THE HONG KONG POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY INDUSTRIAL CENTRE Reading Materials for the Training Program of Construction Drawing

Practices TABLE OF CONTENT
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Drawing lines and shapes Drawing to scale Lettering and Dimensioning Graphic conventions Orthographic projection Pictorial views (3D) 7.1 Isometric projection 7.2 Axonometric projection 7.3 Perspective projection 7.4 Oblique projection Construction drawings 8.1 Site plans 8.2 Location floor plans 8.3 Location sections 8.4 Location elevations 8.5 Assembly drawings 8.6 Component drawings 8.7 Structure engineering drawings 8.8 Service drawings 8.9 Freehand drawings Using CAD in Architectural/Design Office Exercises

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INTRODUCTION
PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTION DRAWING

Construction drawing is a means of showing in a graphical form the shape, size and position of a building on a site, together with the composition of the materials used and the way the building is to be constructed or put together. The information on construction drawings has to be presented in a precise, unambiguous way so that it can be understood by anyone with a knowledge of draughtsmanship and construction. It should be borne in mind that the contractor’s staff using the drawings on a construction site often work under difficult circumstances, and the quality and clarity of the drawings should reflect this fact. The term ‘construction drawing’ includes not only drawings produced by architects, which generally make up the majority of the drawings for a building project, but also structural drawings which are the province of structural engineers, and building engineering services drawings which are commonly prepared by building services engineers.

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DRAWING LINES AND SHAPES
GETTING STARTED

At this stage you should have the following equipment to assist you. ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ ☛ Sheets of A2 cartridge paper A2 drawing board and tee-square Drafting tape Fine-lead mechanical pencils with H and HB leads Two technical pens, one for drawing lines 0.3mm thick and the other for drawing lines 0.7mm thick. A soft eraser A 300 mm long scale which includes scales of 1:100, 1:200, 1:5 and 1:50. A 45° fixed set-square and a 30°/60° degree fixed set-square - longest side to be about 230mm. A plastic circle template.

At a later stage a protector or adjustable set-square will be required.

FIXING THE DRAWING PAPER
❖ Now fix a sheet of white A2 paper (Fig. 2.1)

ConstDrawing_2000.doc

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A0

A1 A2 A3 A4

1180 x 840 840 x 590 590 x 420 420 x 295 295 x 210

Fig. 2.1 Different Sizes of Drawing Papers

USE THE TEE-SQUARE
❖ You can use a tee-square to draw horizontal lines; press the stock of the tee-square against the left hand edge of the board and allow it to slide up and down until the blade is in the required position. The pencil should be held against the ruling edge of the tee-square blade (Fig. 2.2).

Head

Working edge Blade

A2

Fig. 2.2 Check contact of T-square head with drawing board edge.

USING THE SET- SQUARE
❖ You will need to use your set-squares for drawing vertical and sloping lines. Move the straight edge/tee-square to the required position. Place the set-square on the tee-square with its base on the top edge of the blade, and the vertical edge in the required position (Fig. 2.3).

ConstDrawing_2000.doc

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Fig. 2.3 Use Set-squares with T-square ❖ All construction lines should be drawn first, followed by all final lines.

DRAWING THE BORDER AND TITLE PANEL
❖ Now that the drawing paper is fixed to the board and you have some general information about drawing lines, the first operation is to draw the border and title panel. The border should be drawn around the four edges of the paper 10mm wide. Initially just draw the construction lines for the border. Form the title block by drawing a construction line 40mm up from the bottom border line. Add the short vertical and horizontal lines.

DRAWING RECTANGLES
❖ Begin by drawing the construction lines for the 4 rectangles on the bottom left hand corner of the sheet. For each rectangle first draw two horizontal lines about 30mm apart and about 75mm long. Join the ends of the horizontal lines by drawing two vertical lines about 60 mm apart forming a rectangle 60x30 mm. The final lines should be 0.4-0.5 mm thick. The vertical and horizontal lines should either exactly meet at the corners.

DRAWING CIRCLES & QUADRANTS
❖ Draw the construction lines for the 3 circles & 3 quadrants in the top right hand corner of the drawing. First draw the horizontal and vertical axes lines for each circle. Then draw the circle. If you are using a compass to draw the circles, the compass point should be carefully placed on the precise spot where the horizontal and vertical axes cross. Then draw the circle as a curved construction line. If you are using a circle template, you will need to relate the axes marks on the template with the axes drawn on your drawing sheet.

DRAWING LINES TYPES
❖ Lines vary in thickness and form according to their purpose and importance. Construction lines have already been mentioned. They are setting-out or guide lines, and they should be drawn as light as possible. They are generally covered over by stronger final lines. Thick active lines are continuous, and used to indicate important parts of structures such as the outside and inside faces of walls; the faces of reinforced concrete members and ground levels. Thin active lines are continuous, and used to show items drawn as plan views (as opposed to sectional plans) and as elevations; also to define less important items shown in section. Hidden lines are broken lines, and can be either thick or thin depending on their important. They show work which is not visible - e.g. the position of beams on a floor plan. Centre lines are thin chain dotted lines and are used as the name implies, to show the centre of things - e.g. the centre of a beam.

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arrowheads are often added to show the direction of flow. ❖ SECTION LINES OR PLANES ❖ A section is a view of a building or object obtained by making an imaginary cut through it. 2.❖ ❖ Break lines are thin continuous lines with a zig zag in them to show a break in the continuity of the line or view. it shows the position where the imaginary cut is made. with the line terminated by arrows which point in the direction of the viewing. In the case of underground drains.4 Line Types 3 DRAWING TO SCALE INTRODUCTION ConstDrawing_2000. TH IC K A C TIV E LIN ES definin g m ain outlines of structures in section TH IN A C TIV E LIN ES definin g outlines in p lan and elevation H ID D EN LIN ES-TH IC K O R T HIN show in g w ork not visible or w ork to be rem oved C EN TR E LIN ES-TH IN LIN ES B R EA K LIN ES-TH IN LIN ES for break in con tinuity SEC T IO N PLA N ES-T H IC K A N D TH IN th ick lines at end s an d chan ges of d irection only th inelsew here A A 13 12 11 10 29 30 31 32 33 34 14 1 : 10 up 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 STA IR S arrow indicates direction of travel RAM P arrow indicates direction of fall Fig.doc 4 . Dimension lines and projectors may be shown in thin lines with arrows heads. Drain and other underground pipe lines may be shown by a thick chain line or a thick continuous or broken line. The line itself is a chain dotted line. Sometimes called a section plane.

