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Presenter: Jolanta Soltis
• • • • What is Unix/Linux? History of Linux Features Supported Under Linux The future of Linux
• In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC • Apple MAC was better, but expensive • UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications • People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC • Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected • No modification is possible without paying high license fees
Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs
GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix” Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991. But still, an OS was yet to be developed
0. a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki. Linus Torvalds. No intention for commercial use In Sept 1991.1 .Beginning of Linux – – – A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix. a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC Minix is for class teaching only. developed the preliminary kernel of Linux. known as Linux version 0.
. You would not get a high grade for such a design :-)“ (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) –Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp. Then hundreds of thousands –It was licensed under GNU General Public License.Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum " I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy. Be thankful you are not my student. Then thousands. study and to change.
They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format – Red Hat.… Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. Slackware. etc .Linux Today – – – Linux has been used for many computing platforms – PC. Supercomputer. PDA.
IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen. . And the numbers multiplied every year. Linus made the source code open to public. At the end of 1992 there were about a hundred Linux developers. add your machine at Linux Counter Growing and growing… In order to encourage wide dissemination of his OS.If you run Linux. The effects of the dot-com bust. Next year there were 1000. Linux: No of Users Source: The Linux Counter Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide.
138712 users registered 155679 machines registered .
" To qualify as free software by FSF standards. you must be able to: – Run the program for any purpose you want to. – View the program's source code. . – Improve the program and release those improvements so that others can use them. is a "matter of liberty. – Study the program's source code and modify it if you need to. as defined by the FSF (Free Software Foundation). rather than be restricted in what you can use it for. not price.free software • Free software. – Share the program with others.Linux .
The commercial. Popular for use on servers. Debian is not what many would consider a distribution for beginners. This distribution is primarily available for pay because it contains many commercial programs. .Red Hat Linux : One of the original Linux distribution. as it's not designed with ease of use in mind. (NJIT) Free version: Fedora Project. Originally based off of Red Hat Linux. which is aimed at big companies using Linux servers and desktops in a big way. However. SuSE Linux : SuSE was recently purchased by Novell. Gentoo Linux : Gentoo is a specialty distribution meant for programmers. Debian GNU/Linux : A free software distribution. nonfree version is Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Mandrake Linux : Mandrake is perhaps strongest on the desktop. although there's a stripped-down free version that you can download.
org/groups/ .linux.Linux groups • http://www.
Linux Distributions • http://www.linux.redhat.html • http://fedora.org/dist/list.com/ .
org/mirrors/fedora/linux/core/5/i386//iso/ .Fedora Core • Fedora Core is a free operating system • http://ftp.ale.
What you're looking at in a default Fedora installation is a Red Hat-customized version of GNOME. called Bluecurve GNOME. .Other: •Debian •Mandrake •SuSE The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux world: GNOME and KDE.
org Writer Email: XimianEvolution A Web browser: Mozilla Presentation program : OpenOffice.Word processor : OpenOffice.org Impress .
From top to bottom. the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel .Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas.
Volumes that are mounted may be external USB drives (flash. or other media devices such as a portable music player. mounted volumes.The Menu Panel • Applications . CD. Places .The System menu contains a variety of items. • • . and a Search function.The Applications menu contains a variety of icons that start software applications. recent documents. It is similar to the Microsoft Windows Start menu. etc. System .The Places menu contains a customizable list of directories. hard disk.). directories shared across a network.
. the root password must be entered to continue. that is. when those applications are started.System menu • • • • • • Log Out About Help Lock Screen Preferences System Settings: configuration tools that are for administrative purposes and usually require root access.
. and select Add this launcher to panel.org Calc is a spreadsheet tool Note: There is another way to add an application launcher to the menu panel if the application is already listed in the Applications menu. right-click on the application.• • • • Mozilla Firefox web browser Evolution mail client and personal information manager OpenOffice.org Impress is for creating and giving presentations • OpenOffice. Navigate to the application in the Applications menu.org Writer is a word processing program OpenOffice.
clicking on Change Desktop Background lets you choose a different image or photograph to display on the desktop. For example. Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows. These are also listed in the Places menu. hold down the [Shift] key when deleting the file. Home . movies. To permanently delete a file and bypass the file's move to Trash. Right-clicking on the desktop presents a menu of actions related to the desktop area. such as music. and documents.This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default. . Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows. It is possible to choose not to have any desktop background. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash.Deleted files are moved to Trash. and by default users cannot access each others' home directories.This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer. Trash . There is a different home directory for each user.The Desktop Area • • • Computer .
spreadsheet.Office Software word processor. presentation and database application .
