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# ∫ -π

m

m K Kδ

FORCED VIBRATIONS INTRODUCTION x When a mechanical system undergoes free vibrations, an initial force (causing some displacement) is impressed upon the system, and the system is allowed to vibrate under the mg influence of inherent elastic properties. The system however, comes to rest, depending upon the amount of damping in the system. In engineering situations, there are instances where in an external energy source causes vibrations continuously acting on the system. Then the system is said to undergo forced vibrations, as it vibrates due to the influence of external energy source. The external energy source may be an externally impressed force or displacement excitation impressed upon the system. The excitation may be periodic, impulsive or random in nature. Periodic excitations may be harmonic or non harmonic but periodic. The amplitude of vibrations remains almost constant. Machine tools, internal combustion engines, air compressors, etc are few examples that undergo forced vibration. 3.2 FORCED VIBRATIONS OF SINGLE DOF SYSTEMS UNDER HARMONIC EXCITATION Consider a spring mass damper system as shown in Figure 3.1 excited by a sinusoidal forcing function F=Fo Sin t

k

C m F = F0 Sin ωt

kx F

∙ Cx

x

F Fo

Figure 3.1

Let the force acts vertically upwards as shown in FBD. Then the Governing Differential Equation (GDE) can be written as m88 = - Kx 8 - Cx 8 +F x

m 88 + C x 8 + Kx = F --------------- (3.1) x is a linear non homogeneous II order differential equation whose solution is in two parts. 1. Complementary Function or Transient Response Consider the homogenous differential equation, m +x C + Kx 8 = 0 which is incidentally the GDE of a single DOF spring mass damper88 x system. It has been shown in earlier discussions that for different conditions of damping, the response decays with time. Thus the response is transient in nature and therefore termed as transient response. For an under damped ω tsystem the complementary function or transient response.

xc = X1 ēζ

xc = X1 ēζn

ω t

n

Sin (ωdt + φ)

(A Sin ωdt + B Cos ωdt)------------ (3.2)

2. Particular Integral or Steady State Response This response neither builds up nor decays with time. It is steady state harmonic oscillation having frequency equal to that of excitation. It can be determined as follows. Consider non-homogenous differential equation m 88 + Cx 8 + Kx 8 = Fo Sin ωt x ----------- (3.3)

The particular integral or steady state response is a steady state oscillation of the same frequency ω as that of external excitation and the displacement vector lags the force vector by some angle. Let x = X Sin (ωt - φ) be the trial solution X: Amplitude of oscillation φ: Phase of the displacement with respect to the exciting force (angle by which the displacement vector lags the force vector). ∴Velocity = x 8 8 x = ωX. Cos (ωt - φ) = ωX Sin [90 + (ωt - φ)] Acceleration 88 = - ω2 X. Sin (ωt - φ), substitute these values in GDE, (equation 3.1) x We get -m ω2 X Sin (ωt - φ) + Cω Sin [90 + (ωt - φ)] + KX Sin (ωt - φ) = Fo Sin ωt 2 m ω X Sin (ωt - φ) - Cω Sin [90 + (ωt - φ)] - KX Sin (ωt - φ) + Fo Sin ωt = 0 ---------- (3.4)

The four terms in the above equation represent both in magnitude and direction, the four forces namely: inertia force, damping force, spring force and impressed force, taken in order, acting on the system and their sum is equal to zero. Thus they satisfy the D’Alemberts principle. ΣF = 0. Now, if vector representation as shown in Figure 3.2, is employed to denote these forces the force polygon shown in Figure 3.3 should close. Represent the force vectors and draw the force polygon as given below.

Figure 3.2

A B X

) (ωt - φ )

O Reference axis

Figure 3.3 Impressed force: Fo Sin ωt: acts at an angle ωt from the reference axis. Displacement vector X: Lags the force vector by an angle φ and hence shown at (ωt - φ) from the reference axis.

Spring force: .φ)] Damping force: .φ) or CωX acting in opposite direction to [90 + (ωt .KX Sin (ωt . in figure 3.φ) = at [90 + (ωt .6) If X and φ are expressed in non-dimensional form it enables a concise graphical presentation of results. OA2 = OB2 + BA2 = (CωX)2 + (KX-mω2X)2 Fo2 = X2 (Cω)2 + x2 (K-mω2)2 Fo2 = X2 [(K-mω2)2 + (Cω)2] F0 X= √(K-mω2)2 + (cω)2 = Cωx KX-mω2x = --------. the above equations can be expressed in terms of the following quantities Fo K = Xst . divide the numerator and the denominator by K. Therefore.φ) Vector mω2X acting at (ωt .5) Cω K-mω2 and tan φ = OB BA tan φ = ∴φ = tan-1 Cω K-mω2 Cω K-mω2 -------.CωX [Sin (90 + (ωt .Zero frequency deflection ∴Deflection mg of spring mass system under the steady force Fo should not be mistaken as Δst = K .φ): which means that the vector – KX acting at (ωt .3 Consider the triangle OAB.φ) or KX acting in opposite direction to (ωt .φ) From the force polygon. F0 /K ∴X = √(1mω2 ) +( K 2 cω )2 Kk tan φ = Cω /K 2 mω) (1K Further.(3.φ)] .CωX acting at 90 + (ωt .(3.φ)] 2 Inertia force: mω X Sin (ωt .

ω)2 ω ωn2 ωn 2 ω = r = frequency ratio ωn Xst X= --------. tanφ = 1-r2 -------.375 ζ = 0.. Frequency Response Curves: ζ = 0.707 ζ=1 ζ=2 Frequency Ratio r = (ω/ωn) .7) √ (1 . X M=Xst : It is the term by which Xst is to be multiplied to get the amplitude.(3. 2ζ ωn tanφ = 2 n 2 ω = ( 1 -ω ω ) 2ζr 1-r2 2ζr .8) Thus the steady state response xp = X Sin (ωt .5. the transient vibrations die out very soon and hence the system vibrates with steady response amplitudes. r)2 X whereXst is called magnification factor.φ). the transient response dies out.9) As mentioned above. xc 0 i.e. in figure 3. amplification factor.φ) (3. ζ=0 ζ =--------0 ∴x = X Sin (ωt . in which X and φ are as given above.25 Magnification Factor vs Frequency Ratio for Different amounts of Damping Magn ificati on Facto rM= X/Xst ζ = 0.4 and 3. or amplitude ratio. The behaviour of the system can be best understood by plotting frequency response curves as given below.r2)2 +( 2 ζ. Total solution x = xc + xp For under damped conditions: as t ∞..(3. Complete solution consists only steady state response only.m = 1 ωn2 K C 2ζ K = Kωn Thus X √(1 = Xst 2 ) + (2 ζ.. 5 ζ = 0.

4 Phase lag vs frequency ratio for different amounts of damping.5 3.5 1.5 .as r ∞. 2) Any amount of damping (ζ >0) reduces the magnification factor (M) for all values of forcing frequency. 5) The amplitude of the forced vibrations becomes smaller with increasing value of forced frequency.Figure 3.0 ζ=0 P has e An gle. 1) For damped system (ζ =0).0 1. φ. 6) For 0< ζ < 1/ √2 (0 < ζ <0. ζ = 0.e M 0.0 ζ = 2. i.5 ζ = 0. the maximum value of M occurs when r=√(1-2ζ 2) or ω= ωn√(1-2ζ 2). 0.25 ζ = 0.0 2.707). 3) For any specified value of r.707 ζ = 1. Figure 3.0 Frequency Ratio r = (ω/ωn) The following characteristics of the magnification factor (M) can be observed. which is lower than the Undamped natural frequency ωn and the damped natural frequency ωd = ωn√(1-2 ζ 2). M as r 1. M =1.5 2. a higher value of damping reduces the value of M 4) When the force is constant (r =0).

7) The maximum value of X (when r=√ (1 - 2 ζ 2) is given by (X/Xst)= 1/[2 ζ√ (1-ζ2)] and the value of X at ω= ωn is given by (X/Xst ) = 1/2 ζ 8) For ζ >1/√2, the graphs of M decreases with increasing values of r.

The following characteristics of the phase angle φ can be observed from the graph

1) For undamped system the phase angle is 00 for 0<r<1, and 1800 for r>1. This implies that the excitation and response are in phase for 0<r<1 and out of phase for r>1 when ζ =0. 2) For ζ >0 and 0<r<1 the phase angle is given by 0 0<φ<900, implying that the response lags excitation. 3) For ζ >0 and r>1, the phase angle is given by 90 0<φ< 1800, implying that the response leads excitation. 4) For ζ >0 and r=1, the phase angle is φ=900 implying that the phase difference between the excitation and response is 900. 5) For ζ >0 and large values of r, the phase angle φ ω approaches 1800 implying that the response and excitation are out of phase. The damping factor ζ has a large influence on amplitude and phase angle in the region where r = 1(resonance).The phenomenon represented be frequency response curve can be further better understood by means of vector diagram as follows. Consider three different cases as (1) ω/ ωn << 1 (2) ω/ ωn = 1 (3) ω/ ωn >> 1 Case (1): ω/ ωn << 1 for which ω should be very small At very low frequencies, when ω is very small, the inertia for m ω 2x and the damping force Cωx are very small.

Fo Kx CωX mω2X φ

φ

x

(ωt-φ)

Figure 3.6

This results in small values of φ as shown in fig .The impressed force F0 is almost equal and opposite to spring force KX. Thus for very low frequencies, the phase angle tends to zero and the impressed force wholly balance the spring force Case (2): when ω/ ωn = 1

Kx

Fo

x

CωX

mω2X

Figure 3.7

With increased value of ω, the damping force Cωx and inertia force m ω2 x increase. The phase angle also increases. If ω is increased to such an extent that phase angle φ=900, the force polygon becomes a rectangle as shown. The spring force and inertia vectors become equal and opposite. KX = m ω2 x ω = √(K/m) = ωn ω = ωn ω / ωn =1 This is the response condition of the system during which the forcing frequency is equal to natural frequency of the system. Also the impressed force is completely balanced by the damping force. CωX= F0 X= F0 /Cω = F0/K/ Cω/K X=Xst / 2 ζ (ω/ ωn) X=Xst / 2 ζ (ω/ ωn) = 1 Xr /Xst = 1/2 ζ Xr = Amplitude at resonance

Case (3): when ω / ωn >>1

x

Fo

KX CωX

mω2X

Figure 3.8

At very large values of ω >φ approaches 1800, the inertia force becomes very large, where as the spring force and damping force vectors becomes negligibly small. The improved force is wholly utilized in balancing the inertia force. φ 1800 i.e., Fo = m ω2x X = F o / m ω2 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES: 3.1) A machine part of mass 2.5 Kgs vibrates in a viscous medium. A harmonic exciting force of 30 N acts on the part and causes resonant amplitude of 14mm with a period of 0.22sec. Find the damping coefficient. If the frequency of the exciting force is changed to 4Hz, determine the increase in the amplitude of forced vibration upon removal of the damper. Data: m = 2.5Kg, F0 = 30N, X = 14mm, τ = 0.225sec Part 1: At Resonance ωn = forcing frequency = 2π/ τ = 28.56 rad/sec At resonance: ω = ωn = 28.56 rad/sec ωn = √(K/m) = 28.56 rad/sec K = 2039 N/m Amplitude at resonance Fo/K X= √ [1 - r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2 As ω/ ωn = 1, X = (F0/K)/2ζ = 0.014 ... ζ = 0.526

Damping coefficient = C = Cc ζ = 2m ωn ζ = 2*2.5*28.56*0.526 = 75.04 N/m/s C = 0.07504 Ns/m

ω = ωn = √(g/ Δ) = 28. f = 6Hz. Determine the amplitude of ultimate motion.13 rad/sec Frequency ωn = 28.01544m Amplitude of vibration without damper Xb = (30/2039)/(0.0652 – 0.2) A body having a mass of 15 kgs.260 N/m X = 0. . If when.98mm.Part (2): When f = 4 Hz Forcing ω = 2π*fn = 25. a disturbing force having a maximum value of 100N and vibrating at 6Hz is made to act on the body. What viscous damping force is needed to make the motion a periodic at a speed of 1mm/sec.857 N is required at a rate of 1mm/s to make the motion a periodic.857 N/mm/s Thus a force of 0.00298m = 2.2258) = 0. K = 12.55Hz (b) The motion becomes aperiodic.7mm 3. unchanged Amplitude of vibration with damper Xa = Fo/K √ [1 . f0 = 100 N fn = (1/2π)(√(K/m) .0652m Increase in Amplitude = 0. Δst = 12mm.r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2 = 0. damped to this extent.0155 = 0.0497m Amplitude = 49. Determine the frequency of free vibrations.. F0 = 100 N..56 rad/sec. is suspended from a spring which deflects 12mm due to the weight of the mass. when the damped frequency is zero or when it is critically damped (ζ = 1).7 rad/sec. (c) X= F0 √(K-mω2)2 + (cω)2 ω = 2πf = 2π*6 = 37.59 = 857 N/m/s = 0. (a) fn = (1/2π)√(g/ Δst) = 4. Solution: Data: m = 15Kg.59 rad/sec C = Cc = 2m ωn = 2*15*28.

(3. No maximum or peak will1occur when the expression within the radical sign becomes negative i.e.3) A machine of mass 25 kgs. is placed on an elastic foundation.r2) 2ζ2 = 1-r2 r2 = 1 -2ζ2 r = √1 -2 ζ2 (ω/ ωn) peak = √1 -2 ζ2 ω ωn peak = √1 -2 ζ2 ( ( ) ) ωp ωn peak = √1 -2 ζ2 ---------.r2) + 4ζ2r = 0 42ζ2r = 0 = 2(1 .r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2) = 0 2(1 . Hence for X to be maximum √ [1 – r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2 should be minimum.e.(3..r ] + [2ζr] i. Where ωp refers to the forcing frequency corresponding to the peak amplitude.10) ωp = frequency at which peak amplitude occurs. X Xst Xst 2 2 2 M= ∴ X = √ [1 .ζ)] --------.Condition for peak amplitude of vibration (Expression for peak amplitude) The frequency at which the maximum amplitude occurs can be obtained as follows. A sinusoidal force of magnitude 25N is applied to the machine. A frequency sweep reveals that the maximum .707..11) 3. the amplitude depends only on (ω/ ωn).r2) 2 (-2r) + 4ζ2r = 0 2(1 . ( ωp ωn ) = √1 -2 ζ 2 and peak amplitude is given by (X/Xst)max = 1/[2 ζ(√1. for ζ > or √2 for ζ > 0. ∴ dx dx d(ω/ ωn) ∴ d(r) ([1 . for a system acted upon by a known harmonic force.

22sec For a linear system.6 rad/s Condition for maximum amplitude to occur: r = √1 -2 ζ2 = ω/ωn ..3mm occurs when the period of response is 0.. when ω = 28. X/Xst = 1 √ [1 .013* ωn2/25 = 1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2 ) Now substitute for ωn2 from eq.r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2 Xmax/Xst = 1 √ [1 – (1 -2 ζ2 )] 2 + [4ζ2(1 -2 ζ2 )] = 1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2 ) Xmax/(F0/K) = 1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2 ) Xmaxmωn2/F0 = 1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2 ) 25*0. Solution: Data: F0 = 25N.6/(√1 -2 ζ2 ) --------------(1) also we have. m = 25 Kgs. Excitation frequency = ω = 2πf = 2π/ τ = 28. ωn = ω /(√1 -2 ζ2 ) = 28.. Xmax = 1. for Xmax = r =√1 -2 ζ2 . .3mm. τ = 0.22sec.6 rad/sec thus Xmax = occurs.. the frequency of response is same as frequency of excitation.steady state amplitude of 1. Determine the equivalent stiffness and damping ratio of the foundation.(1).

0.013*28.6/(√1 -2 ζ2) = 1.0633/(√1 -2 ζ2) = Squaring and rearranging,

1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2) 1 2 ζ √ (1 -ζ2)

ζ4 - ζ2 +0.117 = 0 Z2 – Z + 0.117 = 0 where ζ2 = Z. Solving the quadratic equation ζ = 0.368, 0.93 The larger value of ζ is to be discarded because the amplitude would be maximum only for ζ < 0.707 ... take ζ = 0.368 ... natural frequency ωn = ω √ (1 – 2(0.368)2 ) ωn = 33.5 rad/sec stiffness of the foundation, K = mωn2 = 25(33.5)2 = 28.05*103 N/m 3.4) A weight attached to a spring of stiffness 525 N/m has a viscous damping device. When the weight is displaced and released, without damper the period of vibration is found to be 1.8secs, and the ratio of consecutive amplitudes is 4.2 to 1.0. Determine the amplitude and phase when the force F=2Cos3t acts on the system. Solution: Data: K = 525 N/m; τ = 1.8secs: x1 = 4.2; x2 = 1.0; F = F0sinωt = 2cos3t ... F0 = 2N, ω = 3 rad/sec X= Fo/K √ [1 - r2] 2 + [2ζr] 2 ωn = 2π/ τ = 3.49rad/sec δ = ln(4.2/1.0) = 1.435 ζ= δ = 0.22 2 2 √ (4π + δ ) r = ω/ωn = 2/3.49 = 0.573 r2 = 0.328 X= X = 5.3mm 2/525 √ [1 – 0.328] 2 + [4*0.484*0.328]

φ = tan-1(2ζr) (1-r2) φ = tan-1(2*0.22*0.573) (1-0.328) φ = tan-1(0.375) φ = 20.560 3.5) The damped natural frequency of a system as obtained from a free vibration test is 9.8 cps. During a forced vibration test with a harmonic excitation on the same system, the frequency of vibration corresponding to peak amplitude was found to be 9.6 cps. Determine the damping factor for the system and natural frequency. ωd = 9.8 cps, ωp = 9.6 cps. (ωp / ωn) = √1 -2ζ2 ωn = ωd/√1 -2ζ2 ∴ ωp√1 -2ζ2 /ωd = √1 -2ζ2 Solving for ζ: ζ = 0.196 ωn = ωd/ √1 -2ζ2 = 10 cps. 3.6) A reciprocating pump of mass 300 Kgs is mounted at the middle of a steel plate of thickness 12 mm and width 500 mm and length 2.5 m damped along two edges as shown. During the operation of the pump, the plate is subjected to a harmonic excitation of F(t) = 50 cos 60 t N. Determine the amplitude of vibration of the plate.

.

12

m = 300 Kgs F0 = 50 N ω = 60 K = 192EI/l3 = 176.94*103 N/m ζ=0 X = F0 /(K-m ω2)2 X = 6.13*10-8mm

2.5 m

500

**Vibrations Due to Reciprocating and Rotating Masses
**

Unbalance in rotating machine is one of the common causes of vibration. The centrifugal force generated (meω2) due to the rotation of the body is proportional to the square of the frequency of rotation. This CF varies with speed of rotation and is different from the

harmonic excitation discussed in previous articles in which the maximum force is independent of frequency.

ω ω

Fig. 3.9 Model of Reciprocating Machine Let:

Fig. 3.10 Model of Rotating Machine

m: mass of unbalanced mass. M: Total mass including unbalanced mass. e = eccentricity of unbalanced mass. = crank radius of reciprocating machine = stroke / 2. The force due to the unbalanced mass is as shown in the FBD. The GDE 2 8 + Kx = meω Sin ωt ∴m x 8 + Cx = F0 Sin ωt where F0 = meω2 Let the steady state response be x = X. Sin (ωt - φ) from the previous discussion we have X Xst = 1 √[1-mr ] + [2 ζ r]2

2 2

where Xst = F0 / K, r = ω/ωn here F0 = meω2. ∴X = X= meω2 /K √[1-mr2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 M K 2 2 √[1-mr ] + [2 ζ r]2

meω2 M

dependent on ζ if ζ = 0. Case (iii) when ω >>>ω n.0 r = ω/ ωn Figure 3. effect of damping is negligible) At low speed meω2 is zero and hence the curve starts from zero. It increases with increase in (ω/ωn) until the condition of resonance is achieved. it is a case of resonance.15 ζ = 0. say r ≈ 0 MX/me = 0 (independent of ζ. Case (i) when ω <<<ω n.5 ζ = 1.11 However. At resonance MX/me = 1/2 ζ and thus the . ζ=0 ζ = 0. r>>1.(3. MX/me = ∞. MX/me = 1 (independent of ζ.12) -------.25 ζ = 0.13) The variation of MX/me with (r = ω/ωn) for different values of ζ is shown in figure 3.MX ω2 M/K = = me √[1-mr2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 MX me and φ = tan-1 r2 √[1-mr2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 2ζr 1-r2 ω2 * 1 ω2 2 2 2 2 (K/M) √[1-mr ] +ω [2 n ζ r] --------. r ≈ ∞. the variation of φ and r remains as earlier.11 The following observations can be made.1 M X/ me ζ = 0. r = 1 ∴MX/me = 1/2 ζ. effect of damping is negligible) Case (ii) when ω = ω n .(3.

2*2. Assuming the motion of the piston to be harmonic.04 m ω = 2π (3000) / 60 = 314 rad/sec. The slider of mass 2 Kgs within the machine has a reciprocating motion with a stroke of 0. The speed is 3000 rpm. K = 11. ω/ωn = r = 314 /125 = 2.51 75 (X)/2(0. m = 2 Kgs. ωn = √K/m = √11.amplitude X is limited.76*105 N/m.51)2 X = 0. For vibrations due to rotating unbalance Amplitude of vibration MX r2 = me √[1.2.00125 m = 1.51)2 / √(1-2. 1) A reciprocating machine of mass 75 Kgs is mounted on springs of stiffness 11.08/2 = 0.76*105 N/m and a damper of damping factor 0. Amplitude of vibration of the machine.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 e = stroke/2 = 0. When ω/ωn is very large MX/me approaches unity.08 m.76*10. Solution: M = 75 Kgs.04) = (2. by the damping present in the system. Numerical Examples Unbalanced Rotating and Reciprocating Masses and Force Transmissibility.5 /75 = 125 rad/sec.25 mm .52)2 + (2*0. determine 1.

Hence the total force transmitted to the foundation is the vector sum of KX and CωX as shown in the Figure. If the transmission of vibrations to the foundations is not avoided the adjoining machines also set to vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted to the foundation upon which the machines are installed.(a) and --. For a spring mass damper system under harmonic excitation X= Xst √[1.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 ζr ( 21-r ) 2 --.Vibration Isolation and Transmissibility In machines vibrations are caused due to unbalanced masses.(b) φ = tan-1 The forces are transmitted to the foundation or structure through the springs and dampers provided in the system. Impressed force m Spring force (KX) Ft = Force transmitted Damping force (CωX) Foundation = √(KX)2 + (CωX)2 = √(KX)2 + (CωX)2. Thus the force transmitted to the foundation are the spring force KX and the damping force cωx. To minimize the forces transmitted to the foundation machines are usually mounted on springs or dampers or some other vibration isolation material. Vibration isolation is measured in terms of the motion or force transmitted to the foundation. Force Transmissibility or Transmissibility Ratio In the case of forced vibrations. (KX)2 / (KX)2 = (KX) √1 + (Cω/K)2 . it is a measure of the effectiveness of a isolating material. The lesser the force or motion transmitted the greater the vibration isolation. it is defined as the rating force transmitted to that impressed upon the system.

Substituting for X from (a) F0 Ft = K. K √1(Cω/K)2 √[1- r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2

=

F0 √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 √[1- r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2

Ft √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 = F0 √[1- r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2

= Transmissibility Ratio (TR)

A plot of transmissibility ratio ω/ωn is shown in figure given below.