EXAMPLE OF LETTERS AND NUMBERALS A BCDEF GH I J K LM N OP QR S T U V WX Y Z 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 0. USING A 1:50 & 1:100 SCALE ❖ A 1:50 and 1:100 scale can be used for the floor plan of a building. and so on. TYPES OF LETTER & GUIDE LINES ❖ The two main groups of letters are ‘CAPITAL LETTERS’ and ‘lower-case letters’. it is suggested that initially you use only capital letters on your drawings. 1:200.doc H 5 . the object is drawn a tenth of its actual size. USING A 1:200 SCALE ❖ A 1:200 scale can be used for the floor plan of a large building. or parts of buildings. in other words the object is five times larger than shown on the drawing. 1:500. 1:10. the use of lower-case letters is generally restricted to notes. If the scale is 1:5. 1: 10000. to their actual size. 1:1000. 1:5. It is important that all letters be formed between guide lines. descriptive notes and dimensions will generally be required. This proportion is known as the scale of the drawing. or the site plan of a small building project. but capital letters can be used for both notes and titles. Drawing them takes a little extra effort but is worth the trouble. A lower and upper guide line should be drawn as lightly as possible so that you can just see them.7 H Top guideline Middle guideline Bottom guideline ConstDrawing_2000. Instead they are drawn in proportion to the actual measurement of the object. 1:20. 1:50. the object is drawn a fifth of its actual size. 1:1250. Every drawing needs a title. 1:2500. both in architectural and structural layouts. 4 LETTERING AND DIMENSIONING INTRODUCTION ❖ One of the most important stages in producing a construction drawing is the lettering and dimensioning of the drawing. and often subtitles are required.❖ It is not generally feasible to draw buildings. Freehand lettering is the cheapest way of annotating drawings and is generally the quickest method. 1:100. It is easier to produce legible capital letters than lower-case letters. In addition in order to make the drawing easier to understand and more useful to the builder and others. If the drawing is 1:10. Common scales are 1:1.

Fig.1 Sample of Lettering DIMENSIONING ❖ It is important that all drawings are fully dimensioned. dots or circles.doc 6 . should extend from about 2 mm away from the part of the object being dimensioned to just beyond the dimension line termination.2 Dimensioning methods ConstDrawing_2000. or projectors. Thin lines called projection lines. 4. Dimension lines should be unbroken lines. D IM E N S IO N L IN E S 200 O pen A rro w h e a d 200 S o lid A rro w h e a d 200 O b liq u e S tro k e 200 70 65 65 D im e n s io n s 70 135 200 R u n n in g D im e n s io n s Fig. oblique strokes. the letters “NTS” (not to scale) should be written after the dimension. so that the builder and others know the required size of every part of the building. It is sensible however not to duplicate dimensions. be indicated on plans rather than on elevations. If any dimension is not drawn to scale. where possible. solid arrowheads. Where feasible dimension lines should be located outside the building or object rather than inside it. as this makes the drawing unnecessarily crowded. ❖ ❖ ❖ HORIZONTAL DIMENSIONS ❖ Horizontal dimensions should. They can be terminated at their ends by open arrowheads. 4.

DIMENSIONING BY LEVELS ❖ Different members of the building team tend to follow different practices regarding the measuring points for vertical dimensions.3 North Points and Level Marks 5 GRAPHIC CONVENTIONS INTRODUCTION ❖ Construction drawings are a means of communication between the various members of the building team. All vertical dimensions of a building should relate to a site datum. be indicated on sections rather than on elevations.doc 7 . DATUM . site plans. hatching and symbols. etc. and it is important that they employ a common graphical language. the dimension between the finished floor level and the finished ceiling levels. Common examples of hatching for construction materials. The point of the arrow should be drawn to face north. Site staff work initially to the structural floor level (SFL). The client is concerned with clear storey heights i. and for convenience is often set at the ground floor level of the building under construction. 4. ConstDrawing_2000. It helps to achieve this if agreed standards are followed in respect of lines.e. where possible. and their vertical dimensions will generally be measured from SFL to SFL. to indicate the position of north relative to the site or building. REPRESENTATION OF MATERIALS ❖ In sectional views of a building. The site datum is a fixed vertical level on the site. ORIENTATION OF PLANS ❖ North points are generally shown on key plans. LEVEL SYM BOLS N N orth point SSL FFL Level on plans Level on plans FFL 123 C eiling height on plans Level on sections and elevations Fig. Architects will invariably give the finished floor level (FFL) on their drawings. Structural engineers need to know the structural floor level (SFL). block plans and sometimes floor plans.VERTICAL DIMENSIONS ❖ Vertical dimensions should. the parts of the structure which are cut by section plane may be hatched to indicate the nature of the materials used.

5.MATERIAL SYMBOLS IN SECTION Brickwork Blockwork Concrete Plaster/Render Timber-planed Subsoil Topsoil Granular fill Damp-Proof Membrane Metal Fig.doc 8 . ConstDrawing_2000.e.2 Door Symbols WINDOWS ❖ The opening methods for windows are generally indicated on the elevations. D O OR SYM BO LS S in g le le a v e s op en in g 9 0 S i n g le le a v e s o p e n in g 1 8 0 T w o le a v e s e a c h o p e n in g 9 0 S tr a ig h t s lid in g Fig. 5. whether they are swing doors or sliding doors-and the direction in which they open.1 Graphical Symbols of Building Materials DOORS ❖ There are standard ways of indicating on plans the opening methods for doors-i.

but reference needs to be made to BS 1192 for full details of the recommendations for symbols and other graphic conventions. 5. ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING SYMBOLS BUILDING SERVICES DRAWING SYMBOLS Direction of span Electrical distribution board One-way switch Two-way switch Socket outlet Switched socket outlet Circuit on plan w. 5.4 Window Symbols SYMBOLS ❖ There are wide range of standard graphic symbols available to indicate the position of various components. and related information.doc 9 .WINDOW SYMBOLS IN HORIZONTAL SECTION Any type With frame WINDOW SYMBOLS IN ELEVATION Hinged at side Hinged at top F Sliding horizontally Fixed Fig. Some common examples are given below.5 Architectural and Building Services Symbols ConstDrawing_2000.c close-coupled Bath Pipe valve Non-reture pipe valve Meter Seat Sink References: BS 1192 Part 1 and 3: 1987 Fig.

