of course, occur if excessive metal loss has taken place or cracks or notches create undetected weaknesses. Overloading of equipment is an infrequent inspection problem because designs are generally adequate to carry the expected loads. Before applying hydrostatic tests to equipment or adding any other additional load, it should be ascertained that the vessels involved, the supporting structure, and the foundation are designed for such loads. Earthquakes, earth settlement, and wind loading are normally considered in the design of refinery equipment and seldom contribute to deterioration or failure. Where equipment has been subjected to abnormal conditions however it may be severely damaged, particularly the foundations and supporting structure. Mechanical damage that may result from equipment being dropped or from its being struck by vehicles and the like generally occurs, fortunately, during shutdown periods. Major pieces of equipment such as towers, drums, pumps, and exchangers, are generally always inspected and tested either at the manufacturer‘s shops or before being put into operation in a refinery, and the inspector is acceptable. The manufacturer of smaller items, such as valves and pipefitting is generally not as closely controlled. This smaller equipment is a source of real problems. The wrong material, or even the wrong gaskets used in assembly, may lead to failure. 2.0 CORROSION

2.1 Introduction Corrosion has always been a major problem in the refining industry. As the industry has grown and adopted modern processes, some of which employ corrosive chemicals, corrosion problems have become more numerous and complex. Many investigators have endeavored to place a cost on corrosion in the refining industry. The results of an exhaustive survey in this field were presented during the 19th Midyear meeting of the American petroleum Institute‘s Division of refining by the Subcommittee on Corrosion in refinery operations is approximately $0.1125 per barrel of crude oil processed. In the 1990‘s this cost could be several times higher because of rising expenditures for labor and materials. The inspector can do much to help control the cost of corrosion by detecting deterioration before it result in lost production or extensive damage to equipment. A full understanding of the problem is of primary importance to the inspector. It is the purpose of this section of this Chapter to discuss corrosive elements encountered in refining processes and how these II.3

result in deterioration of equipment. Corrosion problems in refining operations can be divided into three major groups, as follows: 1. Corrosion from components presents in the crude oil. 2. Corrosion from chemicals used in refinery processes. 3. Environmental corrosion. 2.2 Corrosive Components of crude oil

2.2.1 General: The corrosion problem as attributed to constituents present in the crude oil are generally believed to be caused by one or more of the following compounds : Hydrogen chloride and organic and inorganic chlorides Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and organic sulfur compounds. Carbon Dioxide Dissolved oxygen and water Organic acids Nitrogen compounds. The aforementioned corrosive components in crude oil first become apparent in the primary processing unit of the refinery, the crude oil flows from tankage through the crude distillation unit, one or more of these chemical components can cause various types of corrosion problems. Temperature levels change , the components separate or form new ones, and the environment for corrosion changes in each section of the distillation unit. For example, the equipment section affected and the corrosive compounds that will most likely cause trouble are shown as follows. Tankage - Hydrogen sulfide dissolved oxygen and water. Preheat Exchanger-Hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulfide. Preheat Furnace-Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur compound. Crude Tower Flash Zone - Hydrogen sulfide, sulfur compound and organic acids Middle Zone - Hydrogen sulfide. Top Zone – Hydrogen chloride and water. Tower Overhead system –Hydrogen Chloride, hydrogen sulfide and water. Vacuum Furnace - Hydrogen sulfide, sulfur compounds and organic acids.

II.4 Tower - Hydrogen sulfide and organic acids.

Overhead - Hydrogen chloride and water. Bottoms Exchange - Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur compounds. In addition neutralized salts such as ammonium chlorides and sulfides can cause trouble throughout most of the equipment sections, particularly when moist with condensed water. As the oil products of distillation leave the crude unit, many of the corrosive components contained in the products pass on to further processing in downstream units such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, coking, desulfurizing, and reforming. Control of corrosion by these components of the crude oil or their products is by use of chemical treatment, inhibitors, alloy metals or nonmetallic materials, or by use of other corrosion mitigation methods. The methods of control used in the crude distillation unit are also used in many of the downstream process units. The following paragraphs describe in detail the controls for each of the problem-causing compounds. 2.2.2 Hydrogen Chloride and organic and inorganic chlorides :

Because brine is produce along with the crude oil, and the separation of crude from brine is not perfect, all crude contain salt. Although the crude oil for chlorides(mainly inorganic) and report total chlorides as sodium chloride in pounds per thousand barrels of crude oil, the brine is generally believed to be roughly of the same analysis as sea water. A typical analysis of seawater is given in the following tabulation, and the brine in crude oil roughly corresponds to this analysis. Salt Sodium chloride Magnesium chloride Sodium sulfate Calcium chloride Potassium chloride Sodium bicarbonate Potassium bromide Other salts Total Percent by Weight of Total Salt 68.1 14.4 11.4 3.2 1.9 0.6 0.3 0.1 100.0

Magnesium and calcium chlorides, when dissolved in water and heated form hydrochloric acid that is very corrosive. This reaction called hydrolysis takes place at reasonably low II.5 temperatures (3000 F to 4000 F). Sodium and potassium chlorides do not hydrolyze and consequently do not cause serious corrosion in crude distillation units.

Hydrogen chloride, which is dry hydrochloric acid, is normally not corrosive in process streams. Corrosion by hydrogen chloride only becomes serious where water is available to form hydrochloric acid. (Corrosion that occurs where liquid water is present is generally called low-temperature corrosion.) Some corrosion by hydrogen chloride may occur in the preheating exchangers or crude oil distillation units. Fig.1 shows an unusually severe case of preheat-exchanger corrosion. Corrosion of carbon steel in the preheating exchanges may vary from negligible to approximately 0.120‖ per year. The rate varies with crude oil type and the presence of other corrodents; it increases with increased temperatures salt, and liquid-water content. Most corrosion in preheat exchangers is caused by high-temperature hydrogen sulfide attack. In general the principal evolution of hydrogen chloride will occur in the furnaces. At these locations, however liquid water does not exist and corrosion by hydrochloric acid does not occur. The dry hydrogen chloride gas is carried through the processing equipment, and little or no corrosion occurs until temperatures are lowered to near the dew point of water. In most primary distillation processes, steam striping is employed to assist distillation. This steam, when condensed in the presence of hydrogen chloride gas produces hydrochloric acid. In many of these processes the tower top temperature is above the dew point of water but metal temperatures of the shell, piping, or thermocouples may be below the dew point. Where, exchangers exist in the distillation overhead systems, water condensation can occur in the exchangers, and variable rates of corrosion are generally found at this point. Most of the water condensation occurs in the overhead condensers and corrosion is severe in the condensers, in the piping and in the distillate drum where the water is separated from the distillate. The corrosion rates in the overhead equipment vary considerably depending on the type of crude oil processed salt content, sulfur content, hydrogen sulfide evolution,, and on the pH of the overhead stream. Corrosion rates as high as 5‖ per year have been measured on steel coupons inserted without chemical control in a pipe still overhead system. This is indicative of the high corrosion rates that can be encountered under certain conditions. Fig. 2 and 3 illustrate the severe corrosion that can occur in overhead equipment. If the amount, of hydrogen chloride in the overhead stream is high, pH control by ammonia addition is required to neutralize hydrochloric acid (HCl) before a water dew point is reached. If such control is inadequate, an organic corrosion inhibitor should also be added. At all times, pH control in the 5 to 8 ranges should be maintained. Generally pH should be the 6.5 maximum to minimize ammonium chloride (NH 4Cl) fouling with resultant corrosion underneath deposits. With appropriate pH control, the corrosion rate should be very low, except that at the first point of condensation the temperature and pressure may be such that hydrochloric acid and II.6

ammonia (NH3) can dissociate and corrosion may occur. Monel is generally resistant to corrosion by weak hydrochloric acid, and is commonly used in the top section of crude towers and for condensers and distillate-drum liners in pipe still overhead systems. Typical corrosion rates for monel in this service vary up to 0.002 in per year. Corrosion rates on admiralty or 70 copper-30 nickel are intermediate between carbon steel ( high rate) and monel ( low rate) and usually vary up to 0.5 in. per year. In the distillate drum, most of the hydrochloric acid or neutralized salts will be removed in the water draw off. This separation, however,is not complete ; acidic water may be entrained in the distillation-tower reflux and may cause corrosion in the reflux pumps and piping . Corrosion in these locations is considerably reduced below that which occurs ahead of the distillate drum because the corrodent is carried only to the degree of moisture solubility and entrainment . However , because the reflux is not immediately heated to tower vapor temperatures, the water entering with the reflux may remain as a liquid on the top several trays of the tower where it can absorb more hydrogen chloride gas and increase in corrosiveness. As a result, the top trays and those portions of the tower immersed or washed with liquid suffer corrosion. Those places where liquid flows over downcomers or leaks from weep holes and contacts the tower shell are particularly susceptible. Little, if any, corrosion takes place in the vapor spaces of towers unless the temperature is below the dew point except in more or less stagnant areas, such as safety-valve nozzles, where the temperature may drop low enough for condensation of water vapor to occur. The hydrochloric acid produced in the crude oil distillation process may cause severe corrosion in itself. This corrosion is more serious in refining sour crudes. In the presence of hydrogen sulfide, the corrosion of iron by hydrochloric acid becomes a cyclic reaction, as illustrated in the following formulas, and corrosion can be excepted to reach serious proportions. Fe+2HCl =FeCl2 + H2 FeCl2 + H2S =2HCl + FeS A study of these chemical reactions shows that the hydrochloric acid (HCl), which causes the primary corrosion of the iron (Fe) to produce iron chloride is generated so that it can continuously repeat the cycle by the action of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the iron chloride, to produce iron sulfide (FeS) with the reappearance of hydrochloric acid. The double arrows indicate that the chemical reaction may proceed in either direction depending on specific conditions. One method for reducing corrosion by salts and hydrochloric acid, which is generated by the hydrolysis of salts, is the elimination of the brine from the crude oil. Most of the producing fields endeavor to do this by settling. This of course accomplishes the removal of both water and salt, which are the corrodents. In some cases, adsorption systems which are the only steps taken to reduce corrosive constituents prior to the time the crude oil enters the refinery. II.7

Even in the cases where judicious control of brine in crude oil is exercised in the producing fields, it is found that considerable salt is generally contained in the crude as it is received in the refinery. The salt content is generally higher in the winter because oilfield brine settlers are less effective at low temperatures.  The terms ― sour crude ― as used in this chapter refers to those crude which contain dissolved hydrogen sulphide or evolve it upon processing.

Most modern refineries operate desalting equipment to reduce the salt content of the crude-oil feed to distillation units. While this equipment will reduce the salt content to as little as 1 to 10 1b per thousand barrels, corrosion by hydrochloric acid may still be serious. A crude oil distillation unit that feeds 60,000 bbl of crude oil per day, desalted to 10 1b per thousand barrels can produce a total of 90 1b of hydrogen chloride daily by hydrolysis of magnesium and calcium chloride. If this is totally united with iron, 70 1b of iron will be consumed daily. This represents a yearly loss of about 13 tons of metal, and as this corrosion largely occurs in the overhead equipment, rates of loss of this magnitude are serious. Although this reaction would not go to completion, these figures serve to indicate that even though desalting reduces corrosion, it is by no means eliminated. Chemicals are frequently used to control corrosion by hydrochloric acid produced in crude oil distillation units. The chemicals used are alkaline agents such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, anhydrous ammonia, or aqueous ammonia. In general there are two principal methods of injecting chemicals into the process streams. The most widely stream at some point ahead of condensation. A combination of these two methods may also be used. The addition of alkaline solutions, such as caustic soda to the crude oil feed should be made with caution because in almost all cases these streams will be heated. If sufficient quantities are injected, a condition conducive to stress corrosion cracking may caustic concentrates in the residual product and can lead to corrosion cracking (see Par. 4.3) may occur in the process. Also, it should be cautioned that caustic concentrates in the residual product and can lead to corrosion problems in downstream units that process the residuals, for example, cokers and visbreakers. Anhydrous ammonia or aqueous ammonia are commonly employed as neutralizers in distillation overhead streams. These chemicals are generally injected into the distillationtower overhead line some distance ahead of the point of initial condensation. Anhydrous ammonia is normally vaporize and added as a gas, and aqueous ammonia is added as a liquid. In either case, intimate contacting can be effected. It has been found that corrosion of iron by hydrochloric acid becomes almost negligible when the pH of the water condensate is above 5. In the case of copper alloys, pH values on the water condensate must be kept below Ph 8 to avoid stress corrosion or corrosion-fatigued stress corrosion or corrosionII.8

fatigue failures in admiralty exchanger and condenser tubes. In the absence of oxygen, no damage to copper alloys, results at pH values of 7 to 8. If the alkalinity is allowed to excees pH 9 , direct chemical corrosion of copper alloys can occur, particularly at the dew point, even though the totally condensed stream (where normally sampled for pH) is at a lower pH. When ammonia is used on overhead systems to neutralize hydrochloric acid, deposits of ammonium chloride can form when sufficient water is not present to wash these deposits from the equipment. Serious corrosion stress corrosion cracking of some copper alloys can occur under these deposits. Such deposits can be prevented by injection of fresh water or recirculation of condensed water to dissolve and wash forward the ammonia salts. Hydrogen chloride can also be produced in hydrogenation processes from organic chlorides in the feed, and can cause corrosion in units downstream of the crude distillation unit unless neutralized. 2.2.3 Hydrogen Sulfide Mercaptans and Organic Sulfur Compounds

a. General Discussion : It is generally felt that hydrogen sulfide is the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion in refinery equipment . Hydrogen sulphide is sometimes present in the crude oil as such, and additional hydrogen sulfide may be formed by the decomposition of organic sulfur compounds at the process temperatures. Corrosion increase will be somewhat on the order of the increase in total sulfur content, as shown in fig. 4. Some points show a wide divergence from the curve. This divergence may be attributed to differences in the type of sulfur compounds present. Some are more resistant to thermal decomposition than others, and some may be non corrosive. Rates of corrosion from sulfur compounds may also vary because of the effect of other corrodents present. b. Sulfur Corrosion at low and Intermediate temperatures: Hydrogen sulfide causes corrosion of refinery equipment even at atmospheric temperatures, and considerable corrosion is a found in storage tanks containing some types of high sulfur crude oils. Corrosion of this type occurs in cone-roof storage tanks in the presence of moisture and oxygen and has been known to penetrate, 3/16-in-thick tank roofs and upper shell rings in 2 to 3 years. Sufficient oxygen is always available for the corrosion to proceed, and moisture condenses on the roof and shell . In view of the fact that moisture is needed for this corrosion to take place, corrosion of this type is generally more severe on the shady side of the tanks in warm climates. In cooler climates, temperature conditions may be such that condensation occurs around the entire tank, and the corrosion rate will be highest on the hottest (sunny) side. Hydrogen sulfide also causes corrosion by the formation of iron sulfide scale in the overhead systems of distillation equipment where water is present. If hydrogen chloride is also present, it dissolves this scale, generating more hydrogen sulfide and exposing fresh metal surfaces to

attack. This reaction may also operate in the opposite direction , as previously. In general corrosion of overhead systems of crude oil II.9


pipe stills by hydrogen sulfide is much less serious than corrosion by hydrogen chloride.
Other manifestations of corrosion caused by hydrogen sulphide are hydrogen blistering and hydrogen embrittlement.

c. High temperature sulfide corrosion: Temperature plays an important part in corrosion by hydrogen sulfide. In the absence of water , corrosion is not serious at low temperatures, and a metal temperature above 450o F is necessary for high temperature sulfide corrosion to occur at an accelerated rate. In refineries that process sweet crude oils, only slight corrosion of carbon steel may be expected with corrosion rates of approximately 0.01 in per year. Carbon steel furnace tubes normally give service lives of more than five years in sweet crude service and very little corrosion is experienced in the shells of distillation towers, although even with low rates thin internal equipment subject to corrosion from two sides may deteriorate rapidly. Internals made of 12 percent chromium steel are very resistant to attack. In refineries that process sour crude oils, severe corrosion may occur in crude oil distillation units in those locations where the metal temperatures exceed 450 F. At this temperature and above , decomposition of sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide occurs, and rates as high as 0.5 in per year have occurred in carbon steel furnace tubes handling high-sulfur crude‘s. Severe sulfide corrosion of carbon steel, radiant section tubes is shown in fig.10 and 11. Furnace tubes of 5 percent chromium material give up 3 to 10 times the life of carbon steel under this conditions. In vacuum furnace where corrosion is more severe , 9 percent chromium tubes hold up well. Severe sulphiding corrosion may be found in the lower portion of the fractionating towers. Corrosion may be expected in equipment where the metal temperature is between 450 0 F and approximately 9000 F ; above 9000F , indications are that corrosion is reduced, possible because of coke forming a protective coating on the metal. The furnace, soaking drums, separators, high-temperature exchanger, the lower portion of the fractionating towers, and attendant piping are usually susceptible. Corrosion in the tower internal equipment follows the same pattern, decreasing upward through the tower as temperatures decreases 4500 F and below. Corrosion rates vary widely, depending on the crude oil refined and the processing temperatures. In thermal cracking units that process sweet crude oils, corrosion rates of 0.120 to 0.180 in per year are normal for carbon steel furnace tubes. In general coke formations in soaking drums protect the walls from corrosion ; without coking the corrosion rate is high approximately 0.20 in per year. The corrosion rates for separators and lower portions of fractionates may be as high as 0.07 in per year. Conditions in catalytic cracking operations are somewhat similar to those encountered in thermal cracking units. Corrosion of catalytic cracking-unit reactors that operate above

900 F has not been serious, although localized corrosion can occur at spots where there is local


cooling such as at nozzles, platform supports, and the like. Corrosion takes place, however, when temperatures are reduced below 900 F, and in many cases where both liquid and vapor phases exist. It continues until the lower limit of 450 F is reached. Corrosion rates at the fractionator flash ones of approximately 0.10 in. per year may occur. Turbulence and erosion from an entrained catalyst accelerate the metal loss at this location. The rate is markedly reduced just above the flash zone where there is no catalyst present. As in the case of thermal cracking-unit fractionates, severe corrosion does not occur in the upper portion of these towers. The corrosion by hydrogen sulfide in cocking processes may be expected to follow the pattern discussed for thermal cracking processes. The exact type and sulfur content of the feed have an important bearing on the magnitude of corrosion. Little corrosion should occur with metal temperatures below 450 F. Above 450 F, corrosion will increase as the temperature increases. At approximately 900 F, corrosion will decrease sharply. Such equipment as furnace tubes, towers, tower internals, vessels, exchangers, and pumps towers, tower internals, vessels, exchangers, and pumps are affected. Corrosion rates are abnormally higher at points of high velocity and turbulence. The straight chromium steels (no nickel), 12 percent chromium and those with ½ to 1 percent molybdenum, such as 5, 7, and 9 percent chromium, have good resistance to this corrosion; the austenitic stainless steels, such as 18 chromium-8, nickel steel, have excellent corrosion resistance. In gas-handling and stabilization units, one of the functions is generally the removal of hydrogen sulfide. In general, the operating temperatures are low and high-temperature hydrogen sulfide corrosion is not severe except in equipment such as reboilers, either of the fired-heater type a corrosion rate of 0.09 in. per year has been measured. Of particular interest may be the fact that convection section tubes normally operate at temperatures at which little corrosion occurs; but the temperatures at tube supports are higher, and severe localized corrosion may occur in the tubes, at the points where they pass through the tube supports. The tube metal immediately below tube fins or studs may also be hot enough to cause severe local corrosion to occur.

High Temperature Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion in the Presence of Hydrogen: This attack by hydrogen sulfide is separated in discussion from the previous

section on high-temperature hydrogen sulfide corrosion because of the severity and mechanism of its attack. Industry found that correlation for corrosion based on sulfur content in sour stocks did not hold when hydrogen in significant quantities was present such as in hydrodesulfurizers and catalytic reformers. As noted in Par. 2.2.3a, the corrosion based on sulfur content may vary, dependent on decomposition into hydrogen

sulfide . Under catalytic conditions almost all detectable sulphur is converted to hydrogen sulphides and correlation‘s are based on either partial pressure or hydrogen sulfide (mol, volume percent) in the process stream.


The literature contains a number of these correlations that show iso-corrosion lines based on concentration of hydrogen sulfide in hydrogen versus temperature. Since the reaction for corrosion of iron is reversible, a curve is shown under which iron sulfide in hydrogen is reduced to iron and hydrogen sulfide and corrosion does not occur.
As can be noted, the operating temperatures in catalytic processes make their equipment susceptible to the highest corrosion rates if the hydrogen sulfide content is allowed to be more than a minor amount. Curves are shown for both stainless steels and carbon or chromium steels. The stainless steel curves were developed for naphtha reforming conditions and generally apply at higher temperatures. However, when temperatures are lower in hydrodesulfurizers, chromium steels, such as 5,7, or 9, in some cases are no longer corroded as much or more than carbon steel. The low-chromium alloy steels,(5 percent chromium and above) are presently in wide use partially because they can have a useful life, and care during shutdowns is not required because polythionic acids and chlorides do not cause cracking of these ferritic alloys.

Caution should be taken concerning the pyrophoric nature of the sulfide scales typically found on carbon and chromium-molybdenum steels in high-temperatures, hydrogen sulfide hydrogen atmospheres. 2.2.4 Carbon Dioxide

a. General Discussion : Carbon dioxide combined with water causes corrosion in refining processes. Until the advent of reforming processes for generating a hydrogen employing catalyst over which a hydrocarbon and steam are passed, the following paragraph covered most refining processes. Following this paragraph the hydrogen plants are treated separately since the corrosion is no longer a rarity or of minor importance. In some processes the carbon dioxide may come from two sources; 1. From the decomposition of bicarbonates contained in, or added to, the crude oil; and 2. From steam used to aid distillation. The latter source is dependent on the type of boiler feedwater treatment used. In most cases the concentration of carbon dioxide in water is low, and corrosion corrodents. Data on actual corrosion rates for carbon dioxide are meager, but a corrosion rate of approximately 0.03 in. per year has been measured in steamcondensate systems operating at approximately 350 F. Corrosion rate from carbon dioxide depends on partial pressure and temperature. Severe steam condensate corrosion is illustrated. Inasmuch as other types of corrosion are so much more important than corrosion by carbon dioxide, this type of corrosion is often not recognized.

It may be of interest that the pH of streams does not give a good indication of anticipated corrosion when a weak acid, such a carbonic acid (carbon dioxide dissolved in water), is the corrodent. It has been found that appreciable corrosion can occur in carbonic acid solutions at a pH of 6.0. Corrosion by stronger acids , such as hydrochloric acid, is not particularly II.12 rapid in the absence of oxygen at a pH above 4.5, and serious corrosion occurs in refinery process streams containing hydrochloric acid generally if the pH value is less than 4.0. This is explained on the basis that total acidity, rather than pH, determines the extent to which an acid corrodes iron. In steam condensate systems, corrosion because of carbon dioxide can be prevented by injecting special corrosion inhibitors into the steam.

b. Hydrogen plant corrosion : corrosion by carbon dioxide is very severe and can cause not only metal dissolution by also intergranular attack and can provide the environment for stress corrosion cracking. Corrosion by carbon dioxide in water is typical of most corrodents in that the areas of condensation and impingement are the ones most severely attacked. In areas of condensation, corrosion rates exceeding 1 in. per year on carbon steel have been found. Alloys found resistant to attack are monel, aluminum, stainless steels, and cupro-nickel. Included in the stainless steel categories are the ferritic and martensitic as well as the austenitic stainless steels. Like hydrogen sulfide, the attack of wet carbon dioxide on steels is lessened by the addition of chromium. Normally, a reasonable amount of passivity is not reached until the chromium content is about 12 percent, but the 5 to 9 percent chromium steels could be used for short-term life if any iron can be tolerated in the condensate. Although type 304 stainless steel is widely used and has been found most satisfactory in wet carbon dioxide environments of hydrogen plants, sensitized stainless steels have been found to crack in the heat affected zones. Lightly sensitized areas show the intergranular attack if weak acids, while highly sensitized areas have intergranular attack and have failed when overstressed in some reported cases. Plastic coating should be included in the list of stress-resistant materials. Both epoxies and phenolic epoxies have been used as vessel coatings in temperatures as high as 300 F to 350 F. 2.2.5 Dissolved Oxygen and Water While moisture and oxygen in storage tanks may be introduced with the oil, much of it is drawn into the tanks by breathing during temperature changes and pumping. The amount of moisture and oxygen, and consequently the corrosion rate, is therefore proportional to the number of temperature changes and the number of pumpings. The moisture condenses on the roof and the shell, and corrosion occurs in the vapor space. Crude and heavy oils form a more or less permanent film on the working portions of the shell and the corrosion in tanks handling these stocks always occurs above the upper working level, generally on the roof and top shell ring unless there is corrosive water

present. Vapor space corrosion in crude and heavy oil tankage is illustrated in fig. 13 through 15. Light stocks, such as gasoline, do not form such a protective coating, and corrosion in these tanks is generally more severe in the middle shell rings because these areas undergo more II.13 wetting and drying than others. Corrosion of the bottom and bottom shell ring of tanks handling light stocks is generally not severe unless a bottom layer of corrosive water is carried in the tank. Fig. 16 through 19 show corrosion in light-stock storage tanks. Corrosion of light stock storage tanks is generally of the pit type and is believed to be the result of entrained and dissolved water and of dissolved oxygen, the corrosion being proportional to the water and oxygen also be accelerated by traces of other corrodents in the light oils. Laboratory studies of this type of corrosion indicate that globules of water form on the metal, and corrosion occurs under each droplet in the form of a pit. The pits are so numerous, however, that corrosion appears to be general. The mechanism of corrosion is believed to be the initial conversion of iron to ferrous hydroxide, which is subsequently converted to the hydrates of ferrous or ferric oxide, depending on the amount of oxygen present. The final residue is generally found to be ferric oxide, a red rust. In all cases of storage tank corrosion ,it should be recognized that mill scale will accelerate attack, particularly on the bottom of storage tanks. Cracks in mill scale form anodic areas with remaining mill scale being highly cathodic. 2.2.6 Organic Acids

Organic acids are not very corrosive at low temperatures. At their boiling temperatures, however these acids are very corrosive the most severe form of which generally occurs upon condensation. Under these conditions, corrosion rates as high as 0.35 in. per year have been reported on carbon steel .The rate decreases rapidly with temperature , and is only 0.025 in per year at 20 F below the boiling point . The corroded surface of carbon steel is very smooth, and metal losses are not apparent from visual inspection. California asphaltic crude oils contain naphthenic acids, and these acids may be very corrosive at high temperatures. The lower molecular-weight acids from light lubricating distillates appear to be more corrosive than the higher molecular-weight acids from heavy lubricating distillate. This organic acids are very corrosive above 500 F, and the reaction is most severe in the liquid phase just as the lubricating fractions are being condensed. Copper alloys are more resistant than steel and 5-9 chromium steels, but chromiumnickel stainless steel is normally very resistant to naphthenic acid. However, in areas of high velocity or impingement, type 316 stainless steel has been found to be attacked 1/16 in. to 1/8 in. per year. Stainless Alloy 20 and aluminum are resistant.

Organic acids, such as acetic, propionic,, palmitic, stearic, and oleic, react with aluminum at a very low corrosion rate at 200 F; but at 570 F the reaction is very rapid. The reaction rate II.14

at high temperatures is apparently independent of oxygen concentration, but is greatly influenced by the presence of water. The addition of 0.05 percent of water practically inhibits all corrosion as a result of formation of a stable oxide film; whereas in the anhydrous state, the rate of corrosion is very rapid near the boiling point of the acids. 2.2.7 Nitrogen compounds :

Nitrogen compounds in crude oil alone do not contribute to a corrosion problem. However after decomposition in catalytic cracking, the ammonia and cyanides formed contribute to problems discussed in earlier paragraphs, such as high pH for hydrogen blistering in which the cyanides remove the protective polysulfide scale. In hydrocracking, the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide form ammonium hydrosulfide which causes serious corrosion problems at temperatures below the water dew point. also, the presence of ammonium hydrosulfide in sour water stripping systems is becoming a widespread problem.

Ammonia formed in any cracking or hydrocraking unit limits the use of any copper alloys in product coolers because of their attack in areas where protective scale may have spalled. Both ammonia and cyanides attack copper and brasses in a pitting or worm-holing type attack. With both chemicals present, there have been reported indications of reversal of anode and cathode where brass is in contact with steel, with the brass being corroded. Such locations have been where brass tubes pass through exchanger cross baffles and where copper gaskets contact steel floating heads and tube sheets.

Considering sources other than elements in crude oil, nitrogen compounds can form at high temperatures in the flue gases of furnaces from the nitrogen in the combustion air. A high percentage of excess air and sulfur trioxide in the flue gas can increase corrosion appreciably if these gases are pressurized. Stainless steel or plastic linings may be required for protection.

2.2.8 Corrosive Materials Added to the Process Introduction : Although corrosion costs from corrodents naturally present in the crude oil represent a major portion of corrosion cost, the acids and other chemicals added and used as treating agents, absorbents, catalysts, and the like in the various refinery processes probably cause the most rapid deterioration. Materials of this nature most widely used in the refining industry are : Sulfuric acid and hydrogen fluoride Phenol Phosphoric Acid Caustic sodium hydroxide Mercury Ammonia


Chlorine Aluminium chloride Sulfuric Acid And Hydrogen Fluoride

a. Alkylation Units : Alkylation units use sulfuric acid in concentrations from 85 to 95 percent as a catalyst. Traces of acidic material in the product are scrubbed out by means of water, or neutralized by caustic, or both. This scubbing step may not be complete so that in alkylation units it is possible to have very high concentrations and very low concentrations come as a result of either direct carryover into the fractionating equipment or breakdown of sulfuric acid esters. The corrosion occurring in the equipment may be very erratic, and it appears that there may be some very close correlations between corrosion and acid strength. Ester formation is a function of initial acid strength; that is, the lower the initial acid strength, the higher the ester content and, consequently, the greater the amount of sulfuric acid formed by ester breakdown.

The higher concentrations of 85 percent or more are not usually very corrosive as long as the temperature is below 100 F and velocity is below 4 ft per second. Carbon steel suffers little or no corrosion in this service. Attack that is a combination of corrosion and erosion will appear at the points of highest velocity or at points of turbulence. The later type will normally be found at such locations as in or downstream of ells, and in or downstream of tees where a second stream enters at the tee, or where a high-alkaline material, such as caustic, is added for neutralization. The increase

of corrosion at the neutralization point is probably the result of the increased temperature caused by the neutralization of acidic elements by caustic. In some instances, even Hastelloy B is attacked too rapidly to justify its expense. Linings, such as Penton, Teflon, and others, have been found most resistant in the neutralizing areas. Chromium-nickel stainless steels, such as type 304 or type 316, usually show negligible corrosion at points of increased velocity, except in pumps. Corrosion is usually slight in Alloy 20 steel pumps. Although corrosion on carbon-steel valves is not usually very severe, the slight attack on the seating surfaces is sufficient to cause leakage. An alloy 20 chromium-nickel valve trim is generally used in these locations.

In some alkylation units, hydrofluoric acid is very corrosive to steel unless care is taken to keep concentration, above 65 percent hydrogen fluoride, but if the acid is air free, particularly in critical areas, monel can be used over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. Otherwise, the more expensive materials Hastelloy C or plantium might be considered. Alloy 20 should generally not be used above 175 F for a concentration of 15 percent or less.

b.Olefin-Extraction units : In the extraction of olefins, sulfuric acid is used in concentrations from 45 to 98 percent , the temperature varying from atmospheric to 250 F.


Because of the wide range of concentrations and temperatures corrosion in these units may be very severe.

In these operations olefins are absorbed in sulfuric acid of a suitable concentration. The attack of hot strong acid on carbon steel is usually in the form of deep pits in any services or dead spits in the equipment and general etching of the surface. Although carbon steel is generally a satisfactory material for the higher concentrations, the heat generated during the absorption stage does not permit its use. Stainless steels, Type 304 or Type 316, are sometimes used in this service; and when corroded they exhibit a rough etched surface having the feel of velvet. Cast iron has a relatively low corrosion rate in this service and is used for such parts as tower trays and accessories.

Following the absorption step, the olefin-acid mixture is hydrolyzed, and this may make it very corrosive to carbon steel. This is particularly true in areas where the carbon steels contains welds. The attack on steel is by deep grooving either in the weld proper or in the heat-affected zone on either side of the weld. In areas away from welds the corrosion in this service is very uniform, and visual inspection may be misleading.

In some units, materials such as monel, Hastelloy B, the copper-base alloys, and lead have been employed, together with the nonmetallic such as graphite and carbon brick. The corrosion found on monel is a general metal loss, and pits are very infrequent. Hastelloy B exhibits similar characteristics. The copper base alloys may corrode severely at such points as van Stone or flanged pipe joints where turbulence may be set up by gaskets. Where butt welds of copper base

alloys are involved , severe attack of the weld metal may occur when improper filler rod has been used. This material will generally have the appearance of a sponge.

Carbon brick shows no deterioration in this service. Acid brick will spall and require replacement after a service life of from 4 to 10 years.

The product of hydrolysis is generally both caustic and water-washed. Caustic scrubbing facilities are normally fabricated from a material such as monel, this material gives excellent service. Where unusually large amounts of acid are permitted to enter the scrubbing equipment , monel will corrode uniformly with no pitting. Carbon-steel vessels can be used for water washing if the acid components are neutralized by prior caustic washing. Where quantities of acid enter this steel equipment as a result of inadequate neutralization, corrosion may be found in both the form of pits and thinning of large areas by general corrosion. The welds and the heat-affected zones on either side of the welds may be attacked in such a manner as described previously.

c. Acid Concentration facilities: Sulfuric acid used in the processes mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs must be concentrated from lower strength to a strength at which it


can be reused. There are several methods of performing this operation, but the most common is the use of a tank into which tubes supplying heat for evaporation of water are inserted. This is probably the most corrosive process in which sulfuric acid is handled. Initial concentrations may be as low as 45 percent and the final concentrations may be as high as 95 percent. These tanks are generally made of a carbon steel shell lined with either a loose lead lining or a homogeneously bonded lead lining, which is also lined with acid brick, carbon brick, or carbon block. The heating elements through which the heating Medium flows are made of Hastelloy D, high silicon cast iron, or tantalum.

Attack of the carbon block or brick by hot acid is very moderate, and these materials gives long and trouble free service where proper joints are used. Acid brick, as in the case of pressure vessel linings, Spalls and may require replacement about every five years. In addition, most acid brick exhibits a swelling characteristic which causes partition walls to arch, and which may exert enough pressure on the inside of the vessel to cause mechanical failure of the vessel wall. This is particularly noticeable where riveted angles are used to fasten the individual parts of the vessels together. The lead linings in these vessels, even though they are subjected to acids of various strengths, are not affected unless the inner brick or carbon lining deteriorates to such a point that circulation of hot acid against the lead occurs. Corrosion is in the form of pits or general thinning accompanied by a coating of white lead sulfate.

Tantalum heating elements sometimes employed in sulfuric acid reboilers are corrosion free where the temperature of the heating medium does not exceed approximately 350 F. Tantalum may suffer hydrogen embrittlement when placed in direct contact with other materials, such as lead or carbon in the concentrator. This will usually result in a portion of the tube being very brittle and breaking. Vibration of the tubes may cause either fretting corrosion or fatigue.

The shell of sulfuric acid coolers are generally constructed on the same order as the concentrators. Lead cooling coils are used at the higher temperatures and exhibit general thinning. Cast iron and carbon may also be used for this service.Pumps and valves for the hot concentrated acids are made from high silicon cast iron, Hastelloy D, or carbon. The high silicon cast iron and the carbon exhibit poor physical properties, but do not corrode. Hastelloy D is attacked in the same manner as described for the heating elements. Where velocities are in excess of 4 ft per second and the temperature is below 150 F in locations such as pumps and valves, Alloy 20 stainless steel is often used. The corrosion resistance of this material varies with the degree of heat treatment, and deep intergranular etching may be found on all surfaces exposed to the acid as shown in fig.22; however this condition is not usually serious.

2.2.9 Phenol Phenol is used in refinery operations in the manufacturer of lubricating oils and aromatic


hydrocarbons because of its affinity for naphthenes and aromatic hydrocarbons. A phenoltreating unit usually consists of three sections: treating, dephenolizing, and phenol recovery.

The treating section, where the feed is contacted with the phenol, operates at temperatures below 400 F. Carbon steel resists attack in this section provided that water is not present.

The dephenolizing section, which processes the lubricating stock-phenol mixture from the treating section, separates the phenol from the treated oil. No corrosion of carbon steel occurs in this section.

The phenol recovery sections processes spent phenol from the treating section and removes the extract. Although experience indicates that each piece of equipment in this section may have a completely different corrosion history during different periods of operation, corrosion on carbon steel is generally slight. The corrosion is very erratic however; and when it occurs may be severe as 0.12 in per year especially in turbulent high velocity service. Above 400 F carbon steel may corrode rapidly in phenol service. In both liquid and vapor phases. Very little corrosion occurs on copper-alloy heat exchanger and condenser tubes.

2.2.10 Phosphoric Acid :

Phosphoric acid is used as a catalyst in polymerization units either in liquid form or as the pentoxide deposited to contact the acid severe corrosion of carbon steel, either of the general or pitting type or both may occur. Corrosion rates increase with increasing temperature. Corrosion is usually found in dead spots in the equipment where circulation does not occur or is restricted. Such locations include piping manifolds, the bottom of kettle-type reboilers, welds without full penetration and parts of exchangers where there is sufficient residence time to permit the settling

of the acid particles. Contaminants such as chlorides may act as accelerators and increase the normal phosphoric acid corrosion.

Unless water in an amount above that required for hydration is present, corrosion is very rare. Most corrosion probably occurs during water-washing operations at shutdowns. Corrosion directly attributable to excess water can penetrate a ¼-in-thick steel tube in approximately 8 hours. Fig.23 shows a severely corroded exchanger tube. The copper-base alloys are not attacked in this service. Hastelloy B is unaffected by phosphoric acid.

2.2.11 Caustic – Sodium Hydroxide:

Sodium hydroxide is widely used in refinery operations for the neutralization of acid components and for grease manufacture. This material at atmospheric temperature is noncorrosive and can be handled satisfactorily in carbon steel equipment. Carbon steel


equipment that is not stress-relived is subject to stress corrosion cracking due to caustic when the temperature obtained through the use of the following formula:

Ts = 170 - oBe Where


= Stream temperature, in degree Fahrenheit

Be = density of the caustic water solution, in degrees Baume.

This type of attack is discussed in more detail elsewhere in this section.

Where caustic is

encountered at temperature greater than 200 F, it will also cause general corrosion of carbon steel. The 18 chromium, 8 nickel stainless steel, Type 304, is subject to stress corrosion cracking in or adjacent to welds or at other points of high stress concentration at temperatures over approximately 400 F. Monel and nickel are resistant to attack even at temperature in excess of 400 F, provided the content of sulfur compounds is low.



Mercury is sometimes used in instruments in a refinery. Occasionally, it may be forced into the operating equipment through some malfunction of the instrument and will cause stress corrosion cracking of monel and copper-base alloys. This type of attack is discussed in more detail

elsewhere in this section. Mercury is also extremely corrosive to aluminum.



Ammonia is used in the refining industry as a refrigerant and for the neutralization of acidic components in such locations as the overhead streams from pipe stills and catalytic cracking units.

Where this material is permitted to contact copper-base alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 and above, severe corrosion in the form of general metal loss and stress corrosion cracking will occur. The general attack may be identified by the appearance of a blue salt. Ammonia attack of copper-alloy equipment may result in severe fouling. An example of this could be a leaking safety valve in ammonia service discharging to a blowdown system serving other safety valves. If copper-base alloys are used in other safety valves in the same system, they may become inoperable as a result of fouling from corrosion products.


Chlorine :

Chlorine is used in refinery operations to treat cooling-tower water, for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite for treating oils, and in special processes. For services in which no water is present, corrosion of carbon steel is slight. Where small amounts of moisture come


in contact with chlorine, it becomes very corrosive, except on materials such as Hastelloy C, titanium, zirconium, rubber, polyvinyl chloride, saran, or other nonmetallic.

Where sodium hypochlorite is being manufactured, the point where chlorine and caustic are mixed will suffer severe corrosion unless constructed of one of the materials listed in the foregoing paragraph. In other parts of the system, corrosion may be erratic, varying from nil to rates of more than 1 in. per year.

2.2.15 Aluminium Chloride :

Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in isomerization units and exhibits little corrosion as long as no water is present. In the presence of water it hydrolyzes, forming hydrochloric acid, and severe corrosion of corrosion of carbon steel by pitting may occur. Austenitic stainless steels in a wet system handling these materials will suffer severe intergranular and stress corrosion cracking.

In isomerization units the most corrosive environment is the molten aluminum chloride salt. In areas of high velocity, nickel corroded at rates up to 0.05 in. per year. Hastelloy B has been found to be resistant to corrosion except around cold-worked or unannealed welds where stress corrosion cracking occurs in the weld and heat-affected zones or stressed areas. Failures of this nature occur rapidly in strip lining, but piping in the as-welded condition is normally useful for 5 to 10 years before failures occur in welds. Since welding is difficult with coated electrodes and only

satisfactory when TIG welded in the down-hand position, original weld flaws such as microfissures, probably contribute most to the failures. Both cold working and stresses contribute to failure by stress corrosion cracking.

Hastelloy overlays on steel appear satisfactory. Nickel overlays are normally attacked rapidly because of the iron dilution.

Hastelloy D in the as-cast or as-welded condition renders a useful life of several a years for any wearing parts in this service.


2.3.1 Refinery Atmospheres :

Inasmuch as carbon steel is the most common material of construction for refinery equipment, the discussion of atmospheric corrosion will be limited to this material. When metals such as iron or steel are exposed to the atmosphere they will corrode because of the presence of water and oxygen. It has been shown that below 60 percent humidity corrosion of iron and steel is negligible and the lower the amount of oxygen absorbed in the water the lower the corrosion rate.


The normal rate of atmospheric corrosion of unpainted steel in rural atmospheres is low; it ranges from 0.00097 to 0.00734 in. per year. However in some atmospheres it corrodes much more rapidly, and a corosion rate of 0.05 in.per year is common. The rate of corrosion is also

accelerated at any break in a protective coating. At such breaks, deep pits will form and the steel will corrode at even greater rates because the base steel at the break will form a galvanic cell, the steel acting as the anode and an oxide acting as a cathode. Fig. 24 illustrates the accelerating effect

of breaks in a protective coating. There are usually certain areas that are subjected to accelerated corrosion. Equipment located adjacent to boiler or furnace stacks is subjected to corrosive gases, such as sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. These gases, when dissolved in water, form acids. Thus dew from water vapor in the flue which acts as an electrolyte. In addition, chlorides, hydrogen

sulfide, cinders, fly ash, and chemical dusts are also present in industrial atmospheres and may act in a like manner.

Corrosion rates of galvanized iron and aluminum in refineries vary greatly, depending on the location. In some locations galvanized iron fencing has a life of from 5 to 10 years, and

penetration of aluminum weather coating has occurred in 2 years. If these materials are used together or with more noble metals, such as steels, without being electrically insulated from each other, severe galvanic corrosion may result.

2.3.2 Discussion of Specific Problems:

Although atmospheric corrosion in the refining industry is ordinarily not as important from a safety standpoint as the other types of corrosion discussed, it is costly and is often overlooked. The following paragraphs discuss specific examples of atmospheric corrosion.

a. Corrosion Beneath Insulation and under fireproofing: Cracks in insulation allow moisture to penetrate to the steel, and hidden corrosion takes place. This occurs in vessels and piping operating below approximately 250 F, and is often very severe in refrigeration systems. Cracks in fireproofing concrete, particularly at the top where the concrete ends, also allow moisture to penetrate to the steel cause hidden corrosion.

If stainless steel is insulated, an inhibited insulation or one with very low content of water soluble chloride insulation material should be used to prevent stress corrosion cracking. Coatings may be useful especially in seacoast areas where the chloride can come from the air rather than from the insulation.

b. Corrosion of Pipelines : The installation of pipelines directly on the ground leads to severe corrosion on the bottom of the lines because of dampness. Fig. 27 and 28 illustrate the damging effects on pipelines laid directly on the ground. If grass or weeds are allowed to grow beneath and around pipelines, the pipe will remain damp for long periods and corrode. Lines laid directly on supports or hung by clamps often corrode at the point of support because of crevice corrosion. II.22

c. Corrosion of structures: Structures that provide crevices where water may enter and remain for long periods may suffer severe corrosion. Examples of such construction are structural members placed back to back, and platforms installed close to the tops of towers or drums. Structures located near furnace stacks or near cooling towers are particularly susceptible to this type of attack.

d. Cooling water corrosion: Many engineers concentrate their corrosion protection efforts on this process side of a refinery unit and do not concern themselves as much as they should with corrosion resulting from the use of cooling water. Equipment failure, downtime, and production loss caused by cooling water can be very costly.

The selection of neutralizers, chemicals for control of living microorganisms and scale, and the use of corrosion inhibitors depends upon the type of cooling system, once through or recirculating, and the composition of the water. The economics of selection of proper treatment are generally minor compared with the savings that can be realized. The equipment construction materials exposed to cooling water must be carefully considered at all times along with any treatment of the waters.

Neutralization of water to proper pH level is essential for corrosion and carbonate scale control: generally sulfuric acid, caustic or soda ash are used. Hardness carbon dioxide and oxygen contents and alkalinity of the cooling water are important considerations. Living microorganisms in the cooling water are generally controlled by the use of chlorination or nonoxidizing biocides.

The most widely use corrosion inhibitors for cooling water systems are the polyphosphates, silicates, chromate nitrites and a combination of these chemicals with metallic anions. Sodium chromate or nitrite inhibitors in about 8 pH water are very effective if scaling is not a problem. However, these chemicals are generally restricted to closed-water systems where leakage is nil and blowdown to disposal is unnecessary. Chromates and nitrites can be toxic when discharged in significant volume.

In most treated cooling water system steel tubes, pipe or cast or wrought iron parts can be used if water velocities can be kept above 5 ft per second. Otherwise, inhibited admiralty tubes with water velocity below 10 ft per second have been found more effective if tube sheets are of copper alloy. In some systems aluminum bundles have been found to be effective.

Economic condenser tube materials for brackish or seawater are special problem, and velocity is an important consideration. Cupro-nickel is widely used. Aluminum brasss, monel, and stainless steels have had variable performances. The stainless steels can be subject to severe pitting and stress corrosion cracking. For piping, plastics and cement lining should be considered.


Wherever carbon steel is used and severe corrosion is encountered, properly applied coatings and cathodic protection may be used to extend equipment life.



Introduction : Chemical elements that have little or no effect on metals and alloys at atmospheric temperatures may become extremely corrosive at high temperatures, resulting in severe scaling, cracking disintegration, brittleness or weakness. Oxygen for example which has relatively little or no effect on steel at atmospheric temperatures can become extremely destructive at high temperatures where it unites with iron to change what was once steel into a weak, brittle mass of iron oxide. A discussion of the role of some of the more potent materials causing corrosion at high temperatures is presented in this section.

2.1.1 Oxygen :

Oxygen reacts with steel high temperatures to cause scaling. In petroleum refining the oxygen encountered is usually that in the surrounding air. A severely scaled carbon-steel heater tube is

shown in fig. 31. Oxidation in air increases with increasing metal temperatures and decreases with increasing chromium content of the metal. Maximum metal temperature for low oxidation rates is given in the following tabulation. Above these temperatures oxidation becomes appreciable.


Temperature ( Degrees Fahrenheit )

Carbon steel Carbon-molybdynum steel ½ Carbon-molybdenum steel 11/4 percent chromium steel 1 percent chromium steel 21/4 percent chromium steel 2 percent choromium steel 5 percent choromium steel 7 percent choromium steel 9 percent choromium steel 12 percent choromium steel 18 chromium -8 nickel steel 25 chromium-12 nickel steel 25 choromium-20 nickel steel 1,075 1,100

1,050 1,050

1,150 1,175 1,175 1,200 1,250 1,500 1,500 1,600 2,000 2,100

Oxygen at high temperatures reacts with nickel alloys to cause scaling. Spalling, which depends on the expansion characteristics and composition of the oxide formed, and on


temperature changes, accelerates oxidation of nickel alloys.

The temperature above which

oxidation in sulfur-free air becomes significant is given in the following tabulation for nickel and some of the common nickel alloys.


Temperature ( Degrees Fahrenheit )

Nickel Monel Onconel Incoloy Hastelloy A,B,D Hastelloy C Hastelloy X

1,900 1,000 2,000 2,000 1,400 1,800 2,000 +

Attack of copper and its alloys by oxygen is seldom a problem in refineries because these materials are not used where operating temperatures exceed 700 F. At considerably higher temperatures,

such as might be encountered in fires, copper may be attacked by oxygen, with considerable scaling.