ζ=0

Ft/F

ζ = 0.2 ζ = 0.5 ζ = 0.6 ζ = 0.2

0

ζ = 0.6

ζ=0

Frequency Ratio r = (ω/ωn)

The following observations can be made. Case (i) when ω/ωn = 0, r = 0, TR = 1, (independent of ζ ) (ii) ω = ωn, r = 1, resonance. √ 1+ 4 ζ 2 TR = , dependent on ζ 2ζ If ζ = 0, TR = ∞ Case (iii) when ω/ωn = √2, Ft/F0 = 1, independent of ζ Case (iv) when ω/ωn >>> , r Ft / F0 = TR = 0 Discussions: When ω/ωn = 0, i.e., the force is steadily applied, TR = 1, irrespective of the amount of damping produced in the systems. When ω/ωn = 1, it is condition of resonance. The force transmitted is infinity. If damping is used the magnitude of transmitted force is ∞

reduced. When ω/ωn < √2 the transmitted is always greater then the impressed force. When ω /ωn = √2, for all the values of damping the force transmitted is equal to impressed force. When ω/ωn > √2, the transmitted force is always less than the impressed force. it also implies that TR decreases with decreasing values of ζ. Thus, an undamped spring is superior to a damped spring in reducing force transmissibility. But certain amount of damping is necessary for ω to pass through the resonance condition. As seen from the above order to isolate vibrations due to external force, ω/ωn should be very large, i.e., >√2. For a given value of ω/ωn should be very small. The static deflection of the spring should be as high as possible. These conditions will be satisfied by materials like steel springs, rubber, cork, felt etc., which are generally used as vibration isolators. Numerical Examples on Unbalanced Rotating and Reciprocating Masses and Force Transmissibility. 1. A reciprocating machine of mass 75 Kgs is mounted on springs of stiffness 11.76*10 5 N/m and a damper of damping factor 0.2. The slider of mass 2 Kgs within the machine has a reciprocating motion with a stroke of 0.08 m. The speed is 3000 rpm. Assuming the motion of the piston to be harmonic. 2. Amplitude of vibration of the machine. 3. Transmissibility ratio. 4. Force transmitted to the foundation. 5. Is vibration isolation achieved? If so how. Solution: M = 75 Kgs: m = 2 Kgs, K = 11.76*105 N/m. For vibrations due to rotating unbalance Amplitude of vibration MX r2 = 2 2 me √[1- r ] + [2 ζ r]2 e = stroke/2 = 0.08/2 = 0.04 m ω = 2π (3000) / 60 = 314 rad/sec. ωn = √K/m = √11.76*10.5 /75 = 125 rad/sec. ω/ωn = r = 314 /125 = 2.51 75 (X)/2(0.04) = (2.51)2 / √(1-2.52)2 + (2*0.2*2.51)2 X = 0.00125 m = 1.25 mm Transmissibility Ratio: (TR)

TR = TR = =

Ft F0

=

√ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 √[1- r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2

√1 + (2*0.2*2.51)2 √(1-2.52)2 + (2*0.2*2.51)2 = √ 2.008 √29.09

√ 1+ 1.0080 √28.09 + 2.008

TR = 0.1861 Force transmitted to the foundation Ft Also TR = F 0 Ft = (TR) F0 Ft = 1467.9 N Vibration Isolation: Vibration isolation is achieved as only 18.6 % of the maximum shaking force (F0) is transmitted to the foundation. This is because the operating range of frequency ratio ω/ωn = r < √2 (2.51> 1.41). As r >>>>> √2, Ft F0 0 = (0.1861) * meω2 = (0.1861) * 2 * 0.04 (314)2

2. A mass of 100 Kg, is mounted on a spring support having a spring stiffness of 20000 N/m and a damping coefficient of 100 NS/m. The mass is acted upon by a harmonic force of 39 N at the undamped natural frequency of the set up. Find 1. Amplitude of vibration of the mass. 2. Phase difference between the force and displacement. 3. Force transmissibility ratio. 3. A refrigerator of mass 35 Kgs operating at 480 rpm is supported on 3 springs. If only 10% of the shaking force is to be transmitted to the foundation what should be the value of K. √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 Ft = √[1- r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 F0 assuming that no damped used ζ = 0 TR = 1/√(1- r2) = 1/ ± (1- r2) ω = 2π* 480 / 60 = 16 π rad/sec, TR = 0.1 = 0.1 = 1 ± [1- (16 π/ωn)2] Ft F0

∴± 0.1 – 0.1 (16 π/ωn)2 = 1

78 rad/sec.739 N/m 2. 1.0.05 N = 800 rpm e = 100/2 = 50 mm. If.05 = 83. determine the combined stiffness of the springs so that the force transmitted to the foundation is 1/20th of the impressed force.1 ∴ ωn = 18. (c) The amplitude of vibrations at resonance. the damping reduces the amplitudes of successive vibrations by 30%.2 Kgs which move through a vertical stroke of 100 mm with SHM. ωn K = √K/m ∴Keq = 8. A machine supported symmetrically on four springs has a mass of 80 Kgs.1 (16 π/ωn)2 = 0.When positive sign is considered .2 Kg TR = 1/20 = 0.679 N/m.1/0. In the absence of damping TR = 1/ (r2 – 1) 1 0.782 ωn ( ) . When damping is present δ = In (X1/x2) = In (1/1-0.9 ∴(16 π/ωn) = √-9 which is not possible Taking the negative sign . the machine crank shaft rotates at 800 rpm.28 rad/sec ωn2 = K/m K = Mωn2 = 26.1 = .037 N/m ∴K = 8. under actual working conditions.037/3 = 2. The mass of the reciprocating mass is 2.1 (16 π/ωn)2 ± 1 – 0. find (a) The force transmitted to the foundation at 800 rpm (b) The force transmitted to the foundation at resonance. 4.1 (16 π/ωn)2 = 1 16 π/ωn = (1+0.0.3) = 2 π ζ / √1 – ζ2 . M = 80 Kgs.9/-0. ω = 2 πN/60 = 83. Neglecting damping.1) = √11 ∴ωn = 15.1 + 0. m 2.15 rad/sec.

875 (Ft)Res = 326. such that Absolute Amplitude of the Mass (X) y = Y sin ωt . Ft √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 = F0 √[1.739 = 12.875 ∴(Ft) Res = F0 * TR = meωn2 * TR = 2.05 * (18.25/26.∴ ζ = 0.0567 Ft = Force transmitted to foundation at 800 rpm.25 N 4. Force transmitted at Resonance = Stiffness = 32. At resonance ω/ωn = 1 TR = Ft = TR F0 √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 2ζ = 8.2 * 0.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 = 0.0563 = TR Ft = F0 * TR = TR * meω2 = 43. +x M y = Y Sin ωt +y Base Base excitation of the mass from Let y: denotes the displacement of the base and x: denotes the displacement static equilibrium position at a given instant t.6.47 N 3. Amplitude of vibration at resonance.2 mm Forced Vibrations due to Excitation of Base Some times the base or support of a spring-mass damper system undergoes harmonic excitation as shown in figure.78)2 * 8.

CX Ky .x y x KX .φ) + Cω Y Sin [90 ωt] + K Y Sin ωt = 0 Thus Σƒ = 0.ω Y Sin (ωt).ω2 X Sin (ωt . Cy x KX Ky .φ) = Cω Y Sin [90 ωt] + K Y Sin ωt. . x Let the steady state response x = X Sin (ωt .φ)] 88 = .m ω2X Sin (ωt . Cy CX K (x-y) C(x – y) Now from NSL mx 88 = . .K (x-y) – C(x 8 -y 8) = .φ)] – KX Sin (ωt .φ) .φ) x also y = Y Sin ωt y 8 = ω Y Cos ωt = ω Y Sin [90 + ωt] 2 y 8 8 = .φ) x = ωX Sin [90 + (ωt .CωX Sin [90 + (ωt . . From the triangle OAB.φ)] + KX Sin (ωt .Kx + Ky – Cx 8+y 8 ∴m 88 + C x 8 + Kx = C y 8 + Ky governing differential equation.φ) 8 = ωX cos (ωt . m ω2X Sin (ωt . substituting these values in GDE . .φ) + CωX Sin [90 + (ωt . The forces can be represented as shown. and the force polygon should close.

r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 The ratio X/Y is called displacement transmissibility.mω2/K)2 + (Cω/K)2] = (KY)2 [1 + CωY/ KY)2] = (KY)2 [1 + Cω/ K)2] Also F02 = (KY)2 + (CωY)2 ∴(KY)2 [1 + Cω/ K)2] = (KX)2 [(1 .mω2X)2 + (CωX)2 = [KX . and all the observation and discussions are same as that discussed under transmissibility ratio and the frequency response curve given below.mω2X (KX/KX)]2 + [CωX (KX/KX)]2 F02 = (KX)2 [(1. Displacement transmissibility is defined are the ratio of displacement transmitted to the mass to the displacement impressed upon the base.KY CωY KX-Cω2X Y A ωt (ωt .mω2/ K)2 + (Cω/ K)2] Taking square roots and rearranging the terms KY √[1 + Cω/ K)2] = KX √[1. This equation is similar to that of transmissibility ratio.φ) mω X 2 CωX OA2 F02 = AB2 + BO2 = (KX . .φ) CωY Mω2X X φ KX KX CωX Y B F0 KY 0 X (ωt .

ζ=0 ζ = 0. of reciprocating and rotating unbalance. m88+ Cx 8 + Kx = Cy 8 + Ky x m88 + CZ y 8 + KZ = .6 ζ = 0.2 ζ = 0. can be used in designing vibration measuring instruments.m8 8 Z and substituting for ‘y’ from y = Y Sin ωt 2 m88 + CZ 8 + KZ = m ω Y Sin ωt Z Comparing this with 8 + Kx = meω2 Sin ωt.5 The steady state relative amplitude Z and the phase angle lag φ between the excitation and relative displacement. 88+ Cx mx X/ Y ζ = 0.5 ζ = 0.2 ζ=0 r = (ω/ωn) Relative Amplitude: If Z represents the relative motion of the mass with respect to the support we have Z = x-y ∴x = (z + y) Substituting this in the governing differential equation. Z/ Y = r2 / √[1. The relative motion frequency response which is similar to reciprocating and rotating unbalance as given below.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 φ = tan-1 [2 ζ r/ 1.r2] .

05 m and a wave length of 6 m. Frequency of base excitation: ƒ = Speed/ Length of one cycle (100*1000)/3600 m/sec = 6m ƒ = 4.5 ζ = 1. The vehicle has a mass of 1200 Kg. Determine the displacement amplitude of the vehicle. Figure (given in problem No. If the vehicle speed is 100 Km/hr.0 r = ω/ ωn Force Transmitted: Force is transmitted to the base through the spring and dampers.3) shows a simple model of motor vehicle that can vibrate in vertical direction while traveling over a rough road. Given m = 1200 Kg Speed 100 Km/hr 3 K = 400 * 10 N/m Y = 0. The suspension system has a spring constant of 400 KN/m and a damping ratio of ζ = 0.5.63 Hz.15 ζ = 0.05 m ζ = 0.5 wave length = 6 m = period Model: Single degree freedom damped system base excitation. The road surface varies sinusoidally with an amplitude Y = 0. .25 ζ = 0.1 Z/Y ζ = 0.ζ=0 ζ = 0. If ‘Z’ represents the relative displacement then Force transmitted = Ft = √(KZ)2 + (CωX)2 Ft = Z√K2 (Cω)2 The force transmitted to the base is also determined by Ft = m ω2X Numerical Examples on Base Excitation 1.

5903 √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 ∴ X = √[1.81 Kg C = 103 N-S/m Y=? y = Y Sin 10πt ∴ω = 10 π ω = 31.0425 m 2.φ ) X= 10-6 m Isolators y = Y sin10π t Y =? Solution: W = 5000 N K = 1*106 N/m X = 10-6m √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 X Y = √[1. Assume that the grinding wheel and machine are rigid bodies of total weight 5000 N.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Y = 0.6 Kg W = mg.8493 * (0.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 ∴m = w/g = 509.8493 ∴ X = 0. Find the maximum acceptable displacement of the floor if resulting amplitude of vibration of grinding wheel is to be restricted to 10 -6m.0087 rad/sec.05) X = 0.∴Frequency of base excitation (100*1000) ω = 2πƒ = 2π = 29. Grinding Wheel Grinding Machine . The floor on which the machine is mounted is subjected to a harmonic disturbance due to the operation of an unbalanced engine in the vicinity of grinding machine.m = 5000/9. 3600 * 6 m Natural frequency = ωn = √ K/m = √400* 103 / 1200 = 18. A precession grinding machine is supported on an isolator that has a stiffness of 1 MN/m and a viscous damping constant of 1KN-S/m.2574 rad/sec. x = X sin(ωt . ∴Frequency ratio = r = ω/ωn = 1.8493 ∴Displacement amplitude of the vehicle X/Y = 0.4 rad/sec .

A trailer has 1000 Kg mass when fully loaded and 250 Kg when empty.955*10-7m Y = 8. The damping factor is 0.29 = 0. k = 350 kN/m Speed of trailer = 100 Km/hr = 100*1000/3600 = 27.0) = 1.70932)2 + (2 ζ r)2 = √1+(0. Determine the amplitude ratio of the trailer: 1.6 ωn = 44.ωn = √K/m = √106/509.0314)2 = 1/ √(0. The speed of the trailer is 100 Km/hr.0222*0.When empty.1166 = 10-6/1.When fully loaded.246 + 1.29 Ζ = 0. The road varies sinusoidally with a wave length of 5 m.1166 X Y = 1.5.1166 = 8.4 rad/sec r = 31.95*10-7 mm 3.0222 ω = 10 π = 31. The suspension has a stiffness of 350 kN/m.6*44. Data: Mass of empty trailer = 250 Kg.50 Mass of loaded trailer = 1000 Kg.4 / 44.7093)]2 ∴ Y = √(1.0.mωn = 1032*509. 2.1166 given that X = 10-6m ∴Y = X/1.29 rad/sec ≈ 423 rpm C = Cc ∴ζ = C/Cc = 1032.77 m/sec x m C.7093 X √ 1+ [2(0. ζ = 0.K One cycle y 100 km/hr y = Y Sin ωt Y Road profile .

18 = 34.3676/0. 1. r = w/wn = 34.416 rad/sec Frequency ratio.933 The ratio of amplitude of vibration of empty trailer to that of road surface is given as √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 X = √[1.896/37. Empty trailer: Natural frequency of empty trailer wn = √(k/m) = √(350*103/250) = 37.416 = 0.4518 .9419 = 1.896 rad/sec.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Y = 1.Time period = τ = wave length /velocity = 5/27.18 sec Forcing frequency. = 0. w = 2π/ τ = 2π / 0.77 sec.

8653 √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 X = √[1. ω/ωn = 52.05 mm at 500 cpm.05 mm. ω = 2πƒ = 2π* 500/ 60 rad/sec ω = 52.1026 = 0. Part A m = 20 Kgs K = 4*31400 = 125600 N/m C = 4*392 = 1568 NS/m y = Y Sin ωt ∴ Y = 0. An aircraft radio of mass 20 Kgs is to be isolated from engine vibrations.9*10 m Part B X Y √ 1+ (2 ζ r)2 √[1. 4.5 = 0.6819 [X/Y]empty = 1.4518 [X/Y]loaded = 0.496 X -5 Y = X = 0. and damping factor of 392 NS/m.2 rad/sec. The radio is mounted on four isolators.662 ζ = C/2 √Km = 0.5 / 79. Loaded trailer: When the trailer is fully loaded the natural frequency is given by wn = √(k/m) = √(350*103/1000) = 18. What is the amplitude of vibration of the radio? b.069 mm = 6.708 rad/sec Frequency ratio r = w/wn = 34.5 rad/sec. which is vibrating with amplitude of 0.6819 The amplitude of vibration reduces as the mass of the system (loaded trailer) is increased.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 . each having a spring scale of 31400 N/m.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Y = 2. a.2. c.896/18.116 / 3.708 = 1. What is the dynamic load on each isolator due to vibration. ωn = √K/m = √125600/20 = 79. What is the amplitude of vibration of the radio relative to the engine.

= Z = 0.4)2*6. ∴Ft on each isolator = 3.5*105m Part C Ft = Z √K2+ (Cω)2 = 2.4)2 + 1256002 Ft = 3.5*10-5 √(1568*52.95 N The dynamic load can also be computed using Ft = mω2X = (20) (52.8 N .9*10-5 Ft = 3.8/4 = 0.025 mm = 2.8 N ∴Total force transmitted.

1 Introduction In practice the measurement of vibrations becomes necessary due to following reasons. (To verify the analytical models). (Preventive maintenance). 3. 3. To determine natural frequencies. Periodic measurement of vibration characteristics of machines and structures becomes essential to ensure adequate safety margins. 2 3 4 1 5 Figure 5. 1. a signal conversion instrument is used to amplify the signal to the required value (Amplifier). Signal conversion instrument.Chapter 5 Vibration Measuring Instruments 5. 5.1 shows the basic features of a vibration measurement scheme. Vibration transducer or pick up. The output from the signal conversion . 1. 4. acceleration in to changes in electrical quantities such as voltage or current. (Electrodynamic pick up. inductive displacement pick up. The measurement of frequencies of vibration and forces developed is necessary to design active vibration isolation systems. 4. Since the output signal of a transducer is too small to be recorded directly.1 Vibration Measurement Scheme The motion of a vibrating body is converted in to an electrical signal by the vibration transducer or pick up.2 Vibration Measurement Scheme Figure 5. The theoretically computed vibration characteristics of a machine or structure may be different from the actual values due to the assumptions made in the analysis. Data analysis. Vibrating machine or structure. stiffness and damping. LVDT pick up. 5. Display / recording. 2. electromagnetic pick up. 2. capacitive pick up). Measurement of input and resulting output vibration characteristics of a system helps in identifying the system in terms of its mass. piezo electric pick up. modal shapes and damping ratios. The transducer transforms changes in mechanical quantities such as displacement velocity.

where corresponding velocity and acceleration measurements are too small for practical purposes. 2. an accelerometer. the data can then be analyzed to determine the desired vibration characteristics of the machine. Instead of the above. 1.. (KHz). Built in double integration is also available for displacement plots. a phase meter or a frequency meter. vibration analyzers can also be used. a velocity meter. 5. milli voltmeters. Casing x C y Figure 5.2Seismic Unit Depending on the frequency range utilized displacement. To summarise. FFT converts time domain signal to a signal in frequency domain to identify the frequencies of concern. velocity or acceleration is indicated. Velocity measurements may be useful at intermediate frequencies where displacement measurements are likely to be small to measure conveniently. computers etc.3 Vibration pick ups: Seismic Instruments The commonly used vibration pick ups are called seismic instruments. 3.2. . Displacement measurements may be useful for studying low frequency vibrations.instrument can be displayed on a display unit or stored in a computer for later use (Oscilloscope. The pick up essentially a piezo electric type with a natural frequency of 25 kcps. Several commercial vibration analyzers are available today. Depending upon the quantity measured the vibration measuring instrument is called a vibrometer. They consist of a vibration pick up and an FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) analyser. A to D converters. following are the guidelines. by the relative motion of the suspended mass with respect to the case. a balancing kit for phase measurement and an inbuilt computer. The basic element of many vibration measuring instrument is a seismic unit which is basically a spring massdamper system mounted on a vibrating body on which measurements are to be made as shown in Figure 5. Acceleration measurements may be useful at high frequencies.

Frequency response curves .r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Y φ = tan-1 [2 ζ r/1-r2] The parameters that influence Z/Y and φ are: (1) frequency ratio r = ω/ωn.3 mx = .25 ζ = 0.1 Z/ Y ζ = 0. – K (x-y) if displacement the equation of motion becomes . relative . x = X Sin (ω t-φ ) M y = Y Sin ω t Base Figure 5.(x-y) . Range for Accelerometer Range for Vibrometer ζ=0 ζ = 0..5 ζ = 1. .3. subjected to base excitation. .4.15 ζ = 0.Behaviour of Seismic unit Consider the equation of motion of spring-mass-damper system. mZ + CZ + KZ = mω2Y Sin ωt from this r2 Z 2 2 = √[1. (2) Damping factor ζ.C . Z = x-y. as shown in Figure 5. as shown in the Figure 5.0 r = ω/ ωn Figure 5..4.

The relative displacement Z. the relative motion Z is converted into electric voltage. ∴Z = X-Y. Z/Y ≈ 1. in particular when r > 3 Z/Y ≈ 1. Usually. Type of instrument is determined by the useful range of frequencies with respect to the natural frequency (ωn) of the instrument. Therefore the output of the instrument is proportional to the velocity of the vibrating body. Like wise. ω >>>>> ωn r >>>> 1. as shown in Figure 5. the relative velocity between the casing and the mass is the true velocity of casing. (independent of ζ ) ∴Z=Y Relative displacement of the seismic mass = displacement of base. x 0 0 0 0 0 0 Seismic mass y Figure 5. ω. 5. ∴Z=Y Hence the seismic mass remains stationary. r is very large.6 The voltage generated is proportional to the rate of cutting of magnetic field. Such instruements are called velometers. Both the displacement and acceleration are available from the velocity type transducer by means of the integrator or the differeniator provided in most signal conditioner units.4 also shows the range of frequencies corresponding to which a seismic instrument act as a vibrometer or an accelerometer. may represent the displacement or acceleration depending upon ωn of the seismic unit and frequency of vibrating body.Figure 5. X = 0. The supporting casing moves the vibrating body. Thus the relative displacement between the casing and the mass is the true displacement of the casing. A typical instrument of this kind may have a natural frequency of 1 Hz to 5 Hz and a useful range of 10 Hz to 2000 Hz. The seismic mass is a magnet moving relative to the coils fixed to the case.6. It remains undisturbed in space. Therefore. . The sensitivity of such instruments may be in the range of 20 mV/cm to 350 mV/cm.4 Vibrometer or Seismometer It is an instrument with low natural frequency.

Z α ω2 Y. ωn should be very small. ω2Y Hence. the mass must be very large and the spring must have a very low stiffness. the instrument will be very small in size and compact. which is not desirable in many applications. 5. r <<<<< 1.7 the useful frequency range is quite large.Y (1/ωn2). However.5 Accelerometer It is an instrument with high natural frequency. Thus in order to make r <<<< 1.20. The useful frequency range for un damped accelerometer is very much limited. Therefore. The principle of construction remains same. the instrument indicates acceleration. a vibrometer is a spring-massdamper system with a very large mass and a flexible spring. as shown in Figure 5. Thus the difference between a vibrometer and an accelerometer is in its natural frequency. When the natural frequency of the instrument is high compared to that of the vibrations to be measured. This means that. that is. In such cases the true value of Y. This means that.6 Useful Frequency Range The useful range of accelerometer can be seen from the following graph for different amounts of damping ζ.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Y 5. with ζ = 0. and hence the value of Z. ∴Z (ω/ωn)2. a vibrometer may not have a large value of r. In vibrometer it is very small where as in accelerometer it is very high. between 0 ≤ ω/ωn ≤ 0. In practice. the factor √[r – (ω/ωn)2]2 + (2 ζr)2 approaches unity. The acceleration measured can be integrated once or twice with the help of modern electrical circuits to obtain velocity and displacement of the system. ωn should be very large. Useful frequency range is that range of r between which the maximum error is less than 0.01 %. Due to their small size and high sensitivity accelerometers are preferred in vibration measurements.Limitation of Vibrometers In order to have r >>>1. Hence K should be very large and m should be small. which implies that Z is proportional to the acceleration of the vibrating body. . may not be exactly equal to Y. Then ω <<<< ωn. This results in bulky instrument. the instrument needs a small mass and spring of large stiffness. can be computed from: r2 Z = 2 2 √[1.7. Therefore.