It is possible to draw a picture of a building or object to show these three dimensions. TOP (PLAN) VIEW VERTICAL PLANE END VIEW HORIZONTAL PLANE W VIE ION AT V LE TE RN FO FRONT ELEVATION END VIEW PLAN PLAN FRONT ELEVATION END VIEW FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION Orthogonal projection of an object Fig. This method uses views termed plans. To explain why they are so called.doc 10 . They are commonly known as first angle projection and third angle projection. Generally however in construction drawing the method used to describe buildings or objects pictorially is called orthographic projection.1). 6. FIRST AND THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION ❖ ❖ Since there are two systems of orthographic projection.6.6 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION INTRODUCTION ❖ Buildings. elevations and sections. It can be seen that one systems falls neatly in the first quadrant and the other in the third quadrant (Fig. which have only two dimensions. you may place the two boxes together as shown. That is to say they have length. width and height. and the materials and components of which buildings are constructed. are three dimensional. it is necessary to give them names for identification.1 1st and 3rd angle Projection ConstDrawing_2000.

it may be drawn directly on the part under consideration.2 Projection Symbols Plan Side elevation Front elevation Fig.PROJECTION SYMBOLS ❖ In order to indicate the angle of projection to be used. and assumes the part of the object between his eye and the plane to be removed. 6. then the hidden detail lines may be confusing and difficult to interpret correctly.6.doc 11 .25d d First angle Third angle Projection symbol proportions Fig. the symbols has to be printed on the drawing (Fig.2). This exposes the interior detail which can then be shown by full lines instead of hidden detail lines. Projection Symbol 30 d 1. 6. Examples of Orthographic Projection are shown in Fig 6. The position of the cutting plane is selected by the draughtsman to show the interior of the object to the best advantage. a staggered section may be appropriate. When a revolved section of an object is required.3. In such cases the draughtsman imagines the object to be cut by a plane. ConstDrawing_2000. For an object which has internal details that are not on one line.3 Example of 3rd Angle Projection SECTIONAL VIEWS ❖ Objects with little interior detail can be represented satisfactorily in orthographic projection by exterior views. the interior construction being shown by hidden detail lines : When the interior detail is more complicated.

this practice should be continued to the top landing. 6. The limit line shows where the stairs break between floor plans in the same location on the plans of each floor. 6.doc 12 .Front elevation Section side elevation Section plan Fig. The top landing will look much as it would with a normal cutting plane. The view down the stairwell would show the down flight as it would normally appear in the stairwell. 4 FOURTH FLOOR 4 3 3 2 2ND & 3RD FLOOR 2 1 1 FIRST FLOOR Fig.4 Sectional Elevation and Plan ❖ The example below shows the offset cutting plane of the staircase. each step should be drawn but once. Double limit lines are used to separate the up half from the down half where they meet in plan.5 Section of Staircase ConstDrawing_2000.

sloping either to the right or left. 7. 7. and all horizontal lines at 30 degrees to the horizontal.doc 13 . 7.1 ❖ PICTORIAL VIEWS (3D) ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Isometric projection is a method of showing three faces of an object on one drawing (Fig. which shows. a solid concrete building block and a hollow concrete building block. 7.1 Examples of Isometric Projection 82% OF THE ORIGINAL SIZE o o 30° HOLLOW CONCRETE BUILDING BLOCK 50 Natural scale 30 40 x x 50 45 20 x x 40 10 x 30 Isometric scale x 20 30 10 x ISOMETRIC PROJECTION ISOMETRIC DRAWING CONSTRUCTION OF ISOMETRIC SCALE C C C R R R R C STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 FOUR CENTERS MOTHOD Fig. in isometric view. Isometric projection is achieved in practice by drawing all vertical lines as vertical.2).2 Comparison of Isometric Projection and Isometric Drawing & Construction of Isometric Circle ConstDrawing_2000. 10 0 44 0 20 60 20 20 120 20 120 20 1 20 20 215 120 120 o 30° 120 SOLID CONCRETE BUILDING BLOCK Fig. The word isometric means ‘equal measure’ and the basis of isometric projection is that three lines defining the three faces or planes produce three equal angles of 120 degrees and the sides are shortened to 82% of their true length (Fig.1).7 7.

This square is drawn in isometric as a rhombus. elevations and sections.2). and slightly distorts the appearance of the plan view. pictorials can be measured using standard scales. and showing service ducts and pipe runs. The four-centre ellipse is drawn by blocking in the orthographic view of the circle with a square that is tangent to the circle at four points. Fig. The four centres are found by constructing perpendiculars to the sides of the rhombus at the midpoints of the sides (step 1 to 3). 7. It is similar to isometric projection except that the horizontal lines are generally drawn at 45° to the horizontal. but consideration of this aspect is inappropriate to an introductory book on construction drawing. This is not mathematically correct however. the only difference being the 18% increase in size (Fig. This makes it particularly useful for illustrating interior views of buildings.doc 14 . An isometric drawing is not a true projection since the dimensions are drawn true size rather than reduced in size as in projection. The four-center ellipse method can be used to construct an approximate ellipse in isometric by using four arcs that are drawn with a compass. It is possible to produce an accurate isometric drawing by using a special scale. 7. The advantage of this method is that the plan is shown as true plan.❖ It is normal practice to make the measurements on isometric drawings to the same scale as used for plans.3 Axonometric Projection ConstDrawing_2000. An isometric projection is found by constructing a view that shows the diagonal of a cube as a point. ❖ ❖ 7.2 ❖ AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION Axonometric projection is another way of showing objects in a three dimensional form. By using the isometric drawing instead of the isometric projection.