Like copper attack, oxygen attack of aluminum and its alloys is seldom a problem because these materials are not ordinarily used where operating temperatures exceed 400 F. Aluminum and its alloys are highly resistant to attack by dry air. This resistance is the result of the formation of a protective film composed of aluminum oxide. Above 700 F the presence of water vapor in air leads to internal oxidation particularly in those aluminum alloys containing appreciable amounts of magnesium. The presence of small amounts of sulfur dioxide increases and appreciable amounts of carbon dioxide increases, and appreciable amount of carbon dioxide inhibit this form of attack.

2.4.2 High-Temperature Steam :

Steam at high temperatures may be decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen and the free oxygen may cause severe scaling of steel, which in turn will cause reduction of cross section and ultimate failure. The rate of scaling increases with steam temperature while steam Pressure seems to have little effect. In general, the steam temperature at which scaling becomes significant increases with increasing chromium content of the metal. Above the metal temperatures given in the following tabulation, scaling may become appreciable.



Temperature ( Degrees Fahrenheit )

Carbon steel Carbon-molybdenum steel ½ percent chromium steel 11/4 percent choromium steel 2 percent chromium steel 21/4 percent chromium steel 3 percent choromium steel 5 percent choromium steel 7 percent choromium steel 9 percent choromium steel 1100 1125 1050

950 975 1000


1150 1175 1200

The austenstic chromium nickel stainless steels resist steam oxidation to even higher temperatures, but as a result of their limited use in steam service, actual limiting temperatures are not available. The resistance of these austenitic steels to steam oxidation probably approaches to within 50 F or

100 F the maximum temperature to which good resistance to oxidation in air is obtained with them.

In general, where scaling is a problem, fluctuating temperatures increase the rate. A coating of scale often has some protective effect; it reduces the scaling rate after the initial period. However, on cooling or heating the scaled metal, differential contraction or expansion of scale and metal may cause spalling, thereby exposing the underlying metal to fresh attack. Alternating oxidizing and reducing conditions can also increase the rate of loss.

Above certain limiting temperatures steam may cause embrittlement of nickel and its alloys intergranular oxidation. In the following tabulation are listed the maximum steam temperatures at which use of high nickel materials are suitable.


Temperature ( Degrees Fahrenheit )

Nickel Monel Inconel 600 Incoloy 800 Hastelloys

800 700 to 800 1800 1800 no information

Steam is not damaging to aluminium and its alloys at temperature up to 350 F to 500 F. Above this temperature range, steam may attack aluminium and its alloys to form aluminum oxide and hydrogen.

II.26 Copper and its alloys are seldom used in steam service at temperatures above 560 F because their mechanical properties diminish markedly above these temperatures. Although steam attack can occur at high temperatures, it has no practical significance.

2.4.3 Vanadium Oxide :

Vanadium exists in some fuels such as the residual fuels derived from certain crude oils, and oxidizes to vanadium pentoxide when the fuel is burned. This oxide, or complex mixture of vanadium oxides and sodium sulfate, precipitates and forms a low-melting flux that prevents protective oxides from forming on steel parts of furnaces, gas, turbines, and the like and promotes accelerated oxidation attack. Apparently these compounds react directly with the steel in some manner, while atmospheric oxygen serves to regenerate the vanadium oxide.

Studies of the subject indicate that vanadium corrosion does not take place below approximately 1,100 F. This is because vanadium pentoxide compounds must be molten in order to cause the reaction. Although pure vanadium pentoxide melts at a temperature some-what above 1,100 F, other substances in the fuel-oil ash, such as sodium compounds and sulfur oxides, unite with the vanadium pentoxide and lower the melting point considerably. The molten vanadium pentoxide

forms a slag with steel. The molten slag runs off and exposes fresh metal to attack.


action of fuel-oilsash increases sharply with increasing temperature and vanadium content. Under the proper condition’s few, if any, of the steels seems to be immune to this type of attack than other alloys.

Firing conditions in the firebox can be critical as they can greatly affect the temperature of the tubes and tube supports. Poor flame patterns can result in high metal temperatures and hence high corrosion rates.

Combustion with low excess air also offers a means of reducing vanadium corrosion. With very low excess air levels, formation of sulfur trioxide in the firebox is minimized, and the resultant vanadium-sodium complexes are less corrosive.

A considerable amount of study has been devoted to this problem. Should a vanadium oxide corrosion problem be encountered, the current literature should be consulted for the latest information. The API has been very active in support of these studies.

2.4.4 Effect of Sulfur Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide:

The presence of sulfur dioxide at high temperatures as in furnace gases increases the rate of scaling of steel through formation of a low melting point iron oxide iron sulfur compound. Hydrogen sulfide has a similar effect in increasing scaling rates.

The sodium combines to form low-melting sodium sulfate and the corrosion rate from

II.27 hydrogen, sulfide or sulfur dioxide appears to increase. Actually, the increase comes with increased salt. Practical observations indicate that the higher the chromium content of the steel, the more severe the sulfur conditions that can be tolerated.

Sulfur in any form has a very detrimental effect on nickel and high nickel alloys. Sulfur reacts along grain boundaries of nickel alloys to form a low melting nickel-nickel sulfide mixture, which causes brittleness. At temperatures above approximately 1,190 F this mixture being molten penetrates the grain boundaries and leads to disintegration of the metal.

At about 2,000 F or lower temperatures if stainless steel is sensitized sulfur corrosion of the austenitic stainless steels takes the form of intergranular penetration. This can result in a serious loss of strength if the metal is being subjected to tensile loading.

In oxidizing atmospheres the nickel sulfide is converted to nickel oxide which is a semiprotective oxide surface layer. In reducing atmospheres however the formation of sulfide is cumulative and attack is more severe.

Additions of chromium, iron, and manganese to nickel alloys increase resistance to sulfur attack; in order to prevent or minimize it as service temperatures increase the chromium content of the alloy is increased and the nickel content decreased.

The Nickel materials are unsuitable for use in sulfurous atmospheres much above the maximum temperatures given in the following tabulation.

Temperature ( Degrees Fahrenheit )

Oxidizing Material Atmosphere

Reducing Atmosphere

Nickel Monel Inconel 600 Incoloy 800 Hastelloys B,C Hastelloy X

600 600 1500 About 1950 F Near 2000 F 2000 F

500 500 1000 ....

Sulfur embrittlement of nickel and its alloys in the refinery may occur in equipment operating at high temperatures where a sulfur-containing process stream is being handled.

Nickel and high nickel alloys when heated in atmospheres that fluctuate between oxidizing and reducing, suffer severe intergranular attack with resulting embrittlement even though the atmosphere is sulfur free. II.28

Embrittlement of nickel and high nickel alloys such as monel and the Hastelloy often occurs during welding. Not only sulfur, but also lead, phosphorus, and some low melting metals and alloy react with nickel bearing materials at the high temperatures encountered during welding. Grease, oil, machining lubricants, paint, marking crayons, pipe thread dope, soap dirt and residues from process streams may contain one or more of the undesirable substances.

At temperatures for which copper alloys are employed in refinery service, they are resistant to attack by sulfur gases.

Aluminum and its alloys are highly resistant to attack by sulfur gases.

2.4.5 The effect of Hot Corrosive Gases On Cast Iron :

At temperatures above 800 F all gray cast irons begin to deteriorate, resulting in extreme brittleness, loss of strength, scaling, and growth results in a permanent increase in size. The same hot gases that cause scaling of steels of course cause general scaling and it results in a general wasting away.

Growth of cast irons results both from Graphitization and from infiltration of corrosive gases into the structure. Graphitization is discussed elsewhere in this chapter. The infiltration of corrosive gases apparently causes some internal scaling accompanied by swelling. Such castings are weak, misshapen, and brittle. Some have been known to increase 50 percent in volume. The amount of growth is ordinarily proportional to the maximum temperature reached and to the number of heating. Growth may be found in burner and other furnace parts and under unusual conditions, in compressor pistons.

Irons most resistant to growth are those with stable carbides and close grain structure with low total carbon. For this reason low-carbon iron with 0.30 to 1.00 percent of chromium are much more resistant to growth than unalloyed gray irons. The addition of more than 1 percent of chromium produces substantial improvement in oxidation resistance. Irons containing 1 percent of chromium have been used at temperatures up to 1,400 F and irons with 35 percent of chromium have not been harmed by repeated short periods at temperatures as high as 2100 F.

The austenitic cast irons containing 14 percent or more of nickel approximately 5 percent of copper and 1to 54 percent of chromium that is Ni-Resist-show good resistance to growth and oxidation up to 1,500 F.



Introduction : There are a number of corrosion phenomena that are rather unique in that


they occur only under certain conditions, or only in certain or groups of metals. The more important corrosion phenomena of this type are discussed in the following paragraphs.


Intergranular Corrosion :

When austenitic steels are heated in the temperature range of 750 F to 1650 F or cooled through this range, a complex carbide precipitates along the grain boundaried to form an envelope around the grains. Although carbide precipitation in itself is not particularly harmful, steels in this condition are susceptible to intergranular corrosion by relatively mild corrodents, especially the corrodents containing chlorine fluorine or iodine. Examples of Intergranular corrosion had shown in Fig.32 and 33.

2.5.2 Graphitic Corrosion of cast Iron :

Graphitic corrosion of cast irons, sometimes unfortunately called ―Graphitization‖ should not be confused with Graphitization as discussed elsewhere in this chapter. Graphitic corrosion is low-

temperature corrosion of gray cast irons in which metallic iron is converted into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact. This condition results in a porous structure loss of density and extremely low strength, but there is no outward appearance of any damage. This type of attack occurs in very dilute acid streams, salt waters or in soils particularly those containing sulfates. Graphitic corrosion has been found in distillation tower internals such as trays and bell caps.


Stress Corrosion Cracking :

Stress corrosion cracking is the spontaneous failure of metals by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and tensile stress. The corrodent is, of course, some substance in the environment. Stress may be residual or applied. Residual stresses result from fabrication operations such as bending and welding and from unequal heating and cooling of a structure. Applied stresses are the working stresses that result from internal pressure or loading of a structure. In general residual stresses, which may be of extremely high magnitude in localized areas, are of more importance than applied stress in causing stress corrosion cracking, particularly in view of the factor of safety used in determining working stresses. However, applied stresses in corners or where stress raisers occur may be of considerable magnitude.

The mechanism of stress corrosion cracking is not clearly understood and is the subject of many debates, with various theories being offered. It has been noticed, however, that cracking seldom occurs where general corrosion is more than slight. More often than not there is no measurable general corrosion. This leads to the belief that corrosion resulting in stress corrosion cracking is highly concentrated in a minute area and produces an extremely sharp notch. concentrator leads to cracking under tensile stress. If the initial This stress


cracking does not proceed through the section, the cycle may be repeated until failure is complete.

In addition to a corrodent and stress, there is a third factor in stress corrosion cracking—time. The time required for cracking to occur may vary from minutes to years and depends on the combination of stress level, corrodent and corrodent strength, and the metal or alloy involved.

The most active media in producing stress corrosion cracking in the austenitic stainless steels are aqueous acid chloride solutions existing with oils below the water solution dew point. Even low chloride-ion concentrations of a few parts per million can produce cracking under the proper conditions. Particularly when the salt water can be concentrated by boiling or evaporation. For this reason, atmospheric condensation may cause failures of this type. The tendency to crack increases with increasing temperature if stress remains constant.

Stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the support attachment areas in catalyst-recovery equipment of fluid catalytic cracking units, in entrainment screens and pressure vessel shells of phenol-treating units, and in the parts of instruments installed inside pipe still pressure vessels. Similar cracking may occur in any other service where even small concentrations of chlorides are present.

Stress corrosion cracking has also been experienced in austenitic stainless steel vessels handling caustic solutions in the temperature range of 400 to 450 F. the range of corrodent concentrations, temperatures and pressure causing stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels is wide, and the limits are unknown.

Stress corrosion cracking in the austenitic stainless steels may, at times, be difficult to distinguish from intergranular, corrosion because both types of attack may be related in that intergranular corrosion may provide points of stress concentration at which cracking does not, however depend on the precipitation of carbides, and may occur with or without their presence.

The only positive way to distinguish between intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion is by microscopic examination. Chloride stress corrosion cracks in austenitic alloys are usually transgranular and branching, while intergranular corrosion follows the grain boundaries.

In general, nickel and nickel alloys show good resistance to stress corrosion cracking. Fused caustic solutions, and perhaps-other very hot, highly concentrated solutions, may cause cracking of highly stressed nickel, monel, and Inconel.

In addition, monel only is subject to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of metallic mercury or mercury compounds.


Stress corrosion cracks in nickel and nickel alloys are usually intergranular.

Stress corrosion cracking of the copper alloys is nearly always the result of the combined action of three substances: ammonia or ammonia-producing material Water; and oxygen. Cracking of copper alloys occurs in pipe still overhead equipment, particularly in condenser bolting and tubing, as a result of improper control of ammonia injection rates. Cracking seldom occurs at pH values less than 8; therefore, efforts are normally made to control ammonia injection rates so as to maintain a pH of 5 to 7. Stress corrosion cracking of copper-alloy overhead equipment can occur in a matter of minutes or hours when ammonia injection rates are excessive.

Stress corrosion cracking of copper alloys may be accompanied by some general corrosion. The corrosion products that form are frequently dark blue, black, or dark brown, and only a small amount of metal is corroded.

Mercury and mercury salts are very potent in producing stress corrosion cracking in copper alloys. Mercury, in particular, may cause destruction of refinery equipment because it is occasionally introduced into process streams from broken instruments.

Stress corrosion cracks in copper alloys may be either intergranular or transgranular.

Pure aluminum is very resistant to stress corrosion cracking but aluminum alloys containing copper, magnesium, and zinc are susceptible to cracking under mild corrosive conditions or in contact with mercury or molten solder. Stress corrosion cracks in aluminum alloys are usually intergranular.

Stress corrosion cracks in aluminum alloys are usually intergranular.

2.5.4 Polythionic Acid Corrosion :

This corrosive is normally found during shutdowns as a result of the reaction of iron sulfide scale with oxygen and water. The oxidation of the sulfide forms acids of a family with a formulation H2SxOY. Notice that sulfur dioxide in water also falls within this category. The acids attack sensitized stainless steel in the grain boundaries. Under stress, the failure is very much like the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel in that much of the failure is intergranular and slightly branched.

This corrosion is treated separately because of its relative newness following the investigation of hydrogen sulfide corrosion whose rapid corrosion forced the use of stainless steels and Incoloy into a service that was susceptible to polythionic acid corrosion. Since the employment of stainless steel in light hydrosulfurizers, many recognized failures occurred during or immediately after shutdowns . Heavier oil units that previously required stainless


steel probably protected the metal surface with an oil film in most cases so that moisture did not reach the scale. Protection of stainless steel is attempted by keeping the environment alkaline during downtime by washing with a soda ash solution or ammonia. Elimination of air from surfaces will also protect the stainless steels.

To avoid sensitization piping and furnace tubes of stabilized austenitic alloys ( Type 321 or 347 )and low carbon grades ( type 304 L or 316 L) have been either used or tested. Most of the service failures reported have been in furnace tubes or exchanger tubes , the next most frequent have been in thermowells and liners. Piping failure have been rara probably because of lower stresses and fewer areas of sensitization unless included in a regeneration cycle.

Investigations have shown that stabilization with alloy or use of low carbon grades does not necessarily provide long-time stabilization. The time-temperature sensitization performances

developed using a Wachenroder solution or sulfur dioxide in water are similar to or developed from other tests of sensitization. Thus welding alone may not leave any or only a small amount of sensitized metal if time at temperatures in the 1,000 F to 1,300 F range is not sufficiently long. Long exposure at these temperatures will sensitize the alloy, but will ultimately leave it stabilized. Lower temperatures, particularly near 850 F to 900 F, will make the alloy most susceptible to attack and failure thus most furnace tubes can be susceptible to failure after being in long service regardless of alloying.

At present the results of investigations on castings show that ferrite in stainless alloys adds to the resistance to stress corrosion cracking. In some cases cracking was eliminated in the ferrite containing stainless so that thi9s material looks promising in a service where polythonic acid could be expected. At the time of this writing there, are some field applications and no reported failures during this short period. However, the presence of large amounts of ferrite in austenitic stainless steels, followed by operation at a temperature over 800 F can lead to embrittlement.


Dezincification :

Dezincification is a type of corrosion that can occur in copper-zinc alloys (brasses) containing less than 85 percent of copper when used in water service. Zinc is lost from the brass and leaves as a residue, or by a process of re-deposition, a porous zinc-free mass of copper having very little mechanical strength. Dezincification may be one of three types; plug, layer, or intercrystalline.

Plug-type dezincification occurs in localized areas. If the brass can be bent, the porous plugs of copper will pop out, leaving pits. Plug-type dezincification may be associated with white, brown, tan, or other colors of tubercles, caps, or flakes of corrosion products that form directly over the plugs has a radish appearance.


Layer-type dezincification covers larger areas.

The copper layer has a rounded, nodular

appearance and is adjacent to the brass surface. Thick layer of copper may build up in time and may be peeled from the brass, leaving an irregular surface. This type of dezincification may also be associated with the formation of colored corrosion products.

Intercrystalline dezincification occurs along the grain boundaries of the brass. In this type of dezincification the metal is weakened as a result of the brittleness of the intercrystalline deposit of copper.

Dezincification is most likely to occur in non-scale-forming fresh or salt waters. An increase in temperature accelerates the rate of dezincification.

Red brass, with 85 percent of copper, resists dezincification;brasses with less than 85 percent of copper, such as Muntz, naval brass, and admiralty brass, may be attacked. Many of the brasses used in modern refineries are alloyed with arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus. Such brasses are called ―inhibited brasses‖ because alloying with arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus inhibits dezincification.

Other ―dealloying‖ attacks such as removal of aluminum and nickel selectively from their alloys are less frequently encountered.


Much corrosion is the result of electrochemical action. The term ―galvanic corrosion‖ is used to describe a much accelerated electrochemical type of corrosion that occurs when two different metals are electrically connected, either by direct contact or by an electrical conductor, and are in contact with an electrically conductive solution called an ―electrolyte‖. Probably the most

common example of this is the ordinary wet or dry cell battery are electrically connected, current flows and the anode (positive plate) corrodes rapidly. This is essentially what happens in

operating units when metals having a considerable difference in potential are permitted to contact each other in electrolytes such as salt water or acidic solutions. Table 1 indicates, by the

groupings, which materials can be coupled without experiencing corrosion. Metals from different groups of the table have significant differences of potential. The farther apart the materials appear in the table, the greater the corrosion rate of the corroded (anodic) end.

The relative position of a metal within a group sometimes changes with external conditions, but seldom does a metal change from group to group. It will be seen that several materials appear in two places in the table. The exact position is determined primarily by the oxidizing power and acidity of the electrolyte and by the presence of activating ions, such as chlorides.


Table 1, or any similar table of the electromotive series, indicates only the tendency to set up galvanic Corrosion. This actual amount of corrosion is determined by the ease with which current can flow and by how many current flows. These factors are generally controlled by the following five considerations:

TABLE 1 – Galvanic series of Refinery Metals and Alloys

(Metals and alloys progress from the anodic, or least noble, to the cathodic, or most noble.)

corroded end (anodic or least noble)

| Magnesium | Magnesium alloys

| Nickel (active ) | Inconel (Active)


| Hastelloy A | Chlorimet 2

Aluminum 1,100

| Hastelloy B


| Brasses | Copper

Aluminum 2,017

| Bronzes

| Steel or iron | Cast iron

| Copper-nickel alloys | Monel

13 percent chromium iron (active)

| Sliver solder

| Ni-Resist

| Nickel (passive) | Inconel (passive)

| 18-8 Stainless (active) | 18-8-3 Stainless (Active)

| Chromium iron (passive) | 18-8 Stainless (passive) | 18-8-3 Stainless (passive)

| Chlorimet 3 | Hastelloy C Silver

| Lead-tin solders | Lead

| Graphite | Gold

| Tin

| Platinum

Protected end (cathodic or most noble) II.35


Potential Between the Anode and Cathode:

This is based primarily on the electromotive series, as indicated in Table 1.


Conductivity of the Circuit :

The resistance of any metals in the circuit as well as the resistance of the electrolyte affects the conductivity of the circuit. The resistance’s of films that occur at every surface are particularly important and frequently determine whether or not corrosion will progress.



This is the change in potential, which occurs when the galvanic current starts flowing. Polarization tends to reduce the potential and thus reduce the amount of corrosion.


Relative Cathode and Anode Areas:

Inasmuch as the anodic area is the area which corrodes, it is desirable to have it large, compared to the cathodic area. This has the effect of spreading the total corrosion over a large area. For example, the use of a carbon-steel pipe nipple in a monel vessel could lead to very rapid failure of the carbon steel, whereas a monel nipple in a steel tower would probably not present a problem.


Geometrical Relationship of Dissimilar Metal Surfaces:

This can affect the areas that receive the most protection or that experience the greatest corrosion. Inasmuch as the galvanic current takes the shortest path through the electrolyte, if an undesirable couple cannot be avoided, its effect can often be minimized by proper location of the anodic material.

A Study of galvanic corrosion leads to certain basic rules that will help prevent trouble. Following are some of these rules that can serve as a guide in corrosion work.

1. Select combinations of metals as close together as possible in the galvanic series given in Table 1

2. Avoid making combinations where the area of the less noble material is relatively small. It is good practice to use the more noble metals for fastenings or other small parts in equipment that is built largely of less resistant material.

3. Insulate dissimilar metals wherever practical. If complete insulation cannot be achieved, materials such as paint or plastic coatings at joints will help to increase the resistance of the circuit. II.36 4. Apply coatings with caution. For example, do not paint the less noble material without also coating the more noble, otherwise greatly accelerated attack may be concentrated at imperfections in coatings on the less noble metal. Keep such coatings in good repair.

5. In cases where the metals cannot be painted and are connected by a conductor external to the liquid, increase the electrical resistance of the liquid path by designing the equipment to keep the metals as far apart as possible.

6. If practical, add suitable chemical inhibitors to the corrosive solution.

7. If dissimilar materials well apart in the series must be used, avoid joining them by threaded connections, as the threads will probably deteriorate excessively. Brazed or welded joints are preferred with the use of filler material more noble than at least one of the metals to be joined.

8. In possible, install relatively small replaceable sections of the less noble materials at joints, and increase its thickness in such regions. For example, extra-heavy wall nipples can often be used in piping, or replaceable pieces of the less noble material can be attached in the vicinity of the galvanic contact.

9. Install pieces (sacrificial anodes of bare zinc, magnesium, or steel so as to provide a counteracting effect which will suppress galvanic corrosion .

2.5.7 Contact Corrosion

This type of corrosion occurs at the point of contact or in a crevice between a metal and nonmetal or between two pieces of metal in the presence of a corrodent. An electrolytic cell is established because the concentrations of the corrodent inside the crevice and outside are different. A

difference in electrical potential is established, and the resultant current flow causes accelerated attack which often results in pitting.

Contact or crevice corrosion may occur at washers; under barnacles, sand grains, or applied protective films; and at pockets formed by threaded joints. corrosion are shown in Fig.24, 28 and 29. Examples of contact or crevice


Biological Corrosion

Certain primitive living organisms may influence corrosion in one of the following ways; by directly influencing the rate of corrosion; by permitting the development of an environment corrosive to the metal; or by producing electrolytic concentration cells leading to contact or crevice corrosion. Organisms that influence corrosion may be divided into 1, those of microscopic

proportions, such as bacteria, slime and fungi; and, 2. Those of macroscopic


size, such as marine organisms (barnacles, etc.).

The most important microorganisms that directly influence the rate of metallic corrosion are the sulfate reducing bacteria found in many soils. There are many species and stains of these bacteria, but they all have one common characteristic in that they use hydrogen to reduce sulfate contained in the soils. Corrosion of metals always results in the release of hydrogen is not removed in some way, it forms a blanket over the metal and reduces the rate of corrosion. Sulfate-reducing bacteria consume this hydrogen, thus speeding up the rate of corrosion. The reduction of sulfate results in

the formation of hydrogen sulfide; this, in turn, causes further corrosion. This type of biological corrosion may result in severe pitting of underground pipelines and other equipment. Local colonies of sulfate-reducing bacteria may develop at small isolated points on the surface of a buried pipe where organic debris has been included in the backfill. Control of such bacterial corrosion can be accomplished by keeping the pH of the environment above 9.0 by electrical (cathodic) or chemical means.

The most important microorganisms that permit the development of corrosive environments are the bacteria that thave the power of changing sulfuir or sulfur compounds into strongly corrosive sulfuric acid. Corrosion by sulfuric acid is discussed earlier in this chapter.

The damaging effect of microorganisms, such as slimes and fungi, and microorganisms, such as barnacles, is the formation on the metal surfaces of encrustation’s, with poor adhesion and/or irregular thickness, consisting of living and dead organisms that lead to contact or crevice corrosion. This type of corrosion is discussed earlier in this section.


Corrosion Occurrences with Attempts at corrosion control

The inspector should be aware that attempts to control one corrosion problem can causes another if precautions in installation or application are not taken.



Inhibitors under some conditions can cause corrosion. Some have been reported to be corrosive, particularly at the point of injection, if allowed to run down the pipe wall undiluted. Most are known to have the ability to clean a surface of corrosion product. This can cause corrosion, if the amount of the inhibitor added is sufficient to scavenge the corrosion product as it is formed, buit is insufficient to coat the metal surface and retard the corrosion. Also, the use of too little inhibitor can accelerate corrosion by coating only a part of the surface area, thus concentrating all the attack in the uncoated region.

2.6.2 NEUTRALIZATION Ammonia and caustic have been discussed as corrosives. Since they are corrosive in certain


locations and with certain materials, the inspector should be aware that any time they are used for neutralization there is a possibility that copper alloys, aluminum, and the like, can be attacked down-stream unless good neutralization has occurred.

Soda ash is sometimes used for neutralization and water is sometimes used for dilution and removal of dissolved gases such as ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, and salts. If temperatures are high enough to flash the water, plugging can occur from the solids with resultant corrosion-erosion downstream. Occasionally, corrosion has been caused by introduction of both moisture and oxygen into the acid gases in the system.



Cathodic protection is used as an impressed current system or a sacrificial anode system. Both have the ability to destroy protective coatings if the voltage is too high. About – 0.85 v to coppercopper sulfate half-cell is generally induced on the corroded surface so that corrosion of iron can be minimized. An impressed current system naturally has the ability to apply too much potential. Magnesium can also apply too much potential if the corrosion product on the magnesium does not slow down its dissolution or there is too much exposed area. Both zinc and aluminum are incapable of impressing enough potential to destroy a coating. Coatings are used to protect the surface from corrosion. Since some pinholes that exist in the coatings or thin areas are permeable to diffusion of water, cathodic protection system is normally not adequately designed to protect the larger bare area. Coatings are destroyed by high impressed voltage because hydrogen bubbles are formed more rapidly than they can diffuse away and an alkaline environment is also created. As the alkalinity is increased it becomes strong enough to destroy the coating. Certain zinc alloys have been known to reverse the potential in hot water and cause corrosion to accelerate rather than diminish.



2.7.1 Introduction

Erosion is a common form of deterioration of refinery equipment. It is the physical wearing away of vessels, piping, and other equipment by moving streams of liquids or gases and is particularly

severe if solids are also present in the stream. Erosion is generally found in locations where the flow is restricted or its direction changed where a gas stream contains a small amount of solids or liquid, or where there is excessive turbulence. Typical areas are pump cases, valve seats, nozzle necks, condensers, furnace tube inlets, pipefitting, and thermowells. Where a mild corrodents is present, a slight tendency toward erosive conditions may cause severe metal loss because the normal protective metallic oxide film is eroded away, exposing fresh metal to the corrodent. Generally, erosion does not cause rapid deterioration in equipment unless solids are present in the flowing stream.





Solids in flowing fluids

Erosion is frequently a problem in equipment utilizing the fluidized-solids principle. Various linings are employed to protect equipment from erosion. One type of lining consists of heavy carbon-steel wear plates welded directly over the interior surface of the equipment.

(b) High fluid velocities and eddy currents -CAVITATION

Cavitation erosion is associated with the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid at the metalliquid interface. Most frequently affected by cavitation are the suction side of pump impellers and the discharge side of regulating valves. In pumps, cavitation results in a decrease in pump head, capacity, and efficiency, and causes vibration and noise.




3.1.1 Introduction:

Room-temperature physical properties used so frequently in engineering design are based on the elastic properties of metals and alloys. Such designs are generally based on the tensile strength, yield strength, or elastic limit as determined at room temperatures. At ordinary service

temperatures, stresses are normally within the elastic range of the material. Thus no permanent deformation results when the member is loaded.

Once the temperature exceeds a certain level, the elastic properties no longer give a true picture of the behavior. Instead, plastic properties dominate. Under plastic conditions, permanent

deformation occurs, with time, at stresses below the apparent elastic limit defined by the roomtemperature tests. A somewhat similar, although not exactly analogous, phenomenon is the flow of tar under its own weight on a warm day. Creep and stress-rupture data are commonly used to evaluate the high-temperature strength of metals and alloys.

3.1.2 Creep Creep is defined as the flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. Creep strengths are usually depressed as the stress producing a creep rate of 1 percent in either 10,000 hr or 100,000 hr at htre metal temperature. When equipment is being designed for long-time service at high temperatures where applicable deformation cannot be tolerated, current design practice is to use creep valve at the metal temperature expected to exist in service.


3.1.3 Stress rupture

In many high-temperature applications, stresses are selected to ensure a certain service life rather than to limit deformation. In these cases, stress-rupture data are more valuable than creep data. Stress rupture relates the time-to-failure with temperature and stress. Actually, stress-rupture tests are very similar to creep tests except that the loads-and consequently, the creeps rates-are higher and the tests are carried to failure. These data are usually expressed as the stress to cause rupture in 100 hr; 1.000 hr; 10,000 hr; or 100,000 hr at different metal temperatures. However, in many instances the longer time stress rupture data (10,000 and 100,000 hr) valves are extrapolated for shorter time tests. In this application the mode of failure is of particular interest. A stress-rupture

failure is a brittle type of failure. This means that there may be very little, if any, noticeable deformation prior to failure in such instances. Normal visual inspection does not reveal an impending failure. Fortunately, most furnace tubes fail by localized overheating. In these cases such obvious indications as bulging and hot spots give early warnings of failure. API RP 530 has both stresses rupture information and instructions for its use in design and retirement of furnace tubes.

3.1.4 Properties for High Temperature Strength

Temperature and chemistry control during manufacture of metals can affect the grain size of the finished product and the high-temperature properties of the material. Standards (ASME or ASME) for finished products have been revised to include limits on the properties of end products, such as plate, pipe, and the like. Standards, such as ASME Code Case 1325 for Incoloy, include two classes of materials: Class I fine-grained for temperature nearer atmospheric temperature, Class IIcoarse-grained for elevated temperature service. ASTM B 407 cover only classes II for Incoloy. Both creep and stress rupture properties are improved in the coarse-grained materials. The

description as ― coarse-grained ― is used since it is the most available method of determining if material has been solution-annealed. The actual effect on high temperature is that the carbides have been taken into solutions. While this is occurring, grain coarsening generally occurs. The solution annealing increases high-temperature strength of most materials and usually at the expense of high-temperature ductility.



3.2.1 Brittle Fracture

Notch toughness is a property of metals defined as the amount of energy necessary to cause fracture in the presence of a sharp notch or stress concentrator. In general, the tougher the material the more energy required to cause fracture. High-energy requirements indicate a ductile material, and low energy requirements indicate a brittle material. For most metals


and alloys, notch toughness does not change greatly from ambient or intermediate to extremely low temperatures. The ferritic steel is an important exception to this general rule.

The ferritic steels usually have good notch toughness at moderate temperatures; that is they fail a ductile manner with high-energy absorption, even in the presence of a notch. However it is the nature of all feritic steels, especially for thicker sections in rigid structures, that at below a certain temperature, notch toughness suddenly falls to an extremely low level; that is, failure occurs in a brittle manner with low energy absorption. The temperature at which the type of failure changes from ductile to brittle is called the ―transition temperature‖. The transition temperature varies markedly with differences in chemical composition, hardness or strength level, heat treatment,

microstructure, and steel-making practices. Steel with the proper combination of the above factors may have a transition temperature that is satisfactorily low .

It is not the purpose of this chapter to discuss all the factors related to brittle fracture nor to discuss the relative merits of the various commonly used steels. Excellent information can be obtained from the current literature in the use of aluminum-killed steels for grain refinement and of ASTM steels designated specifically for low temperature service.

Important research and development on fracture toughness and fracture-safe design have been undertaken in recent years by the Naval Research Laboratory. Also, the API has long been in the forefront of promoting fracture-safe designs through the use of notch-tough materials. These sources should be contacted for information on brittle fracture. From an inspection standpoint low-temperature properties most of the commonly used pressure vessel steels probably have transition temperatures between 100 F and 40 F. Some steels may have even higher transition temperatures.

Brittle failures unlike most ductile failures occur without warning and the cracks propagate with a loud report at a speed, near that of the speed of sound. Once such a crack starts, it will very likely continue through more than one plate. Lack of warning and the rapid and extensive propagation of cracks account for the fact that such failures are often catastrophic. Fig. 43 shows a serious brittle failure.

For brittle fracture to occur there must be present in addition to susceptible steel operating below its transition-temperature range, a notch or stress concentrator. Such notches are most likely to be present in the form of welding defects. In most pressure vessel failures to date, a welding defect has apparently acted as a stress concentrator to start the failure. However, notches in the form of plate defects: welder’s strikes; cracks resulting from punching, shearing, and other fabrication operations and sharp geometrical changes present in the design have initiated failures in other structures such as ships and bridges.

Some of the brittle failures of tanks and pressure vessels have occurred during hydrostatic or


pneumatic testing. For this reason, it is generally the policy to refrain from testing tanks and vessels while ambient temperatures are low, particularly if the testing medium is also cold. In any case, the test pressure is applied as slowly as practicable in order to avoid sudden increases in stress.

Brittle fracture can be recognized by several characteristics, as follows:

1, cracks propagate at high speed; 2, there may be a loud report or sharp rending sound;

3, there is almost complete lack of ductility; 4, the fractured surface has a brittle or faceted appearance. The fractured surface often has a characteristic ―chevron‖ or ―herringbone‖ appearance, and the apexes of the chevrons or herringbones point to the origin of the fracture.

Of all of the common metals and alloys used in the refinery, only the ferritic steels exhibit lowtemperature brittleness. Some of the ferritic steel, such as SAE Type X1020, the 2 ½ percent and 3 ½ percent nickel steels and several other steels, have quite low transition temperatures. The austenitic chromium-nickel stainless steels and nickel, copper, aluminum, and their alloys maintain ductility down to the lowest temperatures man has been able to produce.




Excessive pressures may be defines as those in excess of the maximum allowable working pressures of the equipment under consideration. When the excess pressure is low, the result may not be serious; but when it is high, the result may be loss of life and property. Therefore, every effort should be made to prevent excessive pressures. Although explosions constitute one type of overpressuring, they are not covered in this discussion. It should be kept in mind, however, that some explosions have been prefaced by what may be considered minor failures, some of which were caused by overpressure equipment.


Causes of excessive Pressures

High pressures may develop in a number of ways, several of which are discussed in the following paragraphs.


Added Heat in Excess of Normal Operation

Excess heat can come from an outside source such as a fire in the area, or it can be the result of upset or abnormal operating conditions. Another cause of excess heat is the failure


of control facilities on the heat-input source, which may allow a higher than normal heat input.

4.4 Blocking Off Against A Pressure Source

As a general rule, all parts of pressure systems are designed for the maximum pressure which can be developed by pumps, compressors, and the like or are protected by pressure-relieving devices. There are some exceptions however such as the exhaust side of steam turblines, which are seldom

designed to withstand high-pressure steam pressure. Blocking off the outlet before closing the inlet may cause failure of the turbine case.


Thermal Expansion of Trapped Liquid :

There is a good possibility of overpressure in heat exchange equipment if the inlet and outlet of the colder liquid are closed before the flow of the hotter liquid is stopped. Long pipelines exposed to sun heat can also be subjected to excess pressures by thermal expansion.


Hydraulic Hammer Or Resonant Vibration :

Hydraulic hammer or resonant vibration can occur with relatively low pressures under conditions that make the results of pressure surges additive. Shuting off long lines may result in failures of fittings or gaskets from hydraulic hammer.


Inadequate Or Defective Vents On Storage Tanks :

Cone –roof tanks are vented to the atmosphere in order to prevent overpressuring. When these vent are undersized, or when they become plugged with ice debris and the like overpressuring may result. The pumping of hot oil into a tank that contains water may result in overpressuring because of the generation of steam. Failure because of external excessive pressure may occur when a vacuum is created in an adequately vented tank , either by pumping out or by condensation of hydrocarbon vapours. Failures caused by the latter sometimes occur when a cold rain suddenly falls on a tank partially filled with a hot hydrocarbon.


Effects of Excessive Pressures

Over pressuring usually causes buckling and bulging of the vessel shell, generally in the area of the shell-to-head joint. If the overpressuring is severe enough, rupture occurs. Such ruptures can be explosive in nature if the vessel contains gaseous fluids. If the vessel is completely full of liquid, ruptures are generally in the nature of leaks because the overpressuring is relieved as soon as a small amount of liquid escapes. If the liquid is


flammable, however, fire is a distinct possibility.

Over pressuring of piping and pumping equipment is a more common occurrence because such equipment is often remotely located and receives less attention than equipment intimately associated with operating units. Furthermore, pipe systems frequently are very complicated and interconnected, and leaky valves may overpressure parts of such system. Overpressing of lines is generally evidenced by gasket leaks, but sometime results in complete casing failure. Fig.46 shows the results of overpressuring a natural-gas line serving a large refinery. A cast-iron booster pump that failed because of overpressure is shown in fig.47 and 48.




Overloads may be defined as loads in excess of the maximum permitted by the design of the equipment under consideration.

Structures and equipment including foundations are normally designed with a factor of safety to carry static loads imposed as well as certain live loads and wind loads. In some cases, a structure or foundation may have been deliberately designed to support the normal, operating load only: therefore it will not be sufficiently strong for the hydrostatic test loading of a vessel or for the hydrostatic test loading of all vessels on a single structure at the same time. The weight of water used in testing is usually greater than the weight of fluids used in petroleum operations. During tests of a tall, vertical vessel, there is the possibility of overloading the bottom head if the weight of water is not considered in test pressures gaged at the vessel top.

Overloading may result if equipment and materials are added to existing vessels and structures, either temporarily or permanently. For example, the application of gunite fireproofing can double the foundation and structural loading. Guniting applied as metal protection under tank roofs or inside pressure vessels may cause failure of supports.

Excessive bending stresses may be induced in vessel shells when support brackets, such as those used for piping, are attached to the shells.

The same may be true when oversized manways are installed. The addition of piping to existing pipe supports, or piping that is left overhanging on supports, may present overloading problems. Pipes used as beams may not have sufficient strength to hold loads, which may be applied, between the pipe supports. A concentrated load applied at mid-span of a simple beam will stress the beam twice as much as the same load if it were uniformly distributed along the beam. Also, deflection of piping may be excessive if unsupported lengths are great.


Overload occurs where metal members have been weakened as a result of corrosion, wear, fire, or change in shape or position. Supports are sometimes bent or shifted in position by accidents, or by use of the supports as hitches.

Thermal expansion and contraction cause many overloading problems, unless flexible-type connections are properly provided. The problems arise where straight piping is rigidly connected between hot vessels and the pipe-supporting structures, or between hot vessels and the pipesupporting structures, or between two pieces of equipment that move in relation to each other. Piping subject to thermal expansion may force a centrifugal pump or steam turbine out of line and warp the shaft, unless the pipe is anchored near the equipment. The commonly used overhead pipe

supports may not be strong enough to securely anchor piping that is subject to thermal movement. Guides will normally permit sufficient movement. Guides will normally permit sufficient

movement of piping to compensate for thermal expansion or contraction, but may present problems at pipe bends.

Vibration loads on structures and equipment generally requires special treatment because the vibration effects may be shifted when a vibrating section is anchored. Special studies may be necessary before anchors or dampeners are provided, unless removing the source eliminates the vibration. Failures result from fatigue stresses that are built up at supports, piping, and equipment in which sharp corners exist and in which anchoring attachments are undersized for vibration loading.

There are also miscellaneous locations where over loading may occur. Exchanger foundations or piping may be damaged by pulling bundles that are stuck in the shells, unless the shells are firmly secured. Gaskets between flanges may be crushed by uneven or over tightened bolting. Furnace stacks, flare stacks, or similar structures are subject to overstressing by unevenly tightened guy lines. Failure of equipment mahy result where wooden supports decay or burn. Severe impact loads occur in machinery, such as compressors, when bolts become loose or defective parts fail. Underground washouts from water lines and sewers, including acid sewers in particular, affect the allowable loading of foundations in the vicinity. Retaining walls and end dams on separators can be overloaded by washouts. Non-load-bearing tile or similar building construction may not be suitable for additional weight.

Other temporary and permanent installations that may have damaging overloads are not covered herein.

5.2 Evidences of Overloading

Indications of excessive loading are usually apparent because of visible distortion, change of shape, change of position, or other visible signs. An overloaded condition may not be readily apparent when a distortion has not occurred, such as when weak bolted or welded joints or even poor soil conditions exist.


The following are some typical observations, which give evidence of overloading:

1. An unlevel horizontal crossbeam on a pipe support indicates soil overloading.

2. A noticeably sagged support beam.

3. A support column found bent out of line or leaning.

4. A support column made of pipe that can be dented with a hammer is generally corroded and is probably overloaded.

5. At structural joints the slippage of bolts may be noted on the bolted surface or a weld may have cracks.

6. Substantial springing of piping may be observed when disconnected from a pump being removed for repairs.

7. A thermal expansion overload may be indicated when a leak develops in drain piping serving a hot vessel if the piping is anchored some distance from the vessel connection.

8. Failure of one or two similar supports on a discharge header serving gas engine driven compressors is indicative of vibrational overloading.

9. A loose guy line observed on a furnace stack that has become distorted indicates too much pull by the other guy lines.

10. A compressor shaft or flywheel failure may result from an overloaded bolt. For example one of two bolts holding a shaft counterweight may not be seated because of faulty tightening.

11. Overloading because of deterioration from heat of a concrete pedestal supporting a masonry stack may become evident by subsequent leaning of the stack.

Other evidences of overloading are shown in Fig.50 through 55.


Earthquakes will cause severe vibration in equipment, and may cause it to sway so far out of line as to place excessive eccentric loading on supports. It may result in broken lines, broken

connections, bent parts, and even actual collpase of structure . As a result of ground movement uneven settlement may occur. Most serious damage from earthquakes can be determined by a careful and close visual inspection.



Operating equipment and structures may suffer damage from several sources including the following.

1. Trucks, tractors and handling equipment. 2. Misuse of equipment. 3. Wind

Mechanical and wind damage is almost always of such a nature that it can be found by visual inspection.

7.1 Examples of Mechanical and Wind Damage

Following are some examples of mechanical and wind damage. Much of this damage resulted from improper equipment location, failure to provide adequate barriers and guards where necessary and improper material handling procedures.

1. An air-powered winch anchored top a structural column caused bending of the column when a load was applied to the winch.

2. A truck or other motorized equipment collided with a structural column. The column was deformed and its concrete foundation was damaged.

4. A truck collided with a small bleeder connection on a high-pressure steam line. The connection was broken off, and an important refinery unit had to be shut down while repairs were being made.

5. A bulldozer severed an under ground gas line, and leaking gas ignited. The plant served by the gas line was shut down while repairs were made.

6. Fabricated piping was thrown off a delivery truck, and a groove was cut across the face of a flange when it struck a sharp object. The flanged joint leaked when tested and had to be replaced.

7. A tube bundle was being pulled from the shell of a heat exchanger with a winch. The heatexchanger shell was improperly secured and was pulled off its foundation.

8. A heat-exchanger tube bundle was being lifted with a wire-rope sling. The single turn or wire rope crushed the tubes.


9. A tank shell was being erected. The plate for the top ring had been installed, but had not been guyed or reinforced. A strong wind collapsed the top shell ring.

7.2 Causes of Mechanical and Wind Damage

Fire hydrants, valves, piping, and structural supports may be located too close to access ways, especially near sharp corners. Guards may be inadequate where it is necessary to locate equipment near an accessway. Structure support columns are normally designed for compressive loading, and other types of loading may lead to bending. Supports may be damaged when used as anchors for winches. During earth-moving work, underground pipelines and electrical conduits may be damaged if they are not carefully located and properly identified.

Flanges faces and other machined seating surfaces may be damaged when not protected with covers, or when not handled with care. Material may be thrown from truck beds in such a manner that it is bent, crushed, or cracked. Tubes of heat-exchanger tube bundles may be crushed if the bundles are not lifted with proper slings. Foundations of heat-exchanger shells may be damaged when an attempt is made to pull the bundles without adequately anchoring the shells.

Equipment and structures are normally designed to withstand any anticipated wind loading. During construction or repairs, however, wind damage may result if they are not properly guyed or reinforced. Loose sheets of metal, board, and like, may be blown about by high winds if they are not properly secured.

The foregoing is not a complete list of damage that may be caused by mechanical means or by wind, but is quoted to illustrate the wide variety of damage that may be experienced.



8.1 Introduction Many advances have been made in the past decade in the field of material and equipment selection. Instances of failures attributable to poor selection of material and equipment have become the exception. Nowadays, unit shutdowns are caused primarily by corrosion or erosion. Over pressuring, or poor operational techniques. However, the possibilities of poor material or equipment selection must not be minimized.


Situations Leading to improper Selection of material and


Three principal means still exist whereby improper material and equipment selection may be made : error designing for new processes and use of low-cast materials.


8.2.1 Errors:

These may occur either during construction or during repairs. Adequate plans and specifications and careful supervision and inspection should prevent the installation of wrong material during construction. Repairs that require replacement of parts are more liable to error. For example, a carbon-steel part may be used to replace an alloy part, thinner material may be used than required for the service, unsuitable welding rod may be used when making repairs, and other similar

substitutions may occur. Examination of the original drawings and specifications before any part is replaced or any repair is made, and inspection while the work is in progress should prevent such errors.


New Processes :

New processes always present a multitude of material and equipment problems. Even with good pilot-plant data, it is often difficult to determine the various contingencies that will arise. Several excellent examples have arisen with some of the newer gasoline octane-improvement processes. Fig.58 indicates how high-hydrogen recycle gas streams have carbonized transfer piping. Inasmuch as this was a new process, this attack was not anticipated. Other problems, such as the failure of flue – gas – stack muffler sections, have arisen. Reducing at 200-psig regenerator pressure to atmospheric pressure creates unusual flue-gas flow patterns that tend to loosen and pulverize the refractory attached by metal reinforcing to the stack. Process modification on existing units generally presents more problems than new plants. Conversion of existing units generally implies a ― rush‖ program to get some new product on the market; and in the haste to complete construction, material and equipment selection may be influenced by the availability of existing equipment.


Use of Low-Cost Materials :

The third opportunity for improper Material and equipment selection ,the use of low-cost items becomes increasingly importantly as the industry gets more investment conscious. If a judicious economic review of all cases is not made, improper materials or equipment may result. It is generally more costly to rectify an error than to build quality into the original installation.

Therefore efforts are usually directed toward getting quality equipment that is critical to a unit or very expensive to replace. Examples of the former are furnace tubes and unit piping; tower internals are a good example of the latter.


Evidences of Faulty Material and Equipment :

Faulty or improper material and equipment manifest themselves in a number of ways. Cracks, bulges and excessive corrosion or erosion are the more prominent ones. Cracks may be caused by such things as shrink age, sand holes, and blowholes in castings and are often found in the thinner sections where the metal cools faster . Sharp corners and abrupt


changes in cross-sectional areas are stress raisers, and shrinkage cracks also occur at such points. Sand holes are caused by molding sand trapped within the casting. Blowholes are caused by gas trapped within the casting during solidification. The sand and gas create services or holes that are often within the metal and may not be visible from the exterior of the castings.

Discontinuities when subjected to high stresses, are excellent crack initiators. The discontinuities in the material may be laminations, services, abrupt changes in thickness, sharp corners, and the like. Cracks may also occur without a discontinuity under excessively high stress.

Bulges may result if the materials selected do not have adequate strength for the intended service.



1. 2. 3. Visual Methods. Aural Methods. Inspection Tools.



The Human Eye :Whether the inspection is in shop or in the field, the unaided human eye will be the first tool to use and there is none mote important. Following tools are needed to aid in more detailed visual inspection : a. b. c. d. Magnifying Glasses. Mirror. SafetyTorch/ Hand Lamp. Binocular ( For Elevations).

a. MAGNIFYING GLASS : An examination of welded seams and other welds in pressure vessels , tanks, or pipe by the naked eye does not reveal all imperfections. Under such circumstances , the use of a magnifier will help greatly in finding small imperfectionss on the surface that otherwise might escape notice. b. MIRROR : Mirror and reflectors may be used to inspect hidden surfaces. ( e.g. bottom section of the pipeline) . c. SAFETY TORCH / HAND LAMP : The flash light is indispensable to the inspector for looking into the dark places and inside process equipment. d. BINOCULARS : Very useful for visual inspection of high elevated stacks etc.