01%).Figure 5.7. . Useful frequency range Thus an instrument with a natural frequency of 100 Hz has a useful frequency range of 0 to 20 Hz with negligible error. (Up to 20 Hz the error is less than 0. Figure 5.8 shows accelerometers.

ƒn = 5 Hz . A seismic instrument is fitted to measure the vibration characteristics of a machine running at 120 rpm.0093 ∴ Y = 3.84 rad/sec.8 rad/sec. 3. to measure vibrations of a fan base at an exciting frequency of 180 rpm. Exciting frequency ω = 180 rpm = 18. velocity and acceleration assuming no damping. The measured vibration velocity of the fan base is 3 mm/s. ζ = 0.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Y In the present case.0093 Z/Y = 1. Hence r = ω/ωn = 0. If the natural frequency of the instrument is 5 Hz and if it shows 0.9631 mm 2.089 Hence Y = Z/0.1764) = 0.2 Z = Relative amplitude = 8/2 = 4 mm ω = 40 rad/sec r = ω/ωn = 40/4 = 10 Z Y = r2 √[1.2 is attached to a structure that executes harmonic motion.7.8.8281 + 0.004 cm determine the displacement. ωn = 4 rad/sec. Accelerometers Numerical Examples on Vibration Measuring Instruments 1. whereas what is read is well below the permissible limit. find the amplitude of vibration of structure when its frequency is 40 rad/sec.09/(0. A vibrometer having a natural frequency of 4 rad/sec and ζ = 0.56 rad/sec . Hence one should be very careful in selecting the proper instrument. What is the actual velocity of the fan base? For a vibrometer.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 2 2 Z Mean 4 mm 8 mm = 1. A vibrometer has a natural frequency of 10 cps and has a damping ratio of 0. It is used. ωn = 10 cps = 62.Figure 5.089 = 33. If the difference between the maximum and minimum recorded value is 8 mm. It may be noted that the actual velocity is beyond permissible limits.6 mm/s.4 rad/sec N = 120 rpm ω = 2πN/60 = 12.3 (Z/Y) = 0. by mistake. r2 Z = √[1. ωn = 2πƒn = 10π rad/sec = 31.

56/31.r2] .r = ω/ωn = 12. error = 2% r = ω/ωn = 40/5 = 8 Z/Y = 1. If the lowest frequency that can be measured is 40 Hz. ω = 40 Hz.4 Z = 0.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Y (1. Solution: Data: ωn = 5Hz.021 = 0.265 cm/sec2 4.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 r2 = √[1.r2]2 r2 = [1.26 cm/sec Acceleration a = ω2Y = ω(ωY) = 3.35 . A vibrometer indicates 2 percent error in measurement and its natural frequency is 5 Hz.02 (since the error is 2%) r2 Z = 2 2 √[1.021 cm Velocity V = ω Y = 2πN/60* 0.02)2 = 82/(1-64)2 + (16 ζ)2 ζ = 0.004 cm = 0. ζ=0 ∴Displacement Y = Z(1-r2) / r2 = 0.4 = 0. find the value of damping factor.0004 mm For seismic instruments Z Y Z Y r2 = 2 2 √[1.

Similarly the relative velocity between the casing and the mass is the true velocity of the casing.6 Useful Frequency Range of Vibration Measuring Instruments: Useful frequency range is that range of r between which the maximum error is less than 0.Session-VIII (6. Z ≈ Y and thus the error is less than 0. plotted against Z/Y.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 = r2 λ = amplitude distortion factor.5.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 where λ = 1 √[1. Vibrometer: As evident from Figure 5. Therefore Z/Y = (ω2/ωn2) λ . beyond which it gives readings with error less than 0. The instruments which have natural frequency ωn such that r >>>> 1. The accuracy of these instruments depend upon the amount of damping and frequency ratio at which they are used. This means that the mass remain un disturbed in space. can read displacement or velocity directly.6 shows the values of ζ close to 1.7. They are vibrometers and velometers. It is seen that when ζ varies from 0.6 to 0. respectively. For ζ = 0.4 for value of ζ far greater than 1. Thus there is a lower cut-off frequency for a vibrometer.05) BKS 5. Figure 5. Hence the relative displacement between the casing and the mass is the true displacement of casing.01 %.01% (concept demonstrated in numerical examples) Z/Y Figure 5. Useful frequency range for vibrometer Accelerometer: Z r2 2 2 = Y √[1.01%.7 the percentage error in Z as compared to Y is less than 4. Z/Y ≈1 for any value of ζ.707. and r >>>1.

However.7.8.25.. that is.8 for different amounts of damping ζ. as shown in Figure 5.Z = Y (ω2/ωn2) λ For r <<<< 1. The amplitude distortion factor λ should remain constant over the desired range of frequency of the accelerometer.25.. λ would remain constant at ≈ 1.e.7 the useful frequency range is quite large. Figure 5. . with ζ = 0. (Up to 20 Hz the error is less than 0. Figure 5. Useful frequency range for accelerometer Thus an instrument with a natural frequency of 100 Hz has a useful frequency range of 0 to 20 Hz with negligible error. (i. ζ = 1/√2 = 0. Thus for r <<< 1.01%). relative displacement is proportional to the acceleration).8. Therefore. The useful frequency range for undamped accelerometer is very much limited. 0 < r < 0. i. Z α ω2 Y.e. in the range λ = 1/√[1+r4] ≈ 1. The useful range of accelerometer can be seen from the following graph in Fig 5.9 shows accelerometers. λ approaches unity. between 0 ≤ ω/ωn ≤ 0.

9631 mm 2. ζ = 0.0093 ∴ Y = 3.7. A vibrometer having a natural frequency of 4 rad/sec and ζ = 0.9. It is used.Figure 5. by mistake. Accelerometers Numerical Examples on Vibration Measuring Instruments 1. to measure vibrations of a fan base at an exciting frequency of 180 rpm. A vibrometer has a natural frequency of 10 cps and has a damping ratio of 0.2 Z = Relative amplitude = 8/2 = 4 mm ω = 40 rad/sec r = ω/ωn = 40/4 = 10 Z Y = r2 √[1.2 is attached to a structure that executes harmonic motion. ωn = 4 rad/sec. If the difference between the maximum and minimum recorded value is 8 mm. What is the actual velocity of the fan base? For a vibrometer. r2 Z = √[1.0093 Z/Y = 1.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Y . find the amplitude of vibration of structure when its frequency is 40 rad/sec. The measured vibration velocity of the fan base is 3 mm/s.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 2 2 Z Mean 4 mm 8 mm = 1.

4 r = 0. A seismic instrument is fitted to measure the vibration characteristics of a machine running at 120 rpm. It may be noted that the actual velocity is beyond permissible limits. error = 2% r = ω/ωn = 40/5 = 8 .089 Hence Y = Z/0. If the lowest frequency that can be measured is 40 Hz.4 rad/sec N = 120 rpm ω = 2πN/60 = r = ω/ωn = 2πN/60*10π = 0.8281 + 0.In the present case.4 Z = 0.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 r2 = √[1. velocity and acceleration assuming no damping.089 = 33.8 rad/sec.089 = 3/0. Exciting frequency ω = 180 rpm = 18.r2] . whereas what is read is well below the permissible limit.84 rad/sec. Hence r = ω/ωn = 0.1764) = 0.26 cm/sec Acceleration a = ω2Y = ω(ωY) = 3.6 mm/s.004 cm = 0. If the natural frequency of the instrument is 5 Hz and if it shows 0. Z = 3 mm/sec (Z/Y) = 0.004 cm determine the displacement.09/(0.021 = 0. ωn = 10 cps = 62. ζ=0 ∴Displacement Y = Z(1-r2) / r2 = 0. ωn = 2πƒn = 10π rad/sec = 31. 3. ω = 40 Hz.r2]2 r2 = [1. find the value of damping factor. Hence one should be very careful in selecting the proper instrument. Solution: Data: ωn = 5Hz.3.0004 mm For seismic instruments Z Y Z Y r2 = 2 2 √[1. ƒn = 5 Hz . A vibrometer indicates 2 percent error in measurement and its natural frequency is 5 Hz.021 cm Velocity V = ω Y = 2πN/60* 0.265 cm/sec2 4.

Z/Y 1.02.65 * * 1.Z/Y = 1.01 1.01.00 ζ = 0. does not go as high as Z/Y = 1.98 Solving for r r = 1.55 ƒ = 8.31r2 + 1 = 0 giving r = 3. we get imaginary value of r 2.00 2.75 Hz and a damping factor of 0.02 = 1.30 ∴ƒ = 3. for the given value of damping.30 and 2.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 r2 2 2 √[1. This means that. the curve Z/Y v/s r. A commercial vibration pick-up has a natural frequency of 5. ∴ The lowest value of r beyond which the amplitude can be measured with in 1% error is r = 3.65.02)2 = 82/(1-64)2 + (16 ζ)2 ζ = 0. ∴ω/ωn = ƒ/ƒn = r = 3. When the error is 2% Z/Y = 1.01 times Y r2 ∴ √[1. as shown. for ζ = 0.9 Hz.75 = 10 Hz ƒ = 10 Hz.65.02 r4 – 0.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 (1. Thus to get the frequency for 2% error we have to consider Z/Y = 0.01 in between these two values Z/Y will be greater than 1.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 1 = (Z/Y-1)100 Given that error is to be 1% ∴Z/Y = 1+0.01 ∴Z = 1.02 (since the error is 2%) r2 Z Y = √[1.01 = 1. Part (b).35 5.01.00 r These are the two values at which Z/Y = 1.02 When solved for r.30 * 5.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Simplification leads to 0.30. What is the lowest frequency beyond which the amplitude can be measured with in (a) 1% error (b) 2% error.02 3. . Part (a). r2 Z 2 2 Error = [Z-Y]/Y*100 Y = √[1.

r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Y = r2 √[1.3667 .739 ƒ/ƒn = r1.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 Y ζ = 0.75 = 0 Solving.00 * 0.54 Hz. r2 Z 2 2 = ƒn = 20 kHz √[1. imaginary value . In between these two values Z/Y will be greater than 1.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 2 2 on simplification r4 – 2r2 + 1 + 4 ζ2r2 = r4 / (1.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 r2 0.2 ƒn = 4 Hz r2 Z 2 2 = √[1.01. 7.01 We get r4-93.01 = solving r = 0. ƒ = 2.63 These are the two values at which Z/Y = 1.635 and 0. An accelerometer is made with a crystal of natural frequency 20 kHz.9 Hz.01 at r1 = 0.38r2 + 50.739 1. The lowest frequency beyond which the amplitude can be measured with 1% error is 38.71 error = 1 % r2 √[1.00 r * 9. at r2 = 9.71.01)2 error = 1% ∴Z/Y = 1. Specify the lowest frequency of a vibrometer that can be measured with 1% error. Determine the upper cut off frequency of the accelerometer for 1% accuracy.635 ƒ/ƒn = r2.54 Hz. if its natural frequency is 4 Hz and damping ratio is 0.01 1. ƒ = 38.2 ζ = 0.99 = 2 2 √[1. we get r = 9.6. The damping ratio of accelerometer is found to be 0.r ] + [2 ζ r]2 1.739 Z/Y 1.

When the shaft vibrates with a frequency of 15 cpm. 9.r2]2 + [2 ζ r]2 Ct = 0. ζ = 0.∴upper cut-off frequency f = r* fn = 0.049 = 0.98 Nm/rad ωn = √Kt/J = 4.049 Kg-m2 connected to a shaft by a spiral spring having a scale of 0.62 rad/sec. 8. and a viscous damper having a constant of 0. the relative amplitude between the ring and the shaft is found to be 20.049 Kg-m2 Kt = 0.47 rad/sec ζ = Ct/2√KtJ = 0.3667*20k Hz = 7. What is the maximum acceleration of the shaft? Solution: Data: J = 0. = 2/57.253 rad ∴Maximum acceleration of the shaft = ω2 θy = (π/2)2 * 0. Show that an undamped seismic instrument will show the true response at a frequency ratio r = 1/√2.11 / 2√0.352 θz ∴ θy = (ω/ωn)2 √[1. Solution: Z/Y = r2/(1-r2). A vibrometer having a mass of 10 Kgs is used to measure the vibration amplitude of a machine which is vibrating with a frequency of 1000 cpm. If the error in the reading of the dial indicator is not to be more than 3% of the actual amplitude of the vibrating machine determine the stiffness of the vibrometer spring? 10.11 Nm-sec/rad ω = 2π*15/60 = π/2 rad/sec θy = 0.25 θz = 20 .335 k Hz.98 Nm-/ rad.11 Nm-sec/rad.3 = 0. For true response Z=Y ∴ r2 /(1-r2) = 1 2r2 = 1 or r = 1/√2 .0349 rad ω/ωn = 0. A device used to measure torsional acceleration consists of a ring having a moment of inertia of 0.253 = 0.98*0.

11. Thus there will be unbalance in the rotor due to manufacturing errors. hyrtersis damping. electric motors and pumps.7 Whirling of Shafts In many practical applications such as turbines. a heavy rotor is mounted on a light weight flexible shaft that is supported between bearings. which makes it to bend in the direction of eccentricity of rotor. In addition to this other effects such as stiffness and damping of the shaft. compressors. This effect is cumulative and ultimately the shaft may even fail.11 Whirling of Shaft . When the shaft rotates centrifugal force is induced on the shaft.5. At certain rotational speeds the shaft tends to vibrate violently in transverse direction. The mass centre of rotor do not coincide with the centre line of the shaft. This bending further increases eccentricity and hence the centrifugal force. At these speeds the shaft has a tendency to bow-out and whirl in a complicated manner as shown in Figure 5. and fluid friction in bearings also cause the shaft to bend. gyroscopic effects.10 Whirling of Shaft Bearing centre line ω Bearing Bearing ω Bent up shaft axis Rotor or Disc Figure 5.05) BKS 5.10 and 5.Session-IX (10. Undeflected Position XC G Bearing centre line Deflected Position O C G O e Figure 5. The extent to which the shaft bends depends upon the eccentricity of the rotor mass and speed of the shaft.

When the whirling speed is equal to the speed of rotation of shaft it is called “synchronous whirl”. Shaft is light and flexible. 4.12 Whirling of Shaft Rotor or Disc The rotation of plane A. b. 2. Gravity effects are negligible. which may lead to bearing failure. The amplitude build up is a time dependent phenomenon and therefore.1 Critical speed of a shaft with a single rotor (with out damping): Consider a shaft on which a rotor in symmetrically located between two bearings. which is generally referred as whirling. The whirling motion of a shaft consists of two components of motion as shown in Figure 5. Bearing centre line ω Plane A Plane A Bearing Plane A Plane A Bearing Rotation of plane A ω plane A Bent up shaft axis Figure 5. Larger shaft deflections produce larger bearing reactions. may take place in the same sense as that of spinning of the shaft or in the opposite sense.7. Let m: mass of the disc in Figure 5. about the centre line of the bearings. 3. Further the speed of whirling may or may not be equal to the speed of spinning of the shaft.This phenomenon is called whirling or whipping of shafts and the corresponding speeds are referred as whirling or whipping or critical speeds of shafts. Eg: The rotor blades of a turbine may come in contact with stator blades. 1. a. Damping due to air is neglected.10. Friction at shaft centre is small. These critical speeds are found to coincide with the natural frequencies of lateral (transverse) vibrations of the shaft. it is very dangerous to continue to run the shaft at it critical speed. The excessive vibrations associated with critical speeds may cause permanent deformation resulting in structural damage. The expression for the deflection of the shaft in terms of frequency ratio and eccentricity can be obtained as follows based on the following assumptions. 5.12. Rotation of plane A made by the centre line of the bearings and bent up-shaft. Spinning of the shaft along with rotor about the bent up shaft axis. .

(disc) is in equilibrium under the action of two forces. ω/ωn = r ∴(ωn/ω = 1/r) X/e = 1/[(1/r2) –1] 5. G: C. The rotor. X/e ratio is infinite.13.G of disc (mass centre) X: Lateral deflection of the shaft centre from 0. K: Stiffness of the shaft in transverse direction C: Geometric centre of the disc.7. ωc: Critical speed of the shaft. This particular value of ω is called critical speed. + r< X/e 1.0 . (OC) (deflection of the geometric centre of the disc).mω2) X = mω2e X/e = mω2/[k-mω2] = 1/[(k/mω2)-1] = 1/[(ωn/ω2) – 1] when ω = ωn. But.13 Relation between X/e and ω n /ω r ωn / .G. Centrifugal force.2 Discussions: The relation between X/e and ωc/ω can be plotted as shown below in Figure 5.mω2X = mω2e (K .ve Figure 5. which acts radially outwards through G = mω2 (x + e) Restoring force which act radially inwards through C = KX ∴For equilibrium restoring force = Centrifugal force KX = mω2 (X + e) = mω2 X + mω2e KX .ω: Angular rotation of the disc (uniform angular velocity of shaft) e: eccentricity of the disc: radial distance of the mass centre of the disc from its geometric centre.

the above undesirable effects would occur and therefore ω = ω n = ω c is called the critical speed of the shaft.e. G falls between O and C. Thus C will lie between O and G. · · ·C G Figure 5.. r < 1 ω <<< ωn. the deflection x and the eccentricity e are in opposite sense.. X/e – approaches infinity i. Case (ii): ω < ω c. Negative sign indicates that X is out of phase with CF.e. This condition of disc is referred as “Heavy side outside” i. Positive sign indicates that X is in phase with CF. The deflection x and eccentricity ‘e’ are in the same sense..14 Disk with Heavy side outside Case (iii): When ω > ω c. • The disk has a tendency to fly out. This condition of the disc is referred as “Heavy side inside”.15 Disk with Heavy side inside When ω is very large.Case (i): When ω =ω n (r =1) • Forcing frequency coincides with the natural frequency of transverse vibration of the shaft. if the damping is insufficient. r < 1 ∴X/e = is positive. • At ω = ωn. r > 1 ω >>> ωn X/e = negative. the deflection of geometric centre of the disc tends to infinity. ω /ω n = r . O · ·G · O C ∞ Figure 5. There will be severe vibrations of the shaft thereby producing huge bearings reactions. The disc rotates with heavy side outside.

7. A rotor has a mass of 12 Kg and is mounted midway on a horizontal shaft of 24 mm φ supported at the ends by two bearings.3*10-9 = 16. ∴Shaft is simply supported. The disc tends to rotate about its mass centre and hence vibrations are very minimum. d = 24 mm = 0.5.11 mm away from the geometric centre of the rotor due to certain manufacturing errors. l = 1m. Determine the amplitude of steady state vibrations and dynamic force transmitted to the bearings if E = 200 GN/m2. at ω Note: 1.66 rad/sec r = ω /ω n = 125. . 5. e = 0. E = 200*109N/m2 Amplitude of steady state vibrations X/e = 1/[(ω n/ω )2 – 1] = 1/[(1/r)2 – 1] Assume the bearings are short. Fd = KX ωn2 = K/m. Solution: Data: m = 12 Kgs. Fd = mω2 (X – e) If the shaft is vertical dynamic load on each bearing FB = Fd/2 If the shaft is horizontal dynamic load on each bearing = FB = (mg/2 + Fd/2) Numerical Examples Critical speeds with out damping 1. The bearings are 1 m apart. r < 1. X/e is positive. ω = 2πN/60 = 125.1 X/e = . δst = mgl3/48EI = 0.11 mm.G tends to coincide with O. Negative sign indicates that the displacement is out of phase with the centrifugal force. The shaft rotates at 1200 rpm. ω < ωn.76.634 mm.11 mm X = . This is the principle used for stabilization of aircrafts at high speeds. e = 0. The mass centre of the rotor is 0. ω > ωn.66/114.2 rad/sec. X/e is negative.3 * 10-9 m4.000752 m ωn = √g /δst = 114.0. I = πd2/64 = 16. K = mωn2 at the critical speed = mω2nX = mω2X.3 Dynamic force transmitted to the bearings.2 = 1. Fd = mω2 (X + e) 2.024 m. r > 1.

014 m. l = 1.2 m is held in long bearings. (ii) Range of speed . ωn = √(g/ δst) = 51.00375 m.29 N Total load on each bearing (shaft horizontal) F = = mg/2 + Kd/2 = (12* 9.11) * 10-3 Fd = 99.0004 m.66)2 (0.81)/2 +99. It carries a rotor of 16 Kgs at its midspan.96 * 105 N/mm2 Solution: K = 72000 N/m ωn = 120 rad/sec ω = 100 π rad/sec X = . e = 0. d = 14 mm = 0.0234 mm Fd = 1. The eccentricity of the mass centre of the rotor from the shaft centre is 0.5 N 2. If the system rotates at 3000 rpm determine the amplitude of steady state vibrations and dynamic force transmitted to the bearings.0.68/2 = 0. The shaft is made of steel for which E = 200 GN/m2 and permissible stress is 70 MPa Determine the critical speed of the shaft and range of speed over which it is unsafe to run the shaft. A shaft of 14 mm φand the length 1. Neglect damping. A rotor having a mass of 5 Kgs is mounted midway on a 10 mm diameter shaft supported at the ends by two bearings. Data: m = 16 Kgs. Take E = 1.2 m.02 mm away from the geometric centre of the rotor. The bearing span is 400 mm. ∴N = 489 rpm ∴ Critical speed = 489 rpm.84 N on each bearing 3. E = 2*105 MPa Allowable bending stress: σb = 70 MPa Solution: (i) Critical speed ωc = ωn = √(g/δst) δst = mgl3/192 EI (For long bearing: both ends are fixed) δst = 0. Assume the shaft is mass less.634 – 0. Due to certain manufacturing in accuracies the CG of the disc is 0. (a) When the shaft is horizontal (b) When the shaft if vertical.Dynamic force: Fd = mω2 (X-e) as r > 1 Fd = 12 * (125.17 rad/sec ωn = 2πN/60.4 mm.29/2 = 108.

0004/ (489/N)2 – 1 (489/N)2 = ± 0. This range is unsafe because the stress induced exceeds 70N/mm2 (ii) (b) Range of speed when the shaft horizontal When the shaft is horizontal x = δst + δ1 = 0. = [(Wbl/8) * d/2]/(πd4/64) Wb = Bending load d = diameter of shaft. Range of speed when the shaft is vertical When the shaft is vertical X = δ1 (Static deflection can be neglected) X = 0.1333 N = 459 and 525 rpm.003 m We have X= ± e/[(r2 – 1)] = ± e / [(ωn/ω)2-1] X = ± e /[{(2πNn/60}/{2πN/60)2}-1].003 m (ii) (a). l = span M = (Wbl/8) = Bending moment (Both ends fixed) Given allowable bending stress = 70 MPa Substitute σb = 70 MPa in the above We get Wb = 125.003 = ± 0.7/mg) * 0. Thus the range of unsafe speed is 459 and 525 rpm.7N ∴Wb = 125.7N.00675 m ∴ X = ± e/ [(Nn/N)2 – 1] 0.003 = 0. But Nn = 489 rpm 0. Bending stress induced: σb = My/I.0004/[(489/N)2 – 1] .00375 δ1 = 0.Bending load: When the shaft rotates additional dynamic load acts on the shaft which causes additional deflection and induces bending stress.00375 + 0.00675 = ± 0. additional load due to bending Additional deflection due to this Wb (whirling effect) δ1 = (Wb/W) * δst = (125.