but vertical lines remain vertical and have no vanishing point. ConstDrawing_2000. ❖ ❖ ❖ Hor VP VP Hor VP Hor VP ONE POINT TWO POINTS VP THREE POINTS Fig. and is the most realistic form of pictorial. All horizontal lines converge at the vanishing points. three-point. VP= Vanishing Point is all vanish line (VL) Converge at infinite vanishing points as they recede from the observer.7. Two-point perspective: A two-point perspective is a pictorial that is positioned with two sides at an angle to the picture plane. depending on the number of vanishing points used in their construction (see Fig. In both cases.doc 15 . It appears as an edge in the top view. The three-point perspective is used in drawing larger objects such as buildings. it is on the line from the station point that is perpendicular to the picture plane. All parallel lines converge at infinite vanishing points as they receded from the observe. One-point perspective: The one-point perspective has one surface of the object that is parallel to the picture plane: therefore it is true shape.4 Aerial Views and Vanishing Points ❖ Abbreviation: PP= Picture Plane is the plane on which the perspective is projected. There are three basis types of perspectives are: one-point.3 ❖ Perspective Projection A perspective is a view that is normally seen by the eye or camera. 7. Three-point perspective: The three-point perspective utilizes three vanishing points since the object is positioned so that all sides of it are at an angle with the picture plane.4). SP= Station Point is the location of the observer’s eye in the plan view. this requires two vanishing points. two-point. 7. CV= Center of Vision is a point that lies on the picture plane in the top view and on the horizon in the front view. The front view of the station point will always lie on the horizon. The other sides vanish to a single point on the horizon called a vanishing point.

7.5 Ground Level View and General View 7. When the ground line and the horizon coincide in the front view. ❖ Different views can be obtained by changing the relationship between the horizontal and the ground line (Fig. Measurements along the receding axes of the cavalier oblique are true length (full scale). This would give the view that would be seen if your eye was looking from the ground. usually at a height equal to the height of a person. such as the surface of the ocean. a ground-level view will be obtained. The cabinet oblique has measurements along the receding axes reduced to half length. GL= Ground Level is an infinite horizontal line in the front view that passes through the base of the object being drawn. In each case. An aerial view will be obtained when the horizon is placed above the object in the front view. 7.= Horizon or Eye level is a horizontal line in the front view that represents an infinite horizontal.4 ❖ Oblique Projection Oblique pictorials are three-dimensional pictorials made on a plane of paper by projecting from the object with parallel projectors that are oblique to the picture plane. the angle of the receding axis can be at any angle between 0° and 90°. An oblique should be drawn by constructing a box using the overall dimensions of height. width. (2) cabinet. 7. and depth with light construction lines.doc 16 . ConstDrawing_2000.6).5). A general view is one where the horizon is placed above the ground line and through the object. VP VP GL VP VP GL GROUND -LEVEL VIEW GENERAL VIEW Fig. The general oblique has measurements along the receding axes reduced to between half and full length. (3) general (Fig. There are three basis types of oblique drawings are used that are based on these principles: The three types are: (1) cavalier.Hor.

7.SI ZE FU LL FULL SCALE HA LF SC AL E 30 0 VARIES 0--90 0 0 30 TRUE SIZE 0 VARIES 0--90 0 0 CAVALIER PROJECTION CABINET PROJECTION HA T LF OF UL LS CA LE 30 0 VARIES 0--90 0 0 TRUE SIZE GENERAL OBLIQUE Fig.doc 17 .6 Oblique Projection ConstDrawing_2000.

g.2 FLOOR PLANS INTRODUCTION ❖ Floor plans are generally the most useful. • sometimes provide information on external services. Grid rotations should be used as appropriate for each form of grid. They are really sectional plans because they show the view obtained by cutting horizontally through a building at some point above the floor level. size and layout of the entire site. and like most plans is a view looking downwards. and the most used of the location drawings.doc 18 . garden walls and landscaping. 8. GRIDS ❖ The use of grids to which sizes and locations of building components may be related.both horizontally and vertically . ❖ 8.1. ❖ ConstDrawing_2000. PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of a site plan is to • provide a general picture of the site. This has the advantage of passing through most of the windows and doors. It is assumed that you move away the top part of the building and look down at the plan of the remaining bottom part. This plan view will not only illustrate the arrangement of the rooms and spaces and their shapes.8 8. is helpful in preparation of all types of drawings and particularly so when modular coordination is applied to design and construction. • indicate the levels and surface features of the finished site.1 CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS SITE PLANS INTRODUCTION ❖ A site plan is a location drawing. It supplies a bird’s eye view of the shape. which means that dimensions giving the positions of all openings can be given. including its shape and extent. The level at which you cut horizontally through a building is commonly assumed to be 1metre above the floor level. but will also show the thickness of all the external and internal walls. • locate the buildings and other elements of the project .e. Most common grid rotation is using letters to define the lines on axis and numerals to define the lines on the other axis. roads. especially underground drainage. An example of a floor plan is shown on Fig.

and parts such as doors.General Layout PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of a location floor plan is to: • indicate the shape and the layout of the building.1 Floor Plan . and both faces of the internal partitions. • provide the setting out dimensions for the building. +5. walls 200 thick 1900 750 A 9100 900 900 BATHROOM W1 1350 DINING D5 900 KITCHEN W2 LIVING D4 4100 A 2100 9100 W5 1300 100 All int. walls 100 thick 4100 3100 BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM 1 2300 3800 1650 B 1350 W6 900 W7 600 W8 600 900 900 1350 6600 1 ELEVN 2 Fig.doc 900 W9 900 D6 D3 950 D1 19 . they are often filled in solid. Where floor plans show existing walls. Where cavity walls form part of the construction the cavity may be indicated by thin lines. ❖ ❖ ConstDrawing_2000.F. Hatching is often used. • provide references stating where more detailed information can be found. • locate spaces such as rooms. WALLS AND PARTITIONS ❖ Thick lines should be used to define the inside and outside faces of external walls. but it is suggested you omit this detail on the 1:50 floor plan.L.6600 800 N 1450 2100 900 1350 A W4 D2 1200 16 Risers up W3 800 4100 1100 S.650 All ext. particularly on larger scale plans. 8.