Hammering as an inspection tool reveals more than that disclosed solely by sound. This is a very simple and effective tool for indicating some discrepancies may exist and disclosing that others actually do exist. Such defects as areas of reduced thickness in walls of tubes, pipe and pressure vessels ; burned ( oxidised ) areas in tubes ; crack ; loose joints; and inter granular cracking may be revealed.


Following is the list of the inspection tools which aid in inspection by enabling to check the surface , subsurface cracks, flaws, metal thickness , metallographic structure etc. a. Ultrasonic thickness gauge. b. Ultrasonic Flaw Detector. c. Radiography Equipment. d. Infrared scanner for Thermography. e. Videoimagescope . f. Hardness Tester. g. Spectrometer. h. Magnetic Particle testing Kit. i. Dye Penetrant Kit. j. Holiday Detector. k. Paint Thickness gauge. l. Pit / Depth Gauge. m. Temperature Crayons. n. Vacuum Leak Detection Kit. o. Viscometer. p. Calipers. q. Micrometers. r. Wire Gauge. s. Plumb & Bob. t. Magnets. u. Scraper / File. v. Measuring Tape. w. Vacuum – Leak Detector Kit. x. Surveyor‘s Level. y. Camera. a. ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAUGE :

This instrument works on the Pulse echo principle.

Short bursts of ultrasound are introduced into the test piece by the transducer. The ultrasonic beam travels through the material until it strikes a boundary perpendicular to the beam at which it is reflected back to the transducer & is converted into an electric impulse. By measuring the time lapse between the initial impulse & the receipt of the echo , the material thickness is determined. Since the beam travels twice through the thickness the relationship of the thickness to the round trip time is 2d = vt ; t= round

trip time , d = metal thickness, v = sound velocity of the material . Therefore by knowing the velocity of the sound in the material under test , the thickness of the material can be calculated. III.2

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :
1. Panametrics make 26 DL Plus – 1 no. 2. Krautkramer make DM4 DL - 2 nos. 3. Pulse echo make mP 200L - 3 nos. b. ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTOR : ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTION is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency sound waves are introduced into a test object to detect and locate surface and internal discontinuities. A sound beam is directed into the test object on a predictable path, and is reflected at interfaces or other interruptions in material continuity. The reflected beam is detected and analyzed to define the presence and location of discontinuities. The detection, location and evaluation of discontinuities is possible because (1) the velocity of sound through a given material is nearly constant, making distance measurements possible, and (2) the amplitude of a reflected sound pulse is nearly proportional to the size of the reflector. ULTRASONIC TESTING can be used to detect cracks, laminations, shrinkage cavities, pores, slag inclusions, incomplete fusion or bonding, incomplete joint penetration, and other discontinuities in weldments and brazements. With proper techniques, the approximate position and depth of the discontinuity can be determined, and in some cases, the approximate size of the discontinuity.

Basic Equipment
MOST ULTRASONIC TESTING systems use the following basic components: 1. An electronic signal generator (pulser) that produces bursts of alternating voltage. 2. A sending transducer that emits a beam of ultrasonic waves when alternating voltage is applied. 3. A couplant to transmit the ultrasonic energy from the transducer tot he test piece and vice versa. 4. A receiving transducer to convert the sound waves to alternating voltage. This transducer may be combined with the sending transducer.

5. An electronic device to amplify and demodulate or otherwise change the signal from the receiving transducer. 6. A display or indicating device to characterize or record the output from the test piece. 7. An electronic timer to control the operation. III-3

The basic components are shown in block form in Figure. 1. Equipment operating in a pulse-echo method with video presentation is most commonly used for hand scanning of welds. The pulse-echo equipment produces repeated bursts of high frequency sound with a time interval between bursts to receive signals from the test piece and from any discontinuities in the weld or base metal. The pulse rate is usually between 100 and 5000 pulses per second. The rays commonly used in Refinery inspection are the X-ray and the gamma rays.

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :
L & T make Metascan UFD 310 – 1 no. c. RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT : Radiography is used to detect flaws such as cracks & voids , in opaque( solid) materials. In this method the object to be inspected is placed between an electromagnetic ray source of relatively short wavelength & a photographic film . When the rays pass through the object the absorption of rays by cracks or voids is less that that of the solid material. After the film has been developed , the flaws will appear as darkened areas, approximating the size & shape of the flaws , while the remainder of the exposed section will appear lighter. Objects with uniform density & thickness with no flaws will produce pictures of uniform shades. Radiography may be used to determine the wall thickness , product built up , blockage & the condition of the internal equipment such as trays, valve parts , thermowells etc. The rays commonly used in Refinery inspection are the X-ray and the gamma rays.

At Mumbai Refinery we take the help of external Agency for taking the Radiography & developing the films. Interpretation is done departmentally.

In frared Scanner for Thermography can be used for creating thermal images and measuring temperature in a wide variety of application .

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :

LAND make CYCLOPS TI 35+ .


Temperature Measuring System :

Infrared radiation emitted by the target passes through the window of the scanner unit and strikes one of the eight surfaces of the polygonal mirror.

As the mirror rotates, radiation from different points on the target are reflected by the eight surface which scan the subject horizontally and vertically.

Radiation reflected from the surface of the polygonal mirror then passes through a lens which is well corrected for aberration the F/N button on the right hand grip of the Ti 35+ .

The radiation then passes through a chopper, which is connected to the polygonal mirror and rotates to chop (momentarily interrupt) the radiation reflected by the mirror. When the chopper interrupts the radiation from the target, the radiation emitted by the chopper itself is incident on the detector. The difference between the intensity of the radiation emitted by the target and intensity of the radiation emitted by the chopper is determined by the thermal imager. When measuring the temperature of the subject, the temperature of the chopper is measured and the intensity of the radiation from it is determined. This value is added to the intensity difference in order to calculate the temperature of the target.

Interference filters are placed in front of the detector to limit the range of wavelengths to which the detector is sensitive. One of three different interference filters is used, depending on the range selected by the used. The filters are moved in or out of the optical path automatically when the range is selected. The detector is a 12 element HgCdTe (mercury cadmium telluride) detector, which is cooled thermoelectrically to reduce electrical noise. The is positioned so that the

radiation focused by the lens is received to form 12 scan lines (one band of the Ti 35+ ). Each complete revolution of the eight side polygonal mirror thus produces 96 scan lines (12 scan lines X 8 mirror surface) to create one image. The radiation striking each element of the detector is converted into and analog signal proportion to the intensity of the radiation.

The twelve analog signals are sent to a low noise high preamplifier and are then passed through a low pass filter to remove high frequency noise. In this stage, the signals are amplified according to the window selected by the user.

After passing through the low pass filter the are adjusted according to the output from the detector when the chopper is closed and the offset set by the user. This offset determines the lower limit of radiation intensity which will be displayed.

The twelve signals are then passed through a multi plexer to become a single serial


signal which is input to an amplifier whose gain depends on the window set by the user. The amplifier signals is then converted into digital form and input to a memory where it is stored in the order in which it was scanned. The image data is fed out to suit the standard TV scan and reconverted to analog form to be displayed in the view finder or on a TV monitor. The TV signal may be in 625 or 525 line format.

For temperature measurements, one channel of the output from the pre-amplifier is used, along with the output from the sensors for measuring the temperature of the detector and the chopper. These analog signals are amplified and changed to digital form which can be used by a microprocessor for calculations. The temperature value is calculated according to the temperature unit (deg. C or Deg. F) and temperature – measurement mode (signal, peak or average) settings selected by the user.

The calibration of the temperature measurement system is updated every time the instrument is powered up. A source of accurately know temperature is moved into the field of view of the detector whose output is measured, together with other important parameters. The calibration constants for the system are calculated and stored in the memory of the imager.


This equipment is used non destructive examination and diagnostic study of various equipment inside the refinery. This equipment uses optical fibers and enables to see the areas not covered within the direct field of vision of human eye. The light to illuminate the area to be viewed is sent through light carrier optical fibers which make the light travel in any desired direction because of total internal reflection. The image is changed into electronic signals and is then converted into screen image by Camera Control Unit. Following are different components and their functions.


Light Source : To provide necessary illumination to the object.


Fiber chord :

To carry light up to the object and to carry images

transformed into electronic signals up to the CCU.



Converting electronic signals to the analyzer input signals

and controlling some technical features related to the image clarity and glare removal.

d) flaws.

Analyzer :

To see and store the images and facility to do sizing of



b) c)

a) Remote visual inspection of internal components of equipment and locations inaccessible to direct vision. Remote visual measurements / sizing of defects. Foreign object detection.


Image storing and analysis.


This equipment is going to be of great use in our refinery. Following are some of the major areas of use.

1) To assess the extent of internal fouling in our steam generating boilers and ensure 100% cleaning.


To see the internal condition of exchanger tubes and locate & size the defect.

3) See the internals of rotary equipment like pumps and turbines gas turbines etc. of the refinery without opening the casing.

4) To find out the extent of coking in the furnace tubes by putting the porbe from bleeder coupling and measuring the tube ID.

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :

Video Image Scope

: OLYMPUS make IW-2

Light Source


300 watt xenon



IW-2 It consists of three separate units assembled together.





Light Source :

150 watt halogen light source.


PC with LCD display and analysis soft ware for defect sizing.


f. HARDNESS TESTER : Hardness is defined as the resistance of the material against penetration. The mechanical properties (e.g. ductility, the yield point strength, % elongation etc.) of the material is very much affected by its hardness. More the hardness of the material is, less is its ductility and the material is more brittle. To get the best possible mechanical properties for a specific use of any material it is essential that its hardness should be within the specified limits. Hardness are taken of steels & some alloys after welding , heat treatment & Refinery fires to see if any changes have occurred. Excessive hardness can lead to premature cracking failures because of reduced ductility and toughness at the hard area. Following are the hardness scales (Nos.) which are generally used to express the hardness of the material. 1)

Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) : The indentation is made using a steel ball.


Vickers Hardness Number (HV) :

The indentation is made using a diamond


Rockwell Hardness Number (HR) : The indentation is made using a diamond pyramid. It has got different subdivisions like HRA. HRB, HRC etc. Depending upon the hardness range we are operating in. Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL , Mumbai Refinery :

1) 2) 1)

Poldi Hardness Tester Krautkramer make MICRODUR – II Poldi Hardness Tester : This equipment gives the BHN of the material. An equal amount of impact loading is provided by hammering on to a piece of know hardness and on to the material where the hardness is to be measured. The size of the dent is then measured with the help of magnifying glass and scale and after matching these values with the special data table the BHN is measured. III-8

This instrument is having three types of know specimen bars for different types of uses.


material of higher values of hardness.

Carbon steel specimen bar : Brass specimen bar :

For measuring hardness of CS, SS and other


intermediate hardness values. iii) 2) A)

For measuring hardness of Copper, brass, bronze of

Aluminum specimen bars : For measuring hardness of softer materials.
Krautkramer make MICRODUR – II :

Equipment description :

This instrument gives instant display of the hardness of material just by pressing the probe at the desired location. This instrument measures the vickers hardness and then the reading is converted into different hardness numbers. B)

Principle of operation in brief :

This equipment works on the principle of Ultrasonic Contact Impedance (UCI). A Vickers diamond is fixed to one end of a metal rod. This diamond is then excited to a point of oscillation by a piezo-electric converter. Unimpeded oscillation have a certain frequency which change as the diamond penetrates the test object. The size of the indentation and the change in frequency increase in relation to the decrease in material hardness. Change in frequency can be precisely measured. provides precise information on surface hardness. C) So, measuring the rod frequency

Advantages over the conventional style of measurement.
It is purely non-destructive because of microscopic size of surface Less time consuming and needs very less amount of operator It is very handy, light weight and portable instrument. Digital display and conversion into Rockwell and BHN is

a) indentation. b) concentration. c) d) instantaneous. e) accessible like gear

Can measure a very small area & areas which are not easily tooth profile etc.


g. SPECTROMETER ( ALLOY ANALYSER) The equipment is used for analysis of alloying elements in the metal.

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :
JOBIN VYON make JY 56 E Spark Emission Spectrometer. Principle : The JY 56 E is a spark emission Spectrometer designed to determine the elemental composition of solid and conducting samples. High Voltage unidirectional spark evaporate and excite a portion of the material whose composition is to be determined and the light emitted by the ejected particles is collected and analyzed. Sparks are produced between the sample and a high voltage tungsten electrode. The electrical characteristics of the spark are optimized for the material to be analyzed.

The light emitted by this process includes radiation from the various elements , preset for the material being analyzed. Each element has its own unique finger print and is characterised by specific radiation. The light intensity for each spectral line is proportional to the concentration of the element that has produced it. The purpose of the spectrometer is to separate the various spectral lines to be analysed and to quantify them. This separation is carried out by an optical device , THE POLYCHROMATOR. The polychromator consists of an entrance slit , a diffraction grating and a number of exit slits which corresponds to the element to be analysed. A detector attached to each exit slit collects and measures the amount of monochromatic light selected , and converts it to an electronic signal for amplification an processing by a computer system. The computer system calculates the concentrations of the elements in units selected by the operator. Results can be printed as analysis reports , processed for statistical follow up and transmitted to remote terminals. h. MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING KIT : The magnetic particle method of inspection is used principally to detect surface defects in magnetic materials & may be used to detect sub surface defects near the surface . Radiographic or ultrasonic methods are used to detect deep seated surface defect.


The magnetic particle method of inspection utilizes a means of magnetizing the area to be inspected & spraying magnetic powders such as fine iron fillings particle. Defects cause a distortion of the magnetic field & the particles are attracted to the point where the magnetic lines of force are deflected out from and back to the surface. Cracks are not indicated if they are parallel to the magnetic lines. Therefore it is necessary to vary the direction of magnetism in order to detect cracks running in different direction i. DYE PENETRANT KIT : Penetrant dyes have been developed to aid visual inspection for surface cracks and flaws in non porous and non soluble materials. They provide a means of inspecting nonmagnetic materials thus supplementing the magnetic particle method that cannot provide such means . They will not reveal sub surface defects.

In this method the surface of the object is first cleaned & then dried. The penetrant is then applied to the surface by brushing or spraying . After that it is allowed to penetrate for at least five minutes, the excess penetrant is removed by washing with water or solvent. A developer is then sprayed onto the surface and dries with a white chalky appearance. Through its absorptive nature & by capillary action, the developer draws out the dye out of irregularities The closer the surface of the object is to 100 deg.F ,the quicker the action of the developer. However if the surface temp. is over 100 deg. F this material may vapourize without giving a whitened surface. The dye stains the developer , defining the extent and size of any surface defects. If there are no defects nothing occurs. j. HOLIDAY DETECTOR : The spark tester is a holiday detector designed primarily for the accurate detection of pinholes , discontinuities , voids or bare spots in a surface coating or lining having a high electric resistance. It is equally well applied to the inspection of pipe or metal surfaces wrapped with protective tapes such as polyvinyl & polyethylene type of material. The spark tester is a low voltage electrical inspection instrument , usually operating on 120 volts , with a spark coil generating a high voltage spark . In operation the spark tester constantly produces a small white spark of consistent characteristics. In the proximity of a hole , void or other defects in the coating or lining , the characteristics of the spark changes. K. PAINT THICKNESS GAUGE : A coating gauge thickness for precise & non destructive measurement of painting, electroplating , nickel coating, plastic coating.

III-11 The measurement of the coating thickness is dependent on magnetic attraction. The attractive force is related to the distance between a permanent magnet & a steel substrate. The distance represent the thickness of the coating to be measured. The magnet is lifted from the surface by means of a spring connected to the magnet arm. The spring is tensioned by means of the thumb wheel & the coating thickness is shown directly on the scale. When measuring the thickness of the nickel on the non ferrous substrate the magnetic attraction depends upon the thickness of nickel itself.

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :

Mikrotest make automatic Coating Thickness Gauge – 1 no. Modsonic Make Digital Coating Thickness Gauge – 2 nos. l. PIT GAUGE : The tools used to measure localised metal losses in the from of pits, grooves , or small depressed areas .

Type / Make of instrument available with HPCL, Mumbai Refinery :
Mitutoyo make pit Gauge for a depth of max. 10 mm. – 1 no. m. TEMPERATURE CRAYONS :

There are a set of crayons, each having a different melting point. To determine the temperature of a surface short lines are drawn on the surface with various crayons. The temperature will be in the range between the highest melting point crayon whose line melts and the next higher melting point crayon whose line does not melt.

n. VACUUM LEAK DETECTION KIT : Under certain conditions hydrostatic test will not suffice when welded seam are being checked for leaks . This condition usually occurs when only one side of the of a seam is accessible , as in a tank bottom. This instrument is there useful to check the conditions of the joints. It consists of an open box , the lip of the open side being covered with a sponge rubber gasket. The side opposite the opening is the glass. A vacuum gage and an air siphon connection completes the apparatus. The seam to be tested is first wetted with a rich soap solution. The vacuum box is pressed tightly over the seam and the foam rubber gasket form the seal. A vacuum is created in the box by means of air syphon. If a leak exists it will cause a formation of bubbles that can be seen through the glass.


C H A P T E R - IV
CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9.1 5.9.2 Introduction Materials for General Refinery Use Designation & Description Carbon Steel Killed Carbon Steel Low Alloy Steels Ferritic & Martensitic Steels Austenitic Stainless Steels (18-8 SS) Copper & Copper Alloys Nickel & Nickel Alloys Aluminium & Titanium Post Weld Heat Treatment Residual Stresses Environmental Requirements Resistance to Hydrogen Resistance to Sulphur Materials Used For Resistance to some Acid Environments Material Selection for Various Type Processes Hydro Desulphurization Units Crude Unit Vacuum Unit Thermal Cracking and Visbreaker Units Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Reforming ( Platforming) Hydrodealkylation Units Catalytic Condensation Amine Treating Waste- Water Stripping Hydrogen Plant with a CO2 removal Unit

1.0 INTRODUCTION The two main objectives of material selection are to provide proper alloys to attain the expected design life by adequate protection against metal corrosion and to provide metallurgical stability to prevent premature failures resulting from environmental and normal operating conditions. Experience in the many process units plays the major role in which materials perform well and which do not. It is important to emphasize that any changes from original design conditions may alter the specified material‘s performance. This section will briefly cover the features and requirement for materials selection for process unit environments. Following this general discussion, a number of process units are briefly outlined as to the alloys used in the various process equipment. Equipment construction materials are selected to provided a satisfactory service life for the particular environment encountered, such as: 20 Year Life

High pressure/heavy wall rectors, vessels and exchangers. 10 Year Life Vessels, exchanger shells, heater coils, pumps and compressor casings and alloy piping. 5 Year Life Carbon steel piping, easily replaced exchanger tube bundles and replaceable internals for rotating equipment. Since there are many factors that contribute to service life of equipment, some of which we have no control over, the above target design lives are strived for based on the expected operating conditions. In most cases, standard corrosion allowances will provide a service life in excess of the above. Strength Material used to contain process fluids should have sufficient strength at design conditions. Corrosion Resistance Materials should possess sufficient resistance to corrosion or hydrogen attack from the process environment.

IV-1 Toughness Materials should possess sufficient toughness and resistance to brittle fracture. Thermal shock Materials must be reasonably resistant to thermal shock from rapid process temperature changes. Abrasion Resistance. In some processes, materials are selected to provide abrasion resistance from solids in the process stream such as in FCC catalyst carrying lines, etc. Oxidation Materials should possess oxidation resistance if high temperatures are encountered. Fabrication Materials should be compatible with all required fabrication procedures.

2.1 DESIGNATION & DESCRIPTION Materials are specified by either ASTM numbers and prefixed by A, ASME specification numbers prefixed by SA or by their generic names. See Table 1 for a listing of materials by generic name and corresponding ASTM designations. 2.2 CARBON STEEL This is the most common material used in process plant. Carbon steels are used in most general refinery applications where killed steel quality is not required. 2.3 KILLED CARBON STEEL Killed steels are defined as those, which are thoroughly deoxidized during melting practices. Deoxidization is accomplished by use of silicon, manganese, and aluminum additions to combine with dissolved gases, usually oxygen, during solidification. This results in cleaner, better quality steel, which has fewer gas pockets and inclusions. Killed carbon steel is specified for major equipment in the following services to minimize the possibility or extent of


hydrogen blistering and hydrogen embrittlement: (a) Where hydrogen is a major component in the process stream (b) Where hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is present with an aqueous phase or where liquid water-containing H2S is present. (c) Process streams containing any amount of hydrofluoric acid (HF), boron trifluoride (BF3) or BF compounds; or (d) Monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA) in solutions of greater than 5 wt -% Killed steel is also used for equipment designed for temperatures greater than 900oF (482oC.) since the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code does not list allowable stresses for carbon steel over 9000 F (4820 C). 2.4 LOW ALLOY STEELS Carbon – 1/2 % Moly and Manganese – 1/2 % Moly These low alloy steels are used for higher temperature service than carbon steel. They have the same maximum temperature limitation as killed steel (ASME Code – 1000o F), but the strength above 700oF is substantially greater. 1% Chrome – 1/2% Moly and 1-1/4% Chrome – 1/2% Moly These alloys are used for higher temperature resistance to hydrogen attack and a modest resistance to sulfur corrosion. They are also used for services where temperatures are above the rated temperatures for the lower alloys. 2-1/4% Chrome – 1 % Moly and 3% Chrome –1% Moly These alloys have the same uses as 1-1/4% Cr, but have greater resistance to hydrogen attack and higher strength at elevated temperature. 5% Chrome – 1/2% Moly This alloy is used most frequently for protection against combined sulfur attack at temperatures above 5500 F. Its resistance to hydrogen attack is better than 2-1/4% Cr1% Moly but improved resistance to H2S is minimal. 7% Chrome – 1/2% Moly This alloy was sometimes used for heater tubes in crude and vacuum services where slightly better resistance to sulfur over 5 Cr was needed. This material is no longer specified; 9 Cr – 1 Mo is specified. 9% Chrome – 1 % Moly This alloy is generally limited to heater tubes. It has a higher resistance to high sulfur stocks at elevated temperatures. It also has a higher maximum allowable metal temperature in oxidizing atmospheres.




12% Chrome (Types 405 and 410S) This ferritic or martensitic stainless steel is used primarily as a clad lining. It has excellent resistance to combined sulfur and good resistance to hydrogen sulfide at low concentrations and intermediate temperatures. 13% Chrome (Type 410) This stainless steel is used extensively for standard trim on all process valves and pumps, and for vessel trays and tray components. It is also used for heat exchanger tubes for the same processing conditions as Type 405. 2.6 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS (18-8 SS) Type 304 This is the lowest cost type of 18-8 stainless and is used for exchanger tubes and other (18-8 SS) equipment which are not welded, for protection against hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide attack at elevated temperatures. It is susceptible to polythionic stress corrosion and chloride stress corrosion. Types 309 and 310 These are special heat resistant austenitic stainless steels which have oxidation resistance up to about 2000oF (1093oC). Their compositions are 25% Cr-12% Ni and 25% Cr-20% Ni, respectively, and are used in high temperature services and tube supports in heaters. Types 321 and 347 These are stabilized grades of about 18% Cr-10%Ni composition, which are used where welding is required. The addition of titanium or columbium stabilizers prevents carbide precipitation when welded and thus minimizes intergranular corrosion. As with Type 304, all equipment in sulfiding service should be neutralized with soda ash prior to allowing air to contact sulfided surfaces. Type 316 The Mo containing grade is not stabilized and finds most of its use in corrosive environments such as phosphoric acid, naphthenic acid and low concentration sulfuric acid service. It is also used in high temperature, low sulfur containing services for its very good high temperature strength.



SA-283 Steel plates of structural quality used generally for skirts and non-critical vessels and tanks.

Grade Grade Grade Grade IS 2062


45,000 psi tensile min. 50,000 psi tensile strength min. 55,000 psi tensile strength min. 60,000 psi tensile strength min.

Steel plates & structural quality used generally for tanks . Grade A Grade B Grade C

ASTM ASME Low and intermediate tensile strength steel. Maximum thickness 2‖. This is a non-killed steel. Grade A Grade B Grade C A-515 SA-515 (Sillicon-killed ) 45,000 psi tensile strength min. 50,000 psi tensile strength min. 55,000 psi tensile strength min.

A-285 SA –285 (non-killed)

Intermediate strength steel plates for intermediate and higher temperature service. Thickness of grade 55 is limited to 12‖, thickness of grades 60,65 and 70 is limited to 8‖. Grade Grade Grade Grade 55 60 65 70 55,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 psi tensile strength min. psi tensile strength min. psi tensile strength min. psi tensile strength min.

A-516 SA-516 (Silicon-killed )

Intermediate strength steel plates for atmospheric and lower temperature service. Thickness limits are the same as for A-515. Grade 55 55,000 psi tensile strength min.

Grade 60 Grade 65 Grade 70

60,000 psi tensile strength min. 65,000 psi tensile strength min. 70,000 psi tensile strength min. IV-5

A-240 Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type Type

SA-240 (Austenitic) Chromium and chromium nickel stainless steel plate, sheet and Strip for vessels. 18 Cr-8 Ni(not used for vessel construction) 18 Cr-8 Ni (0.08 C max.) 18 Cr-8 Ni (0.03 C max.) 23 Cr-12 Ni (0.08 C max) 25 Cr-20 Ni (0.08 C max.) 16 Cr-12 Ni-2 Mo (0.08 C max.) 16 Cr-12 Ni –2 Mo (0.03 max. C ) 18 Cr- 13 Ni-3 Mo (0.08 max. C) 18 Cr-13 Ni-3 Mo (0.03 C max.)

302 304 304 L 309 S 310 S 316 316L 317 317L

A-264 materials


Chromium-nickel steel clad plate. Covers the austenitic clad as shown above in A-240. The type cladding to be used is referred to asA-240, type.



Chromium steel clad plate. Covers the ferritic grades of stainless steel as shown above in A-240.The type cladding to be used referred to as A-240, Type. Forged or rolled steel pipe flanges, fittings and valves for general; service. Spec. covers two grades of material designed as grade I and II To be used for 150# and 300# flange rating only. Grade I Grade II 60,000 psi tensile strength min. 70,000 psi tensile strength min.





Forged or rolled steel pipe flanges, fittings and valves for ambient and higher temperature service. This material is 70,000 psi tensile strength minimum. Forged or rolled steel pipe flanges,etc., for low temperature Two carbon steel grades are covered for services from –20 F to –50 F (-29 to –46 C).

A-350 service.


A-182 SA-182 Forged or rolled alloy-steel pipe flanges, fittings and valves for

high- temperature service. Covers 31 grades of alloy including 17 of the austenitic stainless steels. Only the more common ferritic alloy steels will be covered here. Grade F1 IV-6 ½ Mo

Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade A-350 low SA-350

F5 F5 a F7 F9 F11 F12 F 21 F22

5 Cr-1/2 Mo(0.15 C max) 5 Cr-1/2 Mo (0.25 c max.) 7Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo 1 Cr-1/2 Mo 3 Cr- 1 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo

Forged or rolled alloy steel pipe flanges, fittings and valves for Temperature service .The two steel grades are covered above in the carbon steel flange section . Three alloys are covered for temp. from –75 to –150F (-59 to –101 C). The same limitation on thickness applies as described for steel. min. min. min. Grade LF3 (3-1/2 Ni) Grade LF5 (1- ½ Ni) Grade LF9 (Ni –Cu) 70.000 70,000 psi psi tensile tensile tensile strength strength strength



SA-182 14

Forged or rolled flanges , fittings and valves for high temperature service. Fifteen of the more common grades are described, austenitic and one ferritic. The H grades of the 300 grades and are intended for service above 1000 F. 18Cr-8Ni(0.08 C MAX) 18 Cr-8Ni (0.04-0.10 C) 25 Cr-20 Ni-2 Mo (0.08 C max.) 16 Cr-12 Ni-2 Mo (0.04-0.10 C) 16 Cr-12 Ni –2 Mo (0.035 C max) 18 Cr-10 Ni +Ti (0.08 c max.) stabilized grade 18 Cr-10 Ni+ Ti (0.04- 0.10 C) Stabilized grade.

AUSTENITIC F 304 F310 F316 F316H F 321 F 321 H

F347 *** F 347H *** F348 *** F348H*** F10

18 18 18 18 20

Cr-10 Ni+Cb (0.08 C max.) stabilized grade Cr-10 Ni + Cb (0.04 –0.10C) stabilized grade cr-10 Ni+Cb (0.08 C max &0.10Tamax)stabilised grade Cr-10 Ni+Cb (0.04-=0.10 C & 0.10 Ta max.) Ni-8 Cr

The normal Type 347 material is stabilized with Cb. However in this Cb is some Ta. The Type 348 is used predominantly in the atomic energy industry and, due to neutron absorption characteristics, the Ta content is limited to 0.10%. For ―Low Temperature‖ service, all the above austenitic stainless steels are satisfactory for-325 F (-198 C). the types 304, 304L,310 and 347 are satisfactory for –425 F (-265C). Ferritic 13Cr (0.15 C max.) IV-7

Carbon Steel
A-105 SA-105
for A-181 A-350 A-234 SA-181 SA-350 SA-234

Steel fittings available in accordance to these specifications made as forgings. See section on flanges
grades etc. Same as above Same as above Factory made steel welding fittings. Permissible raw materials for Welded fittings in this specifications are pipe, plate, forgings and bar stock . Raw materials are all acceptable and are listed in this list elsewhere under their appropriate specifications. Grade WPA 48,000 psi tensile strength min. Grade WPB 60,000 psi tensile strength min. Grade WPC 70000 Psi tensile strength min. This grade made from A-106 grade C pipe is a special, product and only obtainable with special agreement with manufacturer.



Factory made wrought steel fittings of

seamless or welded construction for low temperature service. This specification is similar to A-234 in as much as fittings are

permitted to be made from pipe, plate and forgings of materials made specifically for low temperature service. All these materials are acceptable and are listed elsewhere under their appropriate specifications.

Grade WPL6

Steel for service to –50F(-46C)

When above fittings are of welded construction the grade symbol shall be supplemented with the letter ―W‖.

A-216 SA-216 (Castings) high temp. service.

Carbon steel castings suitable for fusion welding for

GradeWCA GradeWCB Grade WCC

60000 psi tensile strength min. 70000 psi tensile strenth min. 70000 psi tensile strength min.


Alloy Steel

A-182 SA-182 high &

Alloy fittings available in the sane alloys, for both

low temperature services as shown under section on alloy flanges.

A_350 SA-350

Same as above

A-234 SA-234

Factory made alloy steel fittings. See general

description under Carbon Steel Fittings.

GradeWP1 Grade WP12 Grade WP11 Grade WP 22 Grade WP5 Grade WP9

½ Mo 1 Cr-1/2 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo

When above fittings are of welded construction the grade symbol shall be supplemented by the letter ―W’.

A-420 SA 420 welded

Factory made alloy steel fittings of seamless or

construction for low temperature service.

Grade WPL3 Grade WPL8 Grade QWPL9

3-1/2 Ni alloy for service to-150(-101C 9 Ni alloy for service to –320F(-195C) 2 Ni-1 Cu for service to –100F (-73 C)

When fittings of welded construction the symbols shall be supplemented by the letter ―W‖.

A-217 SA-217

Alloy steel castings suitable for high temperature service. Eight grades of ferritic alloy castings are covered.

Grade WC1 ½ Mo

65000 psi tensile strength min

Grade WC4

1 Ni-3/4 Cr-1/2 Mo

70000psi tensile strength min.

Grade WC5

1 Ni-3/4 Cr-1 Mo

70000psi tensile strength min.


Grade WC61-1/4 Cr-1Mo

70000psi tensile strength min.

Grade WC9

2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo

70000psi tensile strength min,

Grade C5


90000psi tensile strength min.

GradeC 12

9Cr-1 Mo

90000psi tensile strength min.

Grade CA415 12 Cr

90000psi tensile strength min.

A-352 SA-352 temperatures







Service material intented for fittings valves and flanges.

Grade LC1 Grade LC2 Grade LC2-1 Grade LC3 Grade LC4

½ Mo service to –75 F(-60 C) 2-1/2 Ni for service to 100F(-73 C) 2-1/4 Ni 1-1/2 Mo for service to–100 F(-73 C) 3-1/2 Ni for service to- 150F (-101 C) 4-1/2 Ni for service to –115 C

Stainless Steel

A-182 SA-182 description applicable.

See section on flanges for grades available. Same

A-403 Fittings may

Factory made austenitic steel welding fittings.

be made from forgings, plates, plate, pipe and bar. The H grades are intented for service above 1000 F (538 C).

Carbon Steel

A-105 SA-105 specifications.








See section on flanges for grades, description, etc.

A-181 SA-181

Same as above


A-350 SA-350

Same as above

A-216 See section


Cast steel valves covered by these two specs.

on fittings for grades description etc.

A-352 SA-352

same as above

Alloy Steel

A-182 SA-182 description etc.

Forged alloy steel valves. See section on flanges,



Same as above.

A-217 SA-217 grades, description etc.

Cast alloy steel valves. See section on fittings for

A-352 SA-352

Same as above

2.7 COPPER & COPPER ALLOYS Copper Pure copper finds very limited use in process equipment because of its low strength and its tendency to work harden. It and most of its alloys have better resistance to chlorides, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, marine, and atmospheric corrosion than steel. It is susceptible to attack by hot sulfides and moist ammonia. It is used occasionally for heat exchanger service, usually as gaskets.

Brasses The brasses are the most widely used of the copper alloys and are alloys of copper and usually zinc with minor amounts of other elements. Admiralty is used for condenser tubes by many refiners, particularly if no treatment of the water is used. Aluminum brass is used for sea water condenser tube service and Naval brass is used for the tube sheets. Dezincification may occur to alloys above 15% zinc unless inhibited with antimony, arsenic, or phosphorous. Other copper alloys are used in process equipment for bearings and other elements in pumps and rotating equipment. Cupro-Nickels These are alloys of copper and nickel (90-10, 80-20 and 70—30) with minor amounts of iron IV-11 and manganese. They are the most corrosion resistant of the copper alloys and are used in services exposed to sea water and mineral acids, and at higher temperatures than the brasses. 2.8 NICKEL AND NICKEL ALLOYS Pure nickel finds very limited use in equipment. It has good strength and excellent resistance to many corrosive environments at low temperature. It has good resistance to chloride attack at low temperatures. It has poor resistance to sulfur compounds at moderate and high temperatures. Monel Monel is a 7-% nickel,30% copper alloy with a small amount of iron and manganese. This alloy is widely used for resistance to chloride and fluoride attack and in sea water services. It is very susceptible at temperatures above 400o F (204o C). Inconel This high (about 80%) nickel chromium iron alloy is used in services requiring high resistance to oxidation or reducing atmospheres at temperatures up to 2000 o F (1093o C). It is inferior to Monel in handling sulfuric, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. It is not recommended in sulfur or sulfide environments above 1000o F (538o C). Incoloy This alloy is very similar in its properties to austenitic stainless steels, but because of its higher nickel content is more expensive. It has greater resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking than the austenitic (18-8) stainless steels. Hastelloys

These expensive alloys are composed of nickel, molybdenum, iron and chromium. They are normally used in very corrosive services. They may not resist attack if oxidizing agents are present. 2.9 ALUMINIUM & TITANIUM Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Aluminum alloys are not used too frequently in refinery applications because of their inherent low strength and low melting points. However, in exchanges, coolers and condensers, IV-12

aluminum has performed quite admirably in hydrocarbon environments contacting aqueous phases of hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. One of the biggest uses of aluminum in plants is as external insulation covering and weather shielding.

Titanium Titanium has excellent corrosion resistance to many environments found in petroleum and petrochemical plants. With its cost now being competitive, mainly with the nickel base alloys, it is finding an increasing number of applications as tubes in exchangers, and coolers and condensers where serious chloride cracking problems are anticipated. It also is extremely resistant to corrosion by sea water and most sour waste water treating environments. 3.0 POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT

Residual stresses and changes in metallurgical structure produced by welding and forming particularly in thick walled vessels may render the vessel prone to cracking failure. Therefore, the ASME Code requires post weld heat treatment above the following thicknesses for carbon steel and alloys:     Carbon Steel Carbon Steel -1/2 Mo Chrome, Moly alloys Austenitic Stainless Steel above 1-1/2 inches above 5/8 inches Varies with alloy content not required

See Table UCS-56 of section VIII of the ASME Code for additional information.


Post weld heat treatment is specified for killed carbon steel and carbon steel regardless of code requirements under the following environmental conditions to minimize susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking: 1. Hydrogen Sulfide- Where H2 S is present 2. Hydrofluoric Acid (HF)- Process streams containing any amount of HF acid and boron trifluride (BF3 ) 3. Caustic (NaoH)- Use operating temperature and concentration of NaOH (weight percent) to determine if PWHT is required. Refer to Caustic Soda Service Chart Figure 1. 4. Amines - In MEA or DEA service.


3.3 RESISTANCE TO HYDROGEN Resistance to hydrogen attack must be provided for materials in contact with liquids and vapors containing hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures. The guide used for selecting hydrogen resistant materials is API Publication 941 entitled. ― Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Plants‖. A brief study of the curves in API 941 reveals that the principal alloying elements which impart resistance to elevated temperature hydrogen attack are chromium and molybdenum. The method in which we utilize this API curve is as follows. First, determine the hydrogen partial pressure (psia). Then, using the design temperature for the particular equipment involved, find the point defined by these two valves. For example, for the conditions of 800o F (427oC) and 500 psia hydrogen partial pressure, the point defined is above the carbon steel line and the 0.5 Mo steel line but below the 1 Cr-1/2 Mo Line; therefore, the appropriate minimum alloy Material to resist hydrogen attack would be 1 Cr-1/2 Mo. Alloy steels commonly used to resist high temperature hydrogen attack are as follows: 1 1 3 5 9 Cr-1/2 Mo –1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Cr-1 Mo Cr-1/2 Mo Cr-1/2 Mo

This point identified the appropriate minimum alloys materials to resist hydrogen attack. If the point defined is on a material line, specify the next higher materials.

For determining materials of construction for an oil stream-containing sulfur utilize the curve entitled ― Average Rate Curves for High Temperature Sulfur Corrosion‖. This curve aids in determining corrosion rates for materials in contact with sulfur bearing hydrocarbon streams and is used primarily for crude, vacuum, visbreaker, asphalt oxidizing units and raw oil charge lines to hydrodesulfurizing and hydrocracking units. In using this curve, use the maximum operating temperature of the equipment involved and pick the corresponding corrosion rate for one of the materials listed, then adjust the corrosion rate with a correction factor which leaks into account the wt-%. As one can see from this curve, an increase in chromium content imparts increasing resistance to high temperature sulfur corrosion.


An example using this curve is as follows: A refiner is changing his charge stock to his crude unit from crude containing 0.3 wt-% sulfur to crude containing 1.0 wt-% S. His crude transfer piping is 5 Cr-1/2 Mo and operates at 700oF (371oC) He wants to know what increase in corrosion rate would be experienced. Using the curve, the corrosion rate on 5 Cr-1/2 Mo at 700o F (371oC), and 0.3 wt-% S is 27 MPY (mils per year) which is 0.027 inches per year. For the new conditions of 700oF (371oC) and 1.0 wt-% S, one can expect a rate of 45 MYP which is about 67% higher then the present conditions. For new designs, utilize this crude to predict corrosion rates and adjust the corrosion allowance to satisfy the design life requirement of the particular equipment in questions. Use the maximum anticipated process fluid temperature for corrosion rate determination. The effects of metal wall temperatures on header and heat exchanger tubes must be considered since this can result in either higher or lower anticipated corrosion rate. Carbon steel generally is specified for most equipment to the 500- 550o F (260-288o C) temperature ranges, and the corrosion allowance used is 0.125. When vessels in this service are carbon & improved corrosion resistance is necessary, TP 405 or TP 410 S stainless steel cladding is specified. Depending on the anticipated corrosion rates, header tubes are usually 5 Cr-1/2 Mo or 9 Cr-1 Mo. Piping systems are usually carbon steel and 5 Cr-1/2 Mo with varying corrosion allowances. For large diameter piping (16 ― dia., usually heater transfer lines), an alternative of carbon steel clad with TP 405 or TP 410 S

stainless steel is specified. Heat exchanger tubes are usually of a higher alloy than other equipment since very little corrosion allowance can be incorporated in them. Common exchanger tube alloy materials are 1 ¼ Cr-1/2Mo, 5Cr-1/2Mo, and TP 410 stainless steel.

Hydrochloric (HCL) Where resistance to HCL (formed during processing )must be provided, monel is generally specified. Some examples of this are monel lining in the top of a crude column, monel mesh blankets in Platformer equipment, and monel trim valves in streams handling wet platformer gas. Naphthenic Where resistance to naphthenic acids is required, Type 316 (TP316L for welded components) is used. Generally Type 316 is employed in crude and vacuum units processing crude oils that process acid neutralization numbers (Mg KOH/g crude) over 0.6. The Type 316 is used in areas of IV-15

high velocity where temperatures range from about 450oF (232oC) to 750oF (399oC). The most common areas where Type 316 is employed for naphthenic acid protection is the vacuum column cladding (lining) from about the 500oF (260oC) zone and hotter, the vacuum gas oil sidecut , and possibly the vacuum unit heater tubes and transfer piping. Phosphoric (H2PO4 ) Where resistance to phosphoric acid is required. Type 316 (Type 316 L for welded components) is used. Some examples of this are certain areas of catalytic condensation units (Cumene and Tetramer) where phosphoric acid ―syrup‖ is formed. Hydrofluoric (HF) For resistance to hot HF acid environments and HF acid concentrations below about 60 percent at ambient temperature, monel is employed. Some examples of this (all in the HF Alkylation process) are the acid regenerator, polymer surge drum and the scrubbing section of the relief gas scrubber.

The following is a brief outline of materials of construction other than carbon steel for some of the various process units. 5.1 HYDRODESULPHURISATION UNITS(Hydrobon,Unibon and Hydrocracking ) Criteria for materials selection in these units is primarily resistance to high temperature hydrogen, sulfur, and H2S. Reactors are usually C-1/2 Mo, MN - ½ No, 1 ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, or 3 Cr-1 Mo, lined with TP 405, TP 410S, TP 321 OR TP 347. Reactor charge heater tubes are usually 9 -1 Mo, or TP 347H. Combined feed vs. effluent exchanger tubes are usually Types 410, Type 430 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, 1 ¼ Cr-1//2 Mo, or C1//2 Mo, depending on anticipated corrosion rate at operating temperature. Type 316 L has been specified for tubing in the colder shells of some exchanger trains where an aqueous phase and H2S are present. An example of this is coldest bundle in a hot separator vs. recycle gas exchanger. Reactor circuit piping is 1 ¼ Cr-1//2 Mo, 2 ¼ Cr-1 Mo, 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, or TP 321 or TP 347. Mesh blankets in areas downstream from the reactor circuit are monel or TP 316. With heavier charge stocks that contain nitrogen, TP 316 has been specified where experience has shown severe deterioration of the monel. Exchanger tubing materials are essentially the same as for hydrodesulfurizer units except that TP 316L tubing has been specified in the cold shell of some exchanger trains where an aqueous phase and H2S are present. An example of this would be the coldest bundle in a hot separator vapor vs. recycle gas exchanger. Hot reactor circuit piping is presently specified to be either TP 321 or TP 347 stainless steel. All mesh blankets are specified as


TP 316 stainless steel, with the exception of the make-up gas compressor suction drum if chloride containing gas is being used. For this mesh, we would specify monel. Some gas scrubbers are specified to be lined with TP304L. With a lined scrubber, a TP 304 L lined with TP 405 or TP 410S if the anticipated corrosion rate warrants. Monel valve trim is specified in many areas where aqueous H2S is present.

Monel lining is employed in the upper section (usually the top head and shell through tray four) of the crude column for protection against HCL Corrosion. Type 405 or Type 410S (11.13% Cr) lining is used for resistance to high temperature sulfur corrosion. The entire bottom section of the crude column, up to a zone where the temperatures are in the range of 500-5500 F is lined areas are the same material as the shell lining, i.e. Monel and type 410. Crude heater tubes are either 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, 7 Cr-1/2 Mo or 9 Cr-1 Mo, depending on the anticipated corrosion rate. Heat exchanger tubes are either Type 410 ,5 Cr-1/2 Mo, 1 1/4 Cr-1 Mo, depending on anticipated corrosion rate, taking into consideration that very little corrosion allowance can be added to tubing. Piping is usually 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, or carbon steel with corrosion allowance can be added to tubing.

Piping is usually 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, or carbon steel with corrosion allowances adjusted based on anticipated corrosion rate. Large diameter pipe (16‖ diameter) may be specified as carbon steel clad with Type 405 or Type 410S as an alternate to 5 Cr-1/2 Mo.

The same approach is used for materials selection as in crude units. However, monel is not used in the upper section of the vacuum tower. When naphthenic acids are a consideration, Type 316 (Type 316L for welded Components) stainless steel may be used for the heater tubes , heater transfer piping, vacuum column lining (the bottom section up to and including the zone where the temperature is approximately 500 oF) and the vacuum gas oil circuit.

The same approach is used for materials selection as crude units. The residium stripper and the lower section of the flash fractionator are lined with Type 405 or Type 410S stainless steel. Piping in the hot areas (usually above 550oF (288oC) is 5 Cr-1/2 Mo.

The major considerations for materials selection are corrosion resistance, elevated temperature strength, oxidation and abrasion resistance. The majority of areas where abrasion resistance is required are lined with hexsteel and an abrasion resistant castable. The reactor is 1 Cr-1/2 Mo or 1 ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo lined with Type 405 or Type 410S. The IV-17

regenerator is an internally insulated carbon steel vessel. Regenerator cyclones and internals are Type 304H Materials. The main column is carbon steel in the upper section and 1 Cr-1/2 MO or 1 ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo lined with Type 405 or Types 410S in the lower section. Hot piping around the reactor and regenerator is either Type 304 H or 1 – ¼ Cr1/2 Mo, lined with hexsteel and concrete. Slurry piping is 5 Cr-1/2 Mo. 5.6 CATALYTIC REFORMING (Platforming) The primary concern with selection of construction materials in this unit is resistance to elevated temperature hydrogen. Heater tubes are either 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo or 9 Cr-1 Mo, the latter being used where the tube design temperatures are approximately 1175 oF. At this temperature, the 9 Cr-1 Mo is selected due to its superior oxidation resistance. Reactors are either 1 Cr1/2 Mo, with internals or either Type 316, Type 316L Type 321 or Type 347. The combined feed exchanger is C-1/2 Mo or Mn – ½ Mo, depending on resistance to hydrogen. Mesh blankets, relief valves trim orifice plates and thermowells are Monel.

5.7 HYDRODEALKLATION UNITS (Hydealo) Materials selection is primarily based on high temperature strength and resistance to elevated temperature hydrogen. Reactors are of the cold shell design. They are c-1/2 Mo with an internal lining of 5‖ of insulating refractory with an internal metal shroud of TP 321 or TP 347. Charge heater tubes are TP 347H. The hot reactor circuit piping is TP 316 H. The hot combined feed exchanger is primarily TP 316H except for the hot tube sheet channel and cover which are incoloy 800. Most earlier units were TP 347, but cracking problems in heavy sections prompted the change. The materials of construction for the cold combined feed exchangers are based solely on resistance to high temperature hydrogen and are as usually C- ½ Mo or 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo. 5.8 CATALYTIC CONDENSATION (Cumene and Tetramer) TP 316L stainless steel used in this process for resistance in areas where phosphoric acid syrup can be formed. TP 316L is specified for the following equipment; the effluent rectifier is clad from the feed area down, all the internals in the clad area, the acid knockout drum, the piping from the effluent pressure control valve to the rectifier, and all piping associated with the clad areas of th above vessels. 5.9 AMINE TREATING TP 304L stainless steel is generally used for lining at the feed area of the amine regenerator and for the piping from the control valve just upstream to the regenerator. TP 304 is also used for tubing in the regenerator reboiler and the amine reclaimer. IV-18

5.9.1 Waste-Water Stripping The stripper column is lined in the contact condenser area with TP 316L stainless steel; trays in the lined area are alloy 20 case and impeller; the side cut pump around cooler is specified as titanium or 3003 Al clad tubes and headers. 5.9.2 Hydrogen Plant with a Co2 Removal Unit The reformer furnace tubes are specified to be centrifugally case HK-40 materials due to their excellent high temperature strength properties. The inlet header and pigtails are either 1 – ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo or 1 – ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo depending on temperature. The outlet header and pigtails are Incoloy 800 material. Materials of construction of the remaining equipment in the hydrogen producing section are based on resistance to elevated temperature hydrogen, and usually Cr-1/2 Mo or 1 – ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo material.