.059 When + ve sign is considered 4892/N2 = 1 + 0. fn = 729 Hz. midway between the bearings.1 * 105N/mm2.059 N = 475.(489/N)2 –1 = ± 0. This range is unsafe because the stress induced exceeds 70N/mm2 4. m = 20 kgs. Solution: Data: d = 25 mm. if the shaft material has a density of 8000 Kg/m3 and E = 2.1 * 105N/mm2.0468 * 10-5m ω n = 4578 rad/sec.059 = 0.941 N = 504 rpm Thus the range of unsafe speed is 475 and 504 rpm. Determine the critical speed of the shaft. A shaft of 25 mm diameter is freely supported on bearings 750 mm apart carries a rotor of 20 Kgs.0.059 = 1. l = 750. E = 2. ρ = 8000 Kg/m3 Critical speed = ωn = √(g/δst) Considering the weight of the shaft δst = (Wel3)/48 EI We = [(W/g + (17/35) ρl) l3]/48EI = 0.18 rpm When – ve sign is considered 4892/N2 = 1 .

16.05) BKS 5. d. The point C is pulled back due to damping.(a) 2 CωX = meω Sin φ -. (K-mω2) X = meω2 Cosφ -. It has been shown that. equivalent viscous damping may be considered with a viscous damping coefficient C and damping ratio ζ. due to the eccentricity of mass of the rotor. Centrifugal force mXω2 due to whirling. Spring force = KX. However. G )φ mXω2 (K -mω )x 2 )ω φ 2 Cos φ me Cω X Figure 5.(b) Squaring and adding (K-mω2)2X2 + (CXω)2 = (meω2)2 (Cos2φ + Sin2φ) X2 [(K-mω2)2 + (Cω)2] = (meω2)2 ∴X = meω2/√[(K-mω2)2 + (Cω)2]. a.4 Critical Speed of a Shaft with a Single Rotor with Damping In engineering applications.16 Resolve these forces in horizontal and vertical direction and for equilibrium. rotors are subjected to air-resistance or structural damping.7.Session-X (13. The above forces are shown both in magnitude and direction as given below in Figure 5. meω 2 meω2 Sin φ meω2 O KX C X Cω X . Thus the rotor will be in equilibrium under the action of the following forces. r = ω/ωn ξ = damping ratio. Due to damping the points O. C and G no longer remain collinear and take up the configuration given below as shown in Figure 5. Centrifugal force = meω2.5. b. in a viscously damper system subjected to forced vibrations the displacement lags behind the forcing function by an angle φ which is given by tan φ = 2ξr/(1-r2). Divide both numerator and denominator by K . Damping force CωX.16. c. for analytical purposes.

0.0 Figure 5.0 r = ω/ ωn Figure 5. X/e = r2/ √[(1-r2)2 + (2ζr)2] and But: K/m = 1/ωn2 C/K = 2ζ/ωn tan φ = Cω /(K-mω 2) = 2ξ r/(1-r2) These expressions are very much similar to frequency response curve of single DOF system subjected to harmonic excitation due to rotating unbalance. ζ=0 ζ = 0.0 ζ=0 Ph as e An gle .X/e =[ m/K*ω2]/√[(1-m/K*ω2)2 + (Cω/K)2].5 3.5 2.25 ζ = 0.0 1. The frequency response curves are as shown in Figure 5.0 2.1 X/ e ζ = 0.25 ζ = 0.17 ζ = 0.5 ζ = 1.5 Discussions 1.18 Frequency Ratio r = (ω/ωn) .0 ζ = 2.15 ζ = 0. φ.18.5 ζ = 0.17 and 5.707 ζ = 1.

r = 1 tanφ ∞. φ 900 G φ C O (b) φ = 90 Resonance occurs: Deflection X is maximum. G outside C as shown in figure (a) Gφ O C (a) φ < 90 b. r <<< 1. tanφ ∞. Severe lateral vibrations occurs. As damping increases deflection reduces. d. c. r >>> 1 900 < φ < 1800 φ C G O (c) 900 < φ < 1800 Disc rotates with heavy side inside.e. When ω = ω n. ω >>>> ω n. When φ = 1800 . φ 900 Disc rotates with heavier side outside i. When ω <<< ω n.a..

19 Numerical Example 5.79*10-3] = 74. E = 200 GPa (assumed) C = 48 Ns/m. on a horizontal steel shaft 9 mm in diameter. If the shaft rotates at 675 rpm determine (a) the maximum stress in the shaft. e = 3 mm. (c) Also compare the maximum bending stress with the dead load stress in the shaft.Irrespective of amount of damping. Data: m = 5 kgs. φ C G O (d) φ = 1800 Figure 5. d = 9 mm. (b) What is the power required to drive the shaft at this speed. Gφ C O G φ C φ C φ G C O O G O (a) φ < 90 (b) φ = 90 (c) 900 < φ < 1800 (d) φ = 1800 Figure 5. Equivalent viscous damping at the centre of the disc is 48 Ns/m. δst = Wl3/48EI = 1. Part (a) ωn = √(g/δst).79 * 10-3m ωn = √[9. The CG of the disc is displaced by 3 mm from its geometric centre.03 rad/sec ω = 2πN/60 = 70. the point G approaches O. The system tends to be more stable and it is the desirable conditions. N = 675 rpm.686 rad/sec l = 480 mm. A disc of mass 5 kg is mounted midway between two bearings which are 480 mm apart.81/1.79 mm = 1. .19 shows the phase at different rotational speeds.

8*10-3 T = 1.4 * 103 N/m C = 48 Ns/m ζ = C/2mωn = 0.9 Watts Part (c) Bending stress due to dead load.2 N/m = 27.0648 ∴X/e = r2/√ [(1 –r2)2 + (2ζ r)2] X = 15. simply supported) W = Fb = 546.955 K = mωn2 = 27402.4 N/mm2 Part (b) T = Torque: Damping force * X = Damping torque = (CωX) X = CωX2 = (48*70. M = Wl/4 (bending moment. M = Wl/4 (bending moment.r = ω/ωn = 0.56 = 546.8 * 10-3 m Dynamic load Fd = √[(KX)2 + (CωX)2] = 497.81) + 497.6 N σb = (32*546.8 mm = 15.686*15.6*480)/π (4) (9)3 = 916.102 Nm Power = 2πNT/60 N = 675 rpm P = 77. simply supported) .6 N Maximum bending stress σb = (32 M)/πd3.8*10-3) * 15. σb = (32 M)/πd3.56 N Total bending load = FB = (5 * 9.

14 .04 = 11.24 N/mm2 σbmax/σb.4/82.W = mg = 5 * 9. dead load = 916.81 = 49.05 N σ b = 82.

05) BKS 6.Session-XI (17. each equation involves all the coordinates. the equations of motion lead to a frequency equation that gives two natural frequencies for the system. If a harmonic solution is assumed for each co-ordinate. Let an initial displacement X1 be given to mass m1 and X2 to mass m2.2 shows the corresponding free body diagram.i. Systems modeled with two independent co-ordinates to describe their motion are called two Degree of Freedom systems. During free vibrations at one of the natural frequencies. Figure 6.e.1 X1 X2 .1 Introduction The modeling method discussed in previous chapters employed only one coordinate to describe the motion of the system completely. There are two equations of motion for a two DOF system. executing free vibrations. If a suitable initial excitation is given the system vibrates at one of these natural frequencies. K1 m1 K2 m2 K3 Figure 6. They are generally in the form of coupled differential equations. 6.2 Free vibrations of two DOF system: Consider a two DOF system as shown in Figure 6.1. But general mechanical systems require several degrees of freedom for a meaningful model. Thus a two DOF system has two normal modes of vibration corresponding two natural frequencies..Vibrations of Two Degree of Freedom Systems 6.5. or normal mode or natural mode of vibration. one for each mass. the amplitude of two degrees of freedom (coordinates) are related in a specific manner and the configuration is called principal mode.

. . ----. mx +K . m1x1 = ... .(2) m2 x2 + x2 (K2 + K3) = K2x1 .K1 X1 m1 X1 K2 X2 K2 X1 Let X2 > X1 K1 X1 m1 X1 K2 (X2 – X1) K2 X2 K2 X1 K2 (X2 – X1) m2 m2 K3 X2 X2 K3 X2 X2 Figure 6....(1) .K3x2 – K2 (x2 – x1) .2 Based on Newton’s second law of motion ∑ƒ = mX For mass m1 .K1x1 + K2 (x2-x1) m1x1 + K1x1 – K2 x2 + K2x1 = 0 m1x1 + x1 (K1 + K2) = K2x2 for mass (2) m2x2 = . . 2 2 3 x2 + K2 x2 – K2 x1 ----..

x = .. X1/X2 = K2/(K1 + K2 – m1ω2) = [(K2 + K3) – m2ω2]/K2 Cross multiplying K22 = (K1 + K2 – m1ω2) (K2 + K3 – m2ω2) On simplification we get m1m2 ω4 – [m1 (K2 + K3) + m2 (K1 + K2)] ω2 + [K1K2 + K1K3 + K2K3] = 0 The above equation is quadratic in ω2 and gives two values of ω2 and therefore the two positive values of ω correspond to the two natural frequencies ωn1 and ωn2 of the system. assume x1 = X1 sin ωt. 1 1 .ω2 X sin ωt 2 2 Substitute these in (1) and (2) .Let us assume that under steady state conditions the solutions for x1 and x2 be harmonic therefore. Removing sin ωt through out and re arranging the terms.(-2m) (K + K2) ± √[-2m (K+K2)]2 – 4 (m2) (K2 + 2KK2)]/2m2 .2 = [. c = (K2 + 2KK2) ∴Ω1.m1ω2X1 sin ωt + (K1 + K2) X1 sin ωt = K2 X2 sin ωt . x = . m2 Ω2 – 2 m (K + K2) Ω + (K2 + 2 KK2) = 0 ∴m2 Ω2 – 2 m (K + K2) Ω + (K2 + 2KK2) = 0 The roots of the above equation are as follows: Let a = m2. b = -2 m (K + K2). x2 = X2 sin ωt .ω2X sin ωt..m2 ω2X2 sin ωt + (K2 + K3) X2 sin ωt = K2 X1 sin ωt. Discussions: Let K1 = K3 = K m1 = m2 = m Then the frequency equation becomes m2ω4 – 2 m (K + K2) ω2 + (K2 + 2KK2) = 0 Let: ω2 = Ω ∴Ω2 = ω4.b ± √(b2 – 4ac)]/2a = [. The above equation is called frequency equation since the roots of the above equation give the natural frequencies of the system.

Thus the number of natural frequencies of a system is equal to the number of degrees of freedom of system. ωn2 is called the second or II mode frequency.= [+ 2m (K +K2)]/2m2 ± [√4m2[(K2 + k22 + 2 KK2) – (K2 + 2KK2)]/4m4 = (K+ K2) /m ± √(K22/m2) = (K +K2) /m ± K2/m ∴Ω2 = (K + 2K2) /m ωn22 = (K + 2K2) /m ∴ω n2 = √ [(K + 2K2) /m] Ω1 = (K + K2) /m – K2 / m = K/m ωn12 = K/m ∴ω n1 = √ (K/m) ωn1 is called the first or fundamental frequency or I mode frequency. .

it is customary to assign a unit value of amplitude to either X1 or X2.mω2/K2 Substitute ωn1 in any one of the equation. X2 m2 . the principal mode is referred as normal mode of the system.Session-XII (18. Such a diagram is called principal mode shape of the system.3 X2 I Mode X1 Node . K/m (X1/X2)ωn1 = 1 (X1/X2)ωn2 = K2 / K + K2 – m(K+ 2K2/m) = K2/-K2 = -1 (X1/X2)ωn2 = -1 The displacements X1 and X2 corresponding to the two natural frequency of the system can be plotted as shown in Figure 6.) Modes Shapes: From X1/X2 = K2/(K+K2) -mω2 = (K2 + K) . m1 m2 K1 X1 m1 K2 m1 m2 K3 Figure 6. (X1/X2)ωn1 = K2 / K+ K2 – m . which describe the mode in which the masses vibrate.3.05) BKS Two DOF System (contd. Since the ratio X1/X2 is important rather than the amplitudes themselves.5. When the system vibrates in principal mode the masses oscillate in such a manner that they reach maximum displacements simultaneously and pass through their equilibrium points simultaneously or all moving parts of the system oscillate in phase with one frequency. When this is done.

e. When they are given equal initial displacements in opposite direction and released they will vibrate in II mode as shown in Figures 6. Observation 2: When the system vibrates in first mode. they will vibrate in I mode. Observation 3: When the two masses are given equal initial displacements in the same direction and released.4 and 6. the midpoint of the middle spring remains stationary for all the time.. the amplitude of two masses remain same. Thus the motions of m 1 and m2 are 1800 out of phase. the length of the middle spring remains constant. the masses move up or down together. as shown in Figure 6.6. Where as when it vibrates in II mode. Even if the coupling spring is removed the two masses will vibrate as 2 SDOF system with ωn = √(K/m).4 .3 Discussion on Natural frequencies and mode shapes: Observation 1: It can be seen from the figure when the system vibrates in first mode.5.4. Such a point which experiences no vibratory motion is called a node. this spring (coupling spring) is neither stretched nor compressed. It moves bodily with both the masses and hence totally ineffective as shown in Figure 6. When the system vibrates in II mode the displacement of two masses have the same magnitude with opposite signs.5 K1 X1 m1 K1 K1 X1 m1 K2 K2 m1 K2 m2 X2 m2 K3 m2 K3 X2 K3 Figure 6. The motion of both the masses are in phase i.

m2 K2 m2 K3 Figure 6. Numerical Example 1. Also determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes when K1 = 2K. m2 = 2m. the motion will be superposition of two harmonic motions corresponding to the two natural frequencies.5 K3 K3 If unequal displacements are given in any direction. Obtain the frequency equation for the system shown in Figure.K1 m1 K2 X1 m1 K1 K1 K2 m1 N X2 . m1 = m. m2 N . K1 X1 K1 m1 m1 K2 X1 X1 K2 X1 K2 X1 m2 m2 K2 (X2 – X1) m1 K2 (X2 – X1) K2 X2 K2 X2 X1 K1 X1 m2 X2 X2 X1 . K2 = K.

K2 X2 + K2 X1 m2 X2 + K2X2 = K2 X1 ----. = . = .m2 ω B Sinωt + K2B Sin ωt = K2 A Sin ωt (K2 – m2ω2) B = K2 A A/B = [K2 – m2ω2] / K2 ----.K1X1 + K2 X2 – K2X1 m1X1 + X1 (K1 + K2) = K2 X2 ----.(3) 2 .Let X = A Sin ωt X1 = .ω2 [m1 K2 + m2 (K1 + K2)] + K1 K2 = 0 Put ω2 = Ω m1 m2 Ω2 – Ω [m1 K2 + m2 (K1 + K2)] + K1K2 = 0 Or Ω = [[m1 K2 + m2 (K1 + K2)] ± √ [{m1K2 + m2(K1+K2)}2].K1X1 + K2 (X2 – X1) .ω2 B Sin ωt ... m2 = 2m .(1) For .(4) Equating (3) and (4) K2 / (K1 + K2 – m1ω2) = [K2 – m2ω2] /K2 K22 = (K1 + K2 – m1ω2) (K2 – m2ω2) K22 = (K1 + K2) K2 – m1ω2 K2 – m2ω2 (K1 + K2) + m1 m2ω4 m1 m2 ω4 .4 m1 m2K1K2]] / 2m1m2 Frequency equation of the system To determine the natural frequencies Given K1 = 2 K.From NSL .K2 (X2 – X1) ..ω2 A Sin ωt. 1 Substitute these in (1) and (2) -m1ω2 A Sin ωt + (K1 + K2) A Sin ωt = K2 B Sin ωt A (K1 + K2 – m1ω2) = K2B A/B = K2 / [(K1 + K2 – m1ω2)] ----.(2) X2 = B Sin ωt X2 = . mass (2) m2X2 = .. for mass (1) m1X1 = . K2 = K m1 = m..

0.744 mK] /4m2 = 1.3138 K/m A/B = [K2 – m2 ω2] /K2 = [K2 –m2. . . B = .255 mK /4m2 = 0.3138 K/m ω n1 = 0.186 K /m ω n2 = 1.3138 K/m)/K = 1-2(0.186 K/m) / K = (1 – 3. ωn12]/K2 A/B = (K – 2m.186 *2) = . 3.56 √ (K/m) Ω2 = ωn22 = [7mK + 5. B = -0. 2m = [7 mK ± √[(7mK)2 – 4 (4m2K2)]] / 4m2 = [7mK ± √(49m2K2 – 16m2K2] / 4m2 Ω = [7mK ± 5.744 mK] /4m2 = 3.6852 .186 K/m A/B = [K2 –m2ωn22] /K2 = (K – 2m.Ω = [mK + 2m (2K +K) ± √[mK + 6mK)2 – 4m 2mK2K]] / 2m . B = 2.5.744 mK] /4m2 Ω1 = ωn12 = [7 mK – 5.3724 If A = 1.0.6852 II mode: Substituting ωn22 = 3.372 A/B = .372.186 A =1 .3138)] A/B = 0.784 √ (K/m) To determine the mode shapes: I mode shape: Substituting ωn12 = 0. if A = 1. I Mode A =1 B = 2.186 .5.

K3 = K m1= m.5 K/m) . K2 = 2K.2. Determine the natural frequency and the corresponding mode shapes for the system shown in figure X1 K1 m1 • • • X2 K2 m2 • K3 Given K1 = 3K. m2 = 2m Free body diagram X1 K1X1 m1 K2X1 K2X2 K2 (X2 –X1) K1X1 ω n1 = √ (K/m) K2 (X2 –X1) K2X1 K2X2 m2 X2 K3X2 K3X2 ω n2 = √ (5.

931 √ (5.731 ω n2 = 1.5.88 rad/sec (A/B)ω n2 = 0. Same as above Given m1 = 1.8 kg K1 ω n2 = 3.765 m1 m2 .Session-XIII (20. Solution similar to example No.696 K2 K1 = K2 = 40 N/m ω n1 = 9. 1 ω n1 = 0.2732 m K 2K 2m 4.05) BKS Two DOF systems (contd.) 3.5 K/m) (A/B)ω n2 = -0.39rad/sec (A/B)ω n1 = -0. Determine the Natural frequencies and ratio of amplitudes of the system shown in Figure.5 kg m2 = 0.517 √ (K/m) (A/B)ω n1 = 0.

l m1 l m2 l T α Masses in displaced position m1 T T x1 β m2 T x2 γ x1 . Assume that the tension ‘T’ in the string remains unchanged. Determine the natural frequencies of the system shown in figure. Also determine the ratio of amplitudes and locate the nodes for each mode of vibration.x2) β T sin β T cos β β T x2 T cos γ γ T sin γ T Free body diagram NSL. For mass (1) . when the masses are displaced normal to the string.5.x2 T cos α m1 x1 T cos β T sin β m2 x1 T α T sin α T (x1 .

. ----.Tx1/l – Tx1/l + Tx2/l ∴mx1 + 2Tx1/l = Tx2/l NSL.m1ω2 A Sin ωt + (2T/l) A Sin ωt = (T/l) B Sin ωt... Removing sin ωt throughout A [(2T/l) – m1ω2)] = B. For mass (2) mx2 = . Sin α = x1/l. Sinβ = x2/l (x1 – x2/l = . .(b) ωt .T x1 /l – T (x1-x2)/l = .(a1) Similarly .(a) .(a2) .ω A Sin ωt . .x1 = A Sin 2 x1 = . ----.T Sinγ + T Sinβ = .. x2 = B Sin 2 x2 = -ω B Sin ωt.mx1 = .T Sinβ . Substitute in (a) and (b) . (x1 –x2)/l ∴mx2 + 2Tx2/l = Tx1/l Let ωt. (T/l) ∴A/B = (T/l)/ [(2T/l) – m1ω2)] ----.T Sin α ..Tx2/l + T.. A Sin ωt)/l B [(2T/l) – m2ω2)] = A. B Sin ωt + (2TB Sin ωt)/l = (T. (T/l) ∴A/B = [(2T/l) – m2ω2)]/T/l Equating (a1) and (a2) and cross multiplying (T/l)/ [(2T-lm1ω2)/l] = [(2T – lm2ω2)/l]/(T/l) ∴T2 = (2T – lm1 ω2) (2T – lm2ω2) T2 = 4T2 – 2Tlm1ω2 – 2Tlm2ω2 + l2m1m2ω4 ∴ l2m1m2 ω 4 – 2Tl (m1 + m2) ω 2 + 3T2 = 0 Let Ω = ω2 Frequency Equation ----.m2 ω2.

2 = [2Tl (m + m) ± √[2T (2ml)2 – 4l2m2. m2. B = +1 if A = 1. B = -1 (A/B)ωn1 = 1 m1 m2 X1 I Mode m1 X1 Node X2 . (A/B)ωn1 = -1 Semi Definite Systems or Degenerate System II Mode m2 .∴l2m1m2 Ω2 – 2Tl (m1 + m2) Ω + 3T2 = 0 Ω1. 3T2)] / 2. 2 = [2Tl (m1 + m2) ± √[{2T (m1 + m2)l}2 – 4 l2m1 m2 3T2)] / 2 m1 m2 l2 Let = m1 = m2 = m ∴Ω1. l2 = 4mTl ± √[(4mTl)2 – 12 m2 l2 T2] / 2m2l2 On further simplification Ω 1 = ω n12 = T/ml ∴ω n1 = √ (T/ml) 2 Ω 2 = ω n = 3T/ml ∴ω n2 = √ (3T/ml) Mode Shape: A/B = (T/l)/[(2T/l) – m1 ω2] I mode: A/B = 1 II mode: A/B = -1 A/B = -1 if A = 1.

(1) ∴ m1 x1 = K (x2 –x1) m1 x1 + Kx1 = Kx2 m2 x2 = .(2) ωt .(1) .x1 = A Sin 2 x1 = . ..K (x2 – x1) m2 x2 + Kx2 = Kx1 Let ωt. x2 = B Sin 2 x2 = .. ----. X1 K m1 • • • X2 m2 • FBD: X1 m1 KX2 KX1 K (X2 –X1) K (X2 –X1) KX2 KX1 m2 X2 x2 > x1 m1 Mass . .Eg: Coupled locomotive Systems for which one of the natural frequencies is equal to zero are called semi definite systems..ω A Sin ωt m2 . ... ----.ω B Sin ωt..

(3) m2 (.ω2 B Sin ωt) + K B Sin ωt = K A Sin ωt Further simplifications leads to A/B = [K – m2 ω2] / (K) ----. The amplitudes of two masses are equal.ω2 A Sin ωt) + K A Sin ωt = K B Sin ωt Further simplifications leads to A/B = (K)/ [K – m1 ω2] ----. The system will move as a rigid body without any distortion of spring. B=-1 0 m2 II mode . Mode Shapes: I mode: (A/B)ωn1 = (K)/ [K – m1 ω2] ω n1 = 0 (A/B)ωn1 = 1 0 m1 A=1 Node m1 0 A =1 I mode m2 0 B =1 Frequency equation II mode: . Such systems are referred as semi definite systems. They are also referred as free-free system.Substitute in (1) and (2) m1 (.(4) Cross multiplying and simplifying further m1 m2 ω 4 – K (m1 + m2) ω 2 = 0 ω2 [m1 m2 ω2 – K (m1 + m2)] = 0 Finding the roots we get the natural frequencies ω 1 = ω n1 = 0 ω 2 = ω n2 = √ [{K(m1 + m2)}/(m1 * m2)] When one of the roots of the frequency equation is zero. one of the natural frequencies is zero.