D1. On large projects room numbers will also be provided. The most important thing is that the lettering should be easy to read. ❖ PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of a location section is to (a) give a vertical view of the building. It is important however not to repeat information which is given on other drawing. The term section is mainly used where the cut is made in a vertical direction. W2.one of these will be a cross section. along the length of the building. walls. it is sensible to locate the windows in approximately their correct positions relative to the wall faces. Their positions within the wall thickness will be shown on the assembly drawings if these are provided. D2. and duplication of information provided on other drawings should be avoided.3 SECTIONS INTRODUCTION ❖ A section is a view of a building or object obtained by making an imaginary cut through it.W1. It is usual practice to number each window . ConstDrawing_2000.doc 20 . and this is so in the case of location sections. the drawing will become confusing and difficult to read. ❖ ❖ 8. floors. and (b) provide overall vertical dimensions and levels. The other will be a longitudinal section. At each door position it should be made clear which way the door is hung. across the width of the building. so the exact position of the section should be chosen to show as much construction as possible. such as assembly and component drawings. D3 etc. where the scale of the floor plan is 1:50 or larger. However. A vertical section through a building will show details of the construction of the foundations. cupboards and other fittings should be shown in outline on floor plans. OTHER ITEMS ❖ Sanitary fittings. Sections are intended to help the builder construct the building. If too much information is provided. ROOM NAMES AND NOTES ❖ A name should be given to each room or space. The number of sections required of a building will depend on its size and complexity. Notes should be kept to a minimum. roof and other parts. Generally there will be at least two sections . ❖ DOORS ❖ ❖ Doors should also be numbered .WINDOWS ❖ Windows will be positioned laterally on the floor plans. W3 etc.

particularly on the larger scale sections. 8.C.WALLS AND PARTITIONS ❖ ❖ ❖ Thick lines should be used to define the inside and outside faces of external walls. Hatching is often used. OTHER STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS ❖ ❖ Thick lines should be used to define both faces of concrete floor and roof slabs. when these are viewed in section.) 45 FALL R/F 125 15 THICK 1:3 C/S LIME PLASTER 2675 125 25 THICK 1:3 C/S SCREED 250 2835 1/F 100 1250 1050 150 S. U. ON 150 THICK HARDCORE 150 21 .P. +5.doc 50 1000 BLINDING 1000 400 750 Earth D. Thick lines should also be used to define the faces of other structural elements. Where cavity walls form part of the construction the cavity is often indicated by thin lines.F.2 Section A-A of House in Fig. such as foundations and beams.Roof 200 100-110 1200 ROOFING (detail ref. and both faces of the internal partitions.4 ELEVATIONS INTRODUCTION ConstDrawing_2000. 8. to other dwg.650 2675 G/F Fig.L.1 8.

8.L. The usually consist of sectional plans and vertical sections.650 G/F Elevation of House Fig. ConstDrawing_2000. including matters such as the fixing of materials. and (b) locate the door and window openings and other features of the building.F.1 8. +5. including isometric projection and elevations.3 Elevation of House in Fig. An example of a elevation is shown in Fig. of a building or object.❖ An elevation is a view you get if you look in a horizontal direction at the vertical side.doc 150 22 . Dia.Roof 2835 1445 R/F 75-80 50x230 CERAMIC WALL TILE 1/F 100 25-30 2675 2675 S. When drawing an elevation you need to take the horizontal dimensions from the plans and the vertical dimensions from the sections. 8. 25 PVC Drain Pipe U. but it will be appropriate on occasions to use other methods.3. 8. PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of a location elevation is to (a) show the external faces of the building. components and elements. detailed information as to the construction of buildings. or face.5 ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS INTRODUCTION ❖ Assembly drawings provide precise.

Components include things such as skirting and lintels.2 5 g r o o v e R o o fin g D e ta il Fig.6 COMPONENT DRAWINGS INTRODUCTION ❖ A component drawing provides detailed information about the nature and manufacture of a specific item incorporated in a building.doc 23 .g. floors and roofs show the arrangement where two elements meet each other . such as windows and kitchen cupboards.ro o f tile FALL 2 5 th . An example is given below.4 Details at Roof Edge 8.1 :3 c /s s c re e d w / g .i. This is in contrast to an assembly drawing which shows several parts.❖ On some smaller projects it may not be necessary to produce assembly drawings.a s p h a lt c o a t 125 a s p h a lt m a t m in . or a location drawing which provides general information. as well as larger items manufactured off-site.2 5 th .150 2 0 x 2 0 re c e s s 3 8 th .e.c o n c . 2 5 x 2 5 1 :3 c /s c o r n e r fille t 5 0 th . They include the assembly of both structural and non structural elements. 200 125 min. particularly when they are drawn to a scale of 1:50. PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of an assembly drawing is to: ☛ show the construction of individual elements of structure such as foundations. components and materials. 8.m e s h re i n f. walls.1 :3 c /s s c re e d la id in fa lls 100 d ia . ☛ ☛ EXAMPLES OF ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS ❖ Assembly drawings provide information to contractors which enable them to construct buildings on site. ConstDrawing_2000. and between a column and a wall provide a reference as to where more detailed information about a particular part of the construction is provided. as the assembly information can be given on the location drawings. the junction between a wall and a roof.t h e r m a l in s u la tio n b o a rd 2 0 th .

required by the manufacturer and others. and structural timber work.lock blocking 3th. 83dp.D2&D5 Fig. STRUCTURAL DETAILING ❖ The process of preparing working drawings for structural engineering work is generally referred to as structural detailing.PURPOSE ❖ The purpose of a component drawing is to (a) show the nature. and then to detail each element in turn. TYPES OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING WORK ❖ Structural engineers and structural engineering technicians produce drawings for a wide range of structural methods. assembly method and further details of components. which will sometimes vary from architectural drawing techniques previously discussed. 8. ConstDrawing_2000. shape. supervise and integrate the structural engineering work. reinforced concrete using in situ. and (b) provide additional information which cannot be conveniently given on location or assembly drawings. The different needs and priorities of these people influence the method of providing.timber core 4x45dp. beams. including structural steelworks.teak lipping to all edges DOOR D1.stile & rail 45dp. erect. Some of the implications are mentioned below. floor slabs etc. whose job it is to fabricate.doc 24 .plywood facing to both sides 12th.5 Component Drawings of Wooden Doors 8.. The general principle followed is to break down the total structure into individual elements such as columns. precast and prestressed concrete. the information. structural brickwork and blockwork.7 STRUCTURE ENGINEERING DRAWING INTRODUCTION ❖ Structural engineering drawings help those.