In the CO2 removal section, TP-304 stainless is used for the majority of equipment where water and CO2 are present. The absorbing medium used in this process is often a solution of potassium carbonate. When this solution absorbs, CO2, it becomes very corrosive. The CO2-laden solution is referred to as rich solution. The rich solution line from the pressure-reducing valve to the solution stripper is generally constructed of TP304 stainless steel. The top head of the solution stripper is also normally lined with TP304 stainless steel. All streams containing lean or semi-lean or semi-lean (stripped or partially stripped) carbonate solution are specified as carbon steel except that all components smaller than full line size (reducers, valves, and line segments) are TP-304 stainless steel. Pumps handling streams containing carbon-ate solution or CO2 and water are specified with a TP-316 case and impeller.

INSPECTION OF UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. A. B. C. 13. C.1 13. C.2 13. C.3 13. C.4 13. C.5 13. C.6 13. C.7 14. 14.1 14.2 14.3 15. 16. 17. 18. Relevant codes, Standards and basic practices Statutory Regulatory Bodies Definition Types of pressure vessels Criticality of pressure vessels Material of Construction Methods of Construction Typical Attachments Typical Internals Necessary to Inspect the pressure vessel The Frequency of Inspection Causes of Deterioration Methods of Inspection Preparation before Inspection On Stream Inspection nternal Inspection (Inspection During Downtime) Preliminary Visual Inspection Detailed Inspection Inspection of Metallic linings Inspection of Non-Metallic linings Thickness- Measurement Methods Special Methods of Detecting Mechanical Defects Metallurgical Changes and In situ analysis of metals. Testing Hammer Testing Pressure and Vacuum Testing Testing Exchangers Limits of Thickness Methods of Repair Records and Reports Some Checklists for Inspection of Various Types of Pressure Vessels


1. RELEVANT CODES, STANDARDS AND BASIC PRACTICES: DESIGS CODE: ASME SECTION VIII DIV.1. BS 55OO IS 2585 API STANDARD: API 572 API GUIDE - CHAPTER II - Conditions causing deterioration and failures. OISD STANDRD: STD - 128. RELEVANT HP STANDARDS AND OTHER CODES AND STANDARDS. ESSO BP- HPS- V-101 HP-S V-301 Hydro static testing of Unfired pressure vessels. HP-S XVIII- 601- Impact requirements for Materials. HP-S XVIII-701-Inspection of Equipment and Materials. HP S III-204- Pressure relieving devices. HP S III-1601 Flanges, gaskets, Bolting and Fittings HP-S IV- 104 Surge Vibration Design Loads. HP-S IV- 105 Wind Design Loads. HP-S IV- 106 Earthquake Design Loads HP-S-IV-201- Auxiliary structures for operation and maintenance. HP-SV-102-Additional Requirements for Heavy wall Pressure Vessels, thickness over 2 In. HP-S-V-202- Internals for towers and drums. HP-S-XIV-102-Hot service thermal insulation, materials and application. HP-S-XIV-202-Cold service thermal insulation, materials and application. HP-S-XIV- 301- Fire proofing of vessels and structural members. HP-S-XVIII-101-Permissible substitutes for USA Specification materials. HP-S-XVIII-201- Materials for Hydrogen service. HP-S-XVIII-401-Postweld heat treatment of equipment handling alkaline solutions. HP-S-XVIII-501-Acceptance criteria for high strength materials. HP-S-XIX-101-Paint and Protective coatings. HP-S-XIX-201-Metal lining and cladding for pressure vessels. HP-S-XIX-302- Castable linings. HP-S-XIX-601-Facilities for corrosion monitoring in process equipment. ASME SECTION VIII DIV.2- ALTERNAT IVE RULES. ASME SECTION IX Welding Qualifications. ASME SECTION I- POWER BOILERS. API 660,661 TEMA ASTM E 94 Radiographic Testing. ASTM E 21-ELEVATED TEMPERATURE TENTION TESTS OF METALLIC MATERIALS. Welding research supplement, sept. 1951(page 435) Article by L.P.Zick.

Factories Act (Form 13) - 1948 The Maharashtra state factories rules, 1963. SMPV RULE(CCOE). PRESSURE VESSLE MONITORING WITH RESPECT TO STATUTORY BODIES PARTIOISD FACTORY’S ACT-1948 WITH CULARS THE MAHARASHTRA FACTORIES RULES, 1963 STANDARD/ OISD-128 RULE 65. (applicable to pressure CODES vessel & piping) FREQUENCY




Shall be inspected visually once in every turnaround for reactors After 2 years of commissioning for new vessel; once every turnaround for existing vessels. Internal inspection of reactors shall be planned during replacement of catalyst or within ten years. 2 years after commissioning for new vessels; once every turnaround for existing vessels.

Externally once in a period of 6 months once every 5 years

1. Internal examination every 12 months then hydraulic test every 4 years. 2. If by reason of construction internal examination is not possible it may be replaced by hydraulic test once in 2 years. 3. If both internal examination & hydraulic test carried out and provide Chief Inspector certifies that above can not be carried out then a thorough external examination once in two years & thorough systematic NTD tests like UT should be carried out for all the parts once in 4 years.

once every 5 years

3. DEFINATION: “As per ASME SECTION VIII DIV.I, a pressure vessel is the one which is subjected to an internal or external pressure greater 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kilo Pascal)”. 4. Types of pressure vessels are columns, drums, accumulators, spheres bullets, heat exchangers, condensers, coolers, dearators, knock out pots, surge drums, separators, reactors, regenerators, filters etc. Certain uses of pressure vessels are as follows: A. Storage of dangerous and volatile fluids and gases under pressure, like LPG, Naphtha Bombay high gas, Gasoline etc. B. Thermal reactor or catalytic reactor - to contain the chemical change required by a process.

C. Catalytic regenerator-to rejuvenate catalyst. D. Fractionator - to separate various products with respect to condensing temperature E. Separators- to separate gases from fluids. F. Heat exchangers/ condensers/coolers-for cooling/heating a stream/ generating steam. G. Setners - to separate chemical from a treated product. H. Surge drums- to collect and store feed for various units. 5. CRITICIALITY OF PRESSURE VESSELS: In a refinery most or all of the above equipment are used for processing the crude and allied products. Critically of equipment depends on various aspects like service (with respect volatility), corrosively of the product inside etc. Inspection of the pressure shall be classified with respect to following critical aspects: a. Equipment in highly critical service (failure of which leads to hazard and unsafe environment - viz. naphtha, LPG, Gasoline and other lighter hydrocarbons, especially in high pressure). Critically shall be rated top most for such vessels, depending on internal and the environment condition. b. Equipment that is most critical for operation, i.e. failure of which leads to plant shutdown (like atmos / VDU columns, overhead distillate drums, preheat exchanger that can not be bypassed, blowdown drums etc.) c. Equipment that are not critical with respect to hazard, but critical with respect operations (like air receivers, low pressure gas knock out drums etc.) d. Equipment that have a history of internal corrosion. e. Equipment that is placed in corrosive environment (like in the vicinity of cooling towers etc. f. Equipment that is in non –critical service (like utilities), failure of which does not affect the production directly or equipment that can be spared or equipment that have spares. 6. Material of construction are generally carbon steel (ASTM A 515 GR. 60/70, ASTM A 516 GR. 60/70, ASTM A 285 GR. C, IS 2002 GR. A etc.), Austenitic stainless steels (ASTM A 240 TYPE 304L ETC.). Metallic lined steels (ASTM A 515 GR. 60 LINED WITH ASTM A 410 S cladding, i.e., ASTM A 263 etc.) non metallic lined steels (like refractory lined, rubber/ PTFE lined vessels etc.), duplex steels etc. 7. Method of construction: Riveting, welding, hot forging, multi layered construction etc. 8. The following are typical attachments that a process vessel may have: NOZZLES. MANHEADS, RELIEF VALVES, STIFFENING RINGS, SKIRT SUPPORTS, SADLE SUPPORTS, FOUNDATIONS, VALVES, PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE/ LEVEL INDICATGORS, STRUCTURAL etc.

9. The following are typical internals that a pressure vessel may have: SIEVE TRAYS, SUPERFRAC TRAYS, BAFFLES, MESHES, PACKING GRIDS, DEMISTER PADS, CATALYST BED SUPPORTS, AIR BLOWING GRIDS, BUBBLE CAPS, CHIMNEY TRAYS, VALVE TRAYS, DEMISTER PADS, PIPE COILS, DISTRUBUTION HEADERS, CYCLONES, DOWNCOMERS, DRAW OFF BOXES, PARTITION PLATES, TRAY SUPPORT RINGS, BOLTING BARS, VORTEX BREAKERS, HARD WARE etc. 10. i. ii. iii. iv. v. It is necessary to inspect the pressure vessel for the following: to determine physical condition, analyze causes of deterioration, Safety, Continuity of operation, Reliability of operation.

11. The frequency of inspection is decided by one or a combination of the following factors: a. Rate of deterioration b. Remaining corrosion allowance c. Insurance requirements d. Local regulatory bodies e. Changer in service f. Operation needs g. Past records. h. Other factors. The opportunity for inspection of vessel can be obtained while cleaning during planned Shutdowns or during the downtime due to other reasons. However, disregarding the service, all new vessels shall be inspected within 2 years of operation. Thereafter, the periods of future inspection shall be scheduled on the basis of established corrosion rates, the type of service, remaining corrosion allowance and the life expectancy. The frequency of inspection shall be determined based on history, corrosiveness of the fluid handled and operating condition. The periods between inspections shall be determined so that minimum corrosion allowance remains for the next run. In any case, statutory regulations shall be followed with respect to the inspection of vessels. Internal inspection of all the columns and vessels installed in battery area shall be done during scheduled turnarounds, unless inspection observations and corrosion rates dictate otherwise. Other pressure vessels installed in offside shall be internally inspected at the time when these are due for hydrostatic test as per statutory requirements. 12. Causes of deterioration: The main reasons for the deterioration of a pressure vessel are:

a. b. c. d. e. f.


13. METHODS OF INSPECTION : A. PREPARATION BEFORE INSPECTION B. ON STREAM INSPECTION C. INSPECTION DURING DOWNTIME. A. PREPARATION BEFORE INSPECTION: An inspector shall have a thorough knowledge of operating parameters of the vessel. He shall be well versed with the plant, operating stream of the vessel, P & I diagram, and criticality of the vessel. Thorough review of engineering drawing and the design data is necessary. Inspector also shall have a fair knowledge of the history of the vessel, the failure records etc. If the vessel has faced any abnormal conditions during operations, same shall be noted down. A fair knowledge of previous thickness readings and available thickness also shall be acquired, before inspecting the vessel. B. ON STREAM INSPECTION: On stream inspection of the vessel shall be done at least once between two turnarounds. This is the vital in since that the external condition of the vessel can be assessed while the vessel is in operation itself. Any abnormalities / necessary rectification required shall be carefully recorded, so that the same information can be accessed while inspecting the vessel during shutdowns. The on stream inspection forms a basis for internal inspection, in case of bare vessels that can be thickness gaged on stream (in fairly moderate operating temperatures). Even though it is not a prime responsibility, inspector shall have a hands on control over important and critical operating parameters like operating temperatures (eg. High temperatures in cyclones of region / reactors denote refractory failure), operating pressures, overhead temperature of CDU column (to have a check against condensation of Hcl, which is prime reagent for corrosion of carbon steel), pH boot water overhead distillates drum of CDU (same reason as above), Caustic injection before desalter, PTB levels of crude after desalter, Ammonia/amine injection etc. Failure of operations to adhere to one or combination of the above operating

parameters may lead to internal corrosion of vessels, hence inspector shall have adequate knowledge about day to day operation and process. During on stream inspection, the following aspects shall be borne in mind: i) Visual inspection - to notice any abnormality, like bulging, vibration of associated piping/structural imposing stresses on vessel, swaying of vessel, external pitting, condition of insulation, scaling, discoloration / peeling of paint (denotes hot spot in case of refractory lined vessels), leakage, condition of pressure indicators, hydrogen blisters etc. ii) Foundations, foundation bolts shall be carefully examined for deterioration. Cracks in foundation shall be reported and corrosion of foundation bolts shall be looked for. In the event of cracks in foundation, internal condition of reinforcement may further be investigated. The nuts of foundation bolts shall be examined to see whether the nuts are properly tightened. The anchor bolts shall examined for deterioration. The area of contact between the bolts and any concrete or steel should be scraped and closely examined for corrosion. Distortion of anchor bolts may indicate serious foundation settlement. iii) Condition of insulation shall be visually examined - failure of insulation may lead to energy loss. Water ingress into insulation because of failure of insulation eventually. iv) Leads to the formation of scaling aided by corrosion. Vessels in moderate temperature in the range of 50 to 150 deg C yet insulated for process / safety reasons shall be given prime importance, as in this temperature failure of insulation and resultant water entrapment inside the insulation can create havoc for the base metal. There are many evidences that pressure vessel had to be prematurely retired because of severe metal loss/leak because of external corrosion caused by water retained inside insulation. v) Condition of painting shall be examined, as paint is a form of corrosion protection form environment. Failure of paint shall be reported. Inc case of lined vessels failure of paint (hot spot) is an indication of failure of internal lining (refractory lining/cement lining etc.) vi) Skirts & steel supports, saddle crevices shall be carefully examined for evident of corrosion. Skirts which are fire proofed are prone for hidden corrosion in the event of cracks in fire proofing and subsequent ingress of water into the fire proofing. The cracks in fireproofing are avenues for water ingress. There are many cases that the skirt was found severely pitted and perforated after fire proofing is opened. Condition of water seal ring above fire proofing shall be inspected. Support structure shall be inspected for external corrosion and sagging. Judgment shall be made weather the support is adequately taking the load of the vessel. Saddle crevice/supports pads are a sensitive zone in case not seal welded, where water entrapment can again cause external corrosion of vessel.


viii) ix)


xi) xii)

xiii) xiv) xv)

Fireproofing shall be examined for failure like spalling, cracks, fissures, bulging etc. Failure of the fire proofing is not only unsafe for the vessel (in the event of fire in the vicinity of vessel), but also unhealthy for the structure as explained above. If moisture can get behind the fireproofing, the steel may corrode and cause the fireproofing to bulge. The bulge in fireproofing would indicate the corrosion. Rust stains on the surface of fireproofing would indicate possible corrosion of the metal underneath. Associated structural, piping and nozzles shall be inspected for external corrosion, vibration, leakage etc. Nozzles and small connections shall be visually inspected and thickness surveyed. 2‖ dia and smaller nozzles shall be tested by hammer testing, as thickness gaging is not practical. Special attention is to be given to the nipples that are attached to pressure and temperature gages. The nipples of lined nozzles shall be carefully examined for the evidence of leaks. If there is a leak, it means the liner is damaged. Elaborate testing needs to be done during downtime, to locate the failure in and to carry out necessary repairs. Exposed gasket surfaces should be checked for scoring and corrosion. Grooves of ring joint flanges should be checked for cracks due to excessive bolt tightening. Also, stainless steel ring joint grooves should be checked for stress corrosion cracking. Excessive pipeline expansions, internal explosions, earthquakes and fires may damage piping connections. Flange faces may be checked by flange square for distortion. If there is any evidence of distortion or cracks in the area around the nozzles, all seams and shell in this area should be examined for cracks. Catalytic reformer equipment operating at temp. of more than 900 deg F may experience creep embitterment damage during operation. Ultrasonic thickness measurement at predetermined sports shall be carried out to visualize the internal condition of the vessel. In the case of hot vessels, high temperature probes and couplants may be used. The values shall be recorded and any losses should be analyzed, after comparison with previous reading, and appropriate action - such as renewal if thickness is near or at the minimum, consideration of lining installation if feasible, monitoring at shorter internals, and use of corrosion inhibitors-should be taken. Radiography may be carried out in selective locations, to find out plugging/ internal deposits etc. Thermography may be carried out on lined vessel like FCCU regenerator, reactor etc. at regular frequencies, to asses the condition of internal refractory and mark the failure areas. Thermography of insulated vessel may reveal the damage spots of insulation. Other NDTs like ultrasonic flaw detection, MPI etc. may be carried out as the necessity arises. If the vessels are supported by guy wires, visual inspection shall be carried out to examine the condition of tightness and correct tension, both at the tower point ant ground point. Grounding connections shall be visually examined to see that good electrical contact is maintained these connections provide path for the harmless discharge of lighting or static electricity into ground.


Opportunity for internal inspection arises during shutdowns and turnaround. Before venturing internal inspection, the inspector has to have a fair knowledge of the equipment. Thorough review of engineering drawing, design parameters, service details, and past history has to be carried out, to have a predetermined opinion about the vessel being inspected. Appraisal of the above details enables inspector to visualize the areas to be concentrated more and the behavior of the vessel. After the entry permit is obtained, it is preferable to have a cursory internal examination of the vessel, to broadly know the abnormalities, if any viz. collapsing of trays, perforation of internals, bulging, heavy areas of scaling, deposits etc. Such areas are to be noted down and to be concentrated more while doing detailed inspection. This preliminary inspection also enables an inspector to visualize the type and form of attack. For e.g. the upper shells top heads of the fractionation and distillation towers are sometimes subject to chloride attack. The liquid level lines at trays in towers and in the bottom of overhead accumulators are points of concentrated attack. 13.C.1. PRELIMINARY VISUAL INSPECTION If an inspection is not the initial one, the first step in an internal inspection is to be review the previous records of the vessel to be inspected. When possible, a preliminary general visual inspection is the next step. The type of corrosion (pitted or uniform), its location, and any other obvious data should be established. In refinery process vessels, certain areas corrosion is covered in detail by API recommended practice 571. Data collected for vessels in similar service will aid in locating and analyzing corrosion in the vessels being inspected. The bottom head and shell of fractionators processing high sulphur crude oils are susceptible to sulfide corrosion. This corrosion will usually be most intense around the inlet lines. The upper shells and the top heads of the fractionation and distillation towers are sometimes subject to chloride attack. The liquid level lines at trays in towers and in the bottom overhead accumulators are points of concentrated attack. Corrosion in the form of grooving will often be found at these locations Fractionation and distillation towers, knockout drums, reflux accumulators, exchanger shell and other related vessels that are vulnerable to wet hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or cyanides are subject to cracks in their weld and in the heat affected zones of the welds. In vessels where sludge may settle out, concentration cell corrosion sometimes occurs. The areas contacted by the sludge are most susceptible to corrosion. If the sludge contains acidic components, this corrosion may be rapid.

If the steam is injected into a vessel, corrosion and erosion may occur at places directly opposite the steam inlet. Bottom heads and pockets that can collect condensate are also likely to be corroded. Often a reboiler will be used at the bottom of a tower to maintain a desired temperature. The point where the hot process stream returns to the tower may be noticeably corroded. This is especially true if the process steam contains components that may decompose with heat and form acid compounds, as in alkylation units and soap or detergent plants. Because of metallurgical changes caused by the heat of welding at welded seems and adjacent areas, corrosion often vessels will be found in the areas. Areas opposite steams may be subject to impingement attack or erosion. Vessels in water service, such as exchangers or coolers, are subjected to maximum corrosion where is in the tubes of an exchanger, the outlet side of the channel will be most corroded. Figure 1 shows pitting in a channel. In any type of vessel, corrosion may occur where dissimilar metals are in close contact. The less noble of the metals will corrode. A carbon steel exchanger channel ‘s gasket surface near brass tube sheets will often corrode at a higher rate than it elsewhere. Cracks in vessels are most likely to occur where there are sharp changes in shape or size or near welded seams, especially if a high stress is applied. Nozzles, exchanger channel and shell cover flanges, baffles in exchanger channels, floating tube-sheet covers and the like should be checked for cracks. When materials flow at high velocities in exchanger units, an accelerated attack can be expected if changes are made in the direction of flow. Tube inlets in tubular units, return bends in double-pipe units, condenser box or air cooler coils are likely to be attacked. Shells of vessels adjacent to inlet impingement plates are susceptible to erosion. This is especially true when velocities are high. The preliminary inspection of the vessel interior may indicate that additional cleaning is needed. If large areas are deeply corroded, abrasive blasting may be necessary. Normally, it is not necessary to remove light coatings of rust on more than a spot basis with a wire brush. 13 C 2. DETAILED INSPECTION A detailed inspection should start at one end of the vessel and work toward the other end. A systematic procedure should be followed to avoid overlooking obscure but important items.

All parts of the vessel should be inspected for corrosion, erosion, hydrogen blistering, deformation, cracking, and laminations. A careful record should be made of the types and locations of all deterioration found. Thickness measurements should be taken at those locations that show the most deterioration. When deterioration appears to be widespread, enough readings should be taken to assure an accurate determination of the remaining thickness. When deterioration is slight one thickness measurement on each head and shell may be sufficient on small vessels, but more measurement should be taken on large vessels. Ultrasonic instruments can be used to obtain the necessary measurements. Other special methods of measuring wall thickness are discussed in 13 C.5. Pitting corrosion can usually be found by scratching suspected areas with a pointed scraper. When extensive and deep pitting or grooving is found, and depth measurements are wanted, the areas may have to be abrasive blasted. The depths of pits or grooves can be measured with a depth gauge, a pit gauge, or (in the case of large pits or wide grooves) a straightedge and a steel rule. A depth can be estimated by extending the lead of a mechanical pencil as a depth gauge. Depressions or pockets that can hold sludge or water should be scrapped clean and carefully examined for evidence of corrosion. A hammer can be used to inspect for thin areas of vessel shell, nozzle, and parts. Naturally experience is needed before the hammer can be used effectively. When striking the shell nozzle or part an experienced inspector can often find thin spots by listening to the resulting sound and by noting the feel of the hammer as it strikes. When cracks are suspected or found, their extent can be checked with dye-penetrate, magnetic-piratical (wet or dry), or ultrasonic shear-wave inspection methods. To use any of these methods effectively, the suspected areas must be prepared by abrasive blasting, grinding, or other methods acceptable to the inspector. Figure 2 shows a crack in a shell weld. Welded seams in vessel shells should be closely checked when the service is amine, wet hydrogen sulfide (H2S), caustic, ammonia, cyclic, high temperature, or another service that may promote cracks. In addition, welds in vessels constructed of highstrength steels(above70,000 psi tensile) or coarse grain steels should be checked. Welds in vessels constructed of low-chrome materials and in high-temperature service should receive careful inspection. In all cases, cracks may occur in or adjacent to the welded seams. The wet fluorescent, magnetic – particle technique should be considered the best means of locating surface indications. Nozzles connected to the vessel should be visually examined for internal corrosion. The wall thickness of nozzles can best be obtained with ultrasonic instruments. In some cases, a record of inside diameter measurements of nozzles may be desirable. These measurements can be made with a pair of internal, spring- type transfer calipers or with direct-reading, scissors-type, inside diameter calipers. When the

piping is disconnected, actual nozzle wall thicknesses can be obtained by callipering around the flange. In this way, any eccentric corrosion of the nozzle will be revealed. In most instance, inspection of internal equipment should be made when adjacent shell areas are inspected. This may be very difficult in some large vessels. The supports for trays, baffles, screens, grids, piping, internal stiffeners, and other internal equipment should be inspected carefully. Most of this inspection will be visual. Light tapping with a hammer can be used as a check for soundness. If there appears to be any metal loss, the thickness of the support should be measured and checked against the original thickness. Transfer or direct-reading calipers, micrometers, or ultrasonic thickness instruments can be used for these measurements. The general condition of trays and related equipment should be noted. Shell and tray surface in contact with tray packing should be examined for possible loss of metal by corrosion. The condition of trays and related equipment will not affect the strength of vessel but will affect the efficiency and continuity of operation. Normally only visual inspection will be required for such equipment. If measurements are required, they can be obtained with calipers or ultrasonic instruments. The performance of some trays depends on the amount of leakage. If tray leakage is appreciable, then efficiency is lost, and the withdrawal of side steams from the tower or vessel may be almost impossible. Therefore, trays leakage. should be minimized. The process design will usually specify the amount of leakage that can be tolerated. Tests for leakage may be made filling the tray with water to the height of the overflow weir and observing the time it takes for all of the water to leak through the gasket surfaces of the tray. Excessive leaks can be located by observing the underside of the tray during the test. If the low sections of the tray prior to the test. Because of their design, ballast and valve-type trays can not checked for leakage. All internal piping should be thoroughly inspected visually, especially at threaded connections. Hammer testing of the pipe by an experienced inspector is a quick way to determine its condition. The sound, the feel, and any indentation will indicate any thinness or cracking in the pipe. If excessive metal loss is indicated, the remaining wall thickness may be measured. The internals of vessels such as catalytic reactors are very complicated. Figure 3 is an illustration of the internal equipment. Inspection of this equipment may be mostly visual, although some scraping. Picking and tapping may be necessary. Thickness measurements and corrosion rate calculation may be required in some area although operating efficiency rather than strength is the most important consideration. Erosion usually differs in appearance from corrosion, figure 4 shows erosion and figure 5 shows erosion corrosion. Erosion is characterized by a smooth, bright appearance; marked absence of the erosion product and metal loss, usually confined to a clearly marked local area. On the other hand, corroded areas (see figure 6) are not often smooth or bright. See the following notes for corrosion and erosion.

CORROSION: Corrosion is the prime cause of deterioration in a pressure vessel and may occur on any part of the vessel. The severity of the deterioration is influenced by the concentration, temperature, and nature of the corrosive agents in the fluid and by the corrosion resistance of the construction materials. API Recommended Practice 571 covers corrosion in detail. The most common internal corrodents in refineries are sulfur and chloride components Caustics, inorganic acids, organic acids, water (especially water with a low pH), deposits or cellular attack chemicals, and other chemicals used in a particular process may also corrode vessels. Figure 7 shows stress–corrosion cracking caused by a caustic. Figure 8 shows severe graphitic corrosion of a floating-head cover. Figure 9 and fig 10 show plug-type and layer-type dezincification of exchanger tubes. Figure 11 and 12 show fouling with and corrosion beneath marine growth. External corrosion, especially under insulation, varies with atmospheric conditions and increases with humidity. It is often accelerated by contaminants in the atmosphere. Atmospheric conditions in industrial areas and seashore locations are especially corrosive. EROSION: Erosion is the attrition of a surface from the impingement of solid particles or liquid drops on the surface. It is usually found where restrictions in flow, changes in direction, of disturbances result in local high velocities. Erosions typically found at inlet and outlet nozzles, on internal piping, on grid or tray sections, on vessel walls opposite inlet nozzles, on internal support beams, and on impingement baffles. API RP 571 covers erosion in detail. Occasionally, corrosion and erosion combine to increase rates of deterioration. The combination of corrosion and erosion may occur opposite nozzles in the bottom of fractionators of fluid catalytic cracking units. Figure 6 and 4 illustrate corrosion and erosion. Figure 5 illustrates condensate grooving of an exchange tube in the area adjoining tube sheet; it also shows a combination erosion and corrosion. API RP 571 covers erosion-corrosion in detail. The shells of exchangers next to bundle baffles and inlet impingement plates should be checked for erosion. Turbulence near the impingement plate and increase velocity around exchanger bundle baffles sometimes cause erosion of the adjacent shell areas. Erosion or corrosion at the baffles of exchangers will often show up as a series of regularly spaced rings when a flashlight beam is directed parallel to the shell surface. Sometimes, a lack of scale will indicate this type of erosion. Erosion occurs not only in exchangers but in any vessel that has wear plates, baffles, or impingement plates. In catalytic reactors and regenerators, the catalyst and air

distribution facilities are especially susceptible to erosion and should be examined closely for this type of attack. Areas directly above or below the liquid level in vessels containing acidic corrodents are subject to hydrogen blistering. Blisters are most easily found by visual examination. A flashlight beam directed across the metal surface will sometimes reveal blisters: the shadows created by the blisters can be observed. When many small blisters occur, they can often be found by running fig over the metal surface. The metal thickness of large blisters should be measured so the remaining effective wall thickness can be determined. Usually this can be done with an ultrasonic thickness instrument or by drilling a hole at the highest point of the blister and measuring the thickness with a hook scale. If size must allow a transducer to be placed on it for an ultrasonic test (UT) reading. Also, if the blister is near a weld, a UT reading may be difficult because of the weld roughness. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate hydrogen blistering. Both the shell and the heads of a vessel should be inspected for deformation. Normally the shell is more likely to suffer deformation than the heads. However, some older vessels have heads formed with a small knuckle radius, which may be seriously deformed. Unless dimensions of head parts, such as the crown radius or the knuckle radius, are already on record, these dimensions should be taken and recorded at the time of the first inspection. If deformation is suspected or indicated later, these measurements should be repeated and compared with the original values. Excessive deformation of the shell by either bulging or collapsing can usually be detected visually form the outside of the vessel, unless it is externally insulated. Outof-roundness or bulging may be evaluated by measuring the inside diameter of the vessel at the cross section of minimum deformation and comparing it with the inside diameter at the cross section of minimum deformation. Exchanger shells should be checked closely for any deformation, particularly after repairs or alterations. Out-of-roundness caused by welding can make installations of tube bundles extremely difficult, and extractions after difficult installations can be nearly impossible. If the out-of-roundness occurs at intervals throughout the length of the vessel, measurements should be taken at each interval to compare with the original shall dimensions or measurements. In this case, the center wire method or the plumb line (or optical plummet) method can be used to measure the deformation. In the center wire method, a steel wire is positioned on the centerline of the vessel and stetted taut. If no manways or nozzles exist in the centers of the heads, a plumb line or optical plummet may be used. When the deformation is restricted to one side of the vessel, it may be more convenient to measure offsets from a wire stretched parallel and adjacent to the wall rather than along the vessel axis (as in the method shown in Figure 13, but with the brackets and wire inside the shell instead of outside). In horizontal vessels, some special method may be required to hold the wire in position. The wire furnishes a reference line from which to measure the deformation. Sufficient measurements can be taken at intervals along the wire to permit drawing a profile

view of the vessel wall. local deformation can sometimes be measured by placing a straightedge parallel to the vessel axis against the vessel wall and using a steel rule to measure the extent of bulging. The best method of locating suspected deformation is to direct a flashlight beam parallel to the surface. Shadows will appear in depression and on the unlighted side of internal bulges. A careful inspection should be made be for evidence of cracking. A strong light and magnifying glass will be helpful when doing this work visually. If cracking is suspected or any evidence of cracking is fond using visual means, a more thorough method of locating surface cracking is the wet fluorescent magnetic-particle method. Other voluble methods are the dry magnetic-particle, dye-penetrate, ultrasonic, and radiographic methods. Vessels containing amines (absorbers, accumulators, coalescers, condensers, coolers contractors, extractors, filter vessels, flash drum, knockout drums, reactivators, reboilers, reclaimers, regenerators, scrubbers, separators, settlers, skimmers sour gas drum stills, strippers, surge tanks, treating towers, and treated fuel gas drums) are subject to cracks in their welds and the heat-affected zones of the welds. Wet fluorescent magnetic-particle testing is a very sensitive inspection method of detecting surface cracks and discontinuities and is the primary recommended inspection method. See API publication 945 for more detailed information. Deaerators on boilers should have their welds and heat affected zones checked for possible deaerator cracking. Wet fluorescent magnetic-particle testing is the primary recommended inspection method. Supports are almost always welded to the shell. The point of attachment should also be checked closely for cracks. Usually, visual inspection with the aid of light, a magnifying glass a scraper, and a brush is sufficient for this examination. The attachment points of baffles to exchanger channels and heads should also be checked closely for cracks. Usually, visual inspection with the aid of a light, magnifying glass, a scarper, and a brush is sufficient. Laminations in vessel plates have an appearance similar to cracks, but they run at a slant to the plate surface, while cracks run at right angles to the surface. If open sufficiently for a thin feeler to be inserted, the angle of the lamination can be observed. If a lamination is suspected but not open enough for a feeler to be inserted, heating to approximately 2000 F (750 c) with a torch will usually cause the edge of the lamination to lip upward. In many cases, an ultrasonic flaw detector may be used to trace the lamination. 13. C. 3 INSPECTION OF METALLIC LININGS Many vessels are provided with metallic linings. The primary purpose of these lining is to protect the vessels from the effects of corrosion or erosion. The most important conditions to check for the when examining lining are the following: a. That there is no corrosion.

b. That the linings are properly installed. c. That no holes of cracks exist. Special attention should be given to the welds at nozzles or other attachments. A careful visual examination is usually all that is required when checking a lining for corrosion. Light hammer taps will often disclose loose lining or heavily corroded sections. If corrosion has occurred, it may be necessary to obtain measurements of the remaining thickness. Unless the surface of the lining is relatively rough, these measurements can be made with the ultrasonic thickness-measuring instrument. Another method of checking the thickness of the lining is to remove a small section and check it with calipers. This method provides an opportunity to inspect the surface of the shell behind the lining. Small 1-by 2 inch (2.5 by 5.0-centimeter) tabs of lining that from a right angle with one leg extending into the vessel may be welded on the lining. The thickness of the protruding leg should be measured at each inspection. Since both sides of the tab are exposed to corrosive action, the loss in thickness would be twice that of the shell lining where only one side is exposed. This permits a fairly accurate check of any general corrosion of the lining. Figure 14 illustrates this lining inspection method. Cracks in metallic lining can usually be located by visual inspection and light hammering. A cracked section of a liner or a loose liner gives a special tinny sound when tapped with a hammer. If cracking is expected, dye-penetrate methods may be used to supplement visual inspection. With the exception of the straight chrome steels, most of the materials used as linings are primarily nonmagnetic, Magnetic particle inspection can be used on austenitic materials. If cracks are found in a clad liner or an arc-welded liner, the cracked areas should be checked to insure that the cracks do not extend beyond the cladding and in to the base metal or parent metal. Bulges and buckling often occur in metallic lining and usually indicate that cracks or leaks exist in the bulged section of the lining or that pin holes exist in the adjacent welding. The bulges are formed either by the expansion or buildup of a material that seeps behind the lining during operation or by differential expansion. If material seeps behind the lining during operation and can not escape when the vessel pressure is reduced for a shutdown the lining bulge. In vacuum service the lining might bulge in service and depress when the vessel is shutdown. This condition may actually wrinkle the lining. When bulges of wrinkling become excessive, it may be necessary to inspect the lining for cracks or pin holes that can be repaired or to replace the lining Figure 15 illustrates the deterioration of strip welded linings. Where a lining leaks, weather corrosion has taken place behind the lining should be determined. In some cases, ultrasonic testing from outside may be used. Removal of representative lining sections to permit visual examinations of the vessel wall is always preferred if feasible.

Many reactors in hydrogen service, such as hydro crackers, use completed weld overlay that uses stabilized austenitic stainless steel welded rods or wire as a liner instead of plug- or strip-welded or clad plate. Disbanding from the parent metal can be a problem with this type of lining. Ultrasonic testing, visual checking for bulges, and light tapping with a hammer can reveal this problem. 13.C.4 INSPECTION OF NON-METALLIC LINING. There are various kinds of nonmetallic lining: glass plastic, rubber, ceramic, concrete, refractory and carbon block of brick linings. These materials are used most often for corrosion resistance. Some forms of refractory concrete are used as an internal insulation to keep down the shell temperature of vessels operating at high temperature refractory tile is also used for insulation. The effectiveness of these lining in lessening corrosion is appreciably reduced by breaks in the film or coatings. For the most part, inspection should consist of a visual examination for discontinuities in the coatings. These breaks are sometimes called holidays. Bulging, blistering, and chipping are all indications that openings exist in the lining. The spark tester method of inspection for leaks in paint, glass, plastic and rubber linings is quite thorough. A high-voltage, low-current, brush-type electrode is passed over the nonconductive lining. The other end of the circuit is attached to the shell of the vessel. An electric arc will from between the brush electrode and the vessel shell through any holes in the lining. This method can not be used for concrete, brick, tile, or refractory linings.


The voltage used in this inspection method should not exceed the dielectric strength of the coating. Considerable care should be exercised when working inside vessels lined with glass, rubber, plastic sheets, or paints. These coatings are highly susceptible to mechanical damage. Glass-lined vessels are especially susceptible to damage and are costly and hard to repair. Concrete and refractory linings may spall and crack in service. Inspection of these linings should be mostly visual. Mechanical damage, such as spalling and large cracks, can be readily seen. Figure 16 illustrates the deterioration of a refractory-tile lining. Minor cracks and crack areas of porosity are more difficult to find. Light scraping will sometimes reveal such conditions. Bulging can be located visually and is usually accompanied by cracking. In most cases, if corrosion occurs behind a concrete lining, the lining will lose its bond with the steel. The sound and feel of light hammer tapping will usually makes such looseness evident. If corrosion behind a lining is suspected, small sections if the lining may be removed. This permits an inspection of the shell and a cross sectional examination of lining. Some refractory-tile linings are hung with a blanket of ceramic fiber or another insulation between the shell and the tile. Broken or missing tiles create lanes for the channeling of any fluid that gets behind the lining. This results in the washing away of some of the insulation. Inspection of the lining should include a visual inspection of the insulation in the vicinity of broken or missing tile and may be done by removing enough tiles to disclose damaged areas.

In all cases where bare metal has been exposed because of lining failures, a visual inspection should be made of the exposed metal. If corrosion has taken place, the remaining wall thickness should be measured. Ultrasonic instruments are best suited for this measurement. Internally insulated vessels are sometimes subject to severe corrosion due to condensation on the shell behind the insulation during operation. If the shell-metal temperatures are near the calculated dew point of the process steam, shell corrosion should be suspected, and the shell should be checked. A frequently used corrective measure is to reduce the internal insulation or to add extra external insulation. Precautions should be taken to assure that design metal temperatures are not exceeded when these measures are used. 13.C.5 THICKNESS-MEASURING METHODS There are many tools designed for measuring metal thickness. The selection of tools used will depend on several factors. a. b. c. d. e. The The The The The accessibility to both sides of the areas to be measured. desire for nondestructive methods time available accuracy desired. economy of the situation.

Ultrasonic instruments are now the primary means of obtaining thickness measurements on equipments. Radiography may also be used in a limited way to determine the thicknesses of visual parts such as nozzles and connecting buttons, and the use of test holes may be applied at some special locations, but these methods have generally been replaced by more modern methods of thickness gauging such as ultrasonic. Ultrasonic inspection, both for thickness measurement and for flaw detection, represents and important technique of nondestructive inspection. The technique is fast, providing instantaneous results in most cases, mechanical vibrations for measurement, analysis, or test purpose are generated by electromechanical transducers. The thickness is gauged by the instrument‘s ability to accurately measure the time of returning echoes (sound vibration). The acoustic velocities of most materials used in the in the petroleum and chemical industries are known. With the knowledge of the time of acoustic travel and the material‘s acoustic velocity, an accurate thickness may be determined. Radiographs are taken with a step gauge of known thickness that will show on the developed film of the vessel part in question. By comparing the thickness of the step gauge on film to the thickness of the part on film, the part thickness may be determined.

Corrosion buttons or plugs are fabricated from materials highly resistant to corrosion and are fastened to the vessel wall in sets of two. Losses in thickness are obtained by placing a steel straightedge on the two plugs and measuring the distance from the bottom of the straightedge to the surface of the vessel. Where the corroded surface is very rough, test holes through the vessel wall may be used to determine thickness. Depth drilling is used in a similar way to determine corrosion rates. In this method a hole is drilled in the vessel wall where the most corrosion is expected. The depth from the bottom of the hole to the inside surface of the vessel is measured with a depth gauge. Further readings taken at subsequent inspections will permit calculation of the corrosion loss. Between readings, a corrosion-resistant plug is screwed into the hole to protect the bottom of the from corrosion. 13.C.6 SPECIAL METHODS OF DETECTING MECHANICAL DEFECTS. Visual examination will reveal most mechanical defects. Magnetic-particle (wet or dry) and dye-penetrant methods may be useful and have been discussed in preceding text. Other methods, such as radiography, shear-wave ultrasonics, etching, and sample removal are available and may be used when conditions warrant. Radiography and shear-wave ultrasonic are used to analyze defects, usually in welded seams, that are not visible on the surface of the metal. Etching of small areas may sometimes be used to find small surface cracks. First, the surface must be abrasive–grit blasted clean. Then, etching solution, usually an acid is used to wash the suspected area. Because of the nature of the resulting reaction, any cracks will stand out in contrast to the surrounding area. Sample removal can be used to spot check welds and to investigate cracks, laminations, and other flaws. Small metal samples from the effected area are removed with a trepan or weld probe tools. The sample is then analyzed under a microscope or with an ordinary magnifying glass. If they can be adequately cleaned, the fillings obtained during the cutting operation may be used in making a chemical analysis of the metal. The hole left in the vessel wall by sample removal must be carefully repaired, and the repair must be thoroughly inspected. The decision to remove samples should be made by someone who knows how to analyze the problems related to the repair of the sample holes. 13.C.7 METALLURGICAL CHANGES AND IN-SITU ANALYSIS OF METALS. The methods used to detect mechanical changes can also be used to detect metallurgical changes. In-place metallography can be used to detect these changes with portable polishing equipment and using replica transfer techniques. Hardness, chemical spot, and magnetic test are three other methods of detecting metallurgical changes.

Portable hardness testers can be used to detect the effects of faulty heat- treating, carburization, nitrating, decarburization and other processes that causes changes in hardness. Local chemical tests are most often used to detect the installation of materials other than those specified. Chemicals such as nitric acid in various concentrations are used. A spot is cleaned on the metal surface and a drop of a chemical is place on the surface. An experienced observer can observe the reactions to the acid of the metal being tested and identify the metal. Eddy-current, x-ray fluorescence, radiation, and portable light- emission spectroscopic instruments are also used for metal identification. Because normally nonmagnetic steel usually becomes magnetic when carbonized, carbonization of austenitic stainless steel can sometimes be detected by a magnet. 14. TESTING 14.1.1 HAMMER TESTING

In hammer testing, an inspector‘s hammer is used to supplement visual inspection. The hammer is used to do the following jobs: a. b. c. d. e. To To To To To locate thin sections in vessel walls, heads and attachments. check tightness of rivets, bolts, brackets, and the like. check for cracks in metallic linings. check for lack of bond in concrete or refractory linings. remove scale accumulations for spot inspection.

The hammer is used for these jobs by lightly striking or tapping the object being inspected and observing the sound, feel and indentation resulting from the blow. The proper striking force to be used for various jobs can be learned only through experience. Hammer testing is used much less today than previously. It is not recommended to hammer test object under pressure. Also, piping upstream of a catalyst bed should not be hammered, as hammering could dislodge scale or debris and cause plugging. 14.1.2 PRESSURE AND VACCUM TESTING

When a pressure vessel is fabricated, it is tested for integrity and tightness in accordance with the standard or construction code to which it was built. (In addition to determining the vessel‘s integrity and tightness, the pressure test can result in beneficial stress redistribution at defect.) These methods of testing may also be used subsequently to inspect for leaks and to check repair work. When major repair work-such as replacing a head, a large nozzle, or a section of the shell plate-is performed, the vessel should be tested as if it were just installed. In certain circumstances, the applicable construction code requirements for inspection of vessels in service also require periodic pressure testing, even though no repair work has been necessary. For code rules concerning tests

of vessel in service, see API 510 and NBBPVI NB-23. The ASME code, although a new vessel fabrication code, may also be followed in principle in many cases. A large vessel and its structural supports may not necessarily be designed to support the weight of the vessel when it is filled with water. Where is can support this weight should be determined before a hydrostatic test is made. If the vessel or its supports are inadequate for a hydrostatic test, then pneumatic test may be considered. Pressure testing consists of filling a vessel with liquid or gas and building up an internal pressure to a desired level. The pressure and procedures used should be in accordance with the applicable construction code requirements consistent with the existing thickness of vessel and the appropriate joint efficiencies. (As noted in preceding text, sometimes the rules for inspection in service require periodic pressure testing even if no repair work has been necessary.) When pressure vessels form a component part of operating units, the entire unit is sometimes pressure tested. Water or oil is used as a testing medium and the charge pumps of the unit are used to provide the test pressure. While the vessel or vessels are under pressure, the external surfaces are given a thorough visual examination for leaks and signs of deformation. In recent years, acoustic emission analysis has been developed for use with pressure testing. When acoustic emission equipment is used on a vessel under pressure, it is possible to determine the overall structural integrity of the vessel. This method can be especially useful for vessels of complex design or where the vessel content can not be easily removed to permit an internal inspection. When testing pneumatically, an ultrasonic sound detector, a soap solution is brushed over the seams and joints of the vessel. The vessel is then examined for bubbles as an indication of leakage. An ultrasonic sound detector may be used to pick up leaks in joints and the like that can not be reached with a soap solution without scaffolds or similar equipment. Very small leaks may be detected and located with the sound detector. Often a vessel that operates at a vacuum may be pressure tested. When feasible, pressure testing is the preferred testing methods as leaks from an internal pressure source are more easily located. When pressure testing is nor feasible, a vacuum vessel can be tested for leaks with evacuators or vacuum pumps that are installed in the unit and used to create a vacuum. If the vacuum can be held for a specified time after closing off the evacuator or vacuum pumps, it is likely that the vessel is free of leaks. If the vacuum can not be held, leaks are present. However, since this method gives no indication of the locations of leaks, a search, which may be difficult, must then be made to locate the leaks. Consideration should be given to the temperature at which testing is done. Many of the common steel used in fabrication exhibit severe reduction of impact resistance at low temperatures. API 510 recommends that vessels constructed with these steels be tested either at temperatures not less than those recommended by the applicable section of the AASME Code or at 700 F (200C) and, in any case, at not more than 1200F (500C), unless there is information on the brittle characteristics of the vessel material to indicate the

acceptability of a lower test temperature of the need for a higher test temperature. (see API publication 920) When conducting hydrostatic or pneumatic pressure tests, it is a good safety practice for all personnel not connected with the test to remain away from the area until the test is completed and the pressure is released. The number of inspection personnel in the area should be limited to the number necessary to run the test. When making pne4umatic pressure tests, the recommendations set forth in the ASME code should be followed. 14.1.3 TESTING EXCHNGERS

When an exchanger is removed from service, it is often desirable to apply a test to either the shell side or the tube side before dismantling. A leak may be detected by observation of a drain point, such as a disconnected lower nozzle or an open bleeder. Usually, the test must be run for some time before a small leak will show up. If the exchanger leaks, it is then partially dismantled and the test reapplied. For example, when testing a floating-head exchanger with the pressure in the tubes, removal of the shell cover will reveal the source in the leak is in the gasket, stay bolts, or tube rolls at the floating-head. This test will not normally distinguish between rube roll leaks at the stationary tube sheet and those at penetrated tube walls, as these parts are not visible while the tube bundle is in the shell. A shell test applied to a floating head exchanger with the channel cover off will reveal leaking tube rolls at the stationary tube sheet but will not identify the source of other leakage. In most cases, exchangers that test applied to the partially dismantled exchanger will enable individual detection of leaking tubes and their plugging. Driving a tapered plug made of a solid tube. Also, leaking tube rolls at either end can be detected and rerolled. Exchangers. This is a device, which temporarily converts the arrangement of the partially dismantled exchanger to a dual fixed tubesheet arrangement. In some cases, leak testing is performed at each downtime. If leaking tubes are found, the leaks are located and plugged, and the bundle is put back in service. This procedure should be repeated until no new leaks are discovered; several repetitions may be required. If, at the some point, a sufficient number of tubes have been plugged to interfere with use of the exchanger, the bundle should be retubed. When leakage is encountered for the first time in a given service, inspection may be performed to determine the nature of the deterioration. After historical records have been built up, inspection is performed only when the number of plugged tubes indicates that the replacement point may be approaching. When a decision is made to retube, inspection is employed to determine which parts can be salvage and reused and which require replacement. It is customary to test an exchanger at assembly. When retubing has been performed, a test may be applied to the partially assembled exchanger to detect roll leaks individually. In any case, a final test on both the shell and tube sides is normally applied to the assembled exchanger.

Frequently, a bundle will be tested while it is out of the shell. In the cases, the channel and floating tube-sheet covers are left in place. This method makes observation for leaks easier but necessitates a separate shell test. When any of the parts are under test pressure, the external surfaces, rolled joints, and gasketed joist are given a through visual examination. Leaks and distortion of parts may be found by pressure testing. Special equipment is available to test exchanger tubes individually. An example of this equipment is shown in Figure 17. The pressures to be used when testing will depend on the operating and design pressures of the unit. These pressures should be determined locally in accordance with individual practice or jurisdictional requirements. Before applying pressure to the shell side only of an exchanger, the inspector should be sure that the tubes of the bundle are of sufficient wall thickness to withstand the external pressure. In addition, the channel side test pressure and the shell side test pressure should be checked against one another, and care should be taken that one side or the other of the exchanger is not excessively pressured when testing. Particular care should be taken with any highpressure exchangers where the sheets were designed on the basis of differential pressure. 15. LIMITS OF THICKNESS The limits of corrosion and any other kind of deterioration that may be tolerated must be known, or an inspection will lose much of its value. The two most important factors of this problem are the following. a. The retiring thickness of the part considered. b. The rate of deterioration. Before determining the limiting or retiring thickness of parts of any pressure vessel, which code and edition of the that code it is to be rated under and whether there are any regulations regarding limits and allowable repairs must be determined. There are a great many variables, such as size, shape, material, and method of construction, that affect the minimum allowable thickness. For this reason it is not possible in this document to present a set of recalculated minimum retiring thicknesses. API 510 contains additional guidance on the rating of pressure vessels. When corrosion or erosion is causing deterioration, the rate of metal loss can usually be obtained by comparing consecutive inspection records. Sometimes a graph to show this information is drawn and is kept with the vessel records. In many cases, computerization of inspection data has been helpful in quickly determining corrosion rates and in estimating retirement dates. The ability to predict when a vessel will reach a retiring thickness is important. Scheduling of repairs and replacements will be greatly influenced by such predictions.