Given m1 = 10 kgs.(A/B)ωn2 = (K)/ [K – m1 ω2] ω n2 = √ [{K(m1 + m2)}/(m1 * m2)] if m1 = m2 =m Then (A/B)ω n2 = -1 6.30 rad/sec Mode Shapes I mode . K = 320 N/m X1 K m1 • • • X2 m2 • Solution: It is a free –free system Free body diagram x2 > x1 X1 m1 KX2 KX1 K (X2 –X1) K (X2 –X1) KX2 KX1 m2 X2 Frequencies ∴ω n1 = 0 m1 m2 ωn2 = √[K (m1 + m2)/(m1 * m2)] ωn2 = √[{320(10 + 15)}/ (10*15)] = 7. m2 = 15 kgs. Determine the natural frequency and mode shapes of the system shown in Figure.

An electric train made of two cars each of mass 2000 kgs is connected by couplings of stiffness equal to 40 * 106 N/m.0.30)2] = .1.49 if A = 1. 6 only the answer are given here.671 0 m1 A=1 m2 0 B =1 Node II mode . Determine the natural frequency of the system. 0 m2 B = . if A = 1.0. .671 7.(A1/A2)ωn1 = 1. B = -0. B = 1 m1 0 A =1 I mode II mode (A1/A2)ωn2 = (K)/[K – m1ωn22] = 320 / [320 – 10 * (7. m1 K m2 Coupled Cars Solution: This is an example similar to problem No.

Given m1 =m2 = 2000 kgs. . J1 Kt J2 Free body diagram is as given below. K = 40* 106 N/m ωn1 = 0 ωn2 = √(2K/m) = √(2*40*106) /2000 ωn2 = 200 rad/sec Analysis of Two DOF Torsional Systems Figure above shows a two rotor system which can be represented as follows.

. NSL for Rotor (1) J.θ2) J1 θ 1 + Kt θ 1 = Kt θ 2 For .θ 2) θ2 Kt (θ 1 ...θ 2) θ1 Kt (θ 1 .θ 2) θ1 and θ2 in CCW direction looking from left. ----. ----. rotor (2) J..θ1 Kt θ 2 Kt θ1 θ2 J1 Kt θ1 Kt θ 2 J2 θ1 Kt (θ 1 .. .(2) . 2 θ2 = + Kt (θ1 .(1) . 1 θ1 = .Kt (θ1 .θ 2) θ2 Kt (θ 1 .θ2) J2 θ2 = + Kt θ1 – Kt θ2 J2 θ 2 + Kt θ 2 = Kt θ 1 Let.

83 * 1011 N/m2 Two rotor system is a semi definite system whose natural frequency is given by ωn1 = 0 ω n2 = √ [{(J1 + J2) Kt}/ J1 *J2] ω n1 = 0 ----. Determine the natural frequency of Torsional vibrations of a shaft with two circular disks of uniform thickness at its ends. Solution: Part (1) For free body diagram and expression for frequencies refer previous discussion. . Modulus of rigidity for shaft material of the shaft G = 0.(a1) A/B = [Kt – J2ω2] / Kt Frequency equation J1 J2 ω4 – (J1 + J2) Kt ω2 = 0 ω2[J1J2ω2 – (J1 + J2) Kt] = 0 ∴ω 2 = 0.. and or J1 J2 ω2 – (J1 + J2) Kt = 0 ωn22 = [(J1 + J2) Kt] /J1 * J2 ω n2 = √ [{(J1 + J2) Kt}/ J1 *J2] 8.ωt.10 m G = 0.83 * 1011 N/m2 Also determine in what proportion the natural frequency of the shaft gets changed if along half the length of the shaft the diameter is increased from 10 cm to 20 cm. The length of the shaft is 3 m and its diameter = 10 cm.ω A sin ωt..θ2 = B sin2 ωt θ1 = . θ2 = .00 m d = 0. The masses of the discs are m1 = 500 kgs and m2 = 1000 kgs and their outer diameter D1 = 125 cm and D2 = 190 cm. A/B = Kt/[Kt – J1ω2] ----.θ1 = A sin 2 .25 m D2 = 1.(a2) .9 m l = 3. m1 = 500 kg m2 = 1000 kg D1 = 1.Bω sin ωt Substituting the above in 1 and 2 and simplifying we get the amplitude ratios and frequency equation as follows.

1 rad/sec Part (2): Since the diameters are different along the length equivalent stiffness is to be determined as follows.83 * 1011 / 3.725 * 105 N-m/ rad ω n2 = 58.5 m ∴ 1/Kte = 1/Kt1 + 1/Kt2 Kte = 5. 9. .597 rad/sec ∴ Hence there is 37% increase in the natural frequency of the system. natural frequency and mode shapes for a double pendulum shown in figure. Determine the frequency equation.ωn = √[Kt(J1 +J2)/J1J2] J1 = ½ m1 R12 = 98 kg – m2. d2 = 20 cm.13 * 105 N-m/rad ω n2 = 79.00] *[π (d4)/ 32] = 2. l1 = l2 = 1. d1 = 10 cm. J2 = ½ m2 R22 = 453 kgm2 Kt = GIp/l = [0. J1 Kt1 Kt2 J2 Kte J1 J2 Equivalent System Given.

Given m1 = m2 l1 = l2 = l l1 m1 l2 m2 Free body diagram θ1 l1 T1 m1 T2 θ2 x1 m 1g x2 m 2g l2 T2 m2 .

(1) T1 cosθ1 = mg + T2 cosθ2 At mass (2) T2 cosθ2 = mg θ2 being very small cosθ = 1 T2 = mg ∴T1 = mg + mg T1 = 2mg ----.. x2 = lθ1 + lθ2 m1 lθ1 = . ----.(3) . .lθ2 ..T1 sin θ1 + T2 sin θ2 but x1 =lθ1 ∴x1 = lθ1. ----..(2) ..T1 T1Cos θ1 θ1 T2Sin θ2 T1Sin θ1 θ2 m1g T2Cos θ2 T2 T2 θ2 T2Sin θ2 T2Cos θ2 Considering only the oscillation Applying NSL for mass (1) m1 x1 = .x2 =....T1 sin θ1 + T2 sin θ2 At mass (1) m2g .(a) ----.. . . lθ 1 + .

(c) Equations (b) and (c) represent GDE .. 2 . ml (θ1 + θ2) + mg θ2 = 0 lθ 1 + lθ 2 + gθ 2 = 0 ..(b1) -lω2 A sin ωt . θ2 = B sin ωt θ2 = .B ω2 sin ωt Substitute in (b) and (c) . ∴mlθ1 = ..(b) .. = .gθ 2 =0 Similarly for mass (2) mx2 ----.ω A sin ωt.mg sin θ2 = ... l2ω 4 – 4glω 2 + 2g2 = 0 Let Ω = ω2 ∴l2 Ω2 – 4glΩ + 2g2 = 0 frequency equation . .lω2 A sin ωt + 2 g A sin ωt – g B sin ωt = 0 A (2g .g B sin ωl A/B = (lω2 – g)/lω2 A/B = [g .lω 2] / lω 2 ----.mgθ2 .2 mg sin θ1 + mg sin θ2 lθ 1 + 2gθ 1 .lω2 B sin ωt = .(c1) Equating b1 and c1 and cross multiplying we get frequency equation. = ...lω2) = Bg A/B = g/[2g-lω 2] ----. T2 = mg . ----..T2 sin θ2 T2 cos θ2 = m2 g. Let θ1 = A sin ωt θ1 = .

414 g/l ∴Ω 2 = ω n2 = 1. B = + 1.lωn12] = 1/1.847 √ (g/l) Mode shapes I mode (A/B)ωn1 = g /[2g .4143 ∴ A = 1.lωn22] = 1/-1.4143 A/B = 1/1.4143 II mode (A/B)ωn2 = g /[2g .7655 √ (g/l) Ω2 = ωn22 = 3.4143 A = 1. B = -1.The roots are Ω1 = 0.5857 g/l = ωn12 ω n1 = 0.414 .

3 Classification of vibrations One method of classifying mechanical vibrations is based on degrees of freedom. Free and forced vibrations 2.Single Degree of freedom Systems 2.Two Degrees of freedom Systems 3.Ear receives Vibrations to transmit message to brain 6.Oscillation of body in extreme cold 5. The number of degrees of freedom for a system is the number of kinematically independent variables necessary to completely descibe the motion of every particle in the system. Lungs oscillate in the process of breathing 3.Linear vibrations 2. 1. Mechanical vibration is the study of oscillatory motions of bodies. Shivering. Walking.Session. Sometime vibration problems are classified as: 1.1 The study of vibration A body is said to vibrate if it has periodic motion. Mechanical Vibrations 1. The study of vibrations is important to aeronautical.Beating of heart 2. multidegrees of freedom systems and continuous systems. The syllabus covers fundamentals of vibration. mechanical and civil engineers. Some times vibrations can be useful. Speaking . It is necessary for a design engineer to have a sound knowledge of vibrations. Vibration of atoms 7. we can classify mechanical vibrations as follows: 1.()CSM –Ch-1 1.2 Examples of vibration 1. undamped and damped single degree of freedom systems. For example. damage to machines and buildings and wear of machine parts such as bearings and gears. Based on degrees of freedom. Random vibrations .INTRODUCTION 1. vibratory compactors are used for compacting concrete during construction work. Damped and undamped vibrations.Continuous Systems or systems with infinite degrees of freedom Another broad classification of vibrations is: 1.Multidegree of freedom Systems 4. Non-linear vibrations 3. Excessive vibration causes discomfort to human beings. Vibrations are harmful for engineering systems. The object of the sixth semester course on mechanical vibrations is to discuss the basic concepts of vibration with their applications.Oscillation of legs and hands 4.

Simple Pendulum Fig 1. but averages and standard derivations are known. Improper bearings (Due to wear & tear or bad quality) 5.Transient vibrations A system is linear if its motion is governed by linear differential equations.the excitation is said to be random. The resulting vibrations are called transient vibrations. the excitation is said to be deterministic. Example: . One example of a nonperiodic short duration excitation is the ground motion in an earthquake The main causes of vibrations are: 1. Vibrations in machine tools can lead to improper machining of parts 1. A system is nonlinear if its motion is governed by nonlinear differential equations.4. External excitation applied on the system The effects of vibrations are as follows: 1.1 (a) Simple pendulum . Poor quality product 5. If the excitation force is unknown. Increased wear 4. Some times systems are subjected to short duration nonperiodic forces. Difficult to sell a product 6. In this case the resulting vibrations are also random. Bad design 2. Poor quality of manufacture 4.4 Basic terms associated with vibrations FREE VIBRATIONS Vibrations under free or natural conditions. No disturbing forces. If the excitation force is known at all times. Unwanted noise 2. Worn out gear teeth 6. Early failure due to cyclical stress(fatigue failure) 3. Unbalanced inertia forces 3.

I. 2.C Engines-vibrations due to unbalanced inertia forces DEGREES OF FREEDOM m1 m1 m1 Single D.FORCED VIBRATIONS Vibration due to impressed disturbing force Examples 1.O.1 (a) m2 Two D.1( d ) .1( c) Cantilever Beam Continuous system Infinite Degrees of Freedom Fig 1.O.F m2 Fig 1.Electric bell-clipper oscillation under electromagnetic force.F Fig 1.O.1(b) m3 Three D.F Fig 1.

H. . Simple harmonic motion is represented graphically in fig 1.M the time taken to execute one cycle.2 SHM Simple harmonic motion is characterized by periodic oscillation about the equilibrium position. Each oscillation is one cycle.H. For S. usually 1 second. the period.M. The frequency of motion is the number of cycles executed in a fixed period of time. the maximum displacement from equilibrium position.1. is also constant in S.1 (a ) are described as simple harmonic motion. The amplitude.5 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION (S H M) The oscillations of the mass shown in fig 1.2 X A t X-Displacement A-amplitude T-Periodic Time f-Frequency f=1/T ω=Frequency in radians per second t= time x ωA t ω ²A t X= A sin ωt X Fig 1. . is constant.

Determine a) Its frequency in rad/sec. determine the acceleration a) In m/s² b) In terms of g Solution: Given f = 150 Hz .. x = 0.8 mm w= ? T=? a = ? (in m/s²) a = ? (in terms of g) w=2 π f = 2 π (150) = 942 Rad/sec T= 1/f=1/150= 0.81= 72. A= 0.0.8 (942) cos (942 t +Φ ) .8 sin ( 942 t + Φ ) . X=Acceleration = .8 (942)2 mm/s2 = 710.43 g .8 mm.ω² A sin ωt = ω² A sin (ωt + π ) = -ω² x PROPERTIES OF OSCILLATORY MOTION Peak value.Indicates space requirement.61/9.. x = . If the amplitude of vibrations is 0.66 milli seconds x = A sin (ω t +Φ ) = 0. X=Velocity = A ω cos ωt =A ω sin ( ωt + π /2 ) .. An indication of maximum stress in the vibrating part Average Value .0066 sec = 6.8 (942)2 Sin (942 t + Φ) a = (x ) max = 0. b)Time Period of oscillations.For sine wave X² =1/2 A² RMS Value = A /√ 2 Problem 1 The frequency of Vibrations of a machine is 150 Hz.Average value for complete sine wave is zero For half sine wave X = 2A / π A-Amplitude Mean square value .61 m/s2 = 710.

frequency. During each second it reaches the top position (5 cms above ground) 15 times.2 X = Sin ωt (A Cos θ) + Cos ωt (A Sin θ ) X= A Sin (ωt + θ) A2 (Sin2 θ+ Cos2 θ ) = (A1 + A2 Cos Φ)2 + (A2 Sin Φ)2 A = √ A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 Cos Φ) From equations 1 and 2 we also get Tan θ = A2 Sin Φ/ (A1 + A2 Cos Φ) .1 A2 Sin Φ = A Sin θ -------. A body suspended from a spring vibrates vertically up and down between two positions 3 and 5 cms above the ground. Find the time period. circular frequency and amplitude of motion. f = Frequency =15 cps T = Period = 1/15 Sec 5 ω = Circular Frequency ω = 2 π f = 2 π (15) =30 π rad/sec 3 3 1. Solution: Amplitude = (5-3)/2 =1 cm.6 Addition of harmonic motions of same frequency x1= A1 Sin ωt x2 = A2 Sin (ωt + Φ) X = x1+ x2 = A1 Sin ωt + A2 Sin (ωt + Φ) X = Sin ωt (A1+ A2 Cos Φ ) + Cos ωt (A2 Sin Φ) Let A1+ A2 Cos Φ = A Cos θ -------.Problem 2.

they will provide minimum amplitude vibration. the resultant amplitude will be maximum. When the two harmonic motions are in the same phase.Graphical Method for addition of two harmonic motions A A2 φ θ A1 ωt SUM OF HARMONIC MOTIONS Same frequency but different phase angles Sum of two harmonic motions of slightly different frequencies and same amplitude Beats Is also a harmonic motion of the same frequency Continuous build up and decrease in amplitude 1. X1 = A Sin ω1t X2 = A Sin ω2t X = X1+ X2 =A Sin ω1t + A Sin ω2t Let .7 BEATS The phenomenon of beats occurs when two harmonic motions of slightly different frequencies and same amplitude are added. On the other hand. when the two motions are out of phase.

ω2)t X = Sin [(ω1+ ω2)t ]/2 When B= 2 A Cos [(ω1.= 2 A Sin (ω1+ ω2)t Cos (ω1.3. Vibration analysis of system subjected to periodic but nonharmonic forces can be done with the help of Fourier series.2 Time in sec Force Developed during punching operation With the help of Fourier series vibration analysis of such problems can be done . Example :.2 0.Excitation force is periodic Force 5000 N 0.5 0.7 1 1.ω2)t]/2 The Frequency of beats is (ω1.ω2)/2 π Hz Graphical representation of Beats 1. The problem becomes a multifrequency excitation problem.8 Fourier series analysis Forces acting on machines are generally periodic but this may not be harmonic for example the excitation force in a punching machine is periodic and it can be represented as shown in figure 1. The principle of linear superposition is applied and the total response is the sum of the response due to each of the individual frequency term.

an= ω/ π x (t) cos (nωt)dt o o ∫ ∫ bn= ω/ π Problem 1. x(t) sin(nωt)dt Develop the Fourier Series for the curve shown in figure The function is defined as y=x (t) -π<t<π X(t)= ao/2+ a1cos ωt+ a2 cos 2ωt + ……+ b1Sin ωt+ b2 Sin 2ωt + …… The equation for the curve for one cycle for AB . are coefficients of infinite series (a1cos ωt+ b1sin ωt) is First Harmonic 2π/ω 2π/ω ao= ω/ π x(t) dt . a1.b2….π<t< π .……b1.. X(t)= t .Fourier Series ∞ ∑ (a cos nωt) + b sin nωt) X(t)= ao/2 + n n n=1 ω= 2 π / T = Fundamental frequency ao.a2.

Sin 2t .(2/n) Cos n π X(t) = (2/1)(-1)2 Sin ωt +(2/2) (-1)3 Sin 2ωt + … X(t) = 2 ( Sin ωt – (Sin 2 ωt)/2 + (Sin 3ωt) /3 -.ω= 2π / T = 2 π / 2 π = 1 π ao= 1/ π tdt =0 ∫ -π an= 1/ p t cos nt dt = 0 The graph is symmetrical about the origin and the function is odd ao= an = 0 π bn= 1/ π ∫ -π t sin nt dt = (2/n) (-1) n+1 = .. .(1/2) Sin 4t .(2/3) Sin 3t..……) The first four harmonics of the series are 2Sint. . ) = 2 (Sin t –(Sin2t) / 2 + (Sin 3t) / 3 .

The sum of the first four harmonies is y = x(t) = 2 Sin t – Sin 2t + (2/3) Sin 3t– (1/2)sin 4t Since this is a partial sum of the Fourier series.π ≤ x ≤ 0 if 0 ≤ x ≤ π 0 ( 0 dx + π dx ) = π 0 πCos nx dx = 0 π π sin nx dx = 1/n(1-cosnπ) ∫ -π an = 1/π ∫ -π ∫ 0 n≥1 bn=1/π The factor (1-cos n π) assumes the following values as n increases n (1-cos nπ) 1 2 2 0 3 2 4 0 5 2 …… …… .They are plotted as numberd curves in the figure. it may be expected to approximate the function x. The sum of the four terms is shown in figure Problem: Find the Fourier series of the periodic function shown in figure f(x) x -2π f(x)=0 f(x)= π a0 =1/π -π 0 π 2π if .

Problem Identification 2.e y= π/2 + 2(sin x +(1/3) sin x ) 1..e y= π/2 2.9 SOLVING A VIBRATION PROBLEM The following steps are involved in solving a vibration problem 1.f(x) = π/2 + 2sin x +(2/3)sin3x + (2/5)sin 5x +….Shows sum of three terms i.e y= π/2 + 2 sin x 3..Shows sum of one term i. Mathematical modeling 3.Shows sum of two terms i. = /2 + 2 ( (sin x)/1 + (sin 3x)/3 +(sin 5x)5 +. Setting up the differential equation of motion 4.. 1. Interpretation of results .

The third approach to setting up the equation of motion is to apply energy method... ∑ Forces -m x = 0 . The differential equation of the spring mass system is set up by considering all the forces and applying D’Alembert’s Principle Spring mass system represents several practical systems . ∑ Torques . The first step in solving a vibration problem is setting up the differential equation of motion.Use D’Alembert’s Principle . .I θ = 0 m = Mass x = Displacement m x = Inertia Force.. If during vibrations there is no loss of energy.2 Spring mass system Fig 2.1 shows a one degree of freedom simple spring mass system.()CSM –Ch-2 2. . For a rotational system we have to consider torques instead of forces. θ = Angular Displacement I = Mass Moment of Inertia.. I θ = Inertia Torque D’Alembert’s Principle states that the resultant of all forces acting on a body along with the inertia force is equal to zero.1 Introduction Free vibrations are oscillations about a systems equilibrium position that occur in the absence of an external excitation force. The three approaches to setting up differential equation of motion are as follows SETTING UP THE EQUATION OF MOTION 1. Alternatively. In fig 2.Session.1 the co-ordinate x is used to describe the position of the mass. 2. The mass and spring are the basic building blocks for vibrational analysis. we can get the differential equation of motion by applying Newton’s second law of motion. Spring stiffness is defined as the force required to elongate or compress the spring by unit length. Using D’Alembert’s Principle we can setup the differential equation of motion. Free vibrations of a system with a single degree of freedom is one of the most important topics. UNDAMPED FREE VIBRATION 2. It represents several practical systems. it is known as undamped vibration.

δ = Static deflection of spring K δ = Force due to static deflection mg = Gravitational pull . m x + Kx + K δ .. m x = Inertia Force Kx = Spring Force. Machine mounted on isolators 2. Kδ Figure 2.1 .mg = 0 . m x + Kx = 0 Linear homogeneous second order differential equation X=A sin ωn t + B cos ωn t .Examples: 1.. Mass m attached to the end of a cantilever beam K K-Spring stiffness in N/m m-Mass in Kg m K m Free body diagram x mx ...

Rotor Steel shaft 0. Problem A small Pelton wheel rotating at 1500 rpm has a rotor of mass 10 Kg mounted at the centre of a steel shaft which has a span of 0. so that the transverse natural frequency is 50 percent higher than the running speed? Assume E for steel as 2x1011 pa. The amplitude of oscillations C and the phase angle Φ can be determined by applying the initial conditions.4 m between bearings. What should be the diameter of the shaft .68x1012 d4 N/m ωn= √ K/m = √ (3.68x1012xd4)/10 ----1 .= C sin (ωn t +φ ) ωn= √ K /m = Natural Frequency of vibrations This is the only frequency with which the system vibrates when disturbed and let free .4 m Equivalent system K= Equivalent stiffness m = Mass of rotor δ = Deflection at centre = Wl3/ 48EI K=W/ δ = 48EI / l3 E=Modulus of Elasticity = 2x1011 Pa K m I = π d4/64 K = (48x2x1011 x π d4)/ (0. The natural frequency is a characteristic property of the vibrating system.43x64) = 3.

2 shows how a spring elongated by δ when a mass is placed at the end of a spring.97 Cm 2.3 NATURAL FREQUENCY IN TERMS OF STATIC DEFLECTION The figure2.2 2.4 EQUIVALENT STIFFNESS OF SPRINGS IN PARALLEL K ωn= √ K/m = √ (mg) / (δ m ) ωn= √ g / δ K1 K2 Ke m F Fig 2. The natural frequency of vibration can be expressed in terms of static deflection as shown below δ = Static deflection K= mg / δ K δ m Fig 2.But ωn = (1.0197 m= 1.5x1500x2 π)/60 Rad/sec---2 Equating 1 & 2 d= 0.3 x m F= Force applied x = Elongation of spring F= K1x + K2x = x(K1+ K2) Ke=F/x = K1+ K2 = Equivalent stiffness . δ is known as static deflection.