❖ ❖ ConstDrawing_2000. The same mark must also be painted on the actual member before it leaves the workshop for dispatch to the site. elevations and sections. Fig. 3 etc. A common system is to mark the horizontal grid lines on the steel framing plans with numbers-1. the figure 1 denotes that the beam is located at grid line 1. General arrangement drawings include steel framing plans.6 is an example of a steelworks floor framing plan. Elevations and sections will show columns and beams as well as additional members such as wind bracing. B. 8. C etc.STRUCTURAL STEELWORKS ❖ The three main groups of drawings for illustrating steelwork structures are general arrangement drawings. This system enables each member to be identified. Steel framing plans indicate the positions and sizes of beams at a specific floor or roof level. The marks for the beams are a combination of the floor reference and the grid line letter and number.doc 25 . and details of individual members. and the letter A denotes that it begins at grid line A. 2. 8. For example in Fig.A. -and the vertical grid lines with letters. ❖ MARK REFERENCES FOR BEAMS AND COLUMNS ❖ It is necessary to identify each steel member by a distinctive mark reference whenever it appears on a drawing. The letter C indicates it is a second floor beam.6 the horizontal beam in the top left hand corner is marked as C-1A. fixing details. together with the positions and sizes of columns. Columns are given a mark related to the grid intersections on the plans. Thus the top left hand column is given the mark of A1 because it is located where grid lines A and 1 intersect.

or to different parts of the structure.1 2 3 4 4000 4000 4000 457x152x67kg UB 457x152x67kg UB (C-A2) 457x152x67kg UB (C-A3) A (C-A1) 406x178x67kg UB Ditto Ditto 5000 Ditto Ditto Ditto B (C-B1) (C-B2) (C-B3) 406x178x67kg UB (C-1B) (C-2B) (C-3B) Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 5000 Ditto Ditto C (C-C1) (C-C2) (C-C3) 406x178x67kg UB (C-1C) (C-2C) (C-3C) Ditto Ditto Ditto Ditto 5000 Ditto Ditto D (C-D1) (C-D2) (C-D3) 406x178x67kg UB Ditto Ditto (C-1D) (C-2D) Ditto (C-3D) 5000 Ditto Ditto E (C-E1) (C-E2) (C-E3) Notes: All columns are 254x254x73kg UC Fig. 8.doc Ditto Ditto (C-4D) (C-4C) (C-4B) (C-4A) (C-1A) (C-2A) (C-3A) 26 .7 is an example of a fixing detail showing the connection between a steel column and a concrete base. a connection between a beam and a column. the connection of one beam to another beam. Examples are the fixing of a column to a foundation. Fig. ConstDrawing_2000.6 General Layout of Structural Steel Framed Building FIXING METHODS ❖ Fixing details provide information on the fixing of members to each other. 8. and the splicing of similar members to each other.

either in the workshop (shop connections) or on the construction site (site connections). Fig. beam serial numbers and 27 ❖ ConstDrawing_2000. 8. 8. 8.v. Fig.6 Eaves beam 229X76 grade 43 Truss shoe Roof leg 305X127X37 UB grade 43 Enlarged detail at eaves of structural steel work Fig.8 is an example of details of connections. universal columns. the positions and sometimes the sizes of all the members. etc. They supply the setting out dimensions. rolled joists.7 Details of Steel Column and Holding Down Bolts The various steel members -universal beams. tube. R . fo u n d a tio n h o ld in g d o w n b o lts g ro u te d afte r fin a l le v e llin g 1 0 0 x 1 0 0 p la te w a s h e rs R e in fo rce m e n t b a r Fig. sections and elevations.3 0 5 x 3 0 5 U n iv e rs a l c o lu m n 150mm concrete encasting shown by broken line fillet weld s te e l le v e llin g w e d g e s grout removable bolt bores of plastic form. tees and angles. p. 8.8 Connection Details of Steel Members REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES ❖ The two main groups of drawings for illustrating reinforced concrete structures are general arrangement drawings. reinforcement drawings. drawn to a small scale and providing an overall view of the work.9 is an example of a small plan of a typical floor showing slab thickness and reinforcement. roof plans. ❖ 2/100X75X10 grade 50 2/100X75X10 grade 50 Use M20 bolt grade 4.are fixed together by welding or bolting.doc . rolled channels. General arrangement drawings are floor plans.C .c.

10). and cannot be misunderstood.sizes. Details of Floor Slab ConstDrawing_2000. N A 1/A-B 50x300 B 1/B-C 450x300 C 1 150 450x300 A/1-2 450x300 B/1-2 150 450x300 C/1-2 2/A-B 450x300 2/B-C 450x300 2 A/2-3 450x300 150 450x300 450x300 3 4000 3500 Slab and beam details on a small-scale floor plan A 21T10-7-200T2 B 21T10-8-200T2 C 21T10-7-200T2 1 21T10-10-200T1 18T10-11-200T1 21T10-1-200B1 21T10-3-200B2 21T10-12-200T1 21T10-1-200B1 A 1500 C/2-3 3/A-B 3/B-C 450x300 4000 A 18T10-4-200B2 18T10-13-200T1 2 21T10-5-200B2 18T10-6-200B2 3 8T10-9-200T2 8T10-2-200B2 8T10-9-200T2 10 3 7 1 8 1 7 11 4 Fig 8. and it is essential that all drawings are easy to read. 8.9 R. A reference grid is provided similar to that previously described for a structural steel building.C. There is no excuse for ambiguity.doc 28 . ❖ Reinforcement drawings of beam are drawn to a larger scale and give detailed information about the reinforcement (Fig.