When the limit of safe thickness is approached or reached, decisive action is necessary. In some time cases decisions will have to be made quickly without much time for study or for consideration and review by others. The minimum thickness or the methods of calculating the thickness should be known in advance for each vessel. Remember that that different part of a vessel may have different retiring thickness. As mentioned before, computer treatment of the data could be valuable. Most vessels are built with some thickness in vessel walls and heads over that required to withstand the internal operating pressures. This excess thickness may result from any of the following contributions: a. Excess thickness deliberately added in the design as a corrosion allowance. b. Excess thickness as a result of using a nominal plate thickness rather than the exact, smaller value calculated. c. Excess thickness result of setting minimum plate thickness for construction purposes. d. Excess thickness as resulting from a change in vessel service; a reduction of the safety valves setting, the maximum metal temperature, or both. When the total excess thickness and the corrosion rate are known, the date when repairs or replacement will be needed for any vessel can be predicated with reasonable accuracy.

CAUTION: In some cases, the excess thickness of the shell or head plates is used by the designer as nozzle reinforcement.
Since the ASME code is a design and construction standard for vessels, the methods of calculating the retirement thickness of many accessories of pressure vessel are not covered. Some of these parts are trays, internal tray supports, valves, grids baffles, ladders, and platform. For some of this equipment, there are generally accepted methods of settings the retiring thicknesses. Minimum thickness should be developed for all this equipment. The result of possible failure of equipment should be developed for al this equipment. The result of possible failure of equipment considered when setting this limits. Safety is the prime factor affecting retiring thickness. After safety, continuous and efficient operations become a factor. (AP33I recommended practice 574 should be consulted for inspection of some of the parts mentioned in the preceding text.) Normally, no minimum thickness is set for applied metallic linings. As long as the lining remains free of leaks and does not require excessive repairs, it should be satisfactory for further service. In the case of exchangers, minimum thickness should be developed for tubes sheets, channels, covers and other pressure–containing exchanger parts. The results of possible failure of such parts should be considered when setting these limits. Safety is the primary factor affecting retiring thickness for this equipment. Normally, failure of internal parts such as the various components of the tube bundle, does not involve a hazard; hence continuous, efficient operation is the governing factor in establishing retirement limits of

internal parts some parts. Some parts, such as baffles, may be continue in service until failure, and tubes need not be plugged or replaced until actual perforation occurs.

16. METHODS OF REPAIR Although repair and maintenance are not parts of inspection, repairs that affect the pressure rating of a vessel and that require reinspection for safety reasons are on concern. Before any repairs are made to a vessel, the applicable codes and standards under which it is to be rated should be studied to assure that the method of repair will not violate appropriate requirements. API 510 sets forth minimum petroleum and chemical process industry repair requirements and is recognized by several jurisdictions as the proper code for repair or alternation of petroleum or chemical pressure vessels. Note: Some jurisdictions require that welded repairs and alterations be done by an organization with an appropriate NBBPVI ―R‖ stamp, usually in accordance with NBBPVI NB - 23 and accompanied by the completion and filling of NBBPVI Form R-1 with jurisdiction. The defects requiring repair and the repair procedures employed should be recorded in the field notebook and later in the permanent records of the vessel (see API 510 for sample repair and alteration record sheets or refer to jurisdictional requirements.) Most repairs on the shell and heads of a vessel are made to maintain the strength and safety of the vessel, will therefore require reinspection, and may require radiography, stress relieving, or both. A quick visual check of all other repairs is also desirable to make sure that they have been completed. It is important that the source of the problem requiring the repair is determined. Tracing the source of the condition causing deterioration will, in many cases, prevent future problems. Repairs made by welding to the shell and heads of a vessel should be inspected. The inspection should include a check for completion and quality. Normally, a visual examination will be sufficient for minor repairs; however, magnetic-particle and dyepenetrate method should be used on major repairers and if required by the applicable construction code, a radiographic ultrasonic shear-wave examination should also be made. A pressure test should be applied after all major repairs unless in the judgments of the inspector a sound technical case can be made to justify waiving the test. In cases where a pressure test is waived, other nondestructive testing or inspection is required

The repair of sample holes left by a trepan or weld probe tool must be closely inspected. The weld quality in such repairs is likely to be poor unless carefully controlled. Therefore, the removal of samples for weld inspection should be avoided if possible. Sections of shell plates may be replaced to remove locally deteriorated areas. The joint efficiency of patch should be equal to or greater than the efficiency of the original joints in the shell. Cracks in vessel walls or heads may be repaired by chipping, by flame, arc, or mechanical gouging, or by grinding, the crack form end to end and then welded. Care should be used in flame and arc gouging, as heat may cause the crack to enlarge or lengthen. If a crack extends completely through to enlarge or lengthen. If a crack extends completely through the plate, it may be expedient to cut a groove from both sides of the plate. In any event, complete removal of the crack is absolutely essential before welding is begun. Magnetic- particle or dye-penetrate techniques should be employed to assure removal of the crack. In several cracks occur in any one plate; it may be wise to replace the entire plate. Repairs of cracks by wedding should be checked carefully. If the cavity caused by grinding out a defect is not deep and the remaining metal provides adequate strength and corrosion protection, the repair may be completed without welding beveling the edges of the cavity. Scattered pits in pressure vessels are best repaired by welding. For temporary repair, some proprietary epoxy base material can be packed in to pits to prevent further corrosion. The material must be capable of resisting the service conditions. In all cases, pits should be well cleaned, preferably by abrasive-grit blasting, before repairs are made. Note: When considering the use of this method, the inspector must be satisfied that the pits are not large enough or close enough together to represent a general thinning of the vessel component-see the subsection on corrosion and minimum thickness evaluation in API510. Repair of appetencies such as platforms, ladders, and stairways will usually consist of replacing excessively worn parts. Stairway treads that have been worn smooth can be roughened by placing weld beads on the worn surfaces. Also proprietary castings containing gritty material for application on the treads are available. Lining are repaired by replacing parts that are corroded through or cracked. Repair of metallic lining require welding. Visual inspection of welding after thorough slag removal will normally be sufficient to check weld quality unless code requirements specify a radiographic, dye-pet rant, magnetic-particle, or other examination of weld. 17. RECORDS AND REPORTS 17.1 Records Inspection records are required by API510, NBBPVI NB-23, and jurisdictions. As they from the basis of a scheduled maintenance program, they are very important. A complete record file should contain three types of information.

a. Basic data b. Field notes c. The data that accumulates in the ―continuous file‖ . Basic data includes the manufactures drawings, data reports and specification, design information, add the results of any material tests and analysis. Filed notes consist of notes and measurements recorded on site either on prepared forms (see appendix B) or in a written or electronic field notebook. These notes should include in rough form a record of the condition of all parts inspected and the repairs required. The continuous file includes all in formation on the vessel‘s operating history, descriptions and measurements from previous inspections, corrosion, rate tables (if any), and records of repairs and replacements. As indicated in preceding text, some companies have developed software for the computerized storage, calculation, and retrieval of inspection data. When their data is kept up-to-date, these programs are very effective in establishing corrosion rates, retirement dates, and schedules. The programs permit quick and comprehensive examination of all accumulated inspection data. Some of these programs can produce an inspection report that may be issued to all interested parties. 17.2 Reports Copies of reports recommending repairs should be sent to all management groups, which would normally include engineering, operating and maintenance departments. These reports should include the location, extent, and reasons for recommended repairs. General inspection reports (see appendix B) may be sent to interested parties, such as the operating, maintenance, and engineering departments. Who the interested parties are will depend on the organization of the plat or a company. These reports should include metal thickness measurements, corrosion rates, descriptions of the conditions found, repairs required, and allowable operating conditions, estimations of remaining life, and any recommendations. Occasionally special reports covering unusual conditions may be circulated. 18. SOME CHECKLISTS FOR INSPECTION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PRESSURE VESSELS 18.1 Checklist for towers. A. Shell and heads 1. Take thickness measurements at points marked in the inspection sketch and enter in thickness record sheet. 2. Check unlined shell/head internally for pitting and corrosion. Record in shell/tray inspection sheet. Indicate areas and depth of pitting.

3. Check lined shell/head internally for cracks and bulges in lining. Record in trays/shell inspection sheet. 4. Inspect shell/head from outside for pitting after removal of insulation. B. Nozzles and Manways 5. Take thickness measurement on unlined nozzles/manways. 6. Check lining in lined nozzles manways/mamways for cracking or bulging. Carefully examine welds (take photographs.) 7. Hammer teat all nozzles, couplings. Items 5,6, & 7 to be recorded on nozzle inspection sheet. 8. Check distribution pipes for plugging and erosion of holes. Hammer test pipe and supporting cleats. 9. Check TI points for corrosion. C. Trays and sheds. 10. Hammer test tray support ring, bolting bars and take spot thickness measurements. Carefully examine weld for cracking and corrosion. Check tightness by light test. 11. Hammer test support beams and purling. Check bolted connections. Take spot thickness measurements. 12. Hammer test support rings and bolting hers for seal pans/drain off boxes and check tightness by light test. Item 10,11 &13 to be checked out on tray shell inspection sheet. 13. Check bubble caps for distortion and tightness. Check diameter of sieve trays. Examine tray plate for distortion and corrosion. 14. Take spot thickness measurements on sieve trays. 15. Check sheds for coking and distortion. Take spot thickness measurements. D. Mist Extractor/ Strainer

16. Inspect support rings for corrosion hammer test and take spot thickness measurements. 17. Inspect grid for corrosion distortion and tightness. 18. Inspect wire mesh for coking embitterment and gaps. 19. Inspect strainer for plugging and corrosion. Take spot thickness measurements. E. Skirt 20. Inspect fire proofing for spelling and cracking. 21. Check skirt for scaling. Thickness measurements may be taken if scaling is found to be severe. F. Check chimney and glitch grid. 18.2 Checklist for FCCU Regenerator

A. Shell 1. Inspect visually the shell lining for deterioration. Mark the areas for repairs at location and in the sketch no. Take photograph Inspect closely areas in southwest side and just near man way and in areas behind the grid seal where it is perforated. 2. Inspect braces for dip legs hammer test and check for cracks. 3. Inspect visually the aeration connections and thermowells. 4. Inspect trickle valves. B. Cyclones Inspect visually the lining for primary cyclones at the following location. Mark deteriorated areas in the field and in the sketch no. 5. 6. 7. 8. Inlet horns Barrel helix Cones Diplegs-Hammer test and inspect visually for perforations by lowering a light through the cyclone. 9. Hangers and supports-Hammer test 10. Duct work connection primary and secondary cyclones. 11. Inspect visually the spray shields for the cyclones. 12. Hammer visually the secondary cyclones at following location. Mark deterioration areas in the field and in the sketch. 13. Barrel 14. Cones 15. Dip legs - check for plugging lowering a light from the plenum chamber. C. Plenum Chamber

16. Inspect visually plenum chamber lining and the lining of the stack above the plenum chamber which is visible from the plenum chamber which is visible from the plenum mark deterioration lining at location. 17. Inspect spider supports for secondary cyclones. 18. Inspect emergency steam sprays for oxidation. D. Grid

19. Inspect the grid plate for: Bulges - measure the area and extent of distortion by means of tape and plumb. Mark in sketch No. 20. Check thickness of grid plate at the grid holes with inspectors gage at a locations and

mark in sketch No. 21. Visually inspect Grid seal for cracks or perforation. Mark deteriorated areas in sketch no. 22. Inspect grid plate hold down studs - Hammer test and check for shearing of studs. Mark in sketch No. 23. Overflow well and seal boxes check for erosion/perforation and mark at location and in sketch No. E. Grid Cone 24. Inspect visually lining of cone below grid for cracks or spelling. 25. Hammer test all Regen. Grid studs and check out in sketch. F. Auxiliary burner 26. Inspect visually burner tips. Air doors and the pilot. 27. Inspect visually condition of Aux-burner dome and lining of the dome on the inside. Check annular gap between grid cone and inside the dome. 28. Inspect visually and hammer test lugs and supports for the Aux-burner dome. 29. Inspect inside brick wall. 18.3 Checklist for FCCU Reactor: A. Shell 1. Inspect visually the shell lining for deterioration. Mark the areas for repairs at location and in the sketch No. 2. Inspect support bracings. Hammer test and check visually for cracks. 3. Inspect condition of thermo wells for oxidation, cracking or distortion. 4. Hammer test 4‖ steam line to anticoking chamber - check visually for performation in the line and cracks in the welds. B. Cyclones Inspect visually the lining for the primary cyclones at the following locations. Mark deteriorated areas in the field and in the sketch No. 5. Inlet horns 6. Barrel and helix 7. Cones 8. Diplegs Hammer test and check visually for perforations by lowering a light through the cyclones.

9. Duct work connecting primary and secondary cyclones. Inspect visually the lining for the secondary cyclones as following locations. Mark deteriorated areas in the field and in the sketch. 10. Barrel 11. Cone 12. Dip leg - Hammer test and check visually for perforation/ plugging by lowering a light thru the cyclone after cutting a window in the seal pot. 13. Hammer test the aeration points in the secondary diplegs. C. Grid and Dollar Plate (IN CASE APPLICABLE) 14. Visually inspect grid and dollar plate mark eroded areas on the plate mark eroded areas on the plate and in the sketch No. 15. Inspect visually condition of holes for erosion and plugging. Mark in sketch and at location. Examine the weld of dollar plate to grid plate. D. Cone Below Grid

16. Inspect visually supports for grid plate. Mark eroded ones in the field and in sketch No. 17. Inspect visually condition deflector plate lining and vertical supports. Mark damaged areas in field. 18. Inspect visually condition of lining in Grid cone and riser pipe. Mark deteriorated areas at location and in sketch No. and in field. E. Stripping Section 19. Inspect condition of stripper shell visually for erosion. Mark eroded areas at location and in sketch No. 20. Inspect condition of shell for erosion visually. Mark eroded areas at location and in sketch No F. Feed Riser pipe 21. Inspect visually condition of lining in the fixed and the removable sections. Mark deteriorated areas at location and measure areas to be repaired. 22. Inspect condition of inverted V type bellows joint at the expansion joint. Inspect for perforations visually and measure area of perforation and mark at location. 23. Hammer test steam and cat feed injection piping and nozzles.

G. Plenum Chamber 24. Inspect condition bottom plates visually. of shell for erosion. Take thickness measurements. Inspect

25. Inspect visually safety valve inlet nozzles and vapor outlet line for plugging and erosion. H. Anti Coking Chamber: 26. Inspect visually the peripheral holes for plugging. 27. Hammer test supports for cyclones. 28. Inspect visually condition of weld between shell and bottom (plate and condition of shell.) 29. Take thickness of shell. 18.4 Check list for drums A. Shell 1. Take thickness readings, caliper or audigage and enter in record sheet use format with points marked. 2. Take T. P. measurements with Inspectors gage and enter in record sheet. 3. Check pitting and corrosion visually. and Give dimension and location if present. 4. Check external corrosion or pitting visually. Give dimension and location if present. B. Nozzles 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. on Measure I.D. caliper and enter in record sheet. Measure O..D. caliper and enter in record sheet Take wall thickness caliper and enter in record sheet if nozzle is unlined. Take flange thickness caliper and enter in record sheet in notes. Check raised face visually. Giver dimension of pitting or corrosion if any and identify

sketch. 10. Check for internal pittings and erosions and give dimensions if present enter in notes on record sheet and identify on sketch. C. Head or Cone

11. Take thickness measurement caliper or Audigage enter in record sheet.

12. Check for pitting or corrosion visually. Give dimensions if present and locate on sketch. 13. Check flange thickness in case odf cone Caliper and enter in record sheet. 14. Check for external corrosion or pitting visually and give dimensions in notes and locate on sketch. D. 15. 16. 17. 18. E. Impingement Baffle Check supports visually and mention in notes on record sheet. Check plate thickness caliper and enter in record sheet. Hammer test supports and plate enter in notes on record sheet. Visually check for perforations if any mention in notes on Record sheet. Lining

a. Günite lining - Visual 19. Visually check for cracks. Give length and location on sketch and notes in record sheet. 20. Visually check for scoring. Give area and locations. Note on record sheet. 21. Visually check for spalling. Give area and locations. Note on record sheet. 22. Visually check for exposed shell or wire or studs give locations and dimensions if present and record in notes on record sheet. b. Metal Lining – Visual 23. Visually check for cracks. Give length and location on sketch and notes in record sheet. 24. Visually check for weld joint cracks, failures or deterioration. Briefly mention in the notes on record sheet and locate on sketch. 25. Visually check for perforations. Give dimension and location if present and note down on record sheet. 26. Hammer test lining and weld joint lightly and mention the results in notes on record sheet. F. Manheads 27. Take nozzle thickness with caliper or audigage-Enter in record sheet. 28. Check internal corrosion or pitting visually. Give dimensions if present with notes and identify nozzle on sketch. 29. Check thickness of manhead over caliper. 30. Check pitting or corrosion on cover Visual Give dimensions if present, with notes.

31. Check Gasket surfaces visually give dimensions of pitting or corrosion if present and mention in notes. 32. Check lining- visually- same as for shell and mention findings in the notes on record sheet. G. General 33. Hammer test all nozzles, vents and drains and connecting piping. Mention finding in notes on record sheet and identify bad members on the sketch. 34. Check all bolts visually, mention number of bolts rejected for bad threads or corrosion in notes on record sheet. ***

CONTENTS 1.0 Basic Relevant Codes and Standards. A. ESSO Standards. B. Codes, Specification and Standards. C. ASTM Standards. D. ANSI Standards. 2.0 Inspection and Testing (For New Construction Works). 3.0 Testing. 4.0 Refractory Testing. 5.0 Inspection of Fired Heaters. 5.1 Types of Heaters. 5.2 Heaters in Hydrogen and Hydrogen Sulphide. 5.3 Heaters used in Steam / Reforming. 5.4 Pyrolysis Furnaces. 6.0 Reasons for Inspection. 7.0 Causes of Deterioration. 7.1 In the Heating Coil. 7.2 Combustion Products. 7.3 Mechanical Deterioration. 7.4 Setting Failures. 8.0 Inspection of Furnaces. 8.1 On Stream Inspection 8.2 Inspection During Shutdown. 8.3 Methods of Inspection. 8.4 Determination of Wall Thickness. 8.5 Other Types of tests and Examinations. 9.0 Limitations of Thickness. 9.1 General. 9.2 Heater Tubes. 9.3 Heater Fittings. 10.0 Methods of Inspection for Foundations, Settings and Other appurtenances 10.1 Foundations. 10.2 Structural Supports. 10.3 Setting, Exterior and Casting. 10.4 Refractory and Insulation. 10.5 Tubes Supports. 11.0 Methods of Repairs. 11.1 Heaters. 12.0 Records and Reports.



12.1 12.2 12.3 13.0 13.1 13.2 14.0

General. Heater Records. Reports.. Inspection of Air Preheaters. Regenerative type. Recuperative Type Air Preheaters. Method of repairs.




a. ESSO B. P. : BP 7-1-1. b. BP 2-1-1: Equipment Noise Level Data Requirement c. BP 3-18-1: Piping fabrication d. BP 4-5-1: Steel Stacks e. BP 18-3-2: Statically cast steel and alloy furnace parts f. BP 20-1-1: Inspection of Equipment and materials g. BP 4-1-2: Structural steel design. h. BP 4-1-3: Design loads for structures. I. BP 4.1.5: Wind Design loads. J. BP 4.1.6: Earthquake design loads k. BP 14.3.1 Fireproofing of vessel and structural member l. BP 18-1-1: Permissible substitutes for USA specification materials. m. BP 18-2-1:Materials for Hydrogen service n. BP 18-3-3: Centrifugally cast high alloy tubes for furnaces. o. BP 19-1-1: Paint and protective coatings p. BP 19-3-3: Furnace castable linings. B. CODES, SPECIFICATION, AND STANDARDS: 7 API 560 - FIRED HEATER FOR GENERAL REFINERY SERVICE 8 API 573 - INSPECTIONS OF FIRED BOILERS AND HEATERS 9 API RP 530 - CACULATION OF HEATER TUBE THICKNESS IN PETROLEUM REFINERIS 10 AISC Specification: Design, frication and erection of structural steel for buildings. 11 API 630 - Tube and header dimensions for fired heaters for refinery service. 12 API 605 - fired heater data sheet . ASME section VIII DIV. I - Pressure vessels C ASTM STANDARDS: 1. A 234 2. A 403 3. A 422 - Butt welds in still tubes for refinery services. 4. C 64 - Refractory for incinerators and boilers. 5. C 155 - Insulating fire bricks 6. C 612 - SPEC. FOR MINERAL FIBER BLOCKL AND BOARD THERMAL INSULATION 7. C 401 - CLASSIFICATION OF CASTABLE REFRACTORIES 8. C 332 SPEC. FOR LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATES FOR INSULATING CONCRETE 9. E 165 - RP FOR LIQUID PENETRANT INSPECTION 10. E 186 REFERNCE RADIOGRAPHS FOR HEAVY WALLED (2 TO 4.5 IN.) STEEL CASTING.


A 12.1 : Safety requirements for floor and wall openings, railings, and toe boards. A 14.3 : Safety code for fixed ladders. 2.0 1. 2. 3. 4. INSPECTION AND TESTING (FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION WORKS):

The root passes of 10% of all austenitic welds shall be liquid penetrant inspected. All chrome-molly or austenitic welds shall be 100 per cent radio graphed. CS welds shall be fully radiographed to the extent of 10% of all welds. In cases where radiographic examination is difficult to interpret, such as nozzle (fillet) welds, dye penetrant or magnetic particle inspection may be substituted. 5. When PWHT is required, radiographic examination shall be performed upon completion of heat treatment. 6. The tube supports shall be sand or grit blast and 100% liquid penetrant examination. 7. Casting shall be rejected, if the depth of defect is beyond 20% of section thickens or when the cavity exceeds 10 inches in length.

8. Liquid penetrant examination shall be performed to ASTM E 165 with ASTM E 433 as the referenced standard. Radiographic examination shall be in accordance with ASTM E 446 or ASTM E 186, to severity level 3 in all categories. 9. Refractory repairs, are to be carried out, if the width of the crack is more than 1/8‖ wide and 50% of the refractory thickness. Repairs shall be done after removing the unsound refractory by chipping to base metal, making a joint between sound refractory that is perpendicular to the base metal and then gunning, casting or hand packing the area to be repaired. 3.0 TESTING: 1. All pressure parts shall be hydrostatically tested to a minimum pressure equal to 1.5 times the coil design pressure, multiplied by the ratio of the allowable stress at 100 F(38C) to the allowable stress at the design tube metal temp. The pressure shall be maintained for a minimum period of 1 hour to test for leaks. 2. If hydrostatic test is not practical, if the owner agrees, a pneumatic test may be conducted by nonflammable gas, at a test pressure of 60 pounds per square inch gage or 15% of the maximum allowable design pressure, whichever is less. The pneumatic test pressure shall be maintained for a length of time sufficient to examine for leaks, but in no case for less than 15 minutes. 3. Water used for testing shall be potable. For stainless steel, the chloride content of test fluid shall not exceed 50 ppm. 4.0 REFRACTORY TESTING: Installed castable lining shall be hammer tested to check for voids within the refractory material. For dual layer linings, the hammer tests shall be conducted on each layer, after curing. Lining shall be struck with a 1 lb ball peen machinist‘s hammer over the entire surface, using a grid pattern approximating the following: 1. 2. Arch areas, 24 inch centers. Side wall and floor areas, 36 inch centers.

Studded tubes shall be tested randomly inspected by hammer testing to verify adequacy of the stud to tube weld. A typical rectangular heater is shown in fig. 1.



5.1 Types of heaters: 1. Box type heaters – heaters with box type casing, in which the radiant tube may be horizontal or arbor type or helical. 2. Heaters with Vertical coils – heater with either a cylindrical or rectangular casing, the major portion of heating coil consists of vertical tubes. The convection may be horizontal tubes. 3. Heaters with helical coils – convection section may be in the form of flat spiral or bank of horizontal tubes. 4. Heaters with arbor coils – these are extensively used in catalytic reforming units preheat and reheat service and as heaters for process air or gases. These heated have radiant section that consists s of inlet and outlet headers connected with inverted upright L or U tubes in parallel arrangement. The convection section consist conventional horizontal tube coils. 5.2 Heaters in Hydrogen and Hydrogen Sulphide Service (in hydrodesulphurization, hydroforming, hydrocracking, etc) have austenitic SS tube. The sulfide scale formed in these recycled gas or reactor feed installations can react with water and oxygen to form polyphonic acids. Precautions there must be taken during downtime to protect the tubes. 5.3 Heaters used in Steam / Methane Reforming Heaters used in steam/methane reforming – vaporized feed may vary in content from methane to any light hydrocarbon-usually have many rows of parallel vertical tubes the operate from 1500 F to 1800 F. Figure shows a steam/methane – reforming heaters. The heaters are normally down fired from the roof or side fired at many levels to achieve every heat distribution across the entire length of the radiant tubes. The tubes may be made wrought high-strength materials, including the proprietary alloys Incoly 800 and Incoly 800H, or of cast materials, including HK40, HP, and their proprietary modification. The connecting pipes between the tubes and the inlet and outlet headers are called pigtails. Outlet pigtails operate at a temp. of 1400 F plus or minus 100 F and must be designed in low stress levels primarily in bending. To accomplish this, the tube support must be adequate and tube bowing must be minimized. When centrifugally cast tubes fail, the failure is generally due to stress rupture at the hotter most highly stressed portion of the tube. The hottest areas are normally near bottom outlet of the tube, since the temperature of the gas inside the tubes rises during reaction about 500 F from about 900 F to about 1400 F. If from burners or from

combustion products deflected off walls impinges the tube, stress rupture can occur in the hottest part of the tube. Bowed tubes result from inadequate upper support or from hating on one side of the tube. The weight each upper support unit must bear varies from 50 to 100 percent of the total tube weight depending on the design. Heating on one side tube causes greater thermal expansion on the hotter side and bowing toward the heat source. This continues until the restraints on each end of the tube prevent further bowing and cause higher stresses in the support assembly and the pigtails. Designs incorporating staggered tubes can minimize tube bowing with adequate uplift supports. Bent tubes have higher stress levels at their bends than do straight tubes. Cast tubes materials embrittle after exposure to high temperatures. Weld materials that embrittle during post-weld cooling have high residual stresses. Weld material with a carbon silicon ratio that does not match that of the base metal fissures easily during welding. Any microflssures not detected during fabrication can propagate during subsequent heating, thermal cycles, or continual high stresses from bowing or localized hating. Welding flux must be removed from tube welds. Sandblasting is the recommended method of flux removal. Flux of lime with fluorides is corrosive if the combustion gases are reducing (because of very little excess air) and sulfur is present. Centrifugally cast tubes fail in a stress rupture pattern that is different from that of most furnace tubes. A centrifugally cast tube usually has a thick wall. Thermal stress are highest near the tube midwall. As the on-stream time increases, the fissures progress to the inside diameter of the tube. The final stage of stress rupture occurs when the fissures reach the outside diameter. High stresses on pigtails result in early failures. The failures usually occur at the inlet or outlet end of the pigtail. Bending stresses are major cause of failure. These stresses result from tube bowing, tube movement, sagging of the pigtail under its own weight, thermal expansion of a pigtail to bend. Most pigtails are of Incoloy 800H or similar wrought materials, and most failures are cracks that develop with little or no creep will occur and intergranular oxidation will make the area slightly magnetic. Furnace outlet headers have various designs. Those that are internally uninstalled have been made of cast materials conforming to ASTM A 297, Grade HT or HK, or of wrought materials including Incoloy 800H. The cast headers have a history of cracking near any junctions, including inlets, outlets, laterals, tees, or elbows because of embrittlement due to carbide precipitation and sigma formation. These headers are horizontal and do not allow any restraint of the thermal growth and results in high stresses with resultant cracking. Because of the embrittlement, welding repairs are difficult unless the surfaces are

annealed or buttered with a ductile weld material before welding. In recent years, proprietary cast materials have been developed and used for furnace outlet headers and have had excellent service histories. These materials are not subject to the problem for HT and HK materials described in the preceding text. Wrought headers operating at temperatures near 1400 F have also had a good service history. They maintain ductility and can yield by creep or stress relaxation, to reduce localized stresses. As in any high-temperature design however stresses must be kept low particularly at supports and at openings in the headers. Any openings required in the headers should be circular or elliptical. In a square or rectangular opening is required, the corners must be cut on a radius to reduce concentrations of stress. Some headers and outlet lines are made of carbon steel Com steel or low Cr-Mo steel and have refractory lining inside. Because the base metal is not resistant to hydrogen at high temperatures, the refractory must be sound to preserve its insulating properties. Refractory used in hydrogen and carbon monoxide service must have low iron and silicon content the avoid he possibility of hydrogen or carbon monoxide reacting with components of the refractory and the degradation of the refractory essential properties. Start up and shutdown procedures must minimize wetting of the refractory partly to avoid destroying the insulating refractory and partly to avoid carbonic acid corrosion of the steel. 5.4 PYROLYSIS FURNACES Pyrolysis furnaces have many of the same problems that occur in steam/methanereforming furnaces. The same materials are often used for both. There are a few major difference however. Both Ys and U bends are used in pyrolysis furnaces and suffer erosion. The reaction in the tubes is usually carbonizing and requires that the surface be smooth from botring or holing and that the material be more resistant to carbonization. The materials use in pyrolysis furnaces is often a modification of high-strength material that is adequate reforming heaters. 6.0 REASONS FOR INSPECTION The reason for making the first inspection of a heater is to determine by comparison with the initial inspection at the time of construction or with basic records with respect to corrosion erosion etc. The first inspection also helps to maintain the safety and efficiency continue operation and forecasts maintenance and replacements, based on the indicated rat end deterioration.

All subsequent inspections are compared with the preceding inspection. The rates deterioration of various parts and the determination of physical condition makes it possible schedule repairs or replacements before serious weakening or actual failure occurs. 7.0 CAUSES OF DETERIORATION : 7.1 In the heating Coil a. Type of process : The principal operating processes are cu=rude oil distillation, vacuum distillation, asphalt or lubricating oil processing, cracking, reforming, light distillate fractionation, and treating, hydro-desulphurization etc. The operating process is main influence in establishing the basic operating conditions of the heater. Characteristics of the charge stock: Sulfur, chloride, organic acid and solid material content are prime factors in determinate type and severity of deterioration. Suffer in satisfactory service life and max. run length. Hydrogen sulfide is particularly corrosive compound, whose corrosively is usually increased when hydrogen is also present. Some charge stocks tend to produce deposits of coke, which may have direct bearing on the tube metal temperature. If the charge in heater tubes is increased, that may lead to erosion due to increased velocity in tubes and in hater fittings the deterioration may be due to the combination of impingement and erosion. When operating metal temperatures is above the temperature at which creep takes place, a slow stretching of the metal occurs, which may cause rupture after a long operating period. Excessive pressure may cause rapid creep of the metal and may cause bulging, cracking, and even complete failure by stress rupture in a comparatively short operating period. The metal temperature, which is a constituent of operating temperature of the furnace, plays a major role in the type and severity of the deterioration of the heater tubes. The metal temp .of individual tubes or along the length of any specific radiant tube of a given heater may vary according to flame patterns, impingement, fouling, position of the tube (leaning out of supports etc.). The following are the types of deterioration associated with high metal temp: i) Sagging : Usually due to a decrease in structural strength of the tube cased by overheating. Also improper spacing of the tube hangers, uneven metal






temperatures, failure of one or more tube supports or hangers, may cause sagging of tubes. ii) Bowing : This is caused by uneven metal temperature, which may be flame impingement or coke formation inside the tubes. This may also be caused by binding of the tube I the tubesheets or improper suspension of the tube so that longitudinal expansions restricted or by the use of improper tube lengths when individual tube replacements are made. Oxidation or scaling : Caused by overtiring or impingement or fouling of tubes. Bulging or creep leading to rupture : Due to localized heating, bulging may take place, due to loss of structural strength. Strength of metal is reduced by high temperatures, and the stress for long periods of time will cause the hottest tubes to deform or creep. Metallurgical change : Due to high temperatures materials undergo metallurgical changes like carburization, decarburization, grain growth etc, which lead to a general reduction in mechanical strength. Steels of even P5 grade, after being subjected to high temperatures for a sufficient length of time, undergo precipitation hardening which results in temper embitterment with loss. Elongation and ductility, as theses materials precipitate to the grain boundaries and about a years at temps. 300 to 600 deg. C. All metals expand upon heating. If sufficient provision is not made for expansion that may result in stresses that operates under cyclic temperature conditions develop cracks because of fatigue. Cracks starts at the surface of the material slowly progress initially and rapidly subsequently. Thermal fatigue is often found at locations where metals that have different coefficients of expansion are joint by welding. Thermal shock : sudden rise or drop in temperature results in stresses developed which may lead to distortion and cracking.







7.2 1.

Combustion products: When fuel has a high vanadium content, metal at temperatures from 650 to 760 deg. C is subject to very rapid attack from vanadium pentoxide. This oxide

deposits on the metal surface and cause fluxing and slouching, and subsequent attack. 2. The sulfate formed as a result of combustion is not harmful in condition. In cold condition, this condenses to sulphuric acid, which attacks the casing and leg perforations. Convection sections where flue gas dew point temperature occur during operations sulfate metal loss because of acid material from the products combustion. The sulfuric acid is also a cause of concern for the APH casing, cold element, unset due point.



7.3 Mechanical Deterioration. Due to the following: a. b. C. D. Leakage in tube rolls Damage during mechanical cleaning. Undue forces used by workers in closing fittings, which may result in development cracking. Steam/air decoking serious oxidation and other deterioration of tubes, if proper control over the TSTs is not exercised. Setting failures: Failure of support steel, casing etc. due to environmental conditions, like in vicinity of cooling towers etc. Failure in the exterior surfaces gives vent to rain water to enter the inside of the furnace, thereby damaging the refractory etc. Long exposure of refractory to higher temperatures leads to spelling, cracking, fluxing etc. Casing may be subjected to acid corrosion due to the ingress flue gases through failed refractory lining and shock condensation at the metal surface. The refractory itself may be damaged due to high vanadium content of fuel, which leads to melting of refractory, penetration and chemical action of refractory. 8.0 8.1 INSPECTION OF FURNACES On Stream Inspection

7.4 1.


The following points shall be taken care while carrying out on stream inspection.

a. Daily monitoring of operating parameters, like CIT, COT, TSTs, flame patterns flue gas outlet temperature of APH etc. The following are limitations of tube skin temperatures with respect to the tube metallurgy, which is given in API 530 : LIMITING ESIGN METAL TEMPERATURE DEG.F CS C - 1/2 Mo Steel 1 ¼ Cr-1/2 Mo Steel 2 ¼ C r- 1 Mo Steel 3 Cr - 1 Mo Steel 5 Cr - 1 Mo 5 Cr - 1/2 Mo - Si Steel 7 Cr - ½ Mo Steel 9 Cr - 1 Mo 18 Cr - 8 Ni 16 Cr - 8 Ni - 2 ½ Mo 18 Cr - 10 Ni - Ti Steel 18 Cr - 10 Ni - Cb Steel Ni – Fe - Cr 25 Cr - 20 Ni B T1 OR P1 T11 OR P11 T22 OR P22 T21 OR P21 T5 OR P5 T5b OR P5b T7 OR P7 T9 OR P9 304 OR 304H 316 OR 316 H 321 OR 321 H 347 OR 347 H ALLOY 800 H HK- 40 1000 1100 1100 1200 1200 1200 1300 1300 1300 1500 1500 1500 1500 1800 1850 LOWER CRITICAL TEMPRATURE



DEG. C DEG.F 540 595 595 650 650 650 750 750 750 815 815 815 815 985 1010 1325 1325 1430 1480 1500 1510 1550 1515 1515

DEG. C 720 720 775 805 815 820 845 825 825

And the following is the OSID guide line for tube skin temperatures:

METALLURGY CS 2 ¼ Cr – 1 MO 5 Cr – 1 Mo 9 Cr – 1 Mo 18 Cr - 8 Ni 18 Cr - 8 Ni - 2 ½ Mo 25 Cr - 20 Ni b.

NORMAL OPERATION 565 635 650 685 870 870 1150

DECOKING DEG. C 620 720 730 750 925 925 1185

Visual inspection of casing , for deterioration, by the evidence of oxidation, paint failure flue gas leaks from convection panel joints, perforation of radiant casing , bulging/ warping of burner housing and bottom casing around the burners, refractory condition of radiant walls and radiant roof / arch, burner housing, condition of tubes like excessive sagging / bowing, vibrations, jumping our of supports, position of supports and condition of supports, condition of ceramic lining, condition of ducting (for external corrosion) expansion joints, condition of associated structures like railing, condition of supporting structure (for wrapping due to excessive heating and undue loading), condition of foundations (for cracks/ spelling etc.), condition of fire proofing, condition of insulation, vibration of transfer line/inlet lines etc.

All the above observations shall be carefully made during periodic on stream inspection of the furnace. Any abnormality shall be recorded and due action shall be taken in downtime furnace or on the run, whichever is practical. c. The air preheated also shall be examined in the similar fashion as for furnace, during on stream inspection. Thermograph shall be used to carry out to assess the refectory condition inside the furnace, during and stack. Any hot spots observed shall be recorded and anticipation shall be made for downtime of furnace. Hot spots, in excess, may cause damage to personal protection. In such cases, on the refractory boxes may be provided, to protect the operating personnel. However, it may be noted that this further detritions the casing inside. Portable pyrometers also may be used to measure point temperatures.



Thermographs may also be used to measure the tube skin temperatures, however, this may not give accurate values, due to the interference of flame currents. Condition of guy wire and ropes connected to stacks shall be examined for corrosion and proper tightening. Condition of burner tips shall be done whenever they are removed for maintenance cleaning. This helps in monitoring the flame pattern of that particular burners while in operation.



8.2 Inspection during shutdown The following passivation methods shall be employed while decommissioning the furnaces having austenitic SS tubes and tube fittings, to prevent polyphonic acid attack. Polyphonic acid is the hydrolyzed from of sulphurous products in flue gases, due to reaction with moisture. These acids can causes inter granular cracking of sensitized stainless steels. All grades of SS that operate at temperature above 650 deg. F eventually sanitize. Keep tubes pressured with inert gas. When binding is required is required, a positive flow of inert gas should be maintained while the flanges are open and a blind is being installed. If desired, a small amount of ammonia can be added to the inert gas a neutralizing agent. Maintaining a positive flow of inert gas excludes air and moisture. When tubes crossovers, headers, or other parts of the furnace must be opened, a sodaash wash is used. The usual solution is 2 weight percent soda ash (Na2 CO3) with a suitable wetting agent. The solution should be circulated so that all gas pockets are moved and all surfaces are wetted. Sodium nitrate at 0.5 weight percent may also be added to the solution to inhibit chloride cracking. The solution may then be drained and reused in piping or another furnace. The 2 percent solution contains enough soda ash to leave a film, but a weaker solution may not. The film is alkaline and can neutralize any reaction of iron sulfide, air and water. It is important to remember that the film, the residue from the soda ash solutions, must not be washed off during downtime. Most units are put back in service with the film remaining. If the film must be removed, flushing during start up followed by inert gas may be acceptable. NACE RP 01 covers this subject and procedures involved. Thorough knowledge of the materials and design features of construction shall be obtained before carrying out inspection of furnace. Detailed review of data sheet and drawings shall be done. Also, history of the furnace shall be reviewed, to have a knowledge of the pattern and behavior of tubes and failures. This gives an on hand idea about the furnace and forms a positive prejudice before taking up inspection.

It may be noted that visual inspection is the prime tool in inspection of furnace, as most of the forms of deterioration can be identified by close visual inspection. If decoking is done prior to the opening of the furnace, tube skin temperature shall be closely monitored to prevent oxidation and eventual metallurgical failure. Initial inspection shall be carried out, as soon as the entry permit is obtained, to visualize the following : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Condition of the tubes, like sagging, bowing, bulges, oxidation etc. Tubes bowing/sagging for more than 1.5 OD shall be replaced. Condition of refractory and regen tiles of burner housing. Condition of refractory on the radiant side wall, end walls and roof. Any damage/ failing of tube supports. Any tubes that have come out of supports. Condition of convection section, for plugging/ chocking by flue gas deposits. Condition of tube skin thermocouples. Any other major observations.

All the above observations shall be recorded and taken note of. These observations will be helpful in detailed inspection. 8.3 Methods of inspection

8.3 1 Visual Inspection of Heater Coils General When the cleaning operations are completed, the entire heating coil should be given through visual inspection. It is mainly through visual inspection that the effective of deterioration, actual defects, and an indication of potential defects or weaknesses in the tubes, crossovers, fittings and connections-blowdown, steam, pressure, gauge, vents, and thermowell connections-can be found. External Inspection Tubes a. b. c. d. should be inspected externally for the following conditions: Sagging or bowing. Bulging. Oxidation or scaling. Cracking or splitting.

e. f. g.

External corrosion. External deposits. Leaking rolls.

Fittings should be inspected externally for the following conditions: A. B. Damage or distortion. Corrosion.

Figure 2 and 3 show examples of the bulging that may occur in tubes, Figure 4 shows an example of scaled tubes, Figure 5 shows an example of an oxides tube, and Figure 6 shows an example of a split tube. Figure 7 shows examples of the external tube corrosion that may occur during a short shutdown period on a heater that has been fired with a fuel of high sulfur content. Tubes that have been subjected to excessive temperatures will often sag. In radius section, this condition is not considered serious unless it prevents cleaning or causes section, this condition is not considered serious unless it prevents cleaning or causes headers to jam and wedge against other headers or against the sides of the header compartment. In convention sections, sagging of the tubes in upper rows to a point between those in lower rows can prevent the free passage of the gas around the tubes. This condition, called nesting, will cause overheating of adjacent tubes and draft loss. If this condition is found, the offending tubes should be replaced. A split tube usually results from either localized thinning of the tube wall or a loss of structural strength because of high metal temperature, which may be caused various factors, including flame impingement and coke buildup. Bulging is caused by a loss of structural strength, usually as a result of the same conditions cited for a split tube. Because of the arrangement of the tubes and refractory walls, visual inspection of the external surfaces of the tube is usually restricted to the fireside of the radiant tubes. Special attention should be given to the following locations: a. b. floor. c. d. The juncture of plain and finned or strutted sections. In vertical heaters, the area from the firebox floor to 15 feet above the firebox Entry and exit points through the tube sheets of inlet and outlet tubes. Welds.

When external deterioration, including that due to oxidation, scaling, cracking, and external corrosion, is suspected-especially in the case of convention tubes representative tubes may be removed from the heater and then cleaned and examined thoroughly. The selection of the tubes to be removed may be guided by the tube locations in the heater the length of time the tubes have been in service, and the general appearance of the tubes in the area. If the tubes chosen for inspection are found to be defective or unfit for further service, other tubes in the same area and of the same or similar age and general appearance should also be inspected. This should be continued. Until it is certain that, all of the remaining tubes are safe for further service. When welded tubes are used in a heater, all accessible welds should be thoroughly inspected, regardless of whether they were made by the tubing manufacture, the pipe fabricator, or plant workers. This inspection should be primarily visual and should be supplemented by magnetic- practical, liquid-panetrant, or radiographic inspection as connection warrant. The inspection should include both external and accessible internal weld surfaces. The external defects will probably be in the form of cracking, which may be caused by a high metal temperature at the weld. All tubes rolled into fittings should be examined for leakage in the rolled joint. Leaks in tube rolls and around plugs can often be found by observing. The location of coke or oily deposits around headers when the header is removed for service. An examination should also be made when the coil is under test pressure. The inspection should be visual and should in some cases be supplemented by feeling the tube at the rear face of the fitting for indications of leakage. Visual inspection can sometimes be facilities by holding a small mirror between the tube sheet and the fitting to obtain a view of the juncture the tube sheet and the fitting roll leak will often not become detectable until a coil has been under pressure for 10-15 minute. Leakage in the tube rolls can be either a nuisance or a service problem depending on the operating process and operating condition of the heater. Where there is no formation coke, the leak may be stopped by reenrolling the tube. Roll leakage is serious, however in the case of a heater that is subject to coking and that operates at high-pressure temperature conditions or in poisonous or highly explosive vapor service including phenol or hydrogen service. Oil leaking between in the fitting and the outside surface of the tube can result the formation of coke. This coke formation continues with service, and the force of the coke build up can be sufficient to cause partial collapse of the tube end and to allow the tube slip in the fitting. Under these conditions leakage cannot be corrected by resoling because the serration in the fitting tube seat is full of coke, and the mechanical strength of the roll joint is not improved by the resoling operation. Figure 8 shows an example of the fitting and tube that have leaked in the roll.

In the case of fitting the exterior surfaces of the fitting body and the holding member should be inspected visually. The types of deterioration commonly found on the external surface of fittings are cracking, distortion and mechanical wear. Cracking is usually confined to the fitting body or in the case of welded fittings to the weld joint. Locations in the fitting body should be examined for cracking include the at around the plug or U-bend seat, the juncture of ear or horseshoe holding section itself. Conditions warrant a visual inspection of cracks can be supplemented by magneticparticle, liquid-penetrant examination. Visual inspection of the ears, the holding members, and the dogs and caps of the hold member is performed primarily to detect distortion and wear to determine to whether strength of the fitting has been affected. Figure 9 shows an example of poor fit between the holding section and the cap on a solid fitting. The threaded portion of the holding screw and the dog or cap should be examined for excessive wear. Distortion that is not apparent to the eye may prevent proper assembly. The plug or U-bent seat in the fitting should be examined for enlargement, deviation from roundness, change in the width of the seat, and damage to the seating surfaces. The tightness of this joint depends on these four conditions. For welded fitting visual inspection is limited to the external surfaces and to the weld attaching the fitting should be examined closely for any indications of defects particularly cracks in welds. The inspection of welds should cover a band of 1-2 inches on each side of the weld. Cracks may be develop and remain entirely within the weld, or they may start in the weld and run out into the tube or fitting. The inspection of the heat affected zone and adjacent parent metal is important. It is of paramount importance in the case of alloy welding. The visual inspection of a weld may be supplemented by magnetic particle, liquid-penetrate or radiographic inspection. Crossover sections of tubing used to connect sections of coil may be located outside of the firebox or enclosure but should not be overlooked during inspection of the heater. Movement of the several parts of the coil and changes in temperature can cause stress and fatigue. The surfaces of the tubing, especially bend section surfaces, should be examined for cracks.

Internal Inspection

The internal visual inspection of heater tubes is limited to heaters with fittings of the removable U-bend or plug type. On tubes up to about 30 feet in length it is possible to view the entire interior reasonably well if a light is inserted at the end opposite the one at which the tube is being examined and the examination is made from both ends of the tube. The inside surface of a tube can be examined with optical instruments, considerable time is required to inspect each lineal foot of tube, consequently optical instruments are generally used for the more through inspection of questionable areas reverted by visual inspection. The internal visual inspection of tubes should be made with the purpose of locating and determining the extent of the following types of deterioration commonly experienced in heater tubes: a. b. c. d. e. Selective, spot type or pit type corrosion. Thinning of tube ends. Cutting or other cleaning damage. Loosing of the tube roll and flare. Erosion.