CW .SPRINGS IN SERIES F= Applied Force x1= Elongation of Spring 1 x2= Elongation of Spring 2 x= x + x2 = F/K1 + F/K2 = F(1/K1 +1/K2) x = F( (K1+K2)/ (K1 K2)) Ke= Equivalent Stiffness = F/x = ((K1 K2)/ (K1+K2)) 1 K1 2 K2 F 2..I about O = mk2 + mh2.5 ROTATIONAL SYSTEMS In the case of rotational systems.the differential equation of motion is obtained by adding the inertia torque to the sum of external torque and equating the sum to zero ∑ External Torques + Inertial Torque = 0 Compound Pendulum W O is Point of Suspension h is distance from O to G G is Centre of Gravity I is M. m is mass of the pendulum K is Radius of Gyration θ is angular displacement Restoring Torque = hW sinθ .

Inertia Torque = I θ CW Reference Point for taking torques is O .D . calculate the natural Frequency of vibrations of the mass o Ka θ F. For small oscillations.. θ + (Ka2 θ +mgl θ)/ml2 = 0 . I θ + h mg sinθ = θ For small amplitude oscillation sin θ ≈ θ I θ + mgh θ = 0 ωn = √ mgh / I = √gh /( k2 + h2 ) Problem The mass of the slender uniform rod shown in the figure is small compared to the mass attached to it.. cos θ ≈1 & sin θ ≈ θ ..... ∑Mo +I0 θ = 0 mg θ . m l2 θ +Ka θ a cos θ + mg sin θ x l = 0 For small θ. θ + ((Ka2 +mgl)/ml2) θ = 0 .B. .

55 = √ ( (9.017126 I G = m K2 = 2x 0.ωn = √ (Ka2 +mgl)/ ml2 Problem A connecting rod of mass 2Kg oscillates 53 times in 1minute when suspended as shown in fig.81x 0.017126 = 0. Determine its moment of inertia about its centre of gravity.25)/(K2 + 0. ωn= 2πfn = (2 π 53 )/60 = 5. fn= 53 cpm.034252 Kg m2 . which is located 25 cm from the point of support 25 G m = 2 Kg.55 rad/sec ωn= √ (gh)/(K2+h2) 5.252) K2 = 0.

I.. x IA / (n2l2) + Kx = 0 .. l nl O K A A X Knl θ IA θ θ R θ Free body diagram Treated as rotational system Inertia torque + ∑ External torque = 0 . .. IA θ +Knl θ (nl) = 0 IA= Mass M. about A = ml2/12 + m (l/2-nl)2 = ml2/3(3n2-3n +1) x= nl θ θ = x / nl . .Problem Determine the effective mass at a point o of a uniform rod of mass m and length l pivoted at a distance nl from o as shown in figure... .

What is the amplitude of vertical acceleration of the wheels of an automobile as it travels over the road at a constant horizontal speed of 40 m/s ? y Bumpy road A x 50.125x = 2π x = 2π/0. A = Amplitude = 0.125x) mts.26 m .03 sin(0.03 sin(0.125x) mts.03 m sin(0.125x) = 0 for x = 0 0.26 Body Wheels y(x) = 0.Equivalent system me x + K x = 0 me= Effective mass at 0 me= IA/( n2l2) = ml2 (3n2-3n +1)/ (3n2l2) me= m ((3n2-3n +1)/3n2) me K Problem The contour of a bumpy road is approximated as y(x) = 0.125 = 50.

ω2 A Sinωt Maximum vertical acceleration of wheels = ω2A = (5.mgx ∫ x ∫ ( mg + Kx) dx – mgx . For a conservative system Total energy = Constant T + U = Constant T = Kinetic Energy U = Potential Energy K m x .26/40 = 1. y= Aω Cosωt .. y = .256 sec.T = Periodic time = 50.002)2 (0.256 = 5.03) = 0. ω = 2π/T = 2π/1.75 m/s2 2. T=mx2/2 = Energy stored in the spring x = 0 = 0 ( Spring force) dx . In a vibrating system the energy is partly potential and partly kinetic.002 rad/sec y = ASin ωt .6 ENERGY METHOD The differential equation of motion can also be derived using energy method. In a conservative system the total energy is constant.

. . d/dt (m x2 /2 + Kx2/2 ) = 0 . In this method we equate the maximum kinetic energy at one extreme position to the maximum potential energy at another extreme position.E)max = ( P.E)max = m x2max /2 = m(A ω)2/2 ( P. ( x)max = A w x = A ω Cos ωt .E)max = Kx2 max /2 = K A2 /2 m(A ω)2/2 = K A2 /2 m ω2 = K ω = √ K/m rad/sec . Total Energy of the system = ( K.6.= mgx + Kx2 /2 – mgx = Kx2 /2 d/dt (T + U) = 0 . ( K. The motion is assumed to be simple harmonic and the natural frequency is obtained as indicated below.E)max x= A Sin ωt (x)max = A . mx +Kx=0 2.1 RAYLEIGH’S METHOD Rayleigh’s method is also an energy approach to solving vibration problems.

E.E ) =0 . /l )2 /2 1 0 m x 2 /2+( ρ x / 2l2 ) ∫ (y dy) 2 l 0 .E.E = (m + ρ l/3) x2 / 2 +Kx2 /2 d/dt( K. . 0 = ∫ (ρ dy)(y x . = m x2 /2+( ρ l3/ 6l2) x2 = (m + ρ l/3)x 2 / 2 Total Energy= K. d/dt[(m + ρ l/3) x2 /2 + K x2/2 ] = 0 .2.E + P. = m x2 /2+( ρ x2 / 2l2 )(y3/3) . . .7 EFFECT OF MASS OF SPRING ρ = Mass per unit length of spring K.E of mass + K. K. of the system = K. . of the system = mx2 /2+ .E of spring 1 .E + P. .

2/2(m+ ρ l/3)

x

x

+ 2/2 K x x

=0

.

(m+ ρ l/3) x + Kx = 0 ωn= √ K / (m + ρl /3) ρ l =Mass of Spring 2.8. Problems

U Tube Problem ρ = Density of liquid, A= Cross sectional Area of tube, l= Length of liquid column in tube K.E = m x 2 /2 = (lA ρ) x2 /2 P.E = (ρA x)gx = ρ A g x2 d/dt[ K.E + P.E ] = 0

.

.

.

d/dt [ (lA ρ) x 2 /2+ ρ A g x2] = 0

. ..

lA ρ x

.

x+2ρgx x =0

..

lx+2gx=0 ωn = √ (2g/l) rad/sec

Problem A circular cylinder of mass m and radius r is connected by a spring of stiffness K as shown in figure. If it is free to roll on the rough surface which is horizontal without slipping, find its natural frequency

Let m = Mass of the cylinder I = Mass M.I of cylinder = mr2/2 x= Linear displacement of cylinder θ = Angular motion of cylinder x=rθ Total Energy of the system = K.E of translation +K.E of rotation + P.E

.

=m x2/2

.

+ I θ 2 /2 + K x2 /2

.

= m(r θ )2 /2

.

+ I θ2 /2 + K (r θ)2 /2

.

d/dt( K.E + P.E) = 0

.

= m r 2 θ2 /2+ I θ 2 /2+ K r2 θ2/2

. .. .. .. ..

+ mr /2) θ + Κ r θ = 0

2 2

. ..

.

mr2 (2 θ θ )/2 + I (2 θ θ) /2+ K r2 (2 θ θ)/2 =0

mr2 θ +I θ + Kr2 θ = 0 (mr2

ωn = √ 2K / 3m

Rad/sec

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Methods of Obtaining Governing equations 3. Equations in Matrix Form 4. Influence Coefficients 5. Methods of Finding Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes

8.1. Introduction

8.1.1. Definition: - The number of degrees of freedom of any structural system is the number of kinematically independent coordinates required to describe the motion of every particle that constitute the system. It is determined by the number of inertial elements and the number of coordinates required to describe the motion of each inertial element.

Examples of M-D-F Systems

y

θ

Inertial element

Fig.8.1 (a): Two-degree-of freedom system with one inertial element and two independent coordinates y and θfor one inertial element. y m1

k1

k2 m2

y

Fig. 8.1(b) : Two degree-of-freedom system with two inertial elements each having independent coordinate y1 and y2 to describe their motion.

8.2. GoverningEquations

1. Force-Balance Method and Moment Balance Method 2. Energy Method (Lagrange’s Equations)

We restrict our discussion only to the force-balance method/moment balance method for obtaining the equations of motion of the given sys0\tem .Note: .

.2 is normally written in short form as + [cij]{ýi} + [kij]{yi} = {Fi(t)} …………..Certain systems can have both rectilinear and angular motions. the algebraic sum of all the forces including the inertia forces is equal to zero.1(a)] 8. {ÿi} = (k1 + k2) −k2 m2 . the matrix [kij] is called the stiffness matrix.{ýi}= ý1 −c2 (c2 + c3) 2 [kij] = Governing Equations (contd) (k2 + k3) . the matrix [cij] Is called the damping matrix.3. Equations In Matrix Form The two equations 8. [cij] = m2 m1 0 0−c2 (c2 + c3) (c1 + c2) −c2 . Equation 8. Moment Balance Method This method is the application of D’Alembert’s principle for angular motion (Eg.[8.Force Balance Method This method is nothing but the application of D’Alembert’s principle for rectilinear motion (Eg. the algebraic sum of all the moments including the inertial moment about any point in the system is equal to zero. which states that for dynamic equilibrium.1(b)] …………….3) [mij]{ÿi} m1 Where [mij] 0 0 (c1 + c2) −c2 . It states that for dynamic equiibrium. {ÿi} = ý2 ÿ1 . Linear Spring-Mass Systems).(8.1(b) can be written in matrix form as shown below. For such systems both the methods have to be used to get the required equations of motion Equations for ALinear Spring-Mass-Damper System Force balance for m1 gives the following equation : m1ÿ1 + k1y1 + k2(y1 – y2) + c1ý1 +c2(ý1 – ý2) = F1(t) Force balance for m2 gives the following equation: m2ÿ2 – k2(y1 – y2) + k3y2 –c2(ý1 – ý2) + c3ý2 = F2(t) ………….[8.{ýi}= ý1 ÿ2 ý2 The matrix [mij] is called the mass matrix. The column vector {yi} is called the displacement . Note: .1(a) and 8. Torsional Systems). [cij] = Where [mij] (k1 + k2) − k2 ÿ1 −k ÿ2 [kij] = −k2 (k2 + k3) .

A matrix [aij] is called a symmetric matrix if it is a square matrix with aij = aji.4: Torsional system with two degrees of freedom . The mass matrix. where as the off-diagonal elements of the damping matrix and the stiffness matrix are not zero. Equations for a Torsional System Oil housing with damping ct1 kt1 Rotor with inertia J1 kt2 Oil housing with damping ct2 Rotor with Inertia J2 Fig.vector. and {ÿi} is called the acceleration vector.8. The off-diagonal elements of the mass matrix are zero. the damping matrix and the stiffness matrix are symmetric matrices. {ýi} is called the velocity vector.

θ2 (kt1+kt2) + −kt2 kt2 θ2 θ1 + 0 ct2 θ2 .4 (b) can be written in matrix form as follows. J2θ2 + ct2θ2 +kt2 (θ2 – θ1) = 0 ……………………8.4(a) and 8. for system shown in balance for J1 gives the equation: θ1 θ2 kt1θ1 + kt2 (θ1 – θ2) = ………8. ...4(b) Equations 8.4(a) balance for J2 gives the equation: J1θ1 + M(t) ……… Moment following .Free-body diagrams Equations Fig..8.4 Moment following . J1 0 0 J2 ct1 0 θ1 . − kt2 θ1 = M(t) …………(8. .5) 0 .

6. . 8.5 can be written in a more compact form as: . the damping matrix. 8. and . and the stiffness matrix. [Ctij]...i. The flexibility influence coefficient aij is defined as the displacement at station i due to a unit force acting at station j. Influence Coefficients Stiffness Influence Coefficients: .7 for a spring-mass-damper system.The governing equations of motion for a M-D-F system can also be expressed in terms of the flexibility influence coefficients. Fi point i Fj point j Fig. 8.4. It can be shown that [aij] = Inverse of [kij] Maxwell’s Reciprocal Theorem :. As in the case of spring mass system.. General Form of Equations for an N-Degree-of . .Eq. all the other mass stations except station j is held fixed at the equilibrium position. [Jij] {θi} + [ctij] {θi} + [ktij] {θi] = {Mi(t)} ………………….6.8 For a torsional system. here also.8.e.Freedom System The general form of equations for an N-degree-of-freedom system can now be written as follows: [M]{ÿ } + [C] {ý} + [K] {y} = {F(t)}…………8. The physical interpretation of kij is that −kij represents the restraining force at station i due to unit displacement at station j. Flexibility Influence Coefficients: . the moment of inertia matrix [Jij].aij = aji Proof of Maxwell’s Theorem: . [ktij] are symmetric matrices and the offdiagonal terms of the inertia matrix are zero.The theorem states that the displacement at any point i in the system due to a unit load acting at any other point j in the same system is equal to the displacement at the point j due to a unit load acting at i in the same system.The elements of the stiffness matrix [kij] are called “stiffness influence coefficients”.6: A general system to prove Maxwell’s theorem . [J] {Θ} + [Ct]{Θ} + [Kt] {Θ} = {M(t)} ………8. 8.Consider a system shown in Fig.

Let i and j be two points on the system where loads Fi and Fj can be applied.E8. Therefore equating the two expressions for the total work done we have aij = aji Determination of Influence Coefficients(Illustrative examples) Example 8. the work done is given by (W)Fi = (1/2)Fi aiiFi Now when the load Fj is applied at point j gradually from zero to its full value with Fi acting at i all the time the work done is given by (W)Fj = Work done by Fi + Work done by Fj = Fi aijFj + (1/2)Fj ajjFj Total work done = Wtotal = (W)Fi + (W)Fj = (1/2)Fi aiiFi + Fi aijFj + (1/2)Fj ajjFj Similarly when Fj is first applied gradually and then Fi is applied gradually with Fj acting all the time the total work done is given as follows: Total = (1/2)Fj ajjFj + Fi aji Fj + (1/2)Fi aiiFi The total work done should be the same for both the cases as the final deflection curve is same in both the cases. (i) First load Fi is applied gradually from zero to its full value and then load Fj is applied at j gradually from zero to its full value with Fi acting all the time.E8.Let m1 be displaced by a distance X1. When load Fi is applied gradually at point i.By definition −kij represents the force at station i due to unit displacement at j. Now imagine that the two loads are applied as follows.1 To find k11 and k12:.1 : Schematic for example 8.1(a). For this arrangement the total work done by both the forces is calculated as follows. . E8. Since the load is applied gradually. Then the free body diagram for m1 and m2 will be as shown in Fig. all other stations being held fixed.1 k1 m1 k2 m2 k3 Fig.1: To find the stiffness influence coefficients for the system shown in Fig. keeping m2 held fixed. the final displacement at i would be aiiFi.

E8.k1X1 m1 X1 k2X1 m2 Fig.E8. Then the free-body diagram for m1 and m2 will be as shown in Fig.Let a displacement X2 be effected at m2 with m1 held fixed. X2 m1 k2X2 m2 k3X2 Fig.1(b). By Maxwell’s theorem k12 = k21 To find k22:.1(a): Free-body diagram when a displacement X1 is effected at m1 with m2 being held fixed.1(b): Free-body diagram when a displacement X2 is effected at m2 holding m1 fixed. Resultant force at station 1 = F11 = −k1X1 −k2X1 = −(k1 + k2)X1 Therefore −k11 = F11 / X1 = − (k1 + k2) Or k11 = (k1 + k2) Resultant force at station 2 = F21 = k2X1 Therefore −k21 = F21 / X1 = k2 Or k21 = −k2. Total force acting on m2 = F22 = −k2X2 −k3X2 = −(k2 + k3) X2 Therefore Or Therefore Or −k22 = F22 / X2 = −(k2 + k3) k22 = (k2 + k3) −k12 = F12 / X2 = k2 k12 = −k2 = k21 (as obtained earlier) Also Total force on m1 = F12 = k2X2 .E8.

2(a): Free-body diagram when F1 acts on m1 Force balance for m1 gives. Let X11 and X21 be the displacements at station 1 and station 2 due to this force.(1) we get . F1 = k1X11 + k2(X11 − X21) Or Or F1 = (k1 + k2)X11 − k2X21…………….(1) X21 = k2X11 / (k2 + k3)………………. E8.E8. Then the free-body diagram for m1 and m2 will be as shown in Fig.(3) = X21 / F1 = [X21 / X11] / [F1/X11] k2 / (k2 + k3) = ---------------------------------------[k1k2 +k2k3 +k3k1]/ (k2 +k3) k2 a21 = --------------------------------------.2(a)..= a12 [k1k2 + k2k3 + k3k1] Therefore a11 = X11 / F1 = (k2 + k3) /[k1k2 + k2k3 + k3k1] Force balance for m2 gives k2(X11 − X21) −k3X21 = 0 Substituting this in Eq.1 Let a force F1 be applied at station 1.Example 8.(2) (k22X11) F1 = (k1 + k2)X11 − ----------------(k2 + k3) Or a21 F1 = X11[k1k2 + k2k3 + k3k1] / (k2 + k3) …………. F1 k1X11 m1 K2(X11−X21) m2 k3X21 X21 X11 Fig.2 To obtain the flexibility influence coefficients for the system given in example 8.

.2(b): Free-body diagram when F2 is applied at m2 Force balance for m1 gives k1x12 − k2(x22 − x12) = 0 k2x22 Or x12 = ------------------. (3) we get . k22 x22 F2 = (k2 + k3)x22 − ---------------------------( k1 + k2) x22[(k2 + k3)(k1 + k2) − k22] Or F2 = ----------------------------------( k1 + k2) (k1k2 + k2k3 + k3k1) Therefore a22 = x22 / F2 = ---------------------------(k1 + k2) Substituting for x12 from Eq. E8.• To find a22:.Let a force F2 be applied at m2.…………. E8.(3) (k1 + k2) Force balance for m2 gives F2 = k2(x22 −x12) + k3x22 Or F2 = (k2 + k3)x22 − k2x12. The free-body diagram for the two masses will be as shown in Fig.2(b) F2 k1x12 m1 K2(x22 −x12) m2 k3x22 Fig.

3(a). θ1 T1 θ1 m1 F1 x11 x21 x31 (m1 + m2 + m3)g Fig.3 : To determine the flexibility influence coefficients for the system shown in Fig.Example 8. E8. 8. E8.3 L1 θ1 θ2 L2 m2 θ3 L3 m3 Fig.3(a): Free body diagram .3: Triple pendulum m1 • Let a force F1 be applied at m1 in the horizontal direction as shown in Fig.8.

Therefore a21 = a31 = a11. Therefore F1 = (m1 + m2 + m3)g tan θ1 = (m1 + m2 + m3)g x11 / L1 L1 Or a11 = x11 / F1 = -----------------------------(m1 + m2 + m3)g It can be seen from the free body diagram that x21 = x31 = x11. Therefore L1 a11 = a21 = a12 = a31 = a13 = ------------------------(m1 + m2 + m3 )g Now let a horizontal force F2 be applied on m2.3(b). For small oscillations.3(b): Free body diagram when F2 acts on m2 . E8.Force balance in horizontal direction at m1 gives F1 = T1sin θ1 and in vertical direction gives (m1 + m2 + m3)g = T1cos θ1. T2 θ1 θ2 θ2 L2 F2 m2 F2 x12 X22 = x32 (m2 + m3)g Fig. a12 = a21 and a13 = a31. Then the free body diagram will be as shown in Fig. E8. Also by Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem. sin θ1 = tan θ1 and cos θ1 = 1.

.+ ------------------------ Let a force F3 be applied horizontally on m3. For small oscillations sin θ2 = tan θ2 and cos θ2 = 1 Therefore F2 = (m2 + m3)g tan θ2 = (m2 + m3)g (x22 − x12) / L2 Or x22 / F2 − x12 / F2 = L2 / (m2 + m3)g Therefore a22 − a12 = L 2 / (m2 + m3)g Or a22 = a12 + L 2 / (m2 + m3)g L1 (m1 + m2 + m3)g Also • a32 = a22 L2 (m2 + m3)g a22 = -------------------------. The free body diagram will be as shown below. T3 θ1 θ3 x13 θ2 L3 θ3 x23 x33 m 3g F3 • • • • Force balance in the horizontal direction gives F3 = T3 sin θ3 and in vertical direction it gives m3g = T3 cos θ3.Force balance in horizontal direction gives F2 = T2 sin θ2 and force balance in vertical direction gives T2 = (m2 + m3) g.

Solution to example 8.4(a). Show that the stiffness influence coefficients of the junction in a direction making an angle θ with any spring is independent of θ and equal to 1 / (1. E8.4 • Let point o be displaced by a distance x in the direction oo’ making an angle θ with one of the springs as shown in Fig. .4: Three equal springs of stiffness k are joined at one end and the other ends are arranged symmetricaly at 1200 from each other.+ --------------------. sin θ3 = tan θ3 and cos θ3 = 1 Therefore F3 = m3g tanθ3 = m3g (x33 − x23) / L 3 Or x33 / F3 − x23 / F3 = L 3 / m3g Or a33 − a23 = L 3 / m3g Therefore a33 = a23 + L 3 / m3g = a32 + L 3 / m3g L1 L2 (m1 + m2 + m3)g L3 (m2 + m3)g m3g Or a33 = ----------------------.• • • • • For small oscillations.5 k).4: Schematic for example 8.+ ----------- Example 8. E8.4 k 1200 k o 1200 k Fig.

Total spring force due to all the three springs in the direction oo’ is given by Fx = kx cos2θ + kx cos2 (60 −θ) + kx cos2(60+θ) = kx[cos2θ +{cos 600cos θ – sin 600sin θ}2 +{cos 600cos θ + sin 600sin θ}2] Or Fx = kx[cos2θ + ¼ cos2θ −(√3/2)cos θ sinθ + (¾) sin2θ + ¼ cos2θ +(√3/2)cosθ sinθ + ¾ sin2θ] = kx [1.5: . Therefore the component of spring force 3 in the direction oo’ = kx cos2(60+θ). Component of this spring force in the direction oo’ = kx cos2θ.5 cos2θ + 1.o’ θ 600 600 Spring 3 Spring 2 Spring 1 o Fig.5 sin2θ] = 1. E8. Spring force due to this displacement in the direction of spring 1 = kx cos θ.4(a) : Directions of the three springs with respect to oo’ Component of the displacement x in the direction of spring1 = x cos θ.5 kx Therefore displacement influence coefficient = x / Fx = 1 / (1. Spring force due to this displacement = kx cos (60 −θ) • • Component of spring force in the direction oo’ = kx cos2(60 −θ) Spring 3 makes an angle of (60 + θ) with oo’. The direction of spring 2 with respect to oo’ = 60 − θ Componenet of the displacement x in the direction of spring 2 = x cos (60 −θ).5 k) Example 8.