Details of Beam REINFORCEMENT IDENTIFICATION ❖ Standard abbreviations are used to provide information about the reinforcement. type. with a diameter of 10 mm. centres and location. and an bar mark of 10. which are high yield bars. this means that there are 18 stirrups. Each reinforcing bar on a drawing is given a notation consisting of standard abbreviations.C. 8. This information is provided in the following sequence: number.10 R. which are of high tensile steel. ❖ ☛ ConstDrawing_2000. The meaning of the notations given to the reinforcement (Fig. of diameter 10 mm and bar marked as 9. ☛ 21T10-10-200T1. mark. 8. The bars are spaced 200 mm apart and placed near the top face of the concrete.1 2 3 4T20-6 2T10-7 2T20-8 2T20-4 2T10-5 Links 18T10-10-200 Links 16T10-10-200 4T20-1 4T20-2 3T20-3 4000 3500 1 Beam 3/A-B 2 Beam 3/B-C 3 150 150 150 5 5 6 6 7 7 450 450 9 1 1 11 9 2 222 10 33 3 Section 1-1 Section 2-2 Section 3-3 Fig. ☛ ☛ ☛ ❖ R-mild steel round bars T-high tensile bars T1/B1-reinforcement near the top and bottom face of the concrete respectively.doc 450 29 . size.10).9 and Fig. this means that there are 21 bars. dimensions in mm and mark numbers. Links 18T10-9-200. 8.

it is important that later revisions to the architect's drawings are taken into account on the copy negative. In other cases the plant and equipment will be shown on services drawings in relation to a modular grid. heating. but these are beyond the scope of this book. air conditioning. radiators. which would mean it was a radiator. ventilation.. ductwork. cables and ducts. gas installations. ❖ MAIN GROUPS OF DRAWINGS ❖ The three main groups of drawings for illustrating services work are general layouts locating the arrangement of pipes. but elevations and sections are often required. 8. and was the fifth consecutive radiator on that floor.10 which is a wiring layout for lighting in a bungalow.8. cables etc. it is usual to give them a reference number on drawings such as services layout drawings and location plans. GENERAL LAYOUTS ❖ Copy negatives (transparent copies) of the architect's 1:100 location drawings are often used by the building services engineers and technicians to show the general layout of the pipe work. Typical areas to be covered are boiler rooms. details of plant areas. water supplies and electrical installations for domestic buildings. Drawings are required for all of these services. the services elements should be related to this grid. air handling plant rooms and electrical substations. including sanitary appliances. DETAILS OF SPECIFIC SERVICES ITEMS ConstDrawing_2000. Plans of these plant areas are the commonest form of plant area drawings. such as 1: 50 and 1: 20. valves etc. where this procedure is adopted. fire protection. on the third floor. It is advisable to obtain these copy negatives from the architect at an early stage before too much detail is added. mechanical conveyors and security systems. and details of specific items. trunking. In addition there are schedules for items such as manholes. refuse disposal. In order to identify individual items. electrical installations including lighting. above and below ground drainage.doc 30 . An example is that a radiator might be given a reference of R305. USE OF GRIDS ❖ In projects where a structural grid is used. IDENTIFICATION OF SERVICE COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT ❖ Services drawings provide information about a wide variety of different components and equipment. A simple example of a general layout is shown on Fig.8 SERVICE DRAWINGS TYPES OF BUILDING SERVICE WORK ❖ Building services are generally assumed to include hot and cold water supplies. ❖ PLANT AREA DRAWINGS ❖ Areas where the services equipment is concentrated are normally drawn to a larger scale. In this introduction to construction drawing a few simple examples are given of below ground drainage. However. telecommunications.

doc 31 .9 FREEHAND DRAWING USE OF FREEHAND DRAWINGS ❖ Freehand or sketch drawings are used for a variety of purposes. They may record or explain the appearance and construction of an existing building.❖ As the scales of general layouts and plant room area drawings are comparatively small. 8. RCD) KITCHEN DINNING LIVING BATHROOM BEDROOM 2 BEDROOM 1 Fig. This additional information is given on details of specific services items. additional detailed information on individual items is also required. Often freehand drawings will be used as preliminary constructional details.Electrical Wiring Layout 8. or sketch in outline a designer's ideas for a proposed structure. or to clarify on-site details which have not been made clear by the production drawings issued to the contractor.11 Building Services Drawing . Freehand drawings may also be used as presentation ConstDrawing_2000. MAIN SWITCH (MCB.

Draw horizontal lines from left to right. divide what you are drawing into a number of simple geometrical shapes. shadow projection and rendering. DRAWING TECHNIQUES ❖ In order to produce satisfactory freehand sketches of existing structures the draughtsperson will need to gain experience in the art of observation-sometimes referred to as training the eye. including perspective drawing. Draw in the main geometrical shapes first. in which case you will probably find it easier to draw them from right to left. ❖ 6.doc 32 .drawings. 8. ConstDrawing_2000. but can conveniently be provided in the form of freehand sketch drawings. Then add the detail. The information must be precise and accurate. 5. They will also need to acquire the ability to draw straight and curved lines of an even quality. PRODUCTION INFORMATION SKETCH DRAWINGS ❖ Sometimes architects and other design team members will need to produce immediate information. 1. 3. 7. If the line to be drawn is a long one. This type will need to be of a high standard and will often incorporate advanced drawing techniques. Draw everything first as fight construction lines. 2. you can draw it as a continuous line made up of a series of shorter fines about 50 mm long. Where feasible. and only firm in the lines when you are satisfied that everything is drawn accurately and in proportion. In the case of circles first draw the axes. If what you are drawing is symmetrical. unless you are left handed. Thirdly they will need to gain the ability to draw in proportion. Draw vertical lines from top to bottom. 4. Ensure that lines which are at right angles to each other are drawn as exact right angles. draw in the axes. Some general advice on the matter of freehand sketches is given below. and mark the points on the axes where the circle is meant to cross.

a set of information. 8.11 Freehand Sketch of a Site Plan 9 USING CAD IN THE ARCHITECTURAL/DESIGN OFFICE THE DESIGN PROCESS ❖ The traditional architectural design process consists of the following seven phases: 1.700 EXISTING HEDGE PROPOSED HOUSE 9000 F.that is. Construction 7.700 9. information is entered on the setbacks and notes on planning.can be displayed or set aside . such as all the survey points or site electrical information .850 9. Contract documents and bidding 6. Facilities management ❖ While CAD does not change the phases of architectural design nor the goals of each phase.400 5000 Fig. it definitely changes the users approach and movement within those phases.000 9.drawn design.F.L.300 7000 5500 2000 9. ❖ ConstDrawing_2000. it is easy and efficient to let the drawing warehouse information. Programming (feasibility study) 2.doc 8000 COSSLES 13000 33 .much as you might pick up first one and then another file of specifications elaborated in a hand .hidden . and because of CAD layering capabilities. As part of this early phase. Preliminary design (schematic design) 3.300 3500 1500 1000 10.500 9. Presentation and approvals 5.9. The information in a “layer” . Design development 4.850 PROPSED TREE 10. 10.