Figure 10 shows examples of the spot or pit type corrosion often found in heater tubes. This type of corrosion is one of the most difficult to detect. Visual inspection, internal callipering, and radiography are the only sure means of detection, and even then the internal surfaces of the tubes must be free from coke and any other foreign matter. Mechanical cleaning will not always reveal spot-or pit-type corrosion. If this type of corrosion is apparent or suspected, the inside surfaces of the tube at the tube ends must be cleaned using an acetylenes torch to burn coke or other foreign matter out of the pits. Thinning at the ends of rolled in tubes is usually caused by erosion or turbulence that result from change in the direction of flow. This type thinning may also result from frequently rerolling of tubes to stop leakage. Figure 11 shows an example of a tube damaged by a cleaning head. In some causes tip outside diameter of the tube may be increased and will have the same general appearance as a tube with a slight bulge. Figure 12 shows an example of eccentric corrosion of a tube. The loss of wall thickness not uniform around the circumference. In this type deterioration, the most thinning usual occurs on the fireside of the tube. This type of corrosion is generally accelerated on the fireside because of the high temperature there. Eccentric corrosion may also cause by

external scaling. It is often difficult to determine whether tubes have become eccentric because of service, since the condition is not readily detectable by visual inspection can sometimes be found by measuring several diameters at one location. A reliable measure of detection is to measure thickness with ultrasonic or radiation type instruments, but the tools can only be used on accessible tubes, usually the radiant tubes. Although this type corrosion on convection tubes usually on those adjacent to the refractory. In some heaters, part of the tubes may not be accessible for an internal visual inspection. At a substitute for internal visual inspection, some companies make a practice of thorough inspecting all tubes that are condemned and removed from a heater, regardless of the reason for the tubes removed. This inspection is made by cutting a tube into short section of 2-3 feet that the inside surface for examination. The ends of the tube rolled into the fitting should be removed for examination. They may then be inspected to determined the general condition and effectiveness of the rolled joint. In some cases, a rolled in tube may also be welded to the fitting. There are two base reasons for welding a tube to the fitting : (a) to stop leakage by means of a seal weld and (b) to improve the efficiency of the rolled joint by means of a strength weld warrants careful consideration and justification. Any welding between the tube and fitting, regardless of it basic purpose, should be examined carefully. The types of defects that are commonly found are cracking, slag, and porosity in the weld. In the case of rolled on fittings, the internal surface should be inspected visually for signs of deterioration and to ascertain the fittings‘ general physical condition. With section al streamlined fittings, the housing section (the part the tube is rolled in) should be examined for undercutting, the width and condition of the housing in the annular space (the section of the housing between the end of the inside edge of the U-bend seats). The inside surfaces the U-bend seat). The inside surfaces of the U-bend should be examined for thinning and to ascertain their general condition. With solid fittings, the body section should be examined for undercutting, the width and condition of the plug seat, and erosion and thinning of the plug seat, and erosion and thinning of the barrel section of the body (the cylindrical section with the plug seat at one end and the tube seat at the other end) and the cross port (the connecting section between the two barrel section.) Figure 13 is a sectional view of a streamlined fitting. It show the severe corrosion-erosion that can occur in the annular space and at the inside edge of the U-bend seat. The seating face on U-bend and plugs should be checked against the width of the seat in the housing or body sections. If there is not a tight fit between the U-bents and the housing

for the entire width of the seating surface or if the width of the seating surface is longer on one member, erosion of the members will be severe. This same condition should be checked on solid fittings at the closure area between the fitting body and the plug. Fitting should be examined to determine the fit and depth of seating between the bend or plug can protrude so deeply into the fitting, the end of the tube or the tube stop, depending on the type of tube seat used. In case of a solid fitting, the ears on the plug will contracts the outside face of the fitting. Figure 14 shows an example of the type of corrosion experienced in U-bends. 8.4 Determination of Wall Thickness

The determination of the wall thickness of the tubes and fittings in a heater is an essential feature of inspection. These wall thickness provide a record of the amount of thickness lost, the rate of loss, the remaining corrosion allowance, the adequacy of the remaining thickness for the operating conditions and the expected rate of loss during the next operating period. The two basic types of methods used to determine the wall thickness of piping and tubes are the following : a. Destructive methods, one destructive method is removal of any tubes that are deep in convection banks and inaccessible for measurement of the tube walls using calipers. Nondestructive methods. These include the following: 1. 2. 3. Measurement of the inside and outside diameters of the tube. Measurement by means of ultrasonic instruments. Measurement by means of radiation- type instruments or radiography.


A wall thickness value obtained by measuring the inside and outside tube diameters is called an indicated metal thickness. The indicated metal thickness is obtained by measuring the inside and outside diameter is not actually measured but is taken as the nominal outside tube diameter subtracting the maximum inside diameter from the corresponding outside diameter, and dividing the difference by 2. An increase in outside diameter can cause an error unless outside diameters are directly measured. There are many types of calipers for measuring the inside diameters of heater tubes, including the simple 36-inch (91.44 - centimeter) mechanical scissors and the 2- point pistol type, the cone or piston type, and the 4-12 - point electric type. A caliper equipped to measure several diameters around the circumference of a tube is more likely than others to find the actual maximum inside diameter.

Bench marks on heater tubes are sometimes used to determine the amount of external scaling. Two holes 7/16 inch (1.11 centimeters) in diameter spaced approximately 4 inches apart are drilled in the tube on a line parallel to the axis. The depth of the holes should not exceed the established monished minimum allowable thickness of the tube. These two hole are filler with either Inconel or 25-20 stainless steel weld metal, which is ground flush with the surface of the tube. As the tube scales externally, the amount of loss may be measured by placing straight edge between the two buttons of alloy weld metal and using a rule to measure from the straight edge to the tube wall. Bench marks are only installed on tubes that have experienced an excessive amount of scaling and adhere there is possibility of the flame impingement on the tubes. Each of the three methods of determining wall thickness measuring by means of ultrasonic instrument, and measurements by means of ultrasonic instruments, and measuring by means of radiationtype instruments or radiography can be used to check the thickness of heater tubes. Callipering inside diameters is usually restricted to tubes with removable U-bend or plugtype fittings. It is general practice to caliper the inside diameter of a tube at two locations. In the roll and in back of the roll. On heaters where the pattern of corrosion is uniform and was established and mechanical damage is known not to exist, measurement for approximately 36 inches (91.44 centimeters) into the tube may suffice. The roll section of a tube service should be callipered to locate. The maximum inside diameter at any point between the back edge of the tube flare, or the end of the tube flare or the end of the tube if there is no tube flare, and the rear face of the fitting or edge shoulder left in the tube by the rolling tool. As a result of varying shapes, limited working space, obstructions, and the like, it is very difficult top for examine the various sections of heater fittings, to determine accurately the point of minimum wall thickness. In the case of the rolled on type fitting, the easiest and most commonly used method is to use a C-type calipers to choose from. Ultrasonic methods for obtaining tube-wall thickness are probably the most widely used methods. For most corrosion inspection, straight-beam ultrasonic techniques are used. The sound is introduced perpendicular to the entrance surface and reflects from the back surface, which is usually more or less parallel to the entrance surface. On thick-wall materials, single crystal transducers are usually preferable. On thinner materials or under other special conditions, duel probes are more desirable, since they produce cleaner, more usable signal especially from rough or nonparallel surface. Dual probes provide the instruments with the capability of detecting the gain thereby improve the probability of detecting small; pitting-type reflectors. Duel probes are usually used for heater or boiler tube measurements. Radiography of tubing can show variation in thickness of a minimum of 2 percent of total thickness. Thickness is determined by directing the rays tangentially to the tube wall and recording the radiation on a film behind the tube. By comparing with

some geometric standard projected on the film, the wall thickness can be determined. Radiographic techniques are particularly useful where the coil has welded return bends a benefit. A benefit of radiographic techniques is particularly useful where the coil has welded return bends. A benefit of radiographic techniques is that they frequently reveal internal deposits in tubing. 8.5 Other Types of Tests and Examinations. 8.5.1 Metallurgical Tests. It has already been stated that certain types of deterioration experienced in heater tubes result from some change in metallurgical structure. The more common types of deterioration are carburization, decarburization, the initial stages of stress cracking, fatigue cracking, and some forms of hydrogen attack. More information about conditions that cause deterioration or failure can be found in API recommended practice 571. It is possible to detect most of these types of deterioration in the field by visual inspection, nondestructive testing, in situ metallography, or replication, carburization and decarburization can only be determined accurately by a chemical or physical test. Most of the testing must be done by specially trained personnel. Damage that result from some metallurgical changes can be determined by ultrasonic, magnetic-particle can be determined by ultrasonic, magnetic-particle, and liquid–penetrate testing. Examination for the forms of deterioration mentioned in the preceding text can be performed on specimens taken from tubes that have been condemned and removed from a heater. In some cases, conditions may warrant the removal of representative tubes from the heater solely to make these examination. If equipment is not available locally to make the required types of examinations, there are commercial laboratories that specialize in this type of work. 8.5.2 Magnetic Test for Carburization of Austenitic Tubes in Pyrolysis Furnaces Austenitic tubes are essentially nonmagnetic. Carbonized areas of the tubes becomes magnetic, and if these areas are large, they can be detected with a magnetic, and if these areas are large, they can be detected with a magnet. A magnet on a string drooped down a tube will indicate areas that are magnetic but will not indicate areas that are magnetic but will not indicate the depth of carburization. Some instruments and field service can relate the degree of magnetisms to the depth of carburization. Most of the instruments are proprietary, and the field service are limited.

A rule of thumb states that up to 50-percent carburization can be tolerated on steam before loss of strength materially affects tube life. Although this rule of thumb indicates that a tube with 50-percent carburization should be replaced, it does not mean that less than 50-percent carburization will allow tube to remain in service until the next shutdown., Factors including the rate of carburization, the expected service time until the next shutdown, the amount of excess metal, and changes in pressure and temperature must be taken in account. 8.5.3 Ultrasonic Inspection for Stress Rupture Cracking Stress rupture cracking of test tubing used in steam/methane-reforming and pyrolysis furnaces usually starts at the midwall of the furnace tube and is normally longitudinal resulting from hoop stresses in tube. Ultrasonic equipment that implements through transmission (pitch catch) has been used inspect tubes. With this method, a grading of percent transmission is made to evaluate the degree of fissuring, which impedes transmission of the ultrasound. Since tubes vary in the amount of equiaxed and columnar grains, the standard used should reflect the tubes being inspected. Without an adequate standard, the judgment of percent transmission may be in error. Evaluation of tubes have indicated that the initiation of internal fissuring will eventually cause the tube to fail, but probably not for 30,000-50,000 hours. Major fissuring, which is easily detected indicates that failure may occur in up to 10,000 hours. Since such a wide range tube life is available for evaluation, a risk analysis should be made. Tubes that are expected to fail in less than 1 year should be replaced. Tubes that may good for several years may be allowed to remain in service until the next scheduled shutdown, when they can be ordered be reinspected or replaced. Replacement tubes can be ordered and would be ordered and would be on hand when need. All these original design and casting quality are adequate are that operation, especially with respect to tube metal temperature, is within the design limit. Furnaces with external pigtails have been operated to tube rupture. In such cases, pigtail nipping has been used to crimp the inlet and outlet pigtails to cut off the inlet and that some locking device is available to keep the crimp closed when the pigtail nipper is related for removal of the hydraulic cylinders. 8.5.4 Radiographic Inspection of Reforming Tubes Radiographic methods have been used to inspect reforming. However, tight cracks cannot readily be seen unless they are normal to the film. When catalyst is in the tubes, the tight cracks will be harder to find because of the varied film densities and the catalyst from the tubes, but this is not normally practical or economical when the catalyst is not scheduled for replacement.

Radiographs can show cracks regardless of whether there is any catalyst in the tubes. However tight cracks cannot readily be seen unless they are normal to the film. When catalyst is in the tubes, the right cracks will be harder to find because of the harder to find because of the varied film densities and the catalyst edged that are present. It is desirable to remove the catalyst from the tubes, but this is not normally practical or economical when the catalyst is not scheduled for replacement. Radiographs can show cracks regardless of whether there is any catalyst in the tubes. However, radiography may not be as sensitive to initial fissuring and tight cracks as is ultrasonic inspection. If radiographs do show cracks the cracks can be judged on the basis of how many there are and how wide they appear to be on the radiograph. Normally, dark, wide cracks radiograph indicate that the cracks open to the inside diameter of the tube and that the should be replaced. 8.5.5 Hammer Testing A hammer test is an accepted method of exploring the surface of metal object to locate areas of reduced wall thickness. When a hammer test I made, the various in metal-wall thickness are indicated by the feel and rebound of the hammer and by the sound produced. The value of the hammer test depends on the experience of the person who perform the test. More skill is required to hammer to hammer are an indicated measure of the rigidity of the tube or pipe may be dented by the hammer. The fireside of the tube should be explored carefully for sign of thinning. Hammer testing is a good way to determine whether the scale on the outside surface of a tube is an oxide due to over heating or a product of fuel combustion. Although combustion deposits may vary in texture depending on the fuel used, the scale that results from oxidation is generally harder, requires a stringer blow to be knocked loose from the tube, and is of a flakier texture than scale from the product of combustion. A magnetic check of the material offers the most conclusive test; oxide scale is magnetic, and scale from the product of combustion is nonmagnetic. Header tubes that have been in service may become temper embitter and have low ductility at ambient temperature. To avoid any possible damage, carbon and alloy steel heater tubes should have a minimum metal temperature of about 600 F (15.60 c) during hammer tests.

In certain cases, the hammer resting of tubes can lead to damage. Austenitic stainless tubes steel may suffer strong stress corrosion cracking at areas that are cold worked hammering. Cast tubes and chromium alloy tubes should not be hammer tested. 9.0 LIMITATIONS OF THICKNESS 9.1 General Unless the limits of the degree of deterioration that may safety be tolerated are well know for particular part being inspected, the inspection will lose considerable value. The factors must be determined to evaluate a part; the parts at which the deterioration of the is proceeding and the limits of safe deterioration of the part. 9.2 Heater Tubes Methods of established minimum allowable thickness range from the highly complex to simple. With the average heater, the operating pressure and temperature are known only the hater inlet and outlet. The pressure and temperature at intermediate points must determined by calculation, estimation, or installation of pressure gauges and thermocouples. The metal temperature largely governs the working stress that should be allowed for an tube material. For a given tube size and a given operating pressure, the thickness various with allowable working stress. API Recommended Practice 530 gives extensive information on the calculation of required wall thickness of new tubes (carbon steel and alloy tubes) for petroleum refinery heating. The procedures given are appropriate for designing tubes or checking existing in corrosive and non corrosive services. Many methods, including those involving tube skin thermocouples, infracted cameras, infra pyrometers and optical pyrometers, are available to determine the metal temperature of tube. A simple method is to estimate the metal temperature from the operating temperature and then adjust the temperature estimate based on the location of the tube, the heater-the skin temperature on a tube closer to the flame or nearer the hater out will be hotter than one at the hater inlet. Another way to determine the minimum allowable thickness of tubes is to calculate it for the actual pressure and metal temperature at the calculate it for the actual pressure and metal temperatures at the inlet and the outlet of the heater using a simple empirical formula like the following equation :

T= PD 2SE Where : T= internal pressure design thickness. P=internal design gauge pressure. D= outside diameter of the pipe. S= stress value for the material. E= joint or quality factor. This formula can also be found in ASME B31.3 An additional way to determine the minimum allowable thickness of tubes is to calculate it for the actual pressure and metal temperature at the inlet and the outlet of the heater, using a simple empirical formula. If the difference between theses thickness is great enough, the minimum allowable thickness must be great enough to give the tube sufficient structural strength to prevent sagging between supports and to withstand upset operating conditions. When determining the need to replace tubes with metal temperature in the creep range, the amount of diametrical creep is another factor that should be taken into account. The increase in tube diameter should be well within the range of creep that will not cause rupture. In wrought tubes only, it is common to limit the increase in diameter resulting from creep to 5 percent of the tube‘s original external diameter. 9.3 Heater Fittings When establishing the minimum allowable thickness for heater fittings, the metal temperature of a fitting outside the fire zone of a heater is usually considered to be the same as the temperature of the fluid flowing through it. The metal temperature of a fitting inside the firebox is considered the same way as it is for tubes. An empirical formula like equation 1 is generally used to calculate the minimum allowable thickness. Because of the complex shape of heater fittings, it is generally advisable to add a shape factor to the formula being used. Fittings produced according to ASME according B 16.28 are intended for use at pressure ratings equal to 80 percent of those calculated for seamless pipe of the same as size, nominal thickness and equivalent material, in accordance with rules established in ASME

B31.1, B31 Guide, B31G, B31.2, B31.3, B31.4, B31.5, B31.8, B31.9 and 31.11. Fittings produced according to ASME B16.9 are pressure rated as calculated for straight seamless pipe in ASME B31.3, B31 Guide, B31.2, B31.3, B31.4, B31.5, B31.8, B31.9 and B31.11. Because of stresses that may be set up by closing and holding members and by thermal expansion, the calculated allowable thickness may be too small to be practical. As with tubes, it is advisable to add some arbitrary thickness, based on judgment and experience when setting the minimum thickness at which a hater fitting should be replaced. When plugs are used in a heater fitting like plug-type or mule-ear fittings (see Figure 27) or when a sectional L is used in a sectional fitting 9SEE Figure 27), the width of the seating surface in the fitting must be sufficient to prevent leakage. A width large enough to prevent leakage generally provides adequate strength against blowout, but lesser width should never be used. The proper seating by experience. When there is no previous experience to be used as a guide, the best way to determine theses limits is to wait until evidence of slit leakage is found and then set a limit at a point that is a little greater than that at which the slight leakage was evident. 10.0 METHOD OF INSPECTION FOR FOUNDATIONS, SETTINGS AND OTHER APPURTENANCES 10.1 Foundations All foundations can be expected to settle to some extent. If the settling is evenly distributed and only to a small extent, little or no trouble may be experienced. When settlement is first noted, all pipe connection to the heater should be examined carefully to determine whether they are subject to serious strain and consequent high stress. If conditions warrant corrective measures, they should be taken immediately. One of the main cause of the deterioration of foundation concrete is high temperature. This causes claiming, which is caused by the concrete a weakened mass with very little cohesion. Calcinning can easily be detected by chipping is present; the concrete will fall away as powder with very little impact from the hammer. Spelling is another form of concrete deterioration. This is caused by heat or an insufficient thickness of concrete over the reinforcement. The concrete cracks, and moisture can enter and attack the steel reinforcement. The products of corrosion build exert sufficient against the concrete covering to cause it to flake or spall, exposing the reinforcement to further attack. Only a visual inspection is necessary to detect this from of deterioration. 10.2 Structural Supports

A visual inspection should be made of all load-carrying structural steel members to see whether deflection is observable. If blending is present in a column, it may be caused by overloading or lateral force applied to the potential causes should be sought, and the cause of the proper corrosive measures can be taken. If the bending is due to overloading, either the column should be reinforced by welding or riveting the necessary reinforcement to the columns web to reduce the unit stresses to a permissible value, or the columns should be replaced by overheating, the column should be protected by insulation or shield. If the bending is caused by expansion off elements in the furnace, provisions should be made to accommodate the expansion without stress on the column. Beams and girders will deflect when loads are imposed on them. The deflection should be measured where it is greatest. The amount of deflection should be checked against that calculated for the load on the beam or girder. If the design should be investigated and corrective, measures should be taken. If corrosion in structural steel members that bear loads directly is so great that the thickness lost is enough to weaken the part the minimum cross-sectional areas should be measured carefully after the corroded part is cleaned thoroughly to permit the determination of the remaining sound metal. When the measurement has been obtained and the remaining sectional area has been determined, the section modulus should be calculated. Useful design information, including information about allowable working stresses, can be found in ASIC MO15 L and M016. The connections between the columns and the beams and girders should be inspected visually. The connections between the columns and the beams and girders should be inspected visually. Theses connections may be made by riveting, bolting, or welding. For riveted or bolted construction, broken or loose rivets or bolts can be detected by striking the side of the rivet or bolt and by striking the side of the rivet or bolt can be detected by striking the side of the rivet or bolt and by striking the plate. If the connections are welded, where corroded section should be carefully visually inspected after proper cleaning, and the effect of lost metal thickness should be determined. 10.3 Setting, Exterior, and Casting The exposed parts of the setting should be inspected for sign of deterioration. All metal parts can be adequately inspected with a hammer and visual examination. If the exposed parts are painted, a visual inspection should be made to see whether the coating adheres

tightly to all surfaces. Areas exposed by flaking or otherwise damaged should be cleaned and repainted. The casing should be inspected for thinning or per formation due to acidic flue gas corrosion. Stairways, walkways, and platforms should be checked to ensure that they have not been materially weakened as a result of corrosion. Heater header boxes should be inspected for warpage and improper functioning. Warpage or improper functioning of doors may allow rain or other moisture to enter. Header box warp age also allow rain or other moisture to enter. In some operations, particularly those with heaters that process light hydrocarbons, a sudden change in temperature due to leakage of header boxes can cause enough movement in fitting closures or rolls to loosen them. Peepholes, access doors and the like should be inspected visually to see that the fit is satisfactory and minimizes excess air ingress. Explosion doors, if provided should be inspected visually for corrosion of the hinges and the door itself and for warpage. Explosion doors should be visually inspected to see whether there is proper seating contact between the doors should be manually lifted to check operability. To serve effectively, the doors should open with minimum resistance. 10.4 Refractory and Insulation Most modern setting consist of structural steel framing with refractory lining or lightweight ceramic or blanket insulation on the walls and roof of the heater. The refractory may be backed up with brick or supported on steel members with heatresistant hangers. The supporting brickwork and reinforced concrete and the clearance in the expansion joint should be examined for deterioration due to heat, open joints, excessive distortion, or debris. The inspection of refractory should consist of a visual examination for breakage, slagging, crumbling, and open joints. Leakage of the hot furnace gases through joints when the edge have crumbled or when the tile or insulating concrete has fallen out exposes the supporting steel to high metal temperatures, rapid oxidation, and corrosion. Leakage of hot furnace gases outward instead of air leakage inward may improper draft conditions in the firebox. Steelwork should be inspected thoroughly. Beams, hangers, and supports of any type that have been damaged by heat or show excessive distortion should be replaced. Any accessible insulation used on the exterior should be inspected. 10.5 Tube Supports 10.5.1 General

Tube sheets and tube supports should be examined to determine their physical condition and fitness for further service. Supports should be examined carefully for cracks, oxidation, and corrosion. If found to be unsound or weak, they should be reinforced or replaced. 10.5.2 Steam Methane-Reforming Heaters Tube support methods vary in steam/methane reforming heaters. Some designs required full support from the top. In theses designs, the pigtail may be below the tube. Counter weights are often used and may support two or more tubes. The lever or pulley system must work as designed. Interference from tube flange bolts, slipping of supports off tube flanges and other similar problems have led to pigtail failure. Inadequate support also allows tube bending, which puts a bending moment on a pigtail that exits the tube from the side, thus causing localized high stress at the fitting on the tube or the outlet headers. Outlet headers grow, usually from a center anchor point. Bottom tube supports on short pigtailed tubes must allow movements of the tube bottom to minimize stress on the pigtail. If the tube is designed for bottom movement, the upper tube supports must allow the tube to move at the bottom end. To prevent a pigtail bending moment, the furnace lining must not press on the tube. Loose bricks are often used to help close openings. The bricks must move freely if the tube presses on them. If supports springs are used, those that have been stretched should be replaced. A stretched spring can not support a tube. When the tube is heated up after a shutdown, the spring will no longer support it as designed. 11.0 METHOD OF REPAIRS 11.1 Heaters In general, repairs to heaters entail repairing or replacing parts that have become weakened or damaged. Many relatively good heater tubes have to be condemned and removed from service because of excessive bowing and sagging or defective fittings is sufficient, the tube can be reworked or salvaged, reworking generally entails cleaning, straightening, and welding on a stub to restore the tube to a standard length. When a tube is to be salvaged by welding a new piece onto it, special attention should be given to the alignment and the uniformity of thickness at the ends of the section to be jointed. If necessary, the ends should be tapered on the inside to obtain sufficient uniformity. When the weld is completed, a through inspection should be made. The

welding operation, including preheating, welding technique, and post-heating, should be performed according to the best approved methods or practices recommended for each particularly of material. There are several types of repairs that can be made to heater fittings, both when they are in the heater and when they are removed. The most common repair consists of welding small cracks that develop in the fitting. Solid fittings with horseshoes-type holding sections that have become stretched and misshapen can be reconditioned by heating and reshaping with a homemade forming tool. Plugs or U-bend seats in the fitting that have been damaged or deformed can be reworked by matching and grinding. Seat tines or oversized plugs U bends may be used. In some cases, the tube seat liner, without prior machining or grinding. Routine patching repair of furnace settings, duct, stacks and the like usually involved routine patching or replacement. The repair of furnace setting ducts, stacks and the like usually involves routine parching or replacement. It is sometimes possible, however, to extend the service life of an unlined steel stack has partially corroded by installing a monolithic insulating liner in the corroded area. 12.0 RECORDS AND REPORTS 12.1 General

The importance of keeping complete records cannot be overemphasized. Inspection records form the basis for determining reliability and establishing a preventive maintenance program. With good, complete records, it is usually possible to predict when repairs and replacements will be needed. This help prevents emergency out of service time. It also saves time by allowing personnel and materials to be scheduled before a shutdown. Records can also be used for reference in preparing specifications for new equipment. 12.2 Heater Records There are certain inspection data on heater tubes and fittings that all inspection organizations consider necessary. It is important to measure and record the thickness of new tubes when they are installed. If this is not done, the first inspection period jay not accurately reflect actual corrosion rates. If the installed thickness of the new tubes were exactly as specified on the purchase order. This is not always true, and hence an error in the calculation of corrosion rate may result.

The types or forms that may be used for recording the necessary information vary widely among companies.

12.3 Reports Inspection reports should be clear and complete. All unusual conditions observed should be reported fully, since what seem to be insignificant details may prove to be of importance in the future. When necessary, sketches, diagrams and photographs should be incorporated in the report. There should be no unnecessary delay between the inspection and the submission of the report. Sample reports are shown in Appendix A. 13.0 INSPECTION OF AIR PREHEATERS 13.1 Regenerative Type : 1. Visual examination shall be carried out to assess the condition of cold/hot elements and enamel on cold elements. Generally the corrosion pattern is more aggressive on cold side of both the flue gas and air chambers, due to dew point condensation. Condition of circumferential, radial seals and element sector diaphragms shall be examined for thinning. Thinned down and perforated areas shall be replaced. Refractory shall be examined for failure. The thickness of casing in cold side be taken, and compared with the original. Rotor shall be checked for free operation. Any areas where the rotor frame is touching to casing shall be identified and rectified.


3. 4. 5.

6. Gaps of radiant and circumferential seals shall be checked to be in acceptable limits.

13. 2 Recuperative Type Air Preheaters : The corrosion is usually extensive at the flue gas outlet zone. Thinned down / perforated tubes shall be replaced or plugged. Casing shall be examined for thinning, repairs are to be advised as per the results.

Condition of insulation shall be inspected. Pockets of insulation shall be opened and the casing shall be inspected for corrosion. Glass tubes shall be inspected for breakage and leakage through tube sheet joints. Expansion bellow shall be examined for leakage. Soot blower / treated water heaters shall be inspected for clogging / perforations. Associated railing and structures shall be visually examined for corrosion and thinning. 14.0 METHOD OF REPAIRS : The repairs on tubes are generally of replacement type. However, if the thickness of the tube is sound, warped or bowed tubes may be salvaged by straightening, partial replacement, to restore the tube to a standard length. Refractory repairs which involve removal of spalled areas up to base metal and making a joint to the sound refractory. Anchors should be replenished, wherever damaged. Ceramic lining renewal in patches shall be done according to established procedure, either up to base or superficial layers. Proper precautions shall be taken so that the new line is tied back to casing. Casing replacement in perforated areas, shall be done with proper jointing and welding from both sides. The replaced areas shall be welded with refractory anchors and subsequently lined. Warped floor shall be replaced. Level of floor shall be checked and avoid slope. Burner housing refractory and regentile shall be repaired according to the damage. Thinned down/cracked/oxidized tube supports shall be replaced, with minimum damage to the refractory. Weld repairs may be carried out for superficial damage to the supports. Perforated/thinned down sections of the ducting and stacks shall be replaced/by in lay patching. The new sections shall be refractory lined as per the old ones. Soot blower headers, sleeves and impingement plates shall be replaced, if perforated. Care shall be taken to maintain corbelling profile while repairing refractory in convection section panels. Repairs in cracks of tube sheets, if any shall be carried out with established and approved welding procedure.

Perforated/thinned down/wrapped burner housings shall be replaced to maintain original profile and thereby avoid irregular flame patterns caused by non uniform air flow. ***

CONTENRS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Scope 3.0 Name & Function of heat Exchangers 3.1 Types of Heat Exchangers 4.0 Inspection Role 5.0 Tools for Inspection 6.0 Inspection of Heat Exchangers during Fabrication 7.0 Check list for inspection of Heat Exchangers prior to erection & commissioning. 8.0 Likely Location of Metal Wastage 8.1 Material of Construction 8.2 Shell 8.3 Shell Cover 8.4 Tubes 8.5 Tube Sheet 8.6 Floating Head Cover 8.7 Channel & Channel Cover 8.8 Baffles 8.9 Air Finned Coolers 8.10 Box Cooler 9.0 Frequency of Inspection 10.0 Inspection Procedures 10.1 On Stream Inspection 10.2 Shut Down Inspection 10.2.1 Shell, Shell Cover, Channel, Channel Cover & Floating Head Cover 10.2.2 Tube Bundle 10.2.3 General 10.2.4 Air Cooler 10.2.5 Box Cooler 10.2.6 Double Pipe Coolers 11.0 Repairs & Follow up 12.0 Testing 12.1 Procedure for testing of shell & Tube type Exchanges 12.2 Procedure for testing of Double Pipe Exchangers 13.0 Limits of Thicknesses 14.0 Records & Documentation 1.0 INTRODUCTION

Safety in refineries comes through continuous efforts at all stages and as such it can be ensured by observing that plant and equipment are designed, constructed tested and

maintained as per Engineering Standard, and subsequent modifications and repairs are conforming to the same standard. 2.0 SCOPE

This standard covers the minimum inspection requirements for heat exchangers or any heat exchanging equipment used in a petroleum installation. Areas to be inspected, causes for deterioration, frequency of inspection and testing have also been included in this standard. This standard also covers in brief fabrication and pre commissioning checks. 3.0 NAME AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat exchanger are used whenever it is desirable or necessary to heat or cool a fluid. Individual heat transfer equipment are named after the function which they perform. (i) COOLER

A cools the process fluid, using water or air, with no change of phase. (ii) CHILLER

A chiller uses a refrigerant to cool process fluid to a temperature below that obtainable with water. (iii) CONDENSER

A condenser condenses a vapor or mixture of vapors using water or air. (iv) EXCHANGER

An exchanger performs two functions in that it heats a cold process fluidly recovering heat from a hot fluid, which is cools. None of the transferred heat is lost. (v) STEAM HEATER

A steam heater uses steam to heat either waters or processes fluid. (iv) STEAM GENERATOR / WASTE HEAT BOILER A steam generator produces steam from water using hot process fluid (that requires cooling) or hot gases produced in chemical reaction. (vii) REBOILER A reboiler used steam or any hot fluid to heat process fluid (hydrocarbon) for distillation column.



3.1.1 Box Cooler The simplest heat transfer equipment is a length of steel pipe submerged in a tank of water. The liquid to be cooled flows inside the pipe. The coil in the water tank is commonly called box cooler. It is generally built from long steel pipes, which are flanged at inlet and outlet ends and connected together by means of return bends. Cooling water enters from the bottom of the box and passes through the overflow outlet at the top. Box coolers are mainly used for cooling very hot streams like distillation tower bottoms or asphalt. The disadvantages of submerged pipe coils are low rate of heat transfer and relative large area required to get the needed cooling. 3.1.2 Double Pipe Exchanger The double pipe nit is completely enclosed and allow the heat transfer element, the pipe, to be surrounded by a faster moving coolant. The double pipe provides counter flow, that is, the hot and cold fluid flow in opposite directions, which is a very desirable feature for efficient heat transfer. A variation of double pipe unit is extended surface exchanger, best know as fin tube cooler. Double pipe exchangers are compact and can easily be stacked for connection in parallel or series. 3.1.3 Fan Cooler Air-cooled exchangers are usually designed and fabricated as per API 661. They are exclusively constructed with tubes mostly in horizontal position stacked in layers ad their ends rolled and / or welded to tube sheets enclosed by header compartments. Air is circulated by a fan placed either above or at the bottom of the steel framework in which the entire assembly is fixed. These coolers are used for condensing vapor or cooling fluids by blowing air and are installed where water is scarce or from economic viability p to certain optimized temperature. 3.1.4 Shell and Tube Exchanger Although the type of exchangers mentioned above are widely used, the major portion of heat exchange is done with shell and tube exchangers. In general, shell and tube exchanger consists of a shell, a tube bundle, a channel head, floating head cover and shell cover. Commonly used shell ad tube exchangers are as follows : a) Floating Head Exchangers

The exchanger consists of a cylindrical shell flanged at both ends, a tube bundle with a tube sheet at each end, a channel with cover, a floating head cover and a shell cover. (The diameter of floating tube sheet is smaller than the shell diameter so that tubes bundle can be inserted into the shell). The diameter of the stationary tube sheet is large enough to bear on the gasket surface of one shell flange. The channel is bolted onto this shell flange so as to hold the stationary tube sheet in position. Similarly, the floating head cover is bolted onto the smaller (floating) tube sheet. The shell cover is thereafter bolted in its place. Suitable partition arrangements in the channel and the floating head

cover can provide several tube side passes. Baffles as desired direct the flow through the shell. The floating tube sheet is free to move in the shell. This type of construction permits free expansion and contraction with changes in temperature. This type of exchanger is most commonly used. b) Fixed Tube Sheet Exchanger

The simplest and least expensive type of shell and tube equipment is the fixed tube sheet type exchanger. It consists of two tube sheets welded to the shell with the tubes rolled into the tube sheets, with channel head on either side. Since the tube bundle cannot be pulled out, this type; of exchanger is suitable for services where there is little possibility of fouling on the outside of the tubes, otherwise chemical cleaning will need to be done. Also, temperature conditions should be such that the stress due to differential thermal expansion between shell and the tube does not overstress shell or tube, otherwise expansion bellows will need to be provided on shell to take care of this differential thermal expansion. c) U – tube Exchanger

The U-tube construction offers several advantages over fixed tube sheet exchangers. In this type of exchanger, each tube is permitted to expend and contract independent of the other tubes. The U-tube bundle is usually equipped with welded shell cover. One disadvantage of the U-tube exchanger is that tubes are difficult to clean internally. The other disadvantage is that replacement of leaky tubes in the inner rows involves unnecessary cutting of good tubes in the outer rows. d) Double Tube Sheet Exchanger

In certain service where even minute leakage of one fluid into another cannot be tolerated, a double tube sheet construction can be employed. In the tube bundle two tube sheets are installed with approx. 1‖ or less gaps between them and the tube ends rolled into both the tube sheets. The one between the tube sheets can be made pressure tight. Any roll leakage from either shell or tube side passes into the zone between the tube sheets, can be drained off. This can be done only in U-tube exchangers. e) Re-boiler / Kettle Shell

The primary use of this exchanger is boiling the fluid for distillation. The kettle shell is used in the re-boilers or chillers. The fluid to be heated is in the shell ad heating medium, generally steam, is in the tubes. The shell of the Kettle tube re-boiler has large vapor space over the tube bundle. A Kettle type re-boiler has several advantages over standard heat exchangers in similar service. It has a lower pressure drop and can handle widely fluctuating load. The same type of construction is used in some chillers. For this service a volatile cooling medium such as propane is in shell and fluid to e cooled in tubes. The latent heat of vaporization is absorbed from the cooled medium.

For the purpose of this standard, the term heat exchanger shall mean all the heat exchanging equipment as defined above. 4.0 INSPECTION ROLE

The following are the responsibilities of Inspection Division. i) To inspect, measure and record the deterioration of materials and to evaluate present physical condition of the heat exchanger and its components for their soundness to continue in service. To co-relate the deterioration rate with design life for further run. To determine causes of deterioration and to advise remedial measures. To recommend / forecast short-term and lone-term repairs and replacements to ensure further run length on the basis of economics and safety. To initiate procurement action of material to meet recommended repair / replacement needs. To inspect while the repairs are in progress and to accept after completion of repairs. To maintain up to date maintenance and inspection records and history of heat exchanging equipment. To keep the concerned operating and maintenance personnel informed about the condition of various hear exchangers. To ensure that heat exchangers are inspected as per schedule of inspection and the statutory requirements as applicable. TOOLS FOR INSPECTION

ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) 5.0

The common tools used for inspection of heat exchangers are given below : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) Ultrasonic flaw detector and thickness gauge. Radiographic equipment. Magnetic particle inspection equipment. Fibro scope / Boro scope. Dye penetrant inspection equipment. Inspector‘s hammer. Flash light. Inside and outside calipers. Small mirror. Pit gauge. Steel foot rule.

xii) xiii) xiv) xv) 6.0

Steel foot rule. Plumb line and levels. Scraper wire brush. Magnifying glass INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS DURING FABRICATIN

Inspection of heat exchangers during fabrication should be carried out as per requirement of applicable codes. The following inspection check shall be carried out stage wise. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Study of all tender documents and all technical specifications. Identification of all the material. Testing of all the welder‘s qualification and procedure qualification as per codes and as per the fabrication drawings. Ensuring that welding of all the exchanger components is being done as per agreed welding sequence using approved electrodes. Checking of all the exchanger parts as per required NDT methods before final machining is carried out. Ensuring radiography is done before as well as after post weld heat treatment if such treatment is required. Inspection of lining on the shell, channel, channel covers and floating head covers as per procedure mentioned in inspection of Pressure vessels – OISD Standard – 128. Inspection of tube for any surface defects and dimension tolerances as per relevant code. Inspection of tube sheets, after final machining and drilling , before rolling of tubes for hole diameter ligament, with pitch and grooves inside holes and burrs as per required code. CHECK LIST FOR INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS PRIOR TO ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING

viii) ix)


The checklist format shall include the following information. Equipment No : Service a) Shell b) Tube

Purchase order no and date Serial No. and type Manufacturer Main Dimensions a) Shell b) Tube Material of construction Shell Shell Cover Channel head Channel head cover Floating head cover Tubes Tube sheets Baffles Fasteners Maximum allowable working pressure Maximum allowable working Temperature Stress-relieved Radiography Hydrostatic test pressure Erection contractor Contractor‘s inspection Company‘s inspector Date of inspection CHECK LIST CHECKS i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) Xii) REMARKS

Check for proper alignment of supports. Check name plate attachment. Check foundation / saddle support bolts and shims for any mechanical damage. Inspect shell / channel / shell cover for any bulges or dents. Inspect visually weld joints for any damage during handling. Check any alteration made during fabrication. Check and record wall thickness of all the components of exchanger and also of their nozzles. Check that the test holes in reinforcement plates are not plugged. Check nozzle flanges facing, gaskets and bolts for mechanical damage. Check free end of slotted holes in saddles are free. Check insulation and fire proofing. Check painting quality.

xiii) xiv) xv) 8.0

Check and witness hydrostatic tests of shell and tube side. Check that connected piping do not strain the exchanger nozzles. Check the Earthing connection. LIKELY LOCATION OF METAL WASTAGE

Deterioration may be expected on all the surfaces of heat exchanger in contact with hydrocarbon, chemical, seawater, fresh water, steam and condensate. The form of attack may be electrochemical, mechanical or combination of both. The attack may be further influenced by certain accelerating factors such as temperature, stress, fatigue, and high velocity of flow and impingement. 8.1 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

The material used for construction of various parts of exchangers is selected to resist, most economically, the type of corrosion expected. Most commonly used material of construction of exchanger parts is given below. Shell : Channel : Carbon steel, Alloy steel, corrosion resistant clad steel (Monel or stainless steel cladding) Carbon steel, Alloy steel, corrosion resistant clad steel (Monel or stainless steel cladding)

Shell cover : Carbon steel, Alloy steel, corrosion resistant clad steel (Monel or stainless steel cladding) Tubes : Carbon steel, alloy steel (5% cr. ½ % Mo. Etc.), stainless steel, non-ferrous material such as Admiralty/Aluminum Brass, Cupro Nickel, Titanium, etc. Bimetallic types having inner and outer layer of different materials are used in exchangers where unusual corrosion problem exists. (An example of its use will be where it is desirable to use Cupro Nickel tube in sea water cooled unit in which shell side fluid is corrosive to Cupro Nickel). Various combinations of metals can be used for fabrication of such duplex tubes. Carbon steel, Naval Brass etc. Carbon steel, Naval Brass, Aluminum, Bronze, Cupro Nickel, Clad carbon steel, stainless steel, etc. Carbon steel, ally steel, Cladded steel, Cast iron, Cast Cupro, Nickel (90 Cu 10 Ni) etc.

Baffles :

Tube Sheets : Floating Head :

Channels and floating head covers of coolers using seawater are sometimes strip lined with suitable sea water corrosion resistant material. 8.2 SHELL


Carbon steel shells are prone to internal corrosion and pitting when hydrocarbon streams contain compounds of sulphur such as hydrogen sulphide or mercaptans. At temperatures above 270 degree C, Hydrogen sulphide reacts with carbon steel and forms Iron sulphide scales. This usually results in a fairly uniform loss of metal. This type of corrosions more predominant in preheats exchangers. Internal corrosion can also occur due to low temperature hydrochloric acid and or hydrogen sulphide corrosion in presence of moisture. Overhead condenser shells in crude, vacuum, visbreaker and FCC distillation units are prone to this type of attack. A combination of wet hydrogen sulphide and hydrochloric acid (that form due to hydrolysis of chlorides I crude during distillation) aggravates the will be most pronounced in the bottom part of the shell and lower nozzles. This type of corrosion is fairly uniform or in the form of groove following the line of flow of the condensate. Reboiler shells are prone to internal pitting or grooving due to steam condensate corrosion. Overhead condensers, coolers and exchangers in sour gas, MEA/DEA service are prone to shell side cracking due to stress corrosion cracking phenomenon at the weld joints if they are not properly stress corrosion cracking phenomenon at the weld joints if they are not properly stress relieved. Erosion / corrosion will take place around outlet nozzles of cooler shells due to solid particles like catalyst present in streams. Grooving and thinning of shell may take place in cooler of condensers at the baffle resting locations due to galvanic corrosion. Pitting type corrosion will take place in carbon steel heat exchangers shell in high temperature MEA / DEA or phenol service. external corrosion of shells may result due to water seepage in the thermal insulation having high chloride concentration. SHELL COVER



iv) v)

vi) vii) viii) ix) 8.3

Shell cover of all exchangers are prone to corrosion similar to that in shells. 8.4 TUBES i) Copper zinc alloy tubes like admiralty Brass or Aluminum Brass tubes are susceptible or stress corrosion cracking in pipe still overhead condensers service due to presence of Ammonia.


Cupro-Nickel alloy tubes in overhead condensers corrode when they are exposed to hydrocarbon vapors containing H2S. Sulphide scales of nickel and copper are formed in alkaline medium. Erosion of tube ends are common in exchangers and is more pronounced where hydrocarbon streams contain solid particles such as catalyst. This phenomenon can be seen in exchangers in FCC unit. Grooving around tubes may take place at baffle locations due to vibrations or crevice corrosion. Erosion corrosion occurs when the erosion effects of the coolant remove the protective film, thus exposing a fresh surface to corrosion. This type of attack occurs mainly at the tube ends. High velocity, abrupt change in flow direction, entrained air and solid particles will promote erosion corrosion of tubes in coolers and condensers. Tubes in coolers and condensers are prone to localized pitting, dezincification or denickelification. Tubes in exchangers and coolers are susceptible to bulging or wraping due to exposure to high temperatures above design range and may finally result in cracking. Sustained vibrations caused due to high velocity or pulsating vapours striking the tubes may lead to fatigue cracks or corrosion fatigue in the form of circumferential fracture of the tubes. When steam is used as a heating medium in tube side of exchangers and reboilers, the condensate may cause grooving or pitting in the tubes. Cooler tubes are susceptible to overheating due to partial / total blocking caused by a) Low velocity of water b) Suspended solids in cooling water c) High water outlet temperature resulting in the hard deposition of CaCO3. TUBE SHEETS Non ferrous tune sheets like Naval Brass or Cupro Nickel are susceptible to Dezincification or denickelification in cooling water service. Where tubes are prone to erosion corrosion, tube sheets also get damaged at the tube ligament areas by formation of rat holes. Solid particles or marine growth that settle down on the tube sheets due to inadequate screening of cooling water will cause localized attack on tube sheets. Galvanic corrosion of tube sheets may take place at pass partition grooves when


iv) v)

vi) vii)


ix) x)

8.5 i) ii) iii)

partition plates of channel or floating head cover made of noble metal like Monel or Stainless steel come in contact with tube sheets of active metallurgy. 8.6 i) ii) iii) iv) v) FLOATING HEAD COVER Floating head covers which are generally made of carbon steel or lined with monel or lead get corroded inn water service at bolt holes and the holes get enlarged. Carbon steel pass partition plates which are in contact with non ferrous tube sheets undergo galvanic corrosion. Floating head backup rings corrode due to retention of acidic condensate I overhead condensers. Failure of gaskets sometime causes crevice corrosion on gasket face of floating head covers flange. Low alloy strength steel stud bolts, for example ASTM-A-193 Gr. B7, crack due to sulphide stress cracking phenomenon in overhead condensers handling sour gases in presence of moisture. CHANNEL AND CHANNEL COVER Channel and channel cover are prone to waterside corrosion in coolers and condensers. Carbon steel pass partition plates corrode by galvanic action if they come in contact with noble metallurgy of tube sheets. Unlined carbon steel channel covers are prone to pitting and tuberculation corrosion. Monel lined or lead lined channels get corroded at defects in lining or its welds. BAFFLES Baffles get thinned out due to general condensate corrosion in hydrocarbon streams. Baffles holes get enlarged due to erosion corrosion and tube vibration. AIR COOLED EXCHANGER

8.7 i) ii) iii) iv) 8.8 i) ii) 8.9

Improper bonding of fins with tubes or the damaged fins results in high differential temperature between passes causing tube bowing and wrapping. This finally results in tube roll joint leaks. 8.10 BOX COOLER

Problem encountered in box coolers are generally pitting type corrosion on external surface of coil. 9.0 i) FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION The following factors shall govern the frequency of inspection : ii) iii) Service Rate of deterioration and remaining corrosion allowance Statutory requirements like IBR, Factory Act, etc. Change of service and past experience operating requirements such as desired cleanings, fouling, maintenance of required heat transfer rate, etc.

Time interval between two inspection schedules shall ensue availability of enough corrosion allowance for the net desired run. All those exchangers which can be spared during operation of the plant should be covered under preventive maintenance schedule for inspection and maintenance. In case where the exchanger cannot be spared during operation, its inspection frequency shall be tied up with the shutdown of the plant. After the initial commissioning of the plant, first inspection of the exchanger shall be carried out as per designer‘s recommendations or within two years of service which ever is earlier. This inspection shall include a thorough inspection after pulling out the tube bundle.


10.0 INSPECTION PROCEDURES 10.1 ONSTREAM INSPECTION i) The actual temperature and pressure conditions in relation to design parameters shall be checked. Any changes in fluid stream should be noted and their effect assessed e.g. increase in temperature in hydrogen sulphide service. The exchanger should be checked for fouling which could cause a stream of higher temperature fluid to pass through equipment not designed for such conditions. The paint condition shall be checked for discoloration / burning. All flange joints and drain nozzles shall be checked for possible leakage. All tell tale holes shall be checked for leaks. Insulated surface operating below 1500 C can corrode under wet condition. Where such conditions persist, stringent painting standard shall be enforced. The condition of welds and HAZ shall be checked for pinholes, cracks etc.

ii) iii) iv) v) vi)

vii) viii) xi)

The condition of concrete/steel saddle supports shall be checked for any deterioration. Anode plate, if fitted, should be electrically connected to fixed tube sheet. The tubes of air coolers shall be inspected for warping / distortion and condition of fins.