Then the deflection curve and the bending moment diagram will be as shown in Fig. E8. y11 = Moment of the area of the B-M diagram about 1 / (EI) y11 = (1 / EI) ½ (mgL) x L x 2/3 L = mgL3 / (3EI) Therefore a11 = y11 / mg = L3 /(3EI) Y21 = Moment of the area of B-M diagram up to 2 about 2 = (1 / EI) [½mgL x L/2 x L/4 + ½ (mgL/2) x L/2 x (2/3)L/2] = 5mgL3 / (48 EI) Therefore a21 = y21 /mg = 5L3 / (48 EI) .5 (a) : Deflection curve and B-M diagram when only mg is acting Using moment-area method.Let the location at which m is acting be designated as station 1 and the location at which 2m is acting be designated as station2.Determine the flexibility influence coefficients for the cantilever beam shown in Fig.5:Schematic for example 8.5 2m L/2 Fig. E8.E8.5 m L/2 Solution:. 2 y21 L/2 L/2 1 y11 mgL mgL / 2 Fig.5(a). E8. Now let only m be acting at station 1.

.Let us consider the equations of motion for an ‘n’ degree-of-freedom system expressed in terms of stiffness influence coefficients.6. 2. 8. Where [mi] = mass matrix with off-diagonal elements equal to zero. Pre-multiplying Eq.. 8.. The deflection curve and the B-M diagram will be as shown in Fig. we can write the equation 8...6.3 by by transpose of {xi}s and Eq.6.6 from Eq.7 and {xi}sT [ki j] {xi}r = {xi}rT [ki j] {xi}s ………………. For one of the natural frequencies say ω = ωr.8....8..6.6. These equations in matrix form for free harmonic oscillations can be written as follows..6.. Or ω2 [mi]{xi} = [ki j]{xi} …………………………8...2 as follows: ωs2 [mi]{xi}s = [ki j] {xi}s ………………………8... 8.6..8 Subtracting Eq.6.6.6. and [ki j] = Stiffness matrix..8.. then it follows that {xi}rT [mi] {xi}s = 0 ………………8...5 we get (ωr2 – ωs2) {xi}rT [mi] {xi}s = 0 ………………………….6 {xi}sT[mi] {xi}r = {xi}rT[mi] {xi}s ………………...8.8. by transpose of {xi}r we get ωr2 {xi}sT[mi] {xi}r = {xi}sT [ki j] {xi}r ..1. −ω2[mi]{xi} + [kij]{xi} = {0} ………..6.. 8.6.6.5(b)..8. Introduction: ..5 and ωs2 {xi}rT [mi] {xi}s = {xi}rT [ki j] {xi}s ……………………8.. this method will lead to the highest natural frequency and using the sweeping matrix method the remaining natural frequencies can be obtained.6.. the above equation can be written as . 8....This is the most commonly used method among the iterative methods for determining the natural frequencies (eigen values) and the corresponding mode shapes(eigen vectors) If we are using the flexibility coefficients to write the equations of motion..By Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem a12 = a21 = 5L3 / (48 EI) Now let only the load 2mg act at station2....9 If ωr ≠ ωs. E8..Orthoganality between principal modes :.3 where {xi}r is the amplitude vector corresponding to the natural frequency ωr.4.Matrix Iteration Method 1...10 Since [mi] and [ki j] are symmetric matrices the following relations hold good.4.2 ωr2 [mi] {xi}r = [ki j] {xi}r ……………………. then this method will lead to the lowest natural frequency of the system and the higher natural frequencies are obtained by using the orthogonal property between any two principal modes and the sweeping matrix. Similarly for another natural frequency ωs.. {xi} = Amplitude vector.6.6.. On the otherhand if we use the stiffness influence coefficients to write the governing equations of motion.

8.. Substituting this in Eq...6.. annF For free vibrations..6. : .6.8. for a three degree-of-freedom system Eq. ..8. x2 = − a21m1x1 − a22m2x2 ……………...6.−a1nmn xn ..... and m3 respectively when the system is vibrating with natural frequency ωr and (x1)s..6.. When ωr = ωs.... . (x2)s..13 Where (x1)r... the governing equations for free vibrations has to be written in terms of flexibility influence coefficients as follows: x1 = a11F1 + a12F2 + ………..6..10 and 8. and (x3)s are the amplitudes of masses m1..a2nFn …………...8. {xi}rT [mi] {xi}s = Mr .6.12 0 After performing the matrix multiplication the above equation reduces to (x1)rm1(x1)s + (x2)rm2(x2)s + (x3)rm3(x3)s = 0 ……………………8..11 Equations 8.10 can be written in expanded form as follows: {x1 x2 x3}r 0 0 m1 m2 0 0 0 m3 0 x1 x2 x3 s = 0 0 …………...8..14 And {xi} r [ki j] {xi}s = Kr ………………………. and m3 respectively when the system is vibrating with the natural frequency ωs. 8.6.16 xn = an1F1 + an2F2 + ………. ..11 define the orthogonal properties of the normal modes of vibration.6.6.17 reduces to {xi} = ω2 [aij] [mi] {xi} ………………………8.15 Where Mr and Kr are referred to as “generalized mass” and “generalized stiffness” respectively..6.. m2. ...e... 3.17 xn = − an1m1x1 − an2m2 x2 ……….. 8.. . Fi = − mi xi .a1nFn x2 = a21F1 + a22F2 + ………. .And {xi}rT [ki j] {xi}s = 0 ………………….6.8..18 .... m2.. (x2)r and (x3)r are the amplitudes of vibration of masses m1..Mr and Kr are actually 1 x 1 matrices. x1 = − a11m1x1 − a12m2x2 …………….For example. xi = xi sinωt....− annmnxn Assuming harmonic oscillations i. Eqs..To determine the lowest natural frequency :To determine the lowest natural frequency....6. i = 1 to n.− a2nmnxn ………8.16 we have ...

Then the iterative process is repeated as before to get the other modes. then we have to eliminate the first normal mode by letting C1 = 0.ann m1 0……. {xi}2 .6.. 8.6.22 Introducing the orthogonality principle (Eq.19 Where [bi j] = [ai j] [mi] …………………………. [ai j] = : an1 : a12 ….6. 4. the orthogonality principle is applied to obtain a matrix equation that does not contain the lower modes.8. The iteration process described above converges to the lowest value of ω2 so that the fundamental mode of vibration is obtained. This is then normalized and the procedure is repeated with the normalized column vector itself as the new estimate.0 0 0……mn Eq.. we can use the principle of superposition.6.21 If we want to obtain the second mode. ω2. ……. The iteration process is continued till the first mode repeats itself.0 0 m2…….8. 8..6.22 we get {xi}1T [mi] {xi} = C1 {xi}1T [mi] {xi}1 By letting C1 = 0 we have {xi}1T [mi] {xi} = {0} ……………8.a2n [mi] = : : an2……. which in this case can be stated as follows : If {xi}1. That is {xi} = C1{xi}1 + C2 {xi}2 +……….a1n a22 ….19.6.20 Equation 8.8. 8... + Cn {xi}n ……………………8.ωn then the linear combination of these vectors will also be a solution of the governing differential equations...Where x1 x2 {xi} = xn : : a11 a21 .6... After performing the multiplication.23(a) The expanded form of the above equation for a three degree-of-freedom system will be as follows: m1 { x1 x2 x3 }1 0 0 m2 0 0 x1 x2 0 = 0 …. …….10) in Eq.23(b) ..6.18 can be simplified as : {xi} = ω2 [bi j]{xi} …………………………8.6.Since the governing differential equations are linear.6.{xi}n are the amplitude vectors corresponding to the natural frequencies ω1.Cn{xi}1T [mi]{xi}n ………………….. For the next higher modes and the natural frequencies.6. Calculation of Higher Modes :. the RHS reduces to a column vector. This is done as follows : Pre-multiplying the above equation by {xi}1T[mi] we have {xi}1T[mi] {xi} = C1{xi}1T[mi]{xi}1 + C2 {xi}1T [mi] {xi}2 + ……. The iteration process is started by assuming a set of displacements for {xi} and substituting on the RHS of Eq.19 is the starting point for the iteration process which is as follows. 8.

25 is the result of putting C1 = 0..6.8.25 −(x2)1m2 0 Where {xi} = x1 x2 x3 [si j] = ---------(x1)1m1 0 0 1 0 −(x3)1m3 ----------(x1)1m1 0 1 (x3)1 m3 (x1)1 m1 (x1) = − ------------.27(b) along with the identity (x3) = (x3) ………….23(b) simplifies to 0 m3 x3 0 (x1)1m1(x1) + (x2)1m2(x2) + (x3)1m3(x3) = 0 ………….6.8.24 Equations 8..27(c) Equations 8.23(c) Solving for (x1) from the above equation we get (x2)1 m2 (x1)1 m1 Also we can write and (x2) = (x2) (x3) = (x3) …..6..28 ..0 Eq. 8.8.6.(x3) Since Eq.6.6. the first mode of vibration is eliminated or swept out by the sweeping matrix [si j].. Therefore replacing {xi} on the right hand side of Eq.8.8..8.27(a) (x1) 2m1(x1) + (x2) 2m2 (x2) + (x3) 2m3(x3) = 0………………8. 8..6. (x1)1m1(x1) + (x2)1m2 (x2) + (x3)1m3(x3) = 0 ………………8.24 can be written in matrix form as : {xi} = [si j] {xi} …………………………...6.6.8. which will eliminate the first and second modes are used. For obtaining the third lowest mode the following equations.19 we get {xi} = ω2 [bi j] [si j] {xi} ……………………….8.8....6.(x2) − -------------..The sweeping matrix [si j] is formed by using the Eqs.6....6.6..27(b) is obtained by introducing orthogonality relationship by pre-multiplying Eq.6..27(a) and 8.27(b) Eq..6......27 (a) to (c) can be rewritten as follows: (x1) = 0 − [(x2)1m2 / (x1)1m1](x2) − [(x3)1m3 / (x1)1m1] (x3) (x2) = −[(x1)2m1/(x2)2m2](x1)− [(x3)2m3 / (x2)2m2] (x3) and (x3) = (x3) …………….26 The above equation is used for the iteration process to get the second lowest mode of vibration.6.21 by {xi}2T [mi] and setting C2 = 0..8.6.

Equations 8.6. Or Where [I] {xi} + [dij] {xi} = {0} ………………………8.19 and The iteration process is repeated as done earlier to obtain the second lowest mode shape. 8.6.22 reduces to − ω2 {xi} + [dij] {xi} = {0} Or {xi} = ( 1 / ω2) [ d I j ] {xi} ……………8. [mj] {xi} + [kij] {xi} = {0} ……………………. The method is illustrated by the following examples..28 can be written in matrix form as: {xi} = [sij] {xi} …………………………………………….6. The process is repeated as before.21 Pre-multiplying by [mi]−1 we get .. For the next lower modes and the natural frequencies the orthogonality principle is applied to obtain a modified matrix equation that does not contain the higher modes. Illustrative Examples on Matrix Iteration Method ..e.29 Where [sij] is given by 0 [sij] = 0 − [(x2)1m2 / (x1)1m1] −[(x1)2m1/(x2)2m2] 0 − [(x3)1m3 / (x1)1m1] 0 − [(x3)2m3 / (x2)2m2] 1 Now {xi} is replaced by [sij]{xi} on the right hand side of Eq. 8.22 [dij] = [mi]−1 [kij] Assuming harmonic oscillations.8. To Find the Highest Natural Frequency:. 8..24. i. Eq.6.6. [I] {xi} + [mi] [kij] {xi} = {0} . {xi} = {xi} sin ωt.6. 8. 5.6.. the iteration process as described above is started and this converges to the lowest value of (1 / ω2) so that the highest mode of vibration is obtained.23 x1 x2 : xn d21 : dn1 d11 d22 : dn2 … d12 … : dnn … d2n : xn d1n x2 x1 The expanded form of the above equation would be Using Eq.6.

E8.Example 8. E8. the first step is to write the governing equations in terms of flexibility matrix [ai j].1.6.6.6.1 by the method of matrix iteration. Also obtain the higher modes by applying the principle of orthogonality.6.1:.1 For finding the lowest natural frequency using matrix iteration method.1 : Schematic for example 8. 3k 3k 4m k 2m k m Fig. Solution to example 8. For the given system we have (1/3k) [ai j] = (1/3k) (1/3k) (1/3k) (1/3k) (4/3k) (4/3k) (1/3k) (1/3k) (4/3k) (7/3k) (1/3k) (4/3k) (7/3k) 4 Or [bi j] = (m/3k) 4 4 2 8 8 1 4 7 (4/3k) 0 0 [mi j] = 4m 0 0 4m 0 2m 0 0 2m 0 0 m 0 0 m 0 [bi j] = [ai j] [mi] = (1/3k) (1/3k) (4/3k) .Find the fundamental frequency and the corresponding mode shape for the system shown in Fig.6.

00 The calculated values of the amplitudes agree with the assumed values within 2.0.79.Let x1 = 1. (1) and simplifying we have x1 x2 x3 11.0 .15 4.Assume x1 = 1.0. 4:. 2 :.71 1 Since the calculated amplitude vector is different from the assumed vector one more trial is required for which the assumed values will be the calculated values of the previous trial.0 _____________ _____ . In expanded form this equation gives x1 x2 x3 = ω2m / (3k) 4 4 4 2 8 8 1 4 7 x1 x2 x3 ……………(1) Eq.08 3.29 = (11. and x3 = 3. x2 = 2. x2 = 1.0 and x3 = 1.29. Substituting these values on the RHS of Eq.29 2.Assume x1 = 1. Trial No.5 % and the iteration is stopped.00 1.04 ω2 m / 3k = 1. Following the same procedure we get x1 x2 = (14.00 3.Assume x1 = 1. Trial 1 :. and X3 = 3. x2 = 3.48 The calculated values of the amplitude are different from the assumed values and hence one more trial is required. Substituting these values on the RHS of Eq.88. and x3 = 2.0.(1) and simplifying we get x1 x2 x3 = (13. 3:. x2 = 2.{xi} = ω2 [bi j] {xi}.0 2.48. Therefore 14.87 ω2m / 3k) 1. Substituting on the RHS of equation (1) and simplifying we get x1 x2 x3 = (ω2m / 3k) 16 7 = (7ω2m / 3k) 9 2.79 3. Trial No.04 ω2m / 3k) x3 3.88 Since the calculated values of the amplitude are still not matching with the assumed values one more trial is required. Trial No.0.08.11 41.06 ω2m / 3k) 1.(1) is the starting point for the iteration process.71.87 = (ω2m / 3k) 33.

ω1.(2) (x3) = (x3) (Identity) 0 Where [si j] = 0 0 x1 x2 = (ω2 m / 3k) x3 − 1.Assume x1 = 1.0 0 1.0 (x3) ……………….72 − 3.72 1.0. x2 = 1.28 1.462 √ (k/m) = ω1 Calculation of higher modes:. m2.(3) and simplifying we get .0 x1 x2 x3 Also (x2) = (x2) (Identity) Eqs.Or ω = √ [(3k) / (14.0 0 − 1.0. x2 = 0. and x3 = 1.02. Substituting these values in RHS of Eq. which have already been determined.0.72 4.72 = (7.28 ω2m / 3k) − 1. (3) and simplifying we get x1 x2 x3 = (ω2m / 3k) − 7.57 1.24 1. Substituting these values in RHS of Eq.0 0 − 1. Substituting for {xi} on the RHS of Eq.(3) is the starting point for iteration process.57 1. Orthogonality principle for a three-degree-of-freedom system can be stated as (x1)1m1(x1) + (x2)1m2(x2) + (x3)1m3(x3) = 0 Where (x1)1.02 Since the calculated amplitudes are different from the assumed values one more trial is required.0 0 1. (1) we have The above equation simplifies to x1 x2 x3 = (ω2m / 3k) 0 0 0 − 4.0 x1 x2 x3 …………(3) Eq.15 x 2m (x2) + 4.04m)] = 0. Trial 1:.24.Substituing these values and also the values for m1.First step in finding the higher modes is to form the sweeping matrix using the principle of orthogonality between principal modes.(2) can be written in matrix form as {xi} = [si j] {xi}. and x3 = 1.0 0 3.0 0. and m3 we have 4m(x1) + 3..0. (x2)1 and (x3)1 are the amplitudes of vibration corresponding to the lowest natural frequency. Trial 2:.28 1.0 4 4 4 2 8 8 1 4 7 0 0 0 and {xi} = x1 x2 x3 − 1.Assume x1 = − 1.57 (x2) − 1.0 x m (x3) = 0 Or And (x1) = − 1.

E8.087ω2 / 3k) − 1. Final Trial :- L/2 2mg y22 y12 L/2 Fig.5(b) : Deflection curve and B-M diagram when only load 2mg is acting at station2. Y22 = ½ mgL(L/2) 2/3(L/2) = mgL3/(12EI) a22 = Y22 /2mg Or a22 = L3 / (24 EI) y22 = (1/EI) ½ (mgL x L/2 x (2/3)L/2 = 2mgL3 / (24EI) Therefore a22 = y22 / 2mg = L3 / (24 EI ) Also y12 = (1/EI) ½ (mgL) x L/2 x {L/2 + (2/3)L/2} = (5/48) 2mgL3 / (EI) Therefore a12 = y12 / (2mg) = 5L3 / (48 EI) = a21 as shown earlier .85 Once again the calculated values of the amplitudes do not agree with the assumed values and the iteration has to be continued further.85 = (4.x1 x2 x3 = (ω2m / 3k) − 4.087 0.0 0.10 0.413 0.

a11 [(a12)2 – a11a22 ] 1 = --------------------------------------------1 [(a12)2 / a11 – a22] Therefore k22 = ----------------------. P2 y2 y1 = a11P1 + a12P2 and y2 = a21P1 + a22P2 Solving for P1 and P2 we have P1 y1 P1 = (a22y1 – a12y2) / (a11a22 – a21a12) …………………(1) And P2 = (a11y2 – a21y1) /(a11a22 – a12a21) …………….6: Obtain the stiffness influence coefficients for the system given in example 8.= -----------------------5L3 / 48 EI [{(L3/3EI)(L3/24EI) −{5L3/ 48EI}2] k21 = ----------------------.= ----------------------------L3 / (24 EI) [ {5L3/48EI}2 – {(L3/3EI)(L3/24EI)}] Therefore k11 = ------------------------.5.= -------------------------- .(2) When y1 = 1 and y2 = 0 then P1 = −k11 and P2 = −k21.Example 8. a22 a21a12 – a11a22 Or And k11 = − 96EI/(7L3) a21 (a11a22 – a21a12) Therefore k21 = 240 EI / (7L3) When y2 = 1 and y1 = 0 then P2 = − k22.

7:. Then the free-body diagram will be as shown in Fig.7(a). E8.7 (i) To find displacement coefficients Let m1 be displaced by a distance y11 by applying a force F1 at m1. E8.7.7 A string fixed at both ends carries three point masses m1. Determine (i) the flexibility influence coefficients and (ii) the stiffness influence coefficients using basic principles.[(5L3/48EI)2 /(L3 /3EI) – (L3 / 24EI)] = . E8.7 Solution to Example 8. E8.Schematic for example 8. L θ L y11 y21 T L β L T y31 F1 Fig. m1 m2 m3 L L L L Fig. and m3 equidistant from each otheras shown in Fig.(768 EI) /(7L3) Example 8.7 : Free-body diagram when F1 acts at m1 . m2.

.

By law of similar triangles. y22. cos θ =1.7(b). Therefore a22 = y22 / F2 = L / T. Therefore F1 = T(y11 / L) + T (y11 / 3L) =(4/3)Ty11 / L . a21 =(2/3) a11= (1/2)(L/T) By Maxwell’ theorem. Or a11 = y11 / F1 = (3/4)(L/T). and y32 will be as shown in Fig.7(b): Free-body diagram when F2 acts at station2. Force balance at station 2 in vertical direction gives F2 = T sin θ + T sinβ = 2T sin θ = 2T tan θ = 2T (y22 / 2L) = T y22 / L.E8. L θ y12 L L y32 L β y22 F2 Fig. By law of similar triangles. the displacements y12. sin β = tanβ and cos β = 1.Force balance in vertical direction at m1 gives F1 = T sin θ + T sin β And in horizontal direction we have T cos θ = T cos β. a12 = a32 = ½ a22 = L / (2T). Because of the symmetry of the problem a33 = a11= ¾ (L/T). E8. For small oscillations we can assume sinθ = tanθ. . a12 = a21 . a13 = a31 When a force F2 is applied at station 2.

Let a displacement y1 be effected at station 1. E8. .(ii) To find the stiffness influence coefficients :.2T / L. Then the free-body diagram for the system will be as shown in Fig. Restoring force at 2 is given by F21 = T sin θ = T tan θ = T(y1 / L) Therefore .2T tan θ = . Therefore k31 = 0 = k13. E8.7(c).k22 = F22 / y2 = 2T / L k22 = . Total restraining force at 2 = F22 = 2T sin θ = 2T tan θ = 2T(y2 / L) Therefore Or Similarly Therefore Or . holding the remaining stations at their respective equilibrium positions. E8. L θ L T L y2 T L Fig. θ θ T y1 T Fig. E8.7(d): Free-body diagram when a displacement y2 is effected at 2 holding stations 1 and 3 in their equilibrium position.2T sin θ = . or k11 = 2T / L. Then the free-body diagram will be as shown in Fig. Total restoring force at 1 in vertical direction due to unit displacement at 1 is given by F11 = .k11 = F11 / y1 = . Let a displacement y2 affected at station 2 holding the stations 1 and 3 at their respective equilibrium position.k21 = F21 / y2 = T / L or k21 = . By symmetry k33 = k11 = 2T / L.2T(y1/ L) Therefore .7(d).2T / L F32 = T sin θ = T tan θ = T y2 / L -k32 = F32 / y2 = T / L k32 = .7(c): Free-body diagram when a displacement y1is effected at station1.T / L = k12 Restoring force at 3 = F31 = 0.T / L = k23.

Rayleigh’s Method Introduction :.5..Rayleigh’s Method 2. i = 1.Rayleigh-Ritz Method 8.(i) Assume a deflection curve of the system that is consistent with the boundary conditions. Some of the methods which will be discussed are : 1. (the static deflection curve itself can be assumed) (ii) Find the maximum kinetic energy and the maximum potential energy for the assumed deflection curve (iii) Equate the two to get the natural frequency Frequency equation for Rayleigh’s Method:-Consider a beam having concentrated loads W1.Dunkerly’s Method 4.Holzer’s Method 6.n ………….8.8. …………… yn. That is U = Σ(½)Wiyi . It is more convenient to use numerical methods to find the natural frequencies of an M-D-F system especially when the number of degrees of freedom exceeds three.. y3. Introduction: .. W1 W2 W3 Wn done by Let the corresponding displacements under each load be y1. because .3.…. the first trial itself gives values which are very close to the fundamental frequency.5 Numerical Methods for M-D-F systems For Determining Natural Frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes • 8.5. each method having its own merit. y2. ……….2.The exact solution of the determinants of higher order becomes more and more difficult with increasing number of degrees of freedom. ….W2. The method is based on equating the maximum kinetic energy of the system to the maximum potential energy.This method was developed by Rayleigh and is very handy for finding the first natural frequency (fundamental frequency) of a M-D-F system.Stodola’s Method 3. Though this is a numerical method. A number of numerical methods are available.1.8. it does not require any iteration process.8.Matrix Iteration Method 5.2.8(a) The total kinetic energy of the system is given by . The total potential energy of the system = Sum of the work all the loads acting on the beam.Wn acting at different locations as shown in Fig. • • • Procedure:.