MS Outlook •Ximian Evolution •KMail .
Web Browser: Firefox .
OOo Draw: Drawing .
MSN. and many other popular IM networks • gFTP: Useful for grabbing files through FTP (File Transfer Protocol) . ICQ. which is used to play digital sound files • CD Player: The default CD player • Sound Juicer CD Ripper: Burn your own CDs • Messaging Client: GAIM supports AIM.Other software installed • Audio Player: The XMMS (X Multimedia System).
Terminal Window 4 MONITORS .
All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments. Linux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using command to show the content of current directory with option -al .
Linux Shell ls whoami pwd Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell – Bash. Tcsh. Zsh Kernel Bourne Again shell (Bash). Z shell (Zsh) Different shell has similar but different functionality Bash is the default for Linux Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell . TC shell (Tcsh).
File management .
.Directory Tree (root) When you log on the the Linux OS using your username you are automatically located in your home directory.
Libraries are just bunches of programming code that the programs on your system use to get things done. /dev : All device drivers. Device drivers are the files that your Linux system uses to talk to your hardware. So. and all of your Linux computer's communications with the monitor go through that file.The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • • • /bin : Important Linux commands available to the average user. named for her login account. the user who logs in with linda has the directory /home/linda. Fedora does. /lib : System libraries. /home : Every user except root gets her own folder in here. where all of her personal files are kept. • • • . /boot : The files necessary for the system to boot. there's a file in the /dev directory for your particular make and model of monitor. /etc : System configuration files. For example. Not all Linux distributions use this one.
The most important subdirectories inside the root directory are: • /mnt : Mount points. and so on). • • • • • . Don't put anything in here that you want to keep. /sbin : Essential commands that are only for the system administrator. /tmp : Temporary files and storage space. many distributions (including Fedora) come. which is where your CDROM drive's contents are made accessible. /usr : Programs and data that can be shared across many systems and don't need to be changed. data on its way to the printer. /var : Data that changes constantly (log files that contain information about what's happening on your system. with the directory /mnt/cdrom. you typically use a special name under /mnt. /root : The root user's home directory. When you temporarily load the contents of a CD-ROM or USB drive. by default. For example. Most Linux distributions (including Fedora) are set up to delete any file that's been in this directory longer than three days.
Home directory • You can see what your home directory is called by entering • pwd (print current working directory) .
display the oldest ones first . .Commands: / (root directory) Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system.. /root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir . Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time.move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory.
g.cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e. cat abc.g.txt show the content of abc.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a . man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e. (dot) .
The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS Names in blue are directories. indicated by a letter d at the beginning of the line .
Text editors 1. 2. Emacs VI editor .
VI Editor • Opens from terminal window .
!= Linux is Not Windows Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows. Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock Problem #5: The myth of "user-friendly" .
6.NJIT and Linux • RedHat Enterprise Linux 2.9-55 • Open Office 2.0 .3.
. SSH® Secure Shell™ also contains an FTP client. • You can download Tera Term Pro from the Public Download Section or you can run Windows' telnet client by typing "telnet afsx. • You can download SSH® Secure Shell™ from the NJIT’s Public Download Section." command in the Start Menu. • Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol that lets a user log in remotely to other computers on the Internet.edu" from the "Run.SSH...njit. Telnet • SSH (Secure Shell) is a terminal emulation protocol that allows a user to connect to a remote host via an encrypted and secure link. it has a command line interface.
SSH Secure Shell • Included License key must be imported. . Select "Import License File. – – – – Start SSH client. Click Help.dat" included in zip file." Browse to the location of the "license.
2 – X-Win32 .edu/software) • Connect: Start – All Programs – X-Win32 8.X-Win32 • You can log in to the Linux computers by using X-Win • Install X-Win on your computer (http://ist.njit.
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