10.2 SHUTDOWN INSPECTION Prior to cleaning, all the accessible parts of heat exchanger shall be inspected for fouling deposits, scaling, etc. If corrosion is observed beneath these deposits, then all such deposits shall be analyzed. Tube bundles of SS material shall be chemically treated with solution of Sodium Carbonate or Sodium nitrate before exposing it to atmospheric oxygen. For tube bundles where sulphide scales are likely to be available before opening, precautions shall be taken to prevent overheating due to oxidation of pyrophoric iron. 10.2.1 Shell, Shell Covers, Channel, Channel Cover and Floating Head Cover i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) General visual inspection of inside and outside surfaces and welds shall be carried out for signs of pitting, grooving, scaling, erosion or impingement attack. Visual inspection detailed thickness survey of these parts of exchange shall be carried out using ultrasonic instruments. Shell portions adjacent to tube bundle impingement plate and baffle shall be checked for erosion. All the nozzles and small bore connections shall be checked for thinning. The pass partition plates of channel head and floating head cover shall be inspected for corrosion and warping. Area of internal corrosion shall be marked on outside shell, shell cover and channel head in order to monitor on stream. Gasket surface of all the nozzles shall be visually checked for corrosion or mechanical damage. The lining, if provided shall be checked for any damage. Tube Bundle

10.2.2 i) ii)

The tube sheets shall be inspected for general corrosion pitting grooving etc. Gasket surface shall be checked for corrosion grooving or mechanical damage.

iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix)

Nonferrous tube sheets like Naval Brass or Cupro Nickel should be checked for dezincification or denickelification. Pass partition grooves in tube sheets should be checked for groove pits and erosion. The tube ends inside tube sheets shall be checked for erosion. The tubes shall be checked for plugging or wrapping. The peripheral tubes, tie rods and baffles holes shall be checked. If excessive, failure of tubes will occur due to vibration / erosion. The clearance of peripheral tubes in baffle holes shall be checked. If excessive, failure of tubes will occur due to vibration / erosion. A failure analysis of leaking tubes shall be done to establish cause of failure. General

10.2.3 i) ii) iii)

The condition of saddle support shall be inspected. The backing ring shall be checked for corrosion, pitting, grooving or mechanical damage viz. wrapping. The fasteners shall be checked for elongation, thinning and damaged threads. Air Cooler

10.2.4 i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) vii)

The Cooler assembly body along with the steel framework shall be checked for corrosion, pitting etc. The header compartments and their cover plates shall be inspected for corrosion, erosion, deposits etc. The air cooler shall be checked for tube bowing / wrapping. The gasket surface shall be inspected for corrosion and mechanical damage. The tube ends in header compartment shall be checked for erosion / thinning. If tube ends are welded to tube sheets, the welding shall be checked for cracks, corrosion etc. The accessible tubes externally shall be checked for corrosion, scaling, pitting etc. The fins if provided shall be inspected for fouling corrosion and or damage.


Box Cooler

Visual inspection shall be carried out an external surface of cooler pipes after cleaning. Thickness measurements of pipes shall be recorded. The Box and the supporting system of cooler coil shall be visually inspected for corrosion / damage etc. 10.2.6 Double Pipe Coolers

The inner tube / pipe shall be pulled out completely, cleaned and inspected visually for pitting, scaling or any other type of corrosion. Ultrasonic thickness measurement shall be recorded on both inner and out pipes. 11.0 REPAIRS AND FOLLOW-UP The immediate result of any inspection should be recommended by inspection Engineer for any necessary repairs. These may be as major as a complete re-tubing of tube bundle or as minor as re-rolling of a single tube. Inspection engineer should follow repair jobs to ascertain that they are being done properly and that the material and quality of workmanship are satisfactory. 12.0 TESTING All the heat exchangers shall tested at 1.5 times the design pressure with temperature correction applied when shell or tube bundle is new or any major repairs or replacement has been carried out. The periodic test pressure shall be calculated on the basis of 1.5 times, the maximum operating pressure. Additionally the following points shall be considered while deciding the periodic test pressure. 1) 2) 3) Test pressure shall not induce stresses more that 90% of yield strength of material. If the heat exchanger is directly connected to a pump, the test pressure in no case shall be less than the pump shut of pressure. If the shell or tube side of the heat exchanger is connected to any equipment having safety vale installed on it, the test pressure of the exchanger shall not be less than the set pressure of the safety valve. Wherever tube side pressure is higher than the shell side pressure, then the shell side shall be preferably tested at tube side test pressure provided the design conditions of the shell permits. The duration of hydraulic test shall not be less than 30 minutes. During hydraulic testing, the pressure gauge shall be installed at the highest point. The range of the pressure gauge shall be 30% more than the test pressure and the pressure gauge shall be freshly calibrated. 12.1 PROCEDURE OF TESTNG OF SHELL AND TUBE TYPE EXCHANGERS


Testing of shell and tube exchangers shall be done in three stages using water. In services where water ingress is not desirable, testing may be done with kerosene. Duration of test shall be sufficient to inspect the joints under pressure. 12.2 PROCEDURE OR TESTING OF DOUBLE PIPE EXCHANGERS Inner tube shall be hydraulically tested individually. After boxing up of inner tube the outer tubes shall be pressurized to check the soundness of outer tube and leakage from the joints. 13.0 LIMITS OF THICKNESS Retiring thickness of all the different parts of heat exchanger shall be developed as per the Code/Standards for which it is designed. Guidelines given in chapter 7 of API Guide for Inspection of Heat Exchanger, condenser and cooler Boxes should also be used. 14.0 RECORDS AND DOCUMENTATION Separate file should be maintained for each heat exchanger, cooler or condenser. A history card for each equipment should show design data, material of construction of each component, shutdown period of exchangers and reason thereof. History card shall also be maintained giving all observations, repairs and replacement carried out. This data will help in forecasting the future repairs/replacement of exchanger parts and ordering long delivery items. ***

CONTENTS Introduction 1. Scope 2. Definition & types of Boilers 3.1 Definition 3.2 Types of Boilers 4. Inspection Role 5. Inspection Tools 6. Inspection of Boiler during Fabrication 6.1 Checklist for inspection of Boiler prior to erection & commissioning 6.2 Checklist 7. Specific Requirement 7.2.1 Steam drum 7.2.2 Economiser, Superheaster & Air Heaters 7.3 Pre commissioning Activities 8. Causes for deterioration & Likely location of metal wastage 8.1 Causes for deterioration Overheating Corrosion Other forms of deterioration Steam Drum Combustion Chamber Economiser Super heater Air Preheater Wind Box & Air Duct Blow down piping & soot blower piping Expansion Bellows Co Boiler Duct Air Duct Bellow Boiler Feed Pipe Corrosion 9. Frequency of Inspection 9.1 On-stream Inspection 9.2 Shut Down Inspection 10. Inspection Procedures 10.1 On-stream (Water Tube Boiler) 10.2 On-stream (Fire Tube Boiler) 10.3 Shut down Inspection (Water Tube Boiler) 10.3.1 External Inspection Internal Inspection 10.4 Internal Inspection ( Fire Tube Boiler) 11.0 Waste Heat Boilers 12.0 Co Boilers 13.0 Inspection during Repairs & Replacements 13.1 Repairs/Replacement of economiser


13.2 13.3 14.0 15.0

Drums Replacement of fire box tubes Records & Documentation References

1.0 INTRODUCTION Modern steam generators are complex equipment designed with stringent factors of safety. The most reliable method to ensure safety is periodic inspection and preventive maintenance carried out to sound engineering standards. At our Refinery, we have 7 Fired & 5 Unfired steam generators at Fuels Refinery & 4 Auxiliary fired steam generators at CPP, 4 Fired & Unfired steam generators at Lube Refinery. 2.0 SCOPE This standard covers the minimum inspection requirements for water Tube boilers, Fire Tube Boilers and Auxiliary Equipment during operation and maintenance. The Standard specifies frequency of inspected, Inspection procedures and inspection during and after repairs. The standard also covers in brief fabrication and pre commissioning inspection checks. 3.0 DEFINITION AND TYPES OF BOILERS 3.1 Definition 1. BOILERS A Boiler is a closed vessel exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity used exclusively for generating steam under pressure and includes any mountings or other fittings attaches to the vessel which is wholly or partly under pressure when steam is shut off. 2. ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE The Allowable working Pressure is the maximum pressure for which the boiler is designed and constructed. 3. ACT The Act means Indian Boiler Act, 1923. 4. BOILER LAYUP Any extended period of time during which the boiler is not expected to operate and suitable protection is made to protect it against corrosion, scaling, pitting etc. on the water and fire side is termed boiler lay-up. 5. DESUPERHEATER/ ATTEMPERATOR
The desuperheater / attemperator is a type of heat exchanger for controlling the final dry superheated steam temperature.

6. RECUPERATIVE TYPE AIR HEATER The recuperative type air heater is a tabular type air heater, where hot flue gases are inside tubes and air on the outside of tubes. 7. REGENERATIVE TYPE AIR HEATER

The regenerative type air heater is a rotating heat sponge made up of closely spaced sheets of rotating metal which absorbs heat as it rotates through flue gas compartments and gives up heat as it rotates through air compartments. 8. STEAM CALORIFIERS Steam calorifiers are tubular type airheaters where turbine bleed steam is inside the tubes and fresh air on the outside of the tubes. It helps in reducing the possibility of cold end condensation. 9. WATER TUBE
A Water tube is a tube in a boiler having the water and steam on the inside and heat applied to the outside.

10. WIND BOX A wind box is chamber surroundings a burner through which air under pressure is supplied for combustion of the fuel. 3.2 TYPES OF BOILERS 1. FIRE TUBE BOILERS A fire tube boiler consists of a drum with a tube sheet on each end on which the fire tubes are fastened. Water is contained within the drum surroundings the fire tubes. Fuel is burnt in a combustion chamber associated with the boiler and arranged in such a manner, that flue gases pass through the inside of the fire tubes to heat the water surroundings them. These may be either externally fired in which the combustion chamber may be a refractory lined box which is located against one end of the drum or internally fired which may have steel chamber located within the drum and also surrounded except on one end by the water in the drum. 2. WATER TUBE BOILER A water tube boiler consists of one or more usually from two to four drums with external banks of tubes connected between the two ends of a single drum or between the drums of multi drum boilers in water tube boilers the water is contained within the drums and within the tubes. The fuel is always burnt in an external combustion chamber and flue gases pass around the outside of the water tubes to heat the water within. Water tube boilers are further classified as straight tube and bent tube types. These may be long drum boiler with one or more drums or may be long drum boiler with one or more drums or may be cross drum boilers. The tubes of most straight tube boilers are connected into a header which in turn is connected to the boiler drums. Bent tube boilers are similar to straight tube boilers except that the tubes are almost always multi drum and are connected directly into the boiler drums. The tubes are bent in order to allow them to enter the drums radially to facilitate installation to allow for expansion and contraction and to allow for flexibility in design. 4.0 INSPECTION ROLE: The following are the responsibilities of the inspection division: 1. To inspect measure and record the deterioration of materials and to evaluate the physical condition of the boiler and its auxiliaries for its soundness to continue in service. 2. To co-relate the deterioration rate with design life for further run. 3. To determine causes of deterioration rate with design life for further run. 4. To recommend /forecast short term and long term repairs and replacements.

5. To advice regarding components/equipment replacement so that procurement action can be initiated. 6. To undertake stage-wise inspection of repairs. 7. To maintain update maintenance and inspection records and history. 8. To keep the concerned operating and maintenance personnel fully 9. Informed as to the present condition of boilers. 5.0 INSPECTION TOOLS: The following inspection tools are generally used for carrying out the inspection of boiler parts: 1. Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge 2. Ultrasonic Flaw detector 3. Radiography Equipment 4. Infra red Scanner for Thermographs 5. Fibroscope / Boroscope 6. Dye penetrant kit 7. Paint Thickness Gauge 8. ID & OD Gauges 9. Inspector‘s Hammer 10. Pit Depth Gauge 11. Magnifying Glass 12. Plumb and Bob 13. Magnets 14. Small Mirror 15. Scrapper 16. Measuring Tape 17. Safety Torch / Hand Lamp 18. Vacuum Leak Detector kit 19. Surveyor‘s level 6.0 INSPECTION OF BOILER DURING FABRICATION: All boilers are designed and fabricated as per the various codes available like ASME, BS, and IBR etc. Inspection of new Boiler at the fabrication shall be done as per applicable codes and statutory requirements. The Inspection shall include the following 1. Study of the tender document and all the technical specifications. 2. Identification and inspection of the materials 3. Approval of the welding procedures 4. Approval of welder‘s performance qualification test 5. Check for nozzle orientation, joints fit and overall dimension as per approved drawings. 6. Check to ensure that the welding is carried out as per approved welding sequence and procedure with approved electrodes and qualified welders. 7. Inspection of the weld joints for proper quality during welding. 8. Checks to ensure proper preheat and post weld heat treatment wherever required. 9. Inspection of weld joints by radiography and other Non-Destructive Testing methods as specified. 10. Inspection of repairs, if any, before giving clearance for hydrostatic testing.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Approval of the procedure for various types of testing. Checks to ensure that all the tests are carried out strictly as per approved procedures. Inspection of painting. Checks to ensure that the boiler has been stamped. Preparation and certification of the relevant documents.

7.0 CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTION OF BOILERS PRIOR TO ERECTION AND COMMISSIONING: The following erection and pre commissioning checks shall be carried out for Boiler drums and other pressure parts.

7.1 Checklist 1. Name plate details 2. Check for proper alignment of supports 3. Inspection of foundation bolts and shrims 4. Inspection of shell wall of drums for mechanical damage 5. Visual inspection of weld joints 6. Inspection of alterations made during plan construction. 7. Wall thickness measurement of shell and nozzles. 8. Inspection and Testing of reinforcement plates. 9. Inspection of nozzles, facing gaskets and bolts. 10. Inspection of outside bolting and stiffening rings. 11. Inspection of insulation and fire proofing. 12. Inspection of insulation protection. 13. Inspection of painting quality 14. Inspection of internals 15. Inspection for internal cleanliness before final boxing up. 16. Inspection for proper safety relief valve installation 17. Inspection to ensure that connected piping do not strain the nozzles. 18. Inspection of all safety valve nozzles, water column nozzles, vent nozzles, pressure gauge nozzles for any obstruction. 7.2 SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS In addition to the above some specific requirements for each boiler part as given under shall be fulfilled before commissioning 7.2.1 Steam Drum That the steam separators are free from deposits. That all the wooden plugs have been removed from tube ends. That the drum is free to expand in all the required directions. That the water level gauge and water level instruments connections have been installed as per approved drawings. That drum pressure gauges have been checked for calibration and functioning.

Economiser, Super Heater & Air Heater Inspection of economiser superheater and airheater for transverse and longitudinal spacings. Any misalignment shall be corrected. Inspection for proper supports expansion clearances vibration in the scrubbers, gas baffles etc. Inspection for the proper position of the soot blower nozzles in relation to the tubes for avoiding scouring of tubes by impingement during operation. Inspection of the thermocouple point for correct location installation continuity and response. Inspection to ensure that safety valve vent pipes have been properly supported. PRECOMMISSIONING ACTIVITIES: The following test and activities shall be carried out in addition to the normal start-up activities before boiler is made ready for operation. Air & Gas Tightness tests The fire box and the ducting system shall be checked for leak tightness before applying insulation, painting or cladding etc. The dampers, access doors, observation ports and other openings shall be secured. Pressurized unit shall be subjected to pressure decay test of the boiler in addition to tightness test. Decay testing should be carried out at 1.5 times the maximum operating pressure. Chemical cleaning Before a new boiler is put into service, the internal surface of steam generating section shall be chemically cleaned. This process includes boil out to remove grease followed by an acid cleaning to remove mill scales and rust. During the boil out period solution samples shall be taken periodically to monitor alkalinity, pH, Fe, silica and oil content. This operation is intended to remove mill scales, welding slag, debris or other foreign materials left over in the super heater, preheater and steam pipings of boiler. Safety Valve Setting At the end of steam blowing the safety valves in the boiler shall be floated and set to operate at the design pressure. For details OISD Standard-132 on Pressure Relieving Devices shall be referred. Testing of Protections and Inter Locks
All the interlocks and protections provided for the individual equipment shall be inspected and made functional before putting them into service.

8.0 CAUSES FOR DETERIORATION & LIKELY LOCATION OF METAL WASTAGE 8.1 CAUSES FOR DETERIORATION OVERHEATING Overheating is one of the most serious of deterioration of boilers. Overheating of the boiler cause accelerated corrosion and failure due to stress rupture. Overheating develops from abnormal conditions, including loss of coolant flow over excessive boiler gas temperatures. These abnormal conditions may be caused by inherently faulty circulation or obstructed circulation resulting from water tubes partly or wholly plugged by sludge or dislodged scale particles. Over firing or uneven firing of boiler burner may cause flame

impingement, short term overheating and subsequent tube failure. Figures 1 and 2 show boiler tubes that have failed because of overheating. Boiler tubes may be damaged by poor circulation. Under certain conditions of load and circulation a tube can be come steam bound long enough to overheat locally and fail. If circulation is periodically re-established, the hot portion of the tube is quenched by relatively cool water. This often causes thermal fatigue cracks, which may eventually result in tube failure. This condition can also result in caustic corrosion. Steam Binding may be caused by the insulating effect of slag deposits on the outside of the lower part of the tube. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding as much as possible, non uniform slagging o0f waterwalls. Steam superheaters cool. They can also become overheated if the steam vented from the superheater outlet is not sufficient to provide steam flow through t he superheater during warmup or low load operations. The overheating results in warped tubes and oxidation of the tube metal, leading to early tube failure. The faulty operation of steam separating devices may result in deposition of boiler water solids in the superheater tubes, with subsequent damage to the tubes from overheating. Non pressure part, including refractory lining of furnaces, burners, supporting structures, and castings may also be damaged from overheating. Usually such overheating is caused by improper operating conditions or is a result of refractory lining of a furnace is permitted to deteriorate from normal wear, erosion, spalling or mechanical damage it will no longer protect the outlet furnace casing and structure supports adequately, and such parts may in turn begin to deteriorate rapidly. 8.1.2 CORROSION Corrosion may occur on all external and internal surfaces of boiler parts, economizes, and air preheats. The extent and rate of deterioration caused by corrosion will depend on the conditions of the feed water, the type and quality of fuel burned, the quantity of excess air utilized in combustion and the prevailing atmospheric conditions. Frequency of start ups and shutdowns also affects the rate of this deterioration. Waterside Corrosion Corrosion of tubes and other internal surfaces is largely dependent on the water and water chemistry used within the boiler. Some of the common types of waterside corrosion include caustic corrosion,, dilute acid corrosion , pitting or localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. A significant factor in the degree of waterside corrosion is the amount of corrosion product deposited. Deposits restrict the heat transfer and lead to overheating. Depending on which containments are present in the feed water during the period of chemical unbalance, different deposition locations, rates and effects will be experienced. Caustic corrosion sometimes called caustic gouging develops from deposition of feed watercorrosion products in which sodium hydroxide can concentrate to high pH levels. At high pH levels, the steel‘s protective oxide layer is soluble and rapid corrosion can occur. Deposits normally occur where flow is disrupted in areas of high heat input. When the deposit thickness is great enough to make caustic concentrations locally corrosive severe corrosion resulting in irregular thinning or gouging of the tube wall can occur. Figure 3 illustrates this form of localizes corrosion.

Hydrogen damage may occur if the boiler is operated with low-pH water, which may be caused by the ingress of acidic chemicals from, the water treatment facility , a leak in a saline cooling water condenser, contamination from chemical cleaning or other factors that may lower the boiler feed water pH to less than 7. Close control over boiler water chemistry and monitoring practices are important factors in preventing hydrogen damage. Boiler tube failures caused by pitting or localized corrosion result from oxygen attack on the internal side of the boiler tube. Pitting corrosion of economizer tubing normally results from inadequate oxygen control of the boiler feed water. For full protection against oxygen pitting during shutdown, the boiler should be kept full of hydrazine treated water and blanked or capped with nitrogen. Figure 4 illustrates a boiler tube with a though-wall oxygen pit.
While stress corrosion is usually associated with boilers in which austenitic tubes are used for super heater and reheater tubing, failures have occurred in ferritic tubes where a desuperheater or attemperator spraying station introduced high levels of caustic concentration. Stress corrosion cracking of B-7 studs may also occur in areas where a leaking gasket joint may allow caustic concentration.

Fireside Corrosion Fuel constituents and metal temperatures are important factors in the promotion of fireside corrosion. Two main kinds of fireside corrosion are associated with low temperature attack and high temperature oil-ash corrosion. Corrosion may occur on the flue gas side of economizer and air preheater tubes. The severity of this corrosion depends on the amount of sulphur oxides which are present in the fuel burned and on the temperature of the flue gas and of the media being heated. The gas temperature in economizers and preheaters must be kept above 325oF (163O C) to prevent condensation of corrosive liquid. This may be best affected by designing the tubing and the water flow in the tubing so that the gas temperatures are controlled as noted in the preceding text. External Corrosion
External corrosion of boiler parts may be expected when boilers are out of service for long periods of time. The sulfurous acid formed from the reaction of condensed moisture with the sulfur in ash deposits can cause rapid corrosion of boiler parts. Also, if a unit remains idle for an appreciable length of time, a warm humid atmosphere tends to corrode boiler parts and supports, unless adequate mothballing procedures are followed.

Fuel ash corrosion may occur when fuel ash and refractory are in contract at a moderately high temperature. Fluxing occurs and produces a slag that may be fluid. Metal oxides, including those of vanadium, molybdenum, sodium, and sulphur this are fluxing agents. At least three deteriorating actions of this slag formation on refractory and boiler metal parts can be recognized. Fluxing and melting. Penetration. Chemical action. The general effect of this slagging is to decrease the thickness and reduce the insulating effect of the refractory, thereby causing a high temperature of the protected steel parts. The slagging effects of vanadium and sodium oxides may also cause rapid deterioration of boiler hardware, including tube hangers and spacers. The use of fuel-oil additives or a change in metallurgy to 50Cr-50 Ni or 60Cr-40 Ni alloy reduces the effects of this type of

corrosion. Some designs incorporate steam-cooled spacers and hangers, which control this form of corrosion. OTHER FORMS OF DETERIORATION Mechanical deterioration of boiler parts can result from a number of causes: Fatigue from repeated expansion and contraction and corrosion-fatigue from the combined action of fatigue and corrosion. Abnormal stresses imposed by rapid changes in temperature and pressure, especially in the case of thick walled drums. Improper use of cleaning tools. Improper use of tube rollers. Settlement of foundations. Excessive external loading from connected piping, wind, earthquake, and similar sources. Breakage and wear of mechanical parts. Firebox explosion. Vibration due to improper design or support failure. Improper gaskets that allow steam leaks to score the seating surface. Non weather tight casing that allows external tube corrosion during extended shutdowns. If metal is repeatedly stretched, compressed, bent and straightened, or otherwise worked, it will eventually become fatigued and brittle and may crack under a stress far below its normal breaking load, as discussed in API Recommended Practice 571. Because of temperature changes involved in putting a boiler out of service and the normal temperatures fluctuations during operations, the metal in boiler parts may become fatigued from expansion and contraction. Tubes may also become fatigued as a result of alternate wetting by steam and water, which causes fluctuating conditions. If corrosion acts in conjunction with fatigue, the fatigue resistance of the metal will be reduced because of the corrosive medium, and corrosion fatigue cracks will result. Corrosionfatigue cracks have been found with welds in deaerators. When very rapid temperature changes occur in metal parts, especially thick metal parts the parts may be overstressed by the expansion or contraction of the portions of the metal that have changed in temperature. A similar situation exists when a glass tumbler is only partly filled with hot liquid and shatters. Tube cleaners improperly employed-allowed to operate too long in one position, for example-may cause damage by cutting grooves inside the tube. Improper use of tube rolling tools by a serious cause of deterioration in boilers because of the severe stresses that may be set up in the complicated interconnection of parts, in the external piping, and especially in the refractory linings and baffling. Excessive loads on the boiler by the connections of large pipe lines may cause damage to the boiler foundation and pressure parts. Settlement of foundations may also result from heat transmission from the firebox and subsequent drying of the soil. In earthquake zones, earthquakes may cause severe damage. The damage will be somewhat similar to that caused by foundation settlement and may be particularly severe to refractory linings.

Vibrations from high and moderate winds, earthquakes, burner operating instability, and high flue-gas flow across tube banks can cause damage to various parts of boilers as follows: Stacks may be so damaged that they overturn. Air and flue gas ductwork may be damaged, resulting in cracks at corners or connections. Expansion joints may crack. Guy lines may loosen or break. Piping and tubing may be overstressed and fail. Anchor bolts of stacks may be overstressed and fail. Breakage and wear of mechanical parts are probably the most common forms of deterioration of the various parts and auxiliaries of boilers, especially burners and equipment that handles solid fuel and ash. The associated services are very severe; involving high temperatures almost conditions operation, and extremely abrasive operating conditions when solid fuels are used. 8.2 STEAM DRUM
Shell or drum from water side may pit due to corrosive water and muck. During operation of steam boiler, the gases unusually evolved are oxygen; hydrogen and carbon dioxide and all are undesirable. Carbon dioxide with water in boiler forms carbonic acid. Thus acidity is increased and pH value decreases.

If pH value of water is raised to 9.4 hydrogen evolution ceases and a protective film is formed over the anodic area. But presence of oxygen retards the above action. Hence, it is important to remove even the traces of oxygen from water. Due to poor performance of deaerator, dissolved oxygen in feed water causes the pitting internally. Grooving and cracks along the longitudinal weld seams may occur if the material is highly stressed. Severe corrosion is likely to occur at points where the circulation of water is poor. External surface of drum is likely to corrode due to wetting of insulation or improper insulation. 8.3 COMBUSTION CHAMBER Bulging in furnace tubes are caused due to flame impingement, If there is hard firing, the flame is likely to touch the furnace wall unevenly. Overheating is generally caused by increased steam and metal temperatures due to inadequate medium flow through the tubes or higher than designed heat transfer which subsequently causes blistering, quench cracking, sagging or bowing of tubes. Internal corrosion in the tubes is caused by poor maintenance of water quality. External corrosion is generally caused by moisture, which accumulates on sulphur deposit and flue gas condensation. This gives rise to external putting and grooving in the wall tubes and mud drum at flue gas passage. When flue gas and refractory are in contract at a moderately high temperature a fluxing action and produce a slag. The general effect of this slagging action is to decrease the insulating effect of the refractory and so allow high metal temperature on the supporting steel parts. The slagging effects of vanadium and sodium oxides may also cause rapid deterioration of tubes, tubes, tube hangers and spacers.

8.4 ECONOMISER External corrosion in the low temperature regions of economical may occur due to flue gases cooling down to the dew point temperature. External erosion may be caused by high velocity steam from soot blower. External deterioration may occur due to water impingment when adjacent tube fails. Internal corrosion is caused due to dissolved oxygen in feed water and thinning may take place at the bends due to erosion. 8.5 SUPERHEATER
Superheater tubes can rupture if deposits accumulate in them. The cause of accumulation must be investigated and correct. Excessive height of water maintained in the drum or deposits accumulated on steam separators may cause carry over and subsequent superheater tube failures. Warping of superheater elements is an indication of overheating too rapidly or failure to open the drain when raising pressure. Overheating of super heater tubes is likely if steam is interrupted.

8.6 AIR-PREHEATER Due to poor combustion, especially during start up or shutdown, oil carry over and deposition can occur in the air heaters. These deposits have to be cleaned by soot blowing or by water washing during shutdown otherwise under conducive conditions; they will catch fire and lead to a major failure of air heater tubes. Low temperature corrosion of the cold end is a common problem with unit operating on fuel with high sulphur content. The life of cold end tubes can be prolonged by maintaining the cold end metal temperature above the acid dew point. 8.7 WIND BOX AND AIR DUCT
These are subjected to corrosion caused by condensation of moisture during extended down time. External corrosion can take place due to improper insulation.

These pipings are susceptible to erosion at the sharp bends. Periodic blowdown piping is more prone to corrosion than continuous blowdown piping.

8.9 EXPANSION BELLOWS 8.9.1 Co Boiler Duct
The corrosion of bellows in co duct and by pass ducts usually takes place due to deposition chlorides present in condensate along with refractory Concentration of chlorides cause stress corrosion cracking in S.S. bellowconvolutions.

8.9.2 Air Duct Bellows The corrosion takes place at bottom portion due to condensation of sulphurous flue gases. The external corrosion can also take place due to faulty insulation.

If oxygen content in feed water is more than 0.02 ppm pitting may occur on the inner surface of feed pipe. Corrosion may also occur at the tapping of pressure gauges, drain, sampling points etc.

9.0 FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION 9.1 ON-STREAM INSPECTION On–stream inspection of boilers shall be carried out once a week to monitor flame pattern and determine conditions of fire box. 9.2 SHUTDOWN INSPECTION The period between two consecutive inspections of boilers shall be as section –7 of Indian Boiler Act, 1923. It should not exceed twelve months. 10 INSPECTION PROCEDURES 10.1 ON-STREAM (WATER TUBE BOILERS) Inspection of Boiler & Boiler parts shall be done while the boiler is on-stream to increase their safety. 10.1.1 Flame condition
The condition of the flame should be checked through the peep holes using Colour glasses. The flame should be neutral and shall not impinge on the furnace wall tubes. If there is any tendency of the flame to impinge on the furnace tubes and refractory, corrective measures shall be taken at the earliest.

Excess Air
The amount of excess air shall be checked. Inadequate excess air can cause insufficient combustion and the unburnt hydrocarbon may explode later. On the other hand too much of excess air can abet low temperature sulphur corrosion.

Condition of Refractory The furnace shall be inspected for fallen refractory evidence of corrosion of side walls, back and flame cutting of burner throats. Leaks Leaks from boiler drums, fittings, heaters and other pressure parts shall be checked during operation. Soaked insulation is the first indication about presence of leaks.

High temperature high pressure super heater steam leaks should be examined carefully as they are not readily visible. A moderate to large leak can be detected by sound of escaping steam. Hot spots Inspection shall be made for hot spots, blistered paint and corrosion on exterior plates which could be indications of refractory/insulation failure Thermography can be done to detect any hot spot in the furnace walls as well as on high temperature piping. Thermography to detect hot spots blistered in boilers and stack shall be done at least once in a month to monitor the internal lining/refractory condition. Ladders, Stairways and Platforms
Ladders, stairways, platforms and walkways shall be inspected visually for corrosion, cracked weldings mechanical damage or any corrosion, cracked weldings, mechanical damage or any other deterioration which may cause structural weakness.

Light hammer testing should be done to locate the weakest locations. walkways should be inspected for any skidding surface like oil grease etc. Boiler Feed

Platform and

Analysis of boiler feed water and blow down water shall be carried out periodically (Refer Annexure (1 and 2) 10.2 ON-STREAM (FIRE TUBE BOILERS) While the boiler is in operation, the condition of the flame should be checked through the view glass provided at the rear and front end to ensure proper tuning of air-fuel ratio. Flue gas exit temperature should be monitored closely. Leaks from boiler shell, gauge glasses, fittings and mountings should be checked during operation. Fuel lines gas lines should be checked for any leakages from flanges, valves and fittings using gas detectors. The front reversal chamber and the rear inspection window should be inspected for any hot gas leaks. The back plate view glasses at the rear end should be checked spots visually or by using thermography. The air-cooled view glasses at the rear end should be checked. The linkage position of the dampers provided in the flue gas exit duct should be checked to ensure that the dampers are in open position. The boiler and the forced draft air blowers should be checked for any abnormal noise and vibrations. Stair cases, platforms and walk ways should be checked for corrosion and cracks in welding. 10.3 INSEPCTION DURING SHUTDOWN: (WATER TUBE BOILERS)

10.3.1 External Inspection Visual inspection is carried out to check for corrosion, structural weakness, foundation, strained piping, damaged insulation and refractory. Foundations Foundation settlement may cause equipment failure, refractory failure, steam leaks etc. this settlement can be detected by cracks in the concrete and brick walls and adjacent flooring. Differential settlement of boiler can be detected with a surveyor‘s level . Tools such as level, a straight edge etc. may be helpful in determining the amount and seriousness of settlement or cracking. Tapping with a hammer will reveal deteriorated or unsound condition of the concrete. Level marks put during erection can be used for checking settlement in foundation. Boiler Supports Supports and structures shall be inspected for excessive deflections, swaying, peeling of paints and chippings of mill scale. These are the indications of over loading. Structural members shall be inspected for atmospheric corrosion. Boiler supports from over head by tension members should be hammer tested lightly to check their condition. Tension members under load will be tight and will have a clear ring when hit with a hammer. The ones that are not loaded will be loose and will give dull and ‗tinny‘ sound when struck. Steam Drum Spot examinations of drum external surface should be made during shutdown for evidence of external corrosion and for any leaks etc. Combustion Chamber The fireside of these walls is generally constructed of refractory bricks, backed with insulation bricks. The life of refractory, depends on fuel fired, intensity of firing and condition of operation. Alternate heating and cooling tends to open up joints and induce cracking. Failure of brick wall and arches may cause over heating, which is indicated by warpage, discoloration or excessive high surface temperature. A thin knife or scraper blade may be used to know the depth of the openings shall be inspected for cracks and sealed wear and proper operability. Externally, inspection shall be made for hot spots, blistered paint, etc. on the exterior plates or casing. These are indication of refractory or insulation failures. Expansion Bellows The expansion bellows shall be inspected for damage of insulation corrosion and cracking which may occur under the insulation. Ultrasonic thickness measurement and a light hammer testing should be done to locate the weakest and corroded area. Piping Connections

A visual inspection of pipings is sufficient to disclose any leak at piping connection. Initial indication of a leak will be water dripping out of insulation. All drain nozzles shall be inspected. Piping system, if not drained properly may be subjected to water hammer imposes severe shock loads on the pipe, pipe connection and pipe supports. Pipe, where condensate can accumulate and cause water hammer shall be carefully examined. Visual inspection of pipe supports and hangers shall be done. Thickness survey and hammer testing of the insulated piping like feed water, steam piping soot blower piping and other blowdown piping shall be done after the removal of insulation. Guidelines given in OISD Standard–130 (Inspection of piping) shall be followed for inspection of pipelines. If pipes, are embedded in masonry or concrete. These shall be exposed for inspection for evidence of external corrosion. Inspection of blowdown piping shall be done at an interval of 5 years by removing the complete external insulation.
10.3.2 Internal Inspection

Internal inspection of boiler and its auxiliary equipment should be done before and after cleaning. If oil is found in any part of the boiler, the source for this leakage should be identified for necessary rectification. a) Economiser The economiser tubes external surface, tube supports spacers and tube protectors shall be inspection during shutdown after cleaning. All accessible tubes of economiser shall be inspected for: Nature of scale deposit and soot deposits. Under the deposit any corrosion, erosion, pitting or any deterioration shall be noted. External metal loss due to steam and water impingement during any leak or due to impingement of high pressure steam from soot blowers. Displacement deterioration of tube space and tube supports. Thickness wherever possible. A sample of tube if accessible should be taken from economizer coils after 10 years and subsequently after 5 years and split into two halves for assessing the extent of internal pitting/deterioration. External cleanliness of economiser tubes shall be checked. Economiser hopper shall be inspected for erosion and corrosion. b) Drums, Drum Connections and its Internals : All the internal parts like steam scrubber, cyclone separators etc shall be removed and boiler drum shall be visually inspected before and after cleaning,. Nature of scale and type of pitting beneath the scale or any deterioration shall be noted. All the nozzles, like safety valves, emergency blowdown, gage glass connections and especially the lower connections shall be inspected for accumulation of sludge or foreign material. Edge thinning or any deterioration of the drum shell to nozzle welding shall be inspected carefully.

All the weld seams and the areas adjacent shall be inspected for cracks / deterioration. Corrosion along or immediately adjacent to a seam is more serious than same magnitude of corrosion in the solid plate away from seam. Grooving and cracks along longitudinal seams are especially significant as they are likely to occur when material is highly stressed. Severe corrosion is likely to occur at points where the circulation of water is poor. Such points shall be inspected. Manhole and hand holes cover platters and their seating surface shall be inspected for cracks, warping or any abnormalities. The upper half portion of drum (in steam space) shall be inspected carefully for sign of oil or similar deposits and cause shall be investigated. Drum internals, such as internal feed pipes, steam separators, dry pipes, blowdown pipes, deflector plates, steam scrubber and its clamps shall be inspected for tightness, soundness and structural stability. Vigorous turbulence of steam and water present in drum can vibrate such parts and welds may crack. The sodium hexametaphosphate pipe and its distributor piping shall be inspected for scaling, pitting or chock age of holes with sludge. Fibro scope should be used while inspecting the internal condition of tube connected to drum for erosion and deposits, if any. Thickness survey of the drum shell and its heads shall be carried out with help of ultrasonic thickness measurement instrument. Thickness should be taken adjacent to all the longitudinal and circumferential weld joints. Any welding inside the drum having visible defects shall be removed by grinding and shall be carefully inspected for cracks and defects. c) Water Headers / Mud Drums The water headers are susceptible to heavy deposits build up. In the event of considerable deposit build up the flow may be restricted thus causing overheating Inspection shall be carried out as specified below. Visual inspection of all water headers shall be done after removing the header caps. All hand holes and their cover seats shall be inspected for erosion, corrosion and cracks. Steam cutting marks or any other abnormal condition, which might permit leakage, shall be inspected. Leaky header caps shall be inspected for trueness and possible deformation. Internal surface of headers shall be inspected for scale deposits, pits or any deterioration. Whenever practicable fibro scope should use. External inspection of the header shall be done after the remove of insulation. Particular attention should be paid to the points, where tubes enter the heater for indications of leakage from the tube roll. The header surface adjacent to the tube roll and hand holes shall be inspected for cracks. Thickness survey of all the headers shall be done. All the headers should be insulated properly after the hydraulic test to avoid thermal stresses. In the boilers where entry inside the mud drum is possible, the inspection of the same shall be carried out as per procedure given in paragraph 10.3 .2 (b) for the inspection of boiler drum. d) Out of drum Cyclones

These shall be inspected for wetting of insulation whenever insulation is found well

It shall be removed and examined for any corrosion Ultrasonic thickness measurement of the shell and both heads shall be done after the removal of insulation. Cyclones connected to steam and water pipes shall be inspected and hammer tested for any detect thinning and corrosion fibro scope may be utilised for assessing the internal pitting of the cyclone shell through the mud cleaning hand holes. e) Combustion Chamber a) Refractory linings a) The refractory lining shall be inspected for crack, erosion, melting, bulging and fall out. b) Inspection of furnace roof refractory shall be done for any leakage and deterioration. b) Burners Burner tips and diffusers shall be inspected for evidence of cracking and enlargement of holes. Burner throat refractory shall be inspected for cracks, erosion and fusion. Condition of the air regulating vanes shall be checked for any deterioration. The burner gun shall be checked for alignment and any other physical abnormalities. f) Down comer Tubes The down comer tubes shall be inspected for any deterioration once in eight years after exposing them. The down comer tube adjacent to burner throat of boiler shall be; checked for any damage due to contact with high temperature casting plate of burner throat. In case burner throat refractory and refractory supporting rings are found to be damaged then the down comer tube adjacent to burner throat shall be exposed for inspection.
Thickness survey and light hammer testing shall be done while the downcomer tubes have been exposed. These shall be inspected for bulging also. A tube sample should be taken from the downcomer tube once in eight years for assessing the extent of internal pittings scaling or any corrosion.

g) Water Wall Tubes The most common and frequent source of trouble is tube leakage, due to ruptures. Hence tubes shall be inspected as specified below: All the fire box tubes shall be visually respected after external cleaning. All the tubes shall be inspected for sign of overheating flame impingement, bulging bowing corrosion and erosion. Usually overheating is caused by deposits or excessive scale in the water side of the tube. The water wall tubes and generating tubes at the burner level are particularly susceptible to overheating and shall be closely examined for bulging, bowing, cracking or other deterioration.

Water wall tubes shall be gauged for determining the bulging. The budged tube beyond 5% of O D should be replaced Callipers, micrometers , pit gauge and ultrasonic instruments can be used to measure tube diameter, dimensions of bulges and depth of corrosion pits. The loose bent tubes shall be checked visually under strong illumination. No tube should touch the adjacent tubes. All the loose tubes should properly aligned by the help of hanger supports/ rectification or replacement of hanger supports. External corrosion, pitting and grooving shall be closely checked. Depth of corrosion pits should be measured and severely pitted tubes should be replaced partially or fully as required. Measuring the depth of corrosion pits must not be neglected as the tube thickness is generally low and may lead to failure. Particular attention shall be paid to the tubes at the drum level or tube close to refractory near the drum level for metal wastage, grooving and pitting Corroded tubes, if needed should be replaced partially or completely. If a portion of the tube is embedded in refractory, there is likelihood of external corrosion of the tubes at such locations. Such portion shall be examined at least once in eight years at random after removing the refractory. The hanger supports shall be inspected for oxidation breakages and dislocation. If a portion of the tube is embedded in the refractory there is likelihood of external corrosion of tubes at such location. Such portion shall be examined at least once in eight years at random after the removing the refractory. Tubes at salient locations like burner levels shall be checked for thickness by means of ultrasonic thickness measurement instrument to establish corrosion rates. Through scanning should be done preferably at burner levels. A few water tubes, selected at random shall be radiographed in the region of bends at lowest elevation to examine the internal condition of tubes for chocking and deposition, if any, to assess the internal condition of the water wall tubes, a sample should be taken once in eight years and split into two halves for evidence of pitting scaling and grooving etc. The sample can also be utilised for checking the creep effect when the boiler tube life has reached close to design life. When inspecting the internal condition of tube a light can be placed at one end viewed from the other end of straight tube for bent tubes, a ball 6.0 to 8.0 mm less than the tube inside diameter securely attached to a chain or wire rope should be passed through to determine the tube bore is clear. A flexible tube cleaner passing along the end to end of a tube would cleaner serve the same purpose. In case doubt, a few tubes may be removed and pieces cut longitudinally and circumferentially to measure their thickness. Tube should be replaced when tubes have sagged or hogged more than half the tube bore. Presence of sagged or hogged tube indicates the possibility of cracking between the header and the tubes or stub joints. The projected and bell mounted tube ends shall be inspected for corrosion.

h) Super Heater Headers Except as indicated hereafter superheater headers shall be inspected in a manner similar to that of water wall headers. However the following additional points shall be considered:

Thickness survey of the headers and its connected stubs shall be examined by radiography method for loss of thickness or inside pitting, corrosion etc. Some of the stubs connected to headers, if accessible should be examined by radiography method for loss of thickness or inside pitting, corrosion etc. External condition of the headers shall be checked for corrosion and pitting due to wetting of insulation. Weld joints of tubes to headers shall be inspected for cracks or any other deterioration. i) Super Heater Coils Visual inspection of all the stages of heater coils shall be carried out as mentioned below: 1. Nature of external scale deposited, type of pitting, corrosion under the deposit due to high temperature of flue gas is checked. 2. Super heater coil near the roof refractory wall shall be closely inspected for any external corrosion and pitting. The coil shall be checked for evidence of any external dent or abrasion marks, bowing and bulging etc. All super heater element hangers and spacer shall be inspected for burning and damage. For internal inspection, a sample from the super heater coil should be taken and split into two halves for assessing the internal condition once in 8 years. Local attack in a super heater tube may result from carry over of droplets of boiler water and concentration of strong alkalies on the metal surface particularly at bottom, bends. These bends should be inspected by means of radiography, if accessible. Thickness measurements at the bends and at selected locations may be carried out by ultrasonic thickness for assessing the present thickness and corrosion rate. If the thickness measurement is not possible radiography should be done. Internal inspection of the bend for assessing the internal condition, pitting erosion, thinning etc. can be done by taking radiographs. j) Indirect Contact Type Desuperheaters:
Through inspection of the coils and desuperheater shell shall be done after pulling out the tube bundles. Tube bundles external surface shall be inspected for corrosion pittings or any mark of steam impingement on tubes.

Tube U bends shall be inspected for cracks due to thermal fatigue caused by steam and water. All the tubes weld joints shall be inspected for cracks or any deterioration. Shell internal surface of the desuperheater shall be visually inspected for pitting and corrosion before and after cleaning. Shell to flange weld joints shall be inspected for cracks or weld corrosion. The weld joints at all the steam inlet and outlet connections with the shell shall be inspected for cracking. Thickness survey of the shell along with the steam inlet and outlet stub connections shall be carried out. The weld joints of water inlet and outlet connection with their respective headers should be inspected by random radiography to check the welding condition. Before inserting the tube bundles, it should be hydraulically tested at 1.5 times the working pressure.

k) Steam Calorifiers: The metallic fins of the calorifier shall be inspected for any deterioration. Steam connection flange joints with the calorifiers shall be inspected for leakage or any corrosion. The calorifiers shall be tested with steam to detect any leakage of tube. In case of any leakage, the leaky tube shall be plugged using plugs of same metallurgy. Calorifier should be replaced if more than 50% tubes have been plugged or earlier depending upon operational requirements. l) Air Preheaters Air preheaters are of two types, recuperative and regenerative type. Air preheaters are subjected to corrosion on flue gas side due to condensation during idle period and also during operation at the region where metal skin temperature falls below dew point. Usually the condition at inlet and outlet ends will give a good indication of the condition in the remaining parts of preheater. m) Recuperative Type Air Preheater The tube ends and tube sheets shall be inspected for corrosion or tube end thinning. Accumulation of soot or other combustible deposits in the tube surface shall be checked tubes should be cleaned. Pneumatic testing of air preheater shall be carried out buy running the F.D. Fan and keeping stack dampers in closed position. Leaky tube shall be plugged from both ends or removed. Leakage through expansion joints should be checked, during testing. n) Regenerative Type Air Heater: The compartments shall be inspected for corrosion, and pitting. Circumferential and radial seals shall be inspected for corrosion. Rotors metallic sheets (Rotor blades/buckets) shall be inspected for any mechanical damage. Dust collectors if provided shall be inspected for leakage, corrosion and erosion. o) Air Duct and Wind Box: The surface of the air duct and wind box whenever accessible shall be visually inspected for scaling, corrosion and pitting. Ultrasonic thickness survey should be carried out to know the remaining thickness of the plates. The duct and wind box shall be examined for any bucking or mechanical damage. External surface shall be checked for corrosion which might have taken place due to detective insulation. p) Flue Gas Ducts:

The metallic flue gas duct plate shall be inspected for internal scaling and corrosion. The scale, if noticed should be analyzed to know the cause of corrosion Ultrasonic thickness survey shall be done to determine the thinned portions. Expansion bellows shall be inspected for corrosion. q) Stacks:
The stacks shall be inspected from inside and outside after every 5 years. Refractory in the stacks shall be inspected for cracks, dislodgement and spalling in the partially refractory lined stacks, metallic bare surface particularly at top shall be inspected for metal wastage in alternative shutdowns. Areas where hot spots had been observed during on stream inspection shall be inspected for falling of refractory lining. Structures ladders etc. shall be inspected for corrosion and damage due to weld cracks. Anchor bolts and guy wires should also be inspected for corrosion and scaling. Lightning protection device should be inspected and checked for electrical continuity.

r) Soot Blowers: Inspection shall be done to assure that the nozzles of the soot blower are maintained in proper position relative to the tubes. If they are displaced, serious erosion of tube metal and consequent failure can result. Inspection shall be done to ensure that the nozzles of soot blower are maintained in proper position relative to the tubes. If they are displaced serious erosion of tube metal and consequent, failure can result. The condition of the nozzles shall be checked for erosion and corrosion. Steam and air soot blowers shall be inspected for gland packing leaks and evidence of warpage that would tend to make the unit bend and jam while in use. Evidence for leakage of wall box seal and steam shut off valve shall also be checked. The blower supporting hangers and brackets shall be examined visually for soundness and for excessive thinning from oxidation. s) Pipe Connections and fittings
The pipe connections around the boiler shall be inspected for distortion, metal wastage, supports, and settlement of foundation and pipe roller movements. For details OISD inspection standard 130 on process piping can be referred.

Hydraculic testing After completion of inspection, repair and replacement boiler shall be subjected to a hydraulic test. The test pressure shall not be less than twice the working pressure or one and half times the working pressure plus 3.5 kg /cm (50 pounds per sq. inch) whichever is less provided that in case of water tube boiler of fusion welded or composite constructions, the test pressure shall be one and half times the working pressure. The boiler shall satisfactorily withstand such pressure without any leakage pr undue deflection or distortion of its parts for at least ten consecutive minutes.

During the hydrostatic test, the inspector shall inspect carefully the boiler both from inside and outside for leaks and steadily maintain the pressure. The pressure drop shall be carefully watched. In case of excessive pressure drop, the boiler parts shall be thoroughly checked for leaks. If any part of the boiler shows undue deflection or indication of permanent deformation during progress of the rest, the rest pressure shall be released immediately. For more details Indian boiler regulations shall be referred. t) Safety Valves: Inspection and testing of safety valves shall be done as per OISD standard –132 on pressure Relieving Devices. u) Deaerator: 1. Visual inspection for the external surface of shell column for pitting, corrosion and cracks shall be done. 2. All welding shall be checked for corrosion, pitting and cracks. Column trays and its supports shall be inspected for any choke age or deterioration. Chemical dosing distributor pipes and steam injection pipes shall be inspected for any deterioration. Thickness survey of the shell shall be carried out along with its connecting nozzles. Dearator should be inspected internally within a period of two years. All deaerators shell welds shall be checked once in 5 years by wet fluorescent magnetic particle testing to detect cracks. v) Blow down drums
Blow down drum shall be visually inspected particular attentions shall be given to the bottom portion were corrosion and pitting is expected. Weld joints along with HAZ shall be checked carefully. Thickness survey of the drums shall be carried out.

11.0 INTERNAL INSPECTION FIRE TUBE BOILER Inspection shall be done to ensure isolation/blanking of fuel gas lines. Water lines and steam lines. After opening the boiler a check for carbon deposit on the inner surface of fire tubes and smoke tubes shall be done. The condition of refractors near burners, at front reversion chamber and at rear inspection windows shall be carried out. The burner assembly shall be checked for any damages. The condition of the tubes and fins in radiation chamber shall be checked for any pin holes in the tubes or cracks in the plates. The outer surface of the fire tubes and smoke tubes shall be checked for any wear and tear or mechanical damage. The cocks, blowdown valves, safety valve and other fittings shall be checked for any wear and tear or mechanical damage.