and the mixing of hand drawing with CAD on the same sheet. and with networking workstations (See figure 9. Architects often use CAD perspective geometry as the background for hand-drawn perspectives. resulting in faster and more accurate specifications. ❖ ❖ ❖ DRAWING MANAGEMENT ❖ Drawing management deals with the assignment of layer names. The following is a broad overview of drawing management. which had always carried the risk of losing crucial information. Now you can automatically export information from the CAD drawings into estimation software. they aren’t created from scratch each time. Rendering and animation software absorbs the geometry to realistically render and animate your design. that is.doc 34 . You can save a drawing and then experiment with options for windows and roofs by making several studies and then moving ahead with the design you choose. saving hours of boring. The bidding phase is likewise eased by CAD applications. The drawing data can now serve as the basis for the automatic generation of the specifications. with drawing names. labor-intensive layout work. revision procedures. It easily and quickly provides ample views so that you can pick the best viewpoint location. which property owners then use as the foundation for their facilities management program. CAD design studies are therefore easy to make. drawing storage.1). with plotting. During construction. repetitive. If you later decide to reopen the solution. entered information is always available and is never lost. ConstDrawing_2000.❖ With CAD. the architects’ and engineers’ drawings are used as the basis for “as built” drawings. you can call up the saved original version and begin again from that point. CAD drawings are additive.

Zip Disk CD Rom etc. Workgroups & Domains Server Plotter Ethermet Transfer Data with Floppy Disk. Stand Alone Computer Computer Computer Computer Fig. Workstation Workstation Workstation Plotter Computer Transfer Data with Floppy Disk.1 Computer Aided Drafting Systems (Network linked externally and internally) ConstDrawing_2000. Zip Disk CD Rom etc.doc 35 .Printer Linking to Other Consultants. 9.

HARDWARE ❖ PC hardware has advanced in processing speed several times over.. but you only have eight alphanumeric spaces for the name. and so on. walls. areas. As the process moves along. doors.LAYER NAMES ❖ If you are ever at a meeting of CAD experts and energy is dragging. architectural and engineering drawings. The more information that may be stored and accessed easily. so additions become the rule. notes. created from the 3D geometry of the drawing. PC becomes adequate for commercial CAD purpose. lymph nodes. The master database will include all the information about the project. The computer is a warehouse for information. not the exception. information will be added and modified but will continue to be found in a consistent location.or layer . At first.such as musculature. You’ll be able to work on drawings of multiple scales side by side on one sheet. Both the RAM and hard-disk storage have been increased. specifications. and estimates. Microstation etc. and bones. manufacturers’ data. so it must be though out carefully or you will quickly create a frustrating mess. ❖ ConstDrawing_2000. analysis results. The software will give you multiple views on the screen. Element Wall Door Window Plumbing fixture Electrical receptacle ASG Layer Name ARWALL ARDOOR ARWINDOW MPFIXTURE EEPOWER AIA Layer Name A_WALL A_DOOR A_GLAZ_FRAM P_FIXT E_POWER_WALL DRAWING NAMES ❖ The name you give a drawing is a crucial tool for software users. With the rapid development of processing speed. Mass. and all the statistics contained within the drawings. skin. just as surgical texts offer many different drawings of the human body. fixtures. This feature is powerful because it lets you dissect the drawing at any time to create background drawings. to each be placed on unique “layers”. code information. it facilitates manipulation and storage of complicated graphic data. either graphically or alphanumerically. CAD software will continue to fall into two main categories: the graphic engine software AutoCAD. Changes you make to one drawing in a set will be reflected throughout the entire set of drawings. including the program. such as lines. note that CAD allows drawing elements. To understand why. most CAD users name their drawings to reflect the actual drawing.doc 36 . The master database will be interactive so that as you change one bit of information. just mention “layer names” and you will instantly provoke a lively discussion. volume. trees. The next generations of graphic engine software will continue to get faster and faster. and other geometric information will be instantly available. SOFTWARE ❖ The advances on software will be even more remarkable than the advances in hardware. each showing the elaboration of a full system . the more useful the computing tool.

doc 37 .ConstDrawing_2000.

3. (1991). Addison-Wesley Elsheikh Ahmed (1995). 1192 : Part 1. Arnold.V.. CAD and the Practice of Architecture. (1983). ConstDrawing_2000.doc 38 . Drafting Technology.: J. (1993). Civil Engineering Drawing London .4. (1970) Engineering Drawing with Worked Example London : Hutchinson. An Introduction to Drawing for Civil Engineers. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Dennis Neeley (1996). McGraw-Hill Jude D. Industrial Centre. (1983). N.. & Parker M. Drawing and Model making.References : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B. Computer-Aided Design using MicroStation 95. Reading Architectural Working Drawing . A. London : E. New York. An Introduction to Construction Drawing.2.5 Construction Drawing Practice Construction Unit (1998).Y. Whitney Library of Design Thompson Arthur. Prentice Hall Pickup F. New York : Granada Muller Edward J (1996). Wiley Earle James H.S. Ratensky A.

Bearing Orthographic Projection & Sectioning .General Layout Assembly Drawing .Two points Perspective Drawing .Fire Damper Typical Drainage Schematic Diagram Schematic Plumbing Diagram . Circle and Dimensioning Orthographic Projection .10.Warehouse Isometric Drawing .Mechanical part Orthographic Projection .One point Perspective Drawing .Hut Perspective Drawing .doc 39 .Mechanical part Isometric & Orthographic Drawing .Isometric Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5a Exercise 5b Exercise 6a Exercise 6b Exercise 7 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Exercise 10 Exercise 11 Exercise 12 ConstDrawing_2000.Two points Building Floor Plan .One point Perspective Drawing . EXERCISES Lines.

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