After cleaning the inside and outside4, condition of the fire tube and smoke tubes shall be checked for pitting and corrosion. The inner surface of the shell shall be checked for pitting and corrosion. All the weld joints of the boiler shell, back plate and tube to tube sheet weld shall be inspected. Other checks and inspection of the boiler shell, flue gas duct chimney stack, pipe connections safety valves and fittings shall be same as for water tube boilers. The shell shall be hydro tested at one and half times the working pressure. Other checks during hydrotest shall be same as clause 10.3.2 Ultrasonic thickness survey, hammer test etc of the boiler shell and the tubes shall be carried out. WASTE HEAT BOILERS The inspection of waste heat boilers of conventional type shall be carried out similar to steam boilers, as per procedure described earlier. Waste heat boilers of shell and tube design shall be inspected as per guidelines given in OISD Standard-134 on inspection for Heat Exchanges. 12.0 CO BOILERS The inspection of CO boilers shall be carried out similar to steam boilers as described earlier. In addition the following inspection shall also be carried out: The soot blower equipment shall be inspected and tested for correct operation. The condition of cast able refractory around Co boiler nozzle shall be inspected for any damage from fire box. Internal inspection of CO duct, air duct and flue gas duct shall be done during every planned shutdown. All spring supports shall be inspected for correct functioning during shutdown and commissioning. Fin tubes shall be inspected for any deterioration. Side wall tubes, D-panel tubes and superheater tubes shall be visually inspected in every planned shutdown. The bellows shall be examined for initiation of any cracks. 13.0 INSPECTION DURING REPAIRS AND REPLACEMENT 13.1 REPAIR /REPLACEMENT OF ECONOMISER Failed economiser tubes shall be partially replaced with new tubes of same specifications. Joint fit up shall be checked. After welding, the joints shall be hydrostatically tested to detect any leak. 13.2 DRUMS: Pits in the drum, which have a depth of 3 mm or more, can be filled up with welding. The welding shall be ground smooth. Necessary preheating shall be done before welding.

Welding inside the drum having visible defects shall be removed by grinding and shall be carefully inspected for cracks, defects etc. The welding can be repaired. The Welding shall be subjected to preheat and post treatment as specified originally. Complete repaired welding shall be subjected to radiographic examination. REPLACEMENT OF FIRE BOX TUBES Before starting the welding of the tube joint, the tube ends shall be cleaned from inside and outside for removing deposits of oxide scale and salts to avoid gas or slag inclusion in the weld. Weld fit up shall be checked. After welding, the points shall be radiographed. After satisfactory radiography the tubes shall be subjected to hydrostatic test. RECORD AND DOCUMENTATION
Separate record shall be kept for each boiler. A history card of each component shall be maintained giving all observations, repairs and replacements made.

REFERENCES Indian Boiler regulations-1950 Indian Boiler Act-1923 ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section1 (Rules for Construction of power) ASME Pressure Vessel Code Section – 7 (Care of Power Boilers) API Guide Chapter –8 Direct Fired Boilers and Auxiliary Equipment. OISD –131 API Guide Chapter – 2 Corrosion and Deterioration of Refinery Equipment.

CONTENTS 1.0 Definitions 1.1 Atmospheric Storage Tanks 1.2 Types of Storage Tanks 1.2.1 Fixed Roof Tanks 1.2.2 Floating Roof Tanks 1.2.3 Fixed-cum-Floating Roof Tanks 1.2.4 Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks 2.0 Role of Inspection 3.0 Tools Required for Inspection 4.0 Inspection of Tanks During Fabrication 5.0 Check List for Inspection Storage Tanks before Commissioning 6.0 Likely areas of Metal Wastage 6.1 Bottom Plates 6.2 Shell Plates 6.3 Fixed Roof Plates/Structures 6.4 Floating Roof 6.4.1 Floating Roof Plates (Deck Plates) 6.4.2 Pontoon Boxes 6.4.3 Rim Plates 6.4.4 Roof Legs/Assembly 6.4.5 Roof Drain Sump 6.5 Steam Coils 7.0 Inspection Programme for Tankages in Service 8.0 Frequency of inspection 8.1 Guideline for Frequency Inspection 8.1.1 Crude and Product Storage Tanks 8.1.2 Storage Tanks in Miscellaneous Services 8.1.3 Tank mountings 9.0 Inspection Procedures 9.1 Visual Inspection 9.1.1 Protective Coatings 9.1.2 Roof Plates 9.1.3 Ladders, Stairway, Platforms and Structural 9.1.4 Tank pads 9.1.5 Anchor Bolts 9.1.6 Fire Fighting System 9.1.7 Vent & Pressure Relieving Devices 9.1.8 Insulation 9.1.9 Grounding Connections 9.1.10 Leaks

9.2 External Inspection 9.2.1 Tanks Fittings, Accessories and Pipe Connections 9.2.2 Tank Shell 9.2.3 Tank Roofs Evaluation 9.2.4 Projecting Out Portion of the Bottom Plates 9.3 Internal Inspection 9.3.1 Roof and Structural Members 9.3.2 Tank Shell 9.3.3 Tank Bottom 9.3.4 Water Draw-off 9.3.5 Lining 9.3.6 Roof Drains 9.3.7 Heating Coils 9.3.8 Miscellaneous 10.0 Calculation of Refection Limits for Shell Plates 10.1 Arbitrary Limits for Top Shell Courses 10.2 Buckling of upper Shell Courses When Tank is Empty 10.2.1 General 10.2.2 Loading Conditions 10.2.3 Method of Calculations 11.0 Method of Repairs and Inspection 11.1 Roof Repairs 11.1.1 Roof Replacement 11.1.2 Weld Repair 11.1.3 Repairs to Roof when Tank is in Service 11.2 Shell Plates Repair 11.2.1 Shell Replacement 11.2.2 Weld Repairs 11.3 Nozzles Repairs 11.4 Tank Bottom Repairs 11.4.1 Bottom Replacement 11.4.2 Weld Repair the Same 11.5 Steam Coil Repairs 11.6 Tank Pad Repairs 11.6.1 Erosion 11.6.2 Settlement 11.6.3 Tilting 12.0 Hot Taps 12.1 General 12.2 Hot Top Procedures 12.2.1 Preparatory Work 12.2.2 Material Limitations 12.3 Installation Procedure 13.1 Documentation for New Tanks 13.2 Documentation for Tanks in Service 14.0 References

1.0 1.1

DEFINATIONS Atmospheric Storage Tanks :

Atmospheric storage tanks are those tanks that have been designed to operate in their gas and vapour spaces at internal pressure approximately equal to atmospheric pressure. 1.2 TYPES OF STORAGES TANKS

1.2.1 Fixed Roof Tanks

Among fixed roof tanks, cone roof tanks are very common for atmospheric storage tanks. Other fixed roof tanks are umbrella roof and dome roof tanks. Low pressure roof tanks are generally constructed to dome roof. 1.2.2 Floating Roof Tanks Floating Roof Tanks are designed to reduce filling and breathing losses to a minimum and for safety considerations by eliminating the vapour space above the stored liquid. There are mainly following types of floating roof tanks : i) ii) iii) iv) Pan Floating Roof Pontoon Floating Roof Pontoon with Buoy type Floating Roof Double Deck Floating Roof

The types of floating roof tanks and various seals are shown in Figure 1A, 1B and Figure 2 respectively. Recent constructions are fitted with resilient foam type seal. 1.2.3 Fixed-cum-Floating Roof Tanks Fixed-cum-Floating Roof Ranks are fixed roof tanks with internal floating roof. These are also used at locations where snow fall is heavy. 1.2.4 Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks Horizontal cylindrical Tanks are of two types : i) Above Ground Tanks Above ground tanks are mounted horizontally above ground and are approachable externally. Underground Tanks Underground tanks are placed in earth, masonry, or concrete pit and packed around with sand, earth or clay leaving no air space between the tank and the pit. 2.0 ROLE OF INSPECTION


The following are the responsibilities of the inspection division : i) ii) iii) To inspect measure and record the deterioration of materials and to evaluate current physical conditions of the tanks for its soundness to continue in service. To keep the concerned operating and maintenance personnel fully informed as to the condition of the various tanks. To co-relate the deterioration rate with design life for further run.

iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) 3.0

To determine the causes of deterioration, investigate abnormalities and advise remedial measures. To recommend short-term and long-term repairs and replacements to ensure further run on the basis of economics and safety. To inspect while doing repairs and accept after completion of repairs. To advice regarding initiation of procurement action of materials to meet the repair/replacement needs. To maintain proper maintenance and inspection records and tanks history. To advice regarding schedules of tank inspection and also statutory requirement schedules. TOOLS REQUIRED FOR INSPECTION

Tools required in general for tank inspection are as follows : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) 4.0 Ultrasonic Thickness Meter Radiographic Equipment Dye Penetrant Kit Holiday Detector Shore Hardness Meter Paint Thickness Gauge Vacuum Box Tester Safety Torch Knife / Scraper Crayon Magnifying Glass Permanent Magnet Vernier Caliper / Micrometer Fillet Gauge Measuring Tape / Scale Straight Edge Pit Gauge Plump Bob and Line INSPECTION OF TANKS DURING FABRICATION

Inspection of tanks during fabrication shall be carried out as per the requirements of the applicable codes, specifications, drawings etc. This inspection requires regular checks on the work at various stages as it progresses. The inspection shall include:-


Study of all the technical specifications and the code to which the tank is to be built. (ii) Checking the foundation pad and slope. (iii) Identification of plate materials. (iv) Qualification of welding procedure and operator. (v) Checking of painted underside of the bottom plate prior to these being laid. (vi) Checking of slop of the bottom plates. (vii) Checking of proper welding sequence. (viii) Checking of each batch of electrodes as per specifications and assurance of its use as per suggested methods of their manufactures and codes. (ix) Evaluating spot radiography of butt welded annular (radial) joints and vacuum box test of the portion of weld on bottom plate on which shell is to be erected. (x) Checking of fit-ups and noting of curvature and plumb readings before and after welding of the shell courses. (xi) Evaluating radiography of butt welded joints as per the application code. (xii) A thorough visual check and oil penetrate testing of the inside shell to bottom weld seam before welding from outside. (xiii) Checking of nozzles/man way/sumps for orientation, fit-ups and welding. (xiv) Checking of set up of curb angle, roof trusses and roof plate prior to welding. (xv) Checking of set ups of wind girders etc. (xvi) Checking whether PWHT of clean out doors and shell nozzles, where applicable, have been done. (xvii) Checking of nozzle pad air test. (xviii) Checking of external and internal surfaces. (xix) Witnessing of all tests as specified below : For Fixed Roof Tanks Bottom tests with vacuum box/air test. Water fill-up/Hydraulic (atmospheric /LP tanks) test For Floating Roof Tanks (i) Bottom plate test with vacuum box/air test. (ii) Oil penetrate test of pontoon rims to bottom deck plate joint. Vacuum box test of top deck plates. Pontoon air test/Water test. Roof drain hydraulic test. Water fill-up test/Floatation test. Roof puncture test.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Roof air test/or Roof vacuum box test. Rigidity/Collapsibility test. (Vacuum test)

(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

(xx) (xxi) (xxii) (xxiii) (xxiv) (xxv)

Steam coil pressure test. Cooling system performance test. Foam system performance test. Inspection of insulation wherever provided. Inspection of surface preparation and painting. After the water fill-up test inspection of tank for any uneven excessive settlement. (xxvi) Inspection of grounding connection. 5.0 CHECK LIST FOR COMMISSIONING INSPECTION OF STORAGE TANKS BEFORE

The check list format shall contain the following information : TANK NO. DRG. NO. LOCATION PRODUCT STORED TYPE OF TANK CAPACITY MAIN DIMENSION ERECTION CONTRACTOR NAME OF INSPECTION AGENCY/INSPECTOR CHECK LIST CHECKS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Check and inspect foundation pad/anchor bolts. Check for settlement/tilting of foundation. Check that all examinations and tests have been carried out, and scrutinize the available records. Check whether PWHT is carried out for clean out doors and nozzles wherever application. Inspect shell for obvious abnormalities in respect of out-of-roundness bulges dents, etc. Check that the alterations made during construction have been incorporated in as built drawing. Measure and record wall thickness of bottom, roof and nozzles. Check whether non-return valve at roof drain opening has been provided (for floating roof tank). Check proper installation of seal between shell and tank roof (for floating roof tank). Check proper fabrication of bleeder vent (for floating roof tank). For floating roof tank, check foam dam and foam system wherever provided for fixed roof tank, check functioning of foam pourer lines and its connections with the tank wherever provided. Check and inspect internals coils, float gauge, roof drain, etc. Inspect nozzle facings, gaskets, and bolts.

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Check insulation protection. Check that painting quality and coat thickness are as per specification Check that the required relief valves, P&V Valves and other tank mountings are installed after proper resetting etc. For emergency roof drain, check that water seal is maintained. Check for internal cleanliness before final boxing-up. Check for functioning of fire water and sprinkler systems. Check the earthing and megger the earthing cable. Check the grounding connections have been fixed properly. For floating roof tanks, check that electrical continuity exists between the shell and floating roof.



Metal wastage in a petroleum storage tank is generally due to one or more of the following media. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Sea water corrosion Chemical corrosion (i.e. Sulphur) Vapour corrosion Atmospheric corrosion Bacterial corrosion Stress corrosion Soil corrosion

A Storage tank shall be protected as specified in OISD Publication - 136 on ―corrosion‖ so that metal loss due to corrosion is kept to a bare minimum. 6.1 Bottom Plates

Bottom plate of corroded rapidly if the fluid stored is having sea water content (i.e. Crude tanks). Sea water corrodes the bottom at a faster rate and a pitting type corrosion is observed all along the bottom plates. Bacterial corrosion of the bottom plates is generally observed in crude and HSD tanks having high sulphur content. The bottom plates develop deep isolated pits which eventually puncture and the bottom starts leaking. Weld failures are observed in the bottom plates where the tank is in Caustic service. The projecting out portion of bottom plates are prone to corrosion at the edges due to seepage/accumulation of water between the foundation and the bottom plate is prone to wear due to gauging. 6.2 SHELL PLATES

Shell plates generally get corroded internally where liquid/vapour phase is maintained (middle to top shell courses.) Internal corrosion in the vapour space is most commonly

caused by hydrogen sulphide vapour, water vapour and oxygen giving pitting type corrosion. The bottom shell course gets corroded in bottom 300 mm height when the tank contains water in its product. Atmospheric corrosion can occur on all external parts of tank. This type of corrosion may range from negligible to severe depending upon the atmospheric condition of the locality. Stress corrosion cracking (Caustic embrittlement) can be a problem in services like Caustic/MEA/DEA. The attack is severe on the bottom shell courses. 6.3 FIXED ROOF PLATES / STRUCTURES

Underside of the roof and roof structural come under corrosive attack due to vapour corrosion in tanks storing FO, Asphalt and HSD. The contact areas between roof plates and structures are prone to heavy attack due to crevice corrosion and thinning is observed in these areas. 6.4 FLOATING ROOF

6.4.1 Floating roof Plates (Deck Plates) Floating roof deck plates are prone to corrosion due to rain water accumulation on the deck. Underside of the roof gets corroded where vapour pockets are formed. 6.4.2 Pontoon Boxes Pontoon boxes on the floating roof are prone to corrosion at the fillet weld between the pontoon and deck plates. 6.4.3 Rim Plates Rim plates at the outer periphery of the floating roof get corroded where liquid-vapour phase in maintained. This is approximately at the centre of the rim plate. 6.4.4 Roof Legs / Assembly Roof legs get severely corroded at the liquid-vapour phase junction. The roof leg sleeve gets corroded near fillet weld junction to the roof plates and at the bolt hole area. Roof sleeve pa may get corroded at the underside if sealing run between roof plates and pad is not carried out. 6.4.5 Roof Drain Sump Roof drain sump gets corroded due to water accumulation / stagnation. 6.5 STEAM COILS

Steam coils get thinned out at the bend due to internal erosion. Leg supports of steam cool get corroded at the bottom portion due to accumulation of water. Steam coil supports get dislodged due to thermal expansion. 7.0 INSPECTION PROGRAMME FOR TANKAGES IN SERVICE

To avoid failures and inconveniences in operation due to sudden reduction in tank storage capacity, it is necessary to draw up and adhere to inspection program. Visual and external inspection shall be used as guide for determining corrosion rates. Internal inspection shall take places either when indicated by the service history or as per the frequency inspections indicated n chapter 8 which ever earlier. Inspection program can be broadly divided into – i) ii) iii) iv) 8.0 Visual inspection External inspection and thickness survey Internal inspection (Complete inspection) Tank Mountings inspection FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION

The frequency of inspection of storage tanks determined by the following factors : a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 8.1 Nature of the fluids stored. Corrosion rates and corrosion allowance. Condition at previous inspections. Result of visual checks. Protective coatings. Location of tanks such as isolated land-high risk area and corrosive atmospheres. Statutory calibration requirements. Guidelines for frequency inspection

8.1.1 Crude and Product Storage Tanks Crude and product storage tanks shall inspected at frequencies specified below –


SERVICE Crude Oil Fuel Oil / LSHS / RCO Slops Cycle oil Kerosene ATF / SKO* Naphtha / MS LDO HSD JBO Waxy distillate / LR Bitumen Lube oil NGL Mineral Turpentine

FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION IN YEAR SWEET CRUDE SOUR CRUDE External Internal External Internal 5 10 3 6 5 10 3 6 5 10 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6 4 7 4 7 4 7+ 4 7 3 6 3 6 5 8 5 8 5 10 5 10 5 10 3 5 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 3 6 3 6 3 6 3 6

Note : Wherever the Crude Source (Sweet or Sour) for finishing products can not be established, frequency given for Sour Crude shall apply. 8.1.2 Storage Tanks in Miscellaneous Services SERVICE Fresh Water* DM Water Salt Water H2SO4 Tank (98% Conc.) Unlined Tanks H2SO4 (dil) Lined Tanks HCL Tank Caustic Tank (Ambient Temp.) Caustic Melting Pits Benzene / Toluene / MEK (Methyl Ethyl Ketone) Furfural Phenol SERVICE Hydrazene Morpholine Sodium Hexameta FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION IN YEAR External Internal 3 6* 3 6* 3 6* 2 4 1 1 2 1 5 3 3 1 1 4 1 10 5 5

FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION IN YEAR External Internal 1 1 1 1 1 1

Phosphate NOTES I)



Where the atmosphere is corrosive, the external inspection shall be done once in two years irrespective of tank service when ultrasonic, wall thickness measurements indicate a high corrosion rate, internal inspection shall be carried out. (+) The opportunity may be used for inspection the internal painting of ATF tanks as and when they are opened for cleaning. The tanks marked (*) are generally internally painted. At locations where these tanks are not having internal protective coating, suggested frequency for internal inspection is 2 to 3 year.


8.1.3 Tank Mountings Tank mountings such as Breather Valves, P&V Valves Relief valves, flame arrestors shall be ensured clean and operable every year after monsoon. For inspection and testing of pressure relieving devices, OISD-STD-132 shall be referred. Floating roof drain and emergency roof drains shall be inspected every year before monsoon. Floating roof seals shall be visually inspected every year. 9.0 INSPECTION PROCEDURES

Before commencing the inspection of a tank, all details given in its history care and records shall be gone thorough. 9.1 VISUAL INSPECTION

Visual external inspection of each tank shall be made once a year. During the visual inspection following shall be checked. 9.1.1 Protective Coatings Condition of pain shall be checked visually for rust sports, mechanical damage, blisters and film lifting. 9.1.2 Roof Plates Roof plates shall be inspected for possible pin holes, and water accumulation. 9.1.3 Ladders, Stairway, Platforms and Structural These shall be examined for corroded or broken parts, Free movement and alignment of wheels on rolling ladder shall be checked. Ladder and staircase steps (treads) shall be shocked for wear and corrosion. In addition to loss of strength caused by loss of meals,

treads become slippery when the surface is worn. Head rails shall be inspected for thinning water accumulation areas and general corroded areas. 9.1.4 Tank Pads i) ii) iii) Tank pads shall be visually checked for sinking, tilting, spalling, cracking and general deterioration. Proper sealing of opening between tank bottom and the concrete pad shall be checked (no. water shall flow under the tank bottom). Slope of the tank pad shall be checked to ensure water drainage.

9.1.5 Anchor Bolts Anchor Bolts wherever provided shall be checked for tightness, and integrity by hammer testing. These shall also be checked for thinning / bending. Distortion on bolts is an indication of excessive settlement. Concrete foundation at anchor bolt shall be choked for cracks. 9.1.6 Fire Fighting System General condition of fire fighting facilities and sprinkler systems provided on the tank with respect to clogging of spray nozzles, perforations of foam connections, etc., shall be checked. Frequency and procedure for checking shall be as per OISD-Std-142 (Inspection of Fire Fighting Equipment.) 9.1.7 Vents & Pressure Relieving Devices All open vents, flame arrestors and breather valves shall be examined to ensure that the wire mesh and screens are neither torn nor clogged by foreign matter or insects. Rim and bleeder vents for floating roof tanks shall be examined for proper working. All vents and pressure relieving devices shall be inspected as per the frequency and procedure outlined in OISD-Std-132 (Inspection of Pressure Relieving Devices). 9.1.8 Insulation If a tank is insulated, the insulation and weather proof sealing shall be visually inspected for damage. The water proof sealing of the insulation shall be examined every year, since the entry of moisture will greatly reduce the insulating properties and may also result in serious undetected corrosion of the tank plates underneath the insulation. Cracks in the water proof sealing are apt to occur and wind may enlarge small tears rapidly. If it is suspected that moisture has penetrated through the crack, a small area of the plates shall be uncovered and examined for signs of corrosion. 9.1.9 Grounding Connections

Grounding connections shall be visually checked for corrosion at the points where they enter earth and at the connection to the tank. The resistance of grounding connection. The total resistance from tank to earth shall not exceed the value given in OISD-Std-137 (Inspection of Electrical Equipment). 9.1.10 Leaks

The tanks shall be inspected for any obvious leakage of the product. Valves and fittings shall be checked for tightness and free operation. 9.2 EXTERNAL INSPECTION

The detailed external Inspection of the tank shall be carried out as per the frequency mentioned in chapter 10 while the tank is in commission. The following shall be inspected / checked during external inspection, besides the visual inspection as mentioned in 11.1. 9.2.1 Tank Fittings, Accessories and Pipe Connections All nozzles shall be visually Inspected for corrosion / distortion. Thickness measurements shall be taken with an ultrasonic thickness meter. On nozzles of size 50 mm NB and above. Minimum 4 readings (3, 6, 9 & 12 O‘clock positions) shall be taken.

9.2.2 Tank Shell The tank shell shall be visually examined for external corrosion, seepage, cracks, bulging and deviation from the vertical. Cracks mostly occur at the welded seams, at the weld connections of brackets or other attachments to the tank and fillet welds of she to the bottom plates. Shell wall thickness survey shall be carried out using ultrasonic thickness meter. External thickness survey shall be carried out all around for the first an second bottom shell courses. For the rest of the shell course, thickness survey shall be done along the staircase and three compass directions. An extensive scanning shall be done if there is an indication of appreciable thickness loss. The following minimum requirement for thickness survey is recommended on all the tanks : i) ii) All the plates of first and second course of the shall be thickness surveyed. On the first course, 3 to 4 readings should be taken on each plate diagonally. The bottom, middle and top positions of the plate must be covered.

iii) iv)

On the second course, two readings should be taken on each plate. One reading shall be near the tower weld joint and the other at approachable height. Three readings should be taken on one plate on all other courses along the staircase and three compass directions. Bottom, middle and top portions of plates should be covered.

For tanks in light products service like gasoline and naphtha, pitting is generally observed in the middle courses of shell. In such cases, thickness survey should be more extensive on middle courses, if significant internal corrosion of roof is observed then top shall course(s) should also be examined for thickness. In case of externally insulated tanks, suitable inspection windows shall be provided to facilitate wall thickness survey. For the tanks which are likely to have water at the bottom, the bottom shell courses near the annular ring welding joint should be thoroughly checked. Ultrasonic within 150 mm of the bottom plates.

9.2.3 Tank Roofs Evaluation FIXED ROOF On a fixed roof, visual inspection shall be made to determine condition of paint and to find depressions sagging and holes, of any, Ultrasonic thickness survey shall be done. Thickness survey shall cover all roof plates. Suggested minimum readings are three per plate. Areas where water locking has been observed due to depression, shell be carefully inspected for external corrosion. Insulated tanks shall be externally inspected for detecting corrosion by removing inspection covers or making pockets in the insulation. If a tank is out of service, hammer testing along with the thickness survey of the roof plates shall be carried out. On fixed roof where corrosion is expected, plank long enough to span at least two roof rafters shall be laid and used as walkways for safety reasons. 1. 2. 3. The structural integrity of the roof and roof support system shall be verified. Roof plates corroded to an average thickness of less than 0.09 inch in any 100 square area shall be repaired or replaced. Roof support systems (rafters, girders, columns and bases) shall be inspected for soundness; corroded and damaged members shall be evaluated and repaired or replaced if necessary. Particular attention corrosion of pipe columns (corrosion may not be evidenced by external visual inspection).


On a floating roof, during visual inspection, the following shall also be thoroughly checked. a) b) c) d) Paint condition Depressions Pontoon boxes and buoys for leakage, indications/marks of seepage and corrosion. Roof and Emergency Drain shall be checked for breakage and blockage on the checked valve fitted to the drain inlet end. Emergency drains shall be checked for water level and oil spillage on roof deck. Floating roof drains and emergency drains shall be inspected every year, before monsoon. Floating Roof Seals : Before making a regular inspection of floating roof seals, the drawings of seals shall be studied so that operation and possible damages are well understood. Floating roof seals shall be visually inspected every year. All seals shall be inspected visually for corroded, eroded or broken parts and deteriorated sealing materials. Exposed mechanical parts such as springs, hangers, counter-balance, pantographs and shoes are susceptible to mechanical damage in addition to mechanical wear and atmospheric or vapour space corrosion. The rubber seal shall have fairly close contact with tank shall plates. f) g) h) i) j) k) Hinge bolts at the top of ladder and its rollers. Earthing of the ladder. Rotation of roof if any, Electrical continuity between the floating roof and tank shell. Weld seams on roof deck plates for any leakage. Condition of support pipe and sleeves. This may be inspected from top of roof. Thickness shall be measured using ultrasonic thickness meter.


Areas that are pitted shall be evaluated to determine the likelihood of through pitting occurring before the next scheduled internal inspection. If so, then the affected areas shall be repaired or replaced.


Areas that are pitted shall be evaluated to determine the likelihood of thorough pitting occurring before the next scheduled internal inspection. If so, then the affected areas shall be repaired or replaced. Roof support systems, perimeter seal systems, appurtenances such as a roof rolling ladder, anti-rotation devices, water drain system, and venting systems shall be evaluated for needed repairs or replacements. Guidance for the evaluation of existing floating roofs shall be on the criteria of API Standard 60 – Appendix C for external floating roofs, and Appendix H for internal floating roofs. However, upgrading to meet this standard is not mandatory. Change of Service. External pressure, As applicable the roof support structure (if any), and the roof to shell junction shall be evaluated for the effects of a design partial vacuum.



4. 5.

Normal and emergency venting Effects of change of service on normal and emergency venting shall be considered. 9.2.4 Projecting out portion of the bottom plates The projection out portion of the bottom plates (annular plates) shall be visually examined for any corrosion / thinning and ultrasonically gauged. 9.3 INTERNAL INSPECTION

Prior to internal inspection, an external inspection of the tank shall be done as specified earlier. Before commencing the internal inspection, the tank must be emptied of liquid, freed of gases and cleaned out. For the tanks which have contained leaded petroleum products, it shall be ensured that the tanks has been thoroughly cleaned off lead hazard and is safe for entry. Formal entry permit from appropriate agency permits refer OISDStd-105 (Work Permit System). 9.3.1 Roof and Structural members (i) FIXED ROOF

Visual inspection and thickness measurements of roof trusses and structural members shall be carried out. The supporting members shall be rejected when the overall loss in thickness of material exceeds 25 percent. The welds and bolts of the structure shall be examined for damage/loss. The results of measurements on the supporting structure may be recorded as shown in Figure 3. (ii) FLOATING ROOF

The underside and internal of floating roof shall be inspected for corrosion and deterioration. The floating roof seals shall be inspected from the underside. The legs

and sleeves of the floating roof shall be checked for deterioration, bowing, and shifting. The dip pipe, centering and antirational devices, emergency roof drain pipe, free / breather vents, and rim vents, shall be checked for any signs or corrosion/thinning out. Thickness survey of the pontoon boxes and deck shall be carried out. Any suspected pontoon / buoy compartment shall be checked with air and soap suds. 9.3.2 Tank Shell Entire tank shall be visually scanned for signs of corrosion, pitting, cracking etc. findings of external inspection, service conditions and history will be guiding factors for such observations. All weld joints shall be examined carefully. The vapour space and liquid level line are likely areas of corrosion. However, if the walls are alternatively wet and dry or the contents are corrosive chemicals, the entire shell can be attacked. The shell should be inspected from inside by erecting scaffolding / ladders at four locations when severe corrosion is found. The middle courses shall be closely examined for tanks containing light products like gasoline and Naphtha. Thickness measurements with ultrasonic thickness meter shall be taken to supplement those measurements obtained from the outside. 9.3.3 Tank Bottom After the tank has been cleaned of its sludge it shall be visually inspected to obtain the first indication of the condition of the bottom. The tank bottom plates shall be visually inspected for pitting, corrosion and weld cracks. The weld joints shall be thoroughly cleaned and visually inspected for cracks or defects by magnifying glass wherever possible. Special attention is to be given to the weld joints of shell and annular ring and inspected for any leakage. Suspected cracks may be identified by dye penetrant or vacuum box testing. Depression in the bottom and in the pipe coil supports shall be checked and remain tat these points thereby causing accelerated corrosion. Tanks bottoms shall be checked thoroughly for thickness over the entire area. This may be supplemented by hammer testing. The number of measurements to be taken will depend if found. However, minimum three thickness readings per plate should be taken. When severe corrosion exists, more readings shall be taken in the attacked areas to determine the minimum remaining metal thickness. Corrosion on the underside of flat bottom tanks resting on soil or on pads cannot be checked from outside. From the inside, the corrosion may be detectable by hammering. Erratic readings with ultrasonic thickness instrument are also indications of underside and accurate check, it is recommended to cut out representative sections of coupons (at last 300 mm in least dimension) of the bottom plate. The underside of the coupons shall be inspected. If very severe corrosion is found, additional coupons shall be removed from tank bottom plate. The cut out opening in the bottom plate shall be patch welded using fresh material of appropriate thickness. The welds of the patch plate shall be tested with vacuum box. If tank is suspected leaking, then the cutting operations shall be done under strict observation because of possible entrapped hydrocarbons. 9.3.4 Water Draw-off

Water draw off‘s are subject to internal external corrosion as well as cracking. They shall be visually inspected and hammer tested along with thickness survey as feasible. Bottom plate under dip hatch shall be checked for dents. Etc. The bottom plates of tank having water bottom (such as Crude tanks) shall be inspected visually in details for internal corrosion/pitting. The bottom plates where bacterial corrosion may be suspected (such as crude and HSD tanks) shall be gauged in more details. Drain sumps shall be carefully checked for cracks, pitting, leak in the weld and measured in particular when corrosion at the underside of the tank bottom plates has been suspected / found. 9.3.5 Lining When the inside surface of a tank are lined with corrosion resistant material such as sheet lead, rubber organic and inorganic coatings, or concrete, inspection shall be made to ensure that the lining is in good condition, that it is in proper position and it does not have holes or cracks in the rubber lining as evidenced by bulging. A holiday detector may be used to thoroughly check the lining for leaks and holidays. Care must be taken so that the test voltage does not approach a value that might puncture the lining. Hardness testing of the rubber lining shall be carried out while inspecting the tank internally. Care shall be taken while cleaning the painted surface so that no mechanical damage takes place. 9.3.6 Roof Drain Roof drains on the floating roof can be designed in many ways. They can be simple open drain pipes, swivel joints or flexible hose drains that keep the water from contaminating the contents. Proper functioning of the roof drains shall be ensured otherwise this may lead to sinking or over-turning of the floating roof. The drain lines shall be checked for blockage before pressure test. The metallic swivel joints shall be inspected thoroughly, by hammer testing as well as by thickness survey. The drain lines including joints shall be tested for tightness by pressure testing with water at (3.5 kg/sq cm). The proper functioning of movable joints shall be checked and if required these shall be taken out, serviced and tested. 9.3.7 Heating Coils Heating coils including its supports shall be hammer tested, particularly at the underside of coils and the bends. Ultrasonic thickness measurement shall be taken.

Radiography of bends can be done for accurate evaluation if internal corrosion is suspected visual inspection of the coil shell be done at the supports for any erosion. Coils shall be hydraulically tested at 1.5 times operating pressure and checked for any leakage. 9.3.8 Miscellaneous Valves and similar fittings shall be checked for leakage and proper functioning. The breather valves shall be overhauled and reset at the required pressure and vacuum settings. 10.0 CALCULATION OF REJECTION LIMITS FOR SHELL PLATES In determining the limiting thickness for the shell plates of tank, either for the purpose of pre-calculating a set of retiring thickness for each tanks or as a matter or necessity at the time inspection, the basic method given in the applicable standard shall be used. The result will be a thickness which will be the minim required for particular location for the given tank. When that thickness reached, repairs or replacement shall required. A pit or very small area reduced to the retiring thickness is however taken as not weakening the plate appreciably from the standpoint of resisting pressure. The average thickness, over a distance in a longitudinal direction equal to 16 times the minimum allowable thickness, is a good rule to follow establishing a plate thickness for a corroded area. Repairs to such area are required only to prevent leakage when corrosion progresses completely through the plate. This average thickness can be considered as the measured plate thickness. 10.1 ARBITRARY LIMITS FOR TOP SHELL COURSES The rejection limit for shell plates, as specified under (9.0) shall be applied for the top shell courses, but these courses shall in any case be rejected when due to corrosion the plate thickness has reached, over a considerable area the following valves : a) When the original thickness was 6 mm : 2.5 mm b) When the original thickness was 8 mm : 3.2 mm

It is pointed out that for many tanks, especially of medium and large size, the top shell courses may buckle before the limits mentioned under (a) & (b) have been reached. The rejection limit for top shell courses shall therefore, not be determined before the stability of the shell has been checked according to the requirements described under (10.2). 10.2.1 General

The rejection limits for the shell plates specified in 10.0 and 10.1 are base on the condition that the tank is completely filled with liquid j, however, when the shell plates have corroded it may be possible that buckling of plates occurs before the above mentioned limits.

Buckling of shell plates will always occur in the upper half of the tank shell, as the upper course are thinner than the lower courses. 10.2.2 Loading Conditions

Bucking of shell plates may occur when the stability of the tank shell is insufficient to withstand one or the combination of the following loads : a) Wind on the outside of the tank shell. For open top tanks also the wind load on the inside of the tank shall be considered. b) c) Internal vacuum inside the tank due to the setting of vacuum. Dead load of roof and supporting structures. Method of Calculations


The stability of the corroded tank shell against bucking shall be controlled in accordance with the calculation method given in BS 2654 – part 3 ‗Higher Design Stresses‘. It is then necessary to specify the average thickness of the corroded shell courses, especially of the upper half of the tank shell. It is also pointed our that : a) Maximum wind gusts mostly result in wind load which is approx. 20% higher than the wind loads specified in building regulations. Experience has shown that the gust value must be applied in the stability calculation for the shell. Vacuum valves ordered with a vacuum setting of 65 mm water gauge often start to open at 65 mm water gauge but are fully open at 75 mm or 85 mm water gauge.


The higher value must be applied in the stability calculation for the shell. 11.0 METHOD OF REPAIRS AND INSPECTION Method described hereunder for repair are recommended ones. Other methods confirming to sound engineering practice may also be applied. These repair methods have been outlined to highlight the inspection required prior to, during and after repairs. 11.1 ROOF REPAIRS 11.1.1 Roof Replacement

Entire or partial replacement of corroded roof plates shall be done with new plates of thickness as provided in the original design. After replacement the welding of the roof plates shall be checked for leaks using vacuum box. The roof may be tested by applying

internal air pressure also. The internal air pressure shall not exceed the weight of the roof plates or 75 mm of water column. After application of air pressure, the joints are checked by soap solution. The roof integrity may also be checked by creating vacuum inside fixed roof tanks. It is current practice to test the roof after construction at vacuum of 25 mm of water column. Vacuum is produced by controlled draining of water after hydrostatic test. The vacuum test shall be done with utmost care and in no case shall vacuum exceed 25 mm of water column. In the floating roof tank, new pontoon box welding should be checked by air and soap solution. Alternatively, these may be checked by floating the roof of the tank with water and checking the pontoon, compartments for any leak. 11.1.2 Weld Repair

The weld repairs should be carried out by gouging / grinding the leaky spot and welding. Repairs shall be inspected for their integrity by vacuum box test / air test. 11.1.3 Repairs to Roof when Tank is in service When deep pits in tank plates are not closely spaced and extensive and thus do not effect the strength of the tank, they can be repaired by other methods if welding is not practicable. Any methods that will stop the corrosion and plug the leaks will be satisfactory. Filling with proprietary air-hardening adhesive may be suitable if it will not be affected by the tank contents. Any other material of a putty like nature that hardness upon drying should be used only for temporary repairs. Such material must be able to tolerate the tank contents in addition to making a tight bond with the steel plate. In all cases the pits shall be cleaned thoroughly. Leaks in the roof are commonly repaired by ―soft Patches‖ that do not involve cutting, welding, riveting or bolting of the steel. The soft patches can be made from a variety of materials including canvas, asbestos, rubber, neoprene, glass cloth, FRP FRE, Asphalt and proprietary mastic or plastic sealing material, the choice depending upon the contents of the tank and service conditions. The patches may be applied when tank is in service. The patches may be in much the same manner as normally applied to the roof of a building. The above are temporary methods of repair. carried out at the earliest opportunity. 11.2 SHELL PLATES REPAIR 11.2.1 Shell Replacement Proper and permanent repairs shall be

Complete or partial replacement of corroded and thinned out shell plates shall be done using new plates of thickness as provided in the original design. Partial replacement of shell plate can be done by cutting window at the affected portion. After welding the joints shall be checked visually or by D.P. Test and taking spot radiograph. After

satisfactory repairs, the joint shall be checked for leaks by filling the tanks with water as is done in the case of newly fabricated tanks. 11.2.2 Minimum Dimensions of Replacement Shell Plate The minimum dimension for a replacement shell plate is 12 inches or 12 times the thickness of the replacement plate, whichever is greater. The replacement plate may be circular. Oblong, square with rounded corners or rectangular with rounded corners except when entire shell plate is replaced. Refer to Figure 7-1 for typical details of acceptable replacement shell plates. Where one more entire shell plates or full height segments of shell plates are to be removed and replaced, the minimum spacing requirements specified in Figure 7-1 for vertical weld joints shall be maintained. It is acceptable to remove and replace entire shell plates or full height segments of shell plates by cutting and re-welding the new vertical joints. The vertical joints shall be welded prior to welding the horizontal joints. 11.2.3 Weld Repairs

Defective welds or leaky welds shall be repaired by gouging, grinding and welding. The welding shall be thoroughly inspected by magnifying glass or by D. P. Test. Spot radiograph should also be taken. 11.3 NOZZLES REPAIRS The thinned nozzle shall be taken out by gouging the welding. The new welding shall be checked with air at a pressure of 1.06 kg/cm2 and soap suds through the tell-tale hole in reinforcing pads. In case tank is to be hydrostatically tested, the nozzle reinforcing pad shall be checked for any leakage through the tell-tale hole. If leakage is observed, the inner welding of nozzle with shell shall be gouged rewelded and tested. 11.4 TANK BOTTOM REPAIRS 11.4.1 Bottom Replacement

Partial or complete replacement of tank bottom plates can be done using plates of thickness provided in the original design. The replacement plates can be taken in to the tank through window cut in bottom shell course. A new bottom may be laid on the old bottom when it is not possible to take out the old plates. This arrangement has been shown in Figure No. 4A and 4B, however, by this arrangement capacity of the tank will be reduced. Nozzles and heating coils should be re-positioned on the renewed bottom as per the operational requirements. The new weld joints shall be checked thoroughly. To detect any leakage in the weld joints, vacuum box test shall be carried out.

The bottom plates should be checked pneumatically. Air connections are installed at minimum of 5 points. An air pressure of 10 cm. Water column is maintained with a centrifugal blower or an air compressor. A U-tube manometer indicates this pressure and at the same time safeguards the bottom against an over-pressure. The entire bottom is then tested. This system has an advantage over the vacuum box method as it is much faster and more secure since the entire surface and not only the welded seams are covered. Another advantage is that while the air pressure is applied, the bottom is partially lifted from it S base. This causes the metal plates to flex so that possible holes of minor dimensions which might have been sealed by soil or rust particles will become detectable. In an air pressure of 10 cm water column cannot be maintained owing to too much air leakage around the outer rim of the bottom, it is recommended to install a dam around the tank as close as particle to the shell wall. A dam of clay or bitumen sand mixture about 20 cm. High should be applied. This dam has to be sealed with a bitumen layer. The space between the dam the tank wall is then filled with fresh water, which acts as seal. Arrangement of tank bottom testing is given in Figure 5. Shell to bottom weld joint shall be tested by filling the tank with water to a level of half the tank height. 11.4.2 Weld Repair the same

Leaky welds in the bottom can be repaired by gouging, grinding and welding. Repaired welds shall be checked by vacuum box testing. 11.5 STEAM COIL REPAIRS Thinned or deteriorated steam coils shall be replaced. The weld joints shall be checked by spot radiography. After satisfactory repairs, the coils shall be hydrostatically tested at a pressure of 1.5 times the operating pressure. 11.6 TANK PAD RREPAIRS 11.6.1 Erosion

The raised foundation of vertical tanks must be protected from the effects of erosion. Any damage to the surface of the sealing coat or any breakdown of the sand-bitumen mix of that part of the foundation which project beyond the base of the tank shall be repaired before the underlying foundation is damaged. 11.6.2 Settlement

Even with relatively minor settlement, the outer edge of the bottom plates of vertical tank will settle at a level below the surface of the sealing layer of the foundation. This results in the formation of a channel around the periphery of the tank, in which rain water

collects. When this occurs, small outlet channels in radial direction shall be cut in the sealing layer of sand bitumen mix at the lowest point and at intervals of about 6 mt. Around the periphery to provide drainage. The relative settlement shall be checked. If settlement exceeds 25 mm, this method may destroy the effectiveness of the sand bitumen sealing layer. In such cases, the surface of the projecting part of the foundation shall be trimmed and a new sealing layer of sand bitumen mix 50 mm thick should be laid to provide a proper drainage with a surface slopping away from the toe of the tank bottom. 11.6.3 Tilting

The maximum allowable tilting in the fixed roof tanks due to uneven settlements shall be as shown Figure 6. The maximum allowable tilting in floating roof tanks will be governed by the designed range of gap between roof and shell. The maximum allowable tilting as given in Figure 6 will cause and increase in the hoop stress of the shell plates by 2% of the hoop stress calculated for tanks without uneven settlement. This increase shall be deducted from the allowable stress when calculating rejection limit of shell plates if tanks which have settled unevenly. A tank shall be lifted and the foundation re-packed if the limit for tilting is reached. 12.0 HOT TAPS 12.1 General 12.1.1 The requirements given herein cover the installation of radial hot tap connections on existing in-service tanks with shell material that does not require post weld heat treatment. Connection size and shell thickness limitations are as follows : Connection Size NPS (inches) <8 <14 <18 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 12.1.5 Minimum Shell Plate Thickness (inches) 1/4 3/8 1/2

Welding shall be done with low hydrogen electrodes. Hot taps are not permitted on the roof of a tank or within the gas/vapor space of the tank. Hot taps shall not be installed on laminated or severely pitted shell plate. Hot taps shall not permitted on tanks where the heat of welding may cause environmental cracking (such as caustic cracking or stress corrosion cracking).

12.2 Hot Tap Procedures A hot tap procedure specific to carrying out the work shall be developed and documented. The procedure shall include the practices given in APIU Publication 2201. 12.2.1 Preparatory Work

Minimum spacing in any direction (toe-to-toe of welds) between the hot tap and adjacent nozzles shall be equivalent to the square root of Rt – where R is the tank shell radius, in inches, and T is the shell plate thickness, in inches. Shell plate thickness measurements shall be taken at a minimum of four places along the circumference of the proposed nozzle location. 12.2.2 Material Limitations

Hot tap steels of know acceptable toughness or steels of unknown toughens that have a minimum shell metal temperature at or above the exemption curve shown Figure 7-5. 12.3 INSTALLATION PROCEDURE Pipe nozzles shall be cut to the contour of the shell and beveled from the outside for a full penetration weld (see Figure 7-6). After the pipe is welded, the reinforcing plate shall be installed either in one piece or two pieces with a horizontal weld. The reinforcing plate to nozzle shall be installed with a full penetration weld. Care shall be taken to limit the heat input to the wells. After the reinforcing plate has been welded the shell and nondestructive examination carried out, the pad shall be pneumatically. After the valve has been installed on the flange, a pressure test at least 1.5 times the hydrostatic head shall be performed on the nozzle prior to mounting the hot top machine which shall be bolted to the valve. A qualified operator shall operate the hot tap machine and cut the hole in the tank following the hot tap machine manufacturer‘s procedures. 13.1 DOCUMENTATION FOR NEW TANKS The following completion documents for the storage tank shall be preserved : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) As built drawing of the tank. As built drawing of the tank foundation. Shell development drawings indicating the location of radiography and test results of the shell. Radiography films (for 5 years after completion) Bottom layout and test results of the bottom. Heating coil layout and test results. Certificate of earthing of a tank.

Viii) ix) x) Xi) xii) xiii) xiv) xv) xvi) xvii) xviii) xix) xx) xxi) xxii)

Roof layout and test results. Settlement results of tank bottom. Pontoon and floating roof test results. Test certificates of seal. Calibration charts. Certificate of tank mountings. Floating roof drainage system drawing and test results. General arrangement drawings with design data and material specification. Nozzle orientation drawing. Stairway details with orientation. Foam system drawing. Cooling system drawing. Wind girder drawing. Pipe support drawings with orientations. Rolling ladder detail drawing.

13.2 DOCUMENTATION FOR TANKS IN SERVICE All the observations, findings and repairs carried out after each inspection should be recorded in the following cards for each tanks : a) b) Tank inspection and repairs card Data Record history Card

The history of the tank will indicate the replacement or repair requirements in future and also help in re-establishing suitable frequency of inspection. 14.0 REFERENCES The following codes standards and publications have either been referred or used in the preparation of this manual and the same shall be read in conjunction with this standard. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) API Guide – Inspection of Refinery Equipment Chapter XIII-Atmospheric and low pressure storage tanks. API 650 – Welded steel tanks for oil storage. OISD 129. API 620 – recommended rules for design and construction of low pressure storage tanks. BS 2654 – Specification for vertical steel welded storage tanks with butt welded shells for petroleum industry. API 2000 – Venting Atmospheric and low-pressure Storage tanks.


ANNEXURE – I WATER FILL – UP TEST OF A STORAGE TANKS This annexure outlines detailed program of conducting hydraulic testing of storage tank. 1.0 1.1 1.2 HYDRAULIC FILLING Tank shall be filled up in stages of 2.5 mts. each. Each stage of loading shall be maintained for a minimum period of 7 days or till circumferential settlement between two successive points on the tank periphery is equal to or less than 2,5 mm over the previous 24 hrs. The largest time for which each stage of loading is maintained shall be the one which occurs later of the two conditions, i.e. 7 days or the rate of settlement. The sequence of filling various tanks in a tank farm shall be such as to avoid overlapping of settlements. To achieve this, it would be necessary to fill diagonally opposite tanks when simultaneous or individual filling is carried out. EMPTYING The stages in which the water is emptied out from the tanks shall be permitted between each de loading stage.


2.0 2.1

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

SETTLEMENT OBSERVATIONS / MEASUREMENTS For tanks with capacity equal to or less than 3000, 4 markers may be placed at equal distance on the circumference of the tank. For tanks with capacity equal or greater than 5000, 8 markers may be placed at equal distance on the circumference of the tanks. The position of each marker shall be indicated on the tank plan. Settlement measured shall be taken at hourly or two hourly interval from commencement of filling of each stage. After the water in the tank has been filled up to the desired stage the settlement measurement shall be taken at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 & 24 hr. and thereafter every 24 hrs till end of the specified period. ***

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