8. i = 1 to n ….8.T = Σ(1/2)(Wi / g)ýi2.8(b) we have U = (1/2)ΣWiYi sin ωnt .8(a) .…………………. i. m1 = 250 kg m2 = 150 kg Equating Eqs.8(b) Assume harmonic oscillations. E8. E 8.8 Solution to Example 8. yi = Yi sin ωnt.9(a) and 8. Substituting this in Eqs. Where Y21 = Deflection at 2 due to load at 1 and Y22 = deflection at 2 due to load at 2 To find Y11 and Y21:.5 m 5.5 m Fig. i = 1 to n……8.8(a) and 8.9(b) g ΣWiYi ωn2 = ------------------. i = 1.8 The static deflections Y1 and Y2 are calculated as follows: Y1 = Y11 + Y12 .9(a) T = (1/2)Σ(Wi / g) ω2 Yi 2 cos2 ωnt.10 ΣWiYi2 Illustrative Examples on Rayleigh’s Method Example 8. we get 1.……n ………8.The loading arrangement to find Y11 and Y21 will be as shown in Fig.8 :.e. i = 1 to n Therefore and Or Umax = (1/2) ΣWiYi . Where Y11 = Deflection at 1 due to load at 1 and Y12 = Deflection at 1 due to load at 2 Similarly Y2 = Y21 + Y22 . E8.8: Schematic for example 8.9(b) and solving for ωn2 .8.2.0 m 1.8.To find the fundamental frequency of the system shown in Fig.3. i = 1 to n Tmax = (1/2)gωn2 ΣWiYi 2 .8.

W1 y11 .

81 x 6.5 Similarly. and Y22 = 5823 / (EI). E8.81 x [250 x13818 + 150 x 12669] = -----------------------------------------------.8.Fig. the deflection at any location x from one end of the beam is given by a x W b yx =(Wbx)(L2 − x2 − b2) / (6EIL) ..81 x 6.8(a): Deflection of the beam due to load W1at station 1.52] 6EI x 8 = 9714 / (EI) 250 x 9.[ 82 − 1. (0 ≤ x ≤ a) ……….52] 6EI x 8 = 6840 / (EI) Similarly when W2 acts at station 2. Therefore Y1 = Y11 + Y12 = (9714 + 4104) / (EI) =13818 / (EI) And Y2 = Y21 + Y22 = (6840 + 5828) / (EI) = 12669 / (EI) g [ W1Y1 + W2Y2] ωn2 = ---------------------------[W1Y12 + W2Y22] 9.52 − 1.[82 − 1. Y21 = ------------------------------.52 − 6.5 Y11 = ----------------------------. the deflections at stations 1 and 2 are calculated as Y12 = 4104 / (EI).5 x 1.(EI) [250 x 138182 + 150 x 126692] ____ . When a concentrated load W acts on the beam as shown below.5 x 1.11 Therefore Y11 =( W1ba)(L2 − a2 − b2) / (6EIL) 250 x 9.

9: To find the fundamental frequency for the lateral vibrations of the cantilever beam shown in Fig. Y2 = Y21 + Y22 To find Y11 and Y21 :. Fig. E8.085 √ EI Examples on Rayleigh’s method Example 8. E8.9. . 75 kg 1m W2 1m 50 W1 Y2 Fig.The deflection curve for the beam and the bending moment diagram when W1 acts at 1 is shown below.9 : Schematic for example 8.9. E8.9(a): Deflection curve when both the loads are acting on the beam. Y1= Y11 + Y12 .Or ωn = 0.

Let the load W2 act at station 2. Y21 = [1/(EI)] [(½ )(W1L x L/2) x L/4 + (½ (W1L/2)(L/2)(2/3)(L/2)] = (5/48)(W1L3/EI) = (5/48) (50 x 9.L/2 L/2 Y21 W1 Y11 W1L/2 W1L From moment-area method we have Y11 = [1/(EI)]Moment of the area of B-M diagram about station1 = [1/(EI)] (1/2)(W1L)L (2/3)L = (W1L3) / (3EI) = (50 x 9. Then the deflection curve and the corresponding B-M diagram will be as shown below Y22 = (1/EI) (W2L/2)(L/2)(2/3)(L/2) = W2L3/(12 EI) = 75x9.81 x 23 / (48 EI) = 613 / (EI) Y1 = Y11 + Y12 = (1308 + 613) /(EI) = 1921 / (EI) Y2 = Y21 + Y22 = (409 + 245) / (EI) = 685 / (EI) g [W1Y1 + W2Y2] 9.81 x [50 x 1921 + 75 x 685] / (EI) .81 x 23 / EI) = 409 / (EI) To find Y12 and Y22 :.81 x 23 /(12EI) =245/EI Y12 = (1/EI)1/2 (W2L/2)(L/2)[(2/3)L/2+ L/2] =5W2L3/(48 EI) = 5 x75 x 9.81 x 23) / (3EI) = 1308 / EI Similarly.

3. If the assumed deflection curve of (i) above is similar to the calculated deflection curve of (iii).10. The static deflection curve itself can be assumed as in the case of Rayleigh’s method.10 :. It can be shown that whatever deflection curve was assumed initially. STODOLA’METHOD Introduction:.(i) Assume a reasonable deflection curve of the system. then the assumed shape of the deflection curve is correct and (iii) gives the value of ωn2.= -------------------------------------------------[W1Y12 + W2Y22] Or ωn = 0. the new deflection curve is determined. This loading will be in terms of ωn2.This method is an iterative method and used for finding the fundamental (lowest) natural frequency of un-damped free vibrations of M-D-F systems Procedure:.0811 √ (EI) 8. the inertia loading of the system is determined. E8.ωn2 = -----------------------. (ii) Using the above deflection curve. where ωn is the fundamental natural frequency of the system. If the deflection curve of (i) and (iii) are not similar. then the calculated deflection curve of (iii) is used as the assumed deflection curve for the next iteration and the procedure is repeated till the assumed deflection curve and the calculated deflection curve are similar. [50 x 19212 + 75 x 6852] / (EI)2 . (iii) Considering the system is loaded with the inertia loads. we finally end up with the deflection curve corresponding to the fundamental mode.To determine the lowest natural frequency for the lateral vibrations of the beam shown in Fig. This also will be in terms of ωn2.5. Example 8.

5 m 5.0 m 150 kg 1.81 N Y11 Y21 .5 m m1g = 250 x 9.250 kg 1.

577. Examples on Stodola’s Method Example 8.11. E8.5 ω2 / (EI).5ω2 / (EI) = 1. Similarly Y2’’ = [2. a21 = Y21 / m1g = 2.515.25] ω2 / (EI) = 712 ω2/ (EI) Therefore Y1’’: Y2’’ = 1 : 0.7 ω2 / (EI) Therefore Y1’ : Y2’ = 1 : 0. Trial 1 :.79 x 250 + 0. E8.028 √ (EI). Similarly F2 = 150 ω2. Trial 2 :. Hence one more trial is required.79 x 250 + 0.0 and Y2 = 0.79 / (EI) Similarly when m2g alone acts at location 2 we have a22 = Y22 / m2g = 0.Assume Y1= 1.515.96 x 250 + 2.96 x 250 + 2.590.11: Schematic for example 8.8 ω2 / (EI).10(a): Deflection curve when only m1g is acting on the beam. Fig.96 / (EI) .188 / (EI) .0 and Y2 = 0.79 x 77.Assume Y1 = 1. Hence iteration may be stopped.188 x 150] ω2 / (EI) 3k 4m k 2m k m Fig.25] ω2 / (EI) = 1205.0 Inertia force at location 1 = F1 = m1ω2Y1 = 250 ω2. Then the calculations as shown in trial 2 will give Y1’’’ = 1. Y1”” : Y2”” = 1. a11 = Y11 / m1g = 3.5 ω2/ (EI) and Y2”” = 713.580 which is same as the assumed deflection within the acceptable accuracy.Determine the fundamental frequency for the system shown in Fig.515 x ω2 = 77.25ω2 Therefore Y1’’ =[3.590. Then F1 = 250ω2 and F2 = 150 x 0.0 and Y2 = 0.10.577.0 : 0.0 and Y2’’’ = 0.11:. E8. This is different from the assumed deflection.0 and Y2 = 1.11 using Stodola’s method. Trial 4 :.188 x 77. Trail 3 :. Then Y1”” = 1231. a12 = a21 by Maxwell’s theorem.Assume Y1 = 1.79 x 150 ] ω2 / (EI) = 1408.Fig.0 or ω = 0. Therefore Y1’ = a11F1 + a12 F2 Or Y1’ = [3.10: Schematic for example 8. Therefore 1231. E8. .5 ω2 / (EI) = 725. Similarly Y2’ = a21F1 + a22F2 = [2.Assume Y1 = 1.

Then F1 = 4mω2 .15 mω2 / (3k) = 1. let us consider the free vibrations of a three degree-of-freedom system. and X3 = 3. F2 and F3 can be replaced with the .93 Then X1”” = 14.12 x3 = a31F1 + a32F2 + a33F3 For free vibrations the forces F1. a22 = a32 = a23= 4/3k a33 = 7/ 3k . Final trail (Trial No.15mω2/(3k). a2 = a31= a12= a13= 1/3k .15m)] 8.5..7.15 : 3.6 mω2/(3k). Hence one more trial is required. X2 = 3.. Hence the iteration has to be continued. X1’= a11F1 + a12F2 + a13F3 = 4mω2 /(3k) + 2mω2/(3k) + mω2 / (3k) = 7mω2 / (3k) X2’ = a21F1 + a22F2 + a23F3 = 4mω2 /(3k) + 8mω2/ (3k) + 4mω2/(3k) = 16mω2/(3k).Assume x1 = x2 = x3 = 1.Solution : The displacement coefficients for the given system are determined as : a11 = 1/ 3k .0. inertia forces − m1x1.15 : 44. X2 = 2.93 which is very close to the assumed deflections.39 = 1 : 3. Trial 2 :. . Hence 14.Assume X1 = 1.4. 8.66 which is not the same as assumed profile.0 or ω = √[3k/ (14. F2 = 2mω2 and F3 = mω2.Assume X1 = 1.94 : 3.39mω2/(3k) Therefore X1”” : X2”” : X3”” = 14.In beam vibrations the natural frequencies of the second and higher modes are often considerably greater than that of the fundamental frequency. which is not the same as the assumed deflection.46√(k/m) .0. The governing equations in terms of flexibility influence coefficients can be written as x1 = a11F1 + a12F2 + a13F3 x2 = a21F1 + a22F2 + a23F3 …………………………….7.In order to illustrate the Dunkerly’s method.3 : 2. Dunkerly’sEquation:.. . Trial 1:. X2”” = 44. This fact will enable us to approximate the fundamental frequency with acceptable accuracy. 4):. If the system is vibrating = 0..m2x2 and – m3x3. Dunkerley’s Method Introduction :. Following the procedure as shown in trial 1 we get X1” : X2” : X3” = 1 : 2.11.6 : 56. X3”” =56. .3 and X3 = 2. and X3’ = a31F1 + a32F2 + a33F3 = [4/3 + 8/3 + 7/3] mω2/ k = 19mω2/(3k) Therefore X1’ : X2’ : X3’ =7/3 : 16/3 : 19/3 = 1 : 2.

1/ω2.16 Where the terms ω11. and ω33 are the natural frequencies of the system....](1/ω2) − [ ………] = 0 …………. . with each mass acting separately in the absence of other masses. and 1/ω3. If the roots of Eq. (1/ ω2)3 – [a11m1 + a22m2 + a33m3] (1/ω2)2 − [a12m2a21m1 + ……….14 and 8. the above equation can be factored into the following form: (1/ω2 – 1/ω12) (1/ω2 – 1/ω22) (1/ω2 – 1/ω32) = 0 Or (1/ω2)3 – [ 1/ω12 + 1/ω22 + 1/ω32] (1/ω2)2 – [.. then – mixi= miω2xi.14 are 1/ω1.12 can be written in matrix form as follows: x1 x2 x3 a11m1 a21m1 a31m1 a12m2 a22m2 a32m2 a13m3 a23m3 a33m3 x1 x2 x3 …………. the above set of equations may be rearranged as follows: (a11m1 – 1/ω2)x1 + (a12m2)x2 + (a13m3)x3 = 0 (a21m1)x1 + (a22m2 – 1/ω2)x2 + (a23m3)x3 = 0 …………8.15 Comparison of equations 8.14 (a31m1)x1 + (a32m2)x2 + (a33m3 – 1/ω2)x3 = 0 Equations 8. the coefficient of the second highest term will be equal to the sum of the roots of the equation.15 indicates that 1/ω12 + 1/ω22 + 1/ω32 = a11m1 + a22m2 + a33m3 = m1/k1 + m2 /k2 + m3 / k3 = 1/ω112 + 1/ω222 + 1/ω332 ………….8. harmonically with frequency ω.8.11 can be written as follows: x1 = a11(m1ω2x1) + a12 (m2ω2x2) + a13(m3ω2x3) x2 = a21(m1ω2x1) + a22(m2ω2x2) + a23(m3ω2x3) ……………………. Therefore equations 8.14 We know from a theorem in algebra which states that if the coefficient of the highest term of the nth-degree equation is reduced to unity.8.](1/ω2) – […] = 0………….13 Dividing by ω2.8.…8.12 are satisfied if the determinant of these equations vanishes: (a11 – 1/ω2) (a21m1) (a31m1) (a12m2) (a22 – 1/ω2) (a32m2) (a13m3) (a23m3) (a33 – 1/ω2) Expanding the determinant we have the following frequency equation. ω22..12 x3 = a31(m1ω2x1) + a32(m2ω2x2) + a33(m3ω2x3) Equations 8. 8.

...17 is called as the Dunkerly’s equation and has many useful applications as illustrated in the following examples.00 [(EI) / (ML3)] From Dunkerly’s equation we have 1/ω12 = 1/ω112 + 1/ω222 ω112ω222 Or (ω112 + ω222) Example 8.13 The natural frequency of a given airplane wing In torsion is 1600 cpm..41[(EI) / (ML3)] (3.8.12:.. 3.515 2 + 3...+ -------. What will be the new natural frequency if a 500-kg bomb is hung at a position one-sixth of the semi span from the centre line of the airplane such that its moment of inertia about the torsional axis is 1800 N– cm – s2 ? The torsional stiffness of the wing at this point is 60 x 10 6 N – cm / rad..515 2 [(EI) / (ML3)] For the concentrated mass at the end of the mass less cantilever we have ω222 = 3. neglecting the weight of the beam.= 2.Determine the fundamental frequency of a uniformly loaded cantilever beam with a concentrated mass M at the end equal to the mass of the uniform beam Solution:- L M M Let ω11 be the natural frequency of the uniformly loaded beam by itself and ω22 be the natural frequency of the same beam when a mass M is acting at the end of the beam.16 can be approximated as 1 ω12 1 ω112 1 1 ω222 ω332 ----.= --------------------------.17 Eq.≈ ------..515 2 x 3.12 For a uniformly distributed load of a cantilever beam we have ω112 = 3. Examples Example 8.0 ) (ML3) . Example 8...+ ---------. 8.Since ω2 and ω3 are natural frequencies corresponding to the higher modes and are larger than the fundamental frequency Eq.0 (EI) ω12 = ----------------.8.

1 c.p. If a lumped mass m0 is attached to the beam at x = L/ 3.+ ------------- Example 8.Solution: Frequency of the bomb attached to the weightless wing is √ (60 x 106) f22 = (1 / 2π) √ (kt / J) = (1/2π)---------------------√ (1800) Or f22 = 29.m.13:. = 1745 c. 1745 2 The new natural frequency with the bomb will be 1 / f12 = 1 / f112 + 1 / f222 = -----------. simply supported is equal to π2 √ (EI / ML3).m.s.p. . determine the new fundamental frequency. 1 1 1600 2 Or f1 = 1180 c.p.The fundamental frequency of a uniform beam of mass M.

......…………….(1) Where m2 is the mass of the concentrated weight or exciter and a22 is the influence coefficient of the structure at the point of attachment of the exciter.......Solution:- m0 x L 1 / ω12 = 1 / ω112 + 1 / ω222...... (1) through by ω12 and rearranging we can write 1 (ω1 / ω11)2 = ----------------------.. Multiplying Eq..........(2) [ 1 + a22m2ω112] a22 is the influence coefficient at x = L / 3 due to a unit load applied at the same point and from the knowledge of strength of materials a22 = 8L3 / (6 x 81 EI) By Dunkerly’s equation we have .... The above equation can be written as follows: 1 / ω12 = 1 / ω112 + a22 m2 ..

But there are many mechanical systems where in it is not possible to assume that the inertial elements and the elastic forces are concentrated at discrete points within the system but they are distributed throughout the system. 7.t)]. then such systems are referred to as “discrete systems or lumped mass systems” and they are further classified as single degree and multi degreeof. In these systems a finite number of independent coordinates are required to completely describe the vibratory characteristics of such systems. plates etc. Introduction:. beams.freedom systems.7. Governing Equation :. The system will therefore have a infinite number of natural frequencies and normal modes of vibrations. 7. ρ be the mass density and x dx Position of the rod at time ‘t’ u u+du du = dx + (∂u / ∂x) dx Fig.2. Continuous systems consist of an infinitely large number of particles and therefore require an infinitely large number of coordinates to study the vibratory characteristics of the system. Cables.1.If in a mechanical system the inertial elements and the elastic forces are located at discrete points in the system.7.2.1.1.1: Longitudinal Vibrations of a bar Position of the rod at time at time t + dt . Let the displacement at any section which is at a distance ‘x’ from one end of the rod at any time ‘t’ be represented by ‘u’ [u = u(x. The number of natural frequencies for such systems will be equal to the number of degrees of freedom for the system. In general. rods. Longitudinal Vibrations of Bars 7. are some of the examples and such systems are called “continuous systems”.Consider a bar which is vibrating in the longitudinal direction as shown in Fig.Vibrations of Continuous Systems 7. vibrations of continuous systems are governed by partial differential equations and while analyzing these systems all materials are assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic and obey Hooke’s law.

2 : Free body diagram for an elemental length dx of the bar σA + [∂(σA) / ∂x] dx Applying Newton’s second law for elemental length dx of the bar we have ρAdx (∂2u / ∂t2) = σA + [∂(σA) / ∂x]dx − σA Since A is constant and assuming that the material of the bar obeys Hooke’s law ( σ = E ε . t) = X(x) T(t) ----------------------7. 7.2. Substituting this solution in Eq. 7.2. say − ω2 .4.t) σA dx Fig.2.4.1 [dx + (∂u / ∂x) dx] − dx But ε = ------------------------------.2.2. General Solution for Eq.2.7. LHS is a function of t only and RHS is a function of x only. where ω2 is a positive real constant ( Later on it will be shown that ω is a natural frequency of vibrations) .2 is a linear.Equation 7. 7.A be the area of cross section of the bar.7. homogeneous.2 we get X (d2T / dt2) = c2 T (d2X / dx2) Dividing throughout by XT.2 Where c= √(E / ρ). where the solution is assumed to be a product of two functions.2. 7.2.2.2. one purely a function of one independent variable x and the other purely a function of other independent variable t : that is u(x.1 we get ∂2u / ∂t2 = c2 ∂2u /∂x2 …….7.2.5(a) . 7. second-order.7. u(x.2 :.. Now we will have two second order ordinary differential equations given by (1 / T ) (d2T / dt2) = − ω2 ……………………. In Eq.7. They can be equal only if they are equal to constant. we get (1 / T) (d2T / dt2) = (c2/ X)(d2X / dx2) ……………….= ∂u / ∂x dx Substituting this in Eq. E is the modulus of elasticity and ε is the longitudinal strain). partial differential equation whose solution can be found by the method of separation of variables.3. the above equation can be simplified as : ρ (∂ 2u / ∂t 2) = E (∂ε /∂x) ………………….

.2.. 7.6(b) are linear homogeneous second order ordinary differential equations whose solutions are given by T(t) = A cos ωt + B sin ωt …………………7. 7.6(a) and 7.6(a) (d2X / dx2) + (ω2 / c2)X = 0 ………………….The boundary and initial conditions for the given problem are as follows.6(b) Eqs.5(b) (d2T / dt2) + ω2T = 0 …………………………7. Illustrative examples: 1.7(b) Substituting these expressions for T(t) and X(x) in Eq.2. it follows that Dn = 0.2.and Dn are arbitrary constants which can be determined by the initial and boundary conditions of the problem and ωn the natural frequencies of the system.2.t) = Σ [An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn cos{(ωn / c)x} + Dn sin {(ωn/c)x}] n = 1.3 we get the general solution as follows: u(x. Bn. ∂u / ∂x = 0 (free end) (iii) At t = 0..t) = (A cos ωt + B sin ωt) [ C cos{(ω/c)x} + D sin {(ω/c)x} ] …………7. u = 0.. (i) At x = 0.2.9 An.2. From Eq.Determine the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of longitudinal vibrations of a bar with both ends free with zero initial displacement.7.2. 7.…………7.2.2. (1) gives 0 = Σ(ωn/c) [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ −Cn sin (ωnL /c)] For non-trivial solution Cn cannot be zero. the general solution can be written as ∞ u (x. (1) gives 0 = Σ(ωn/c) [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ 0 + Dn] The above equation has to be satisfied for all values of t.and Or and ( c2/ X ) (d2X / dx2) = − ω2 …………………. Cn. Since for a continuous system there are infinite number of natural frequencies.7.3.2. Hence it follows that sin (ωnL / c) = 0……………(2) .9 we have ∂u /∂x = Σ(ωn / c) [An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt] [− Cnsin (ωnx / c) + Dn cos (ωnx / c)] ………………(1) Condition (i) in Eq. Therefore. Solution:.2. ………….2. Similarly condition (ii) in Eq.7.8 In the above solution ω is the natural frequency. ∂u / ∂x = 0 (free end and hence strain is zero) (ii) At x = L.7(a) and X(x) = C cos [(ω/c)x] + D sin [(ω/c)x] ……. 7.

(1) gives 0 = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn + 0 ] The above equation should be valid for all values of ‘t’.t) = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn cos(ωnx/c) + Dn sin (ωnx/c)] …….Derive an expression for the free longitudinal vibrations of a uniform bar of length L.2:. Therefore it follows that En = 0. Therefore. (3). (2) .9) we have u(x. (4) gives : 0 = Σcos (ωnx / c) [ En + 0 ]. 3.Or (ωnL / c) = nπ.t) = Σ ( En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ) cos (ωnx /c) …………………….(3) Substituting Dn = 0 in the general solution (eq. Condition (ii) in Eq.√ (E / ρ) ………. one end of which is fixed and the other end is free. The constants Fn can be determined if we know one more initial condition. (1) we have ∂u / ∂x = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] Dn cos (ωnx/c)] (ωn/c)…………. En = Cn An and Fn = Cn Bn Condition (iii) in Eq. u = 0 (fixed end) At x = L. ……. Hence the final expression for u(x.(2) As Dn cannot be zero for non-trivial solution.t) is given by u(x. n = 1.. L Solution : The boundary conditions for the given problem are : (i) (ii) At x = 0. Example 7.(4) Where ωn is given by Eq.(1) Condition (i) in Eq. 2.to ∞ nπ L _____ The natural frequencies are given by ωn = (nπ / L)c = --------. This equation has to be satisfied for all x. Cn = 0.. ∂u / ∂x = 0 (free end) The general solution for longitudinal vibrations of a bar is given by u(x. 7. From Eq.t) = Σ Fn sin ωnt cos (ωnx / c)..

t) = 0 (free end) .3. 3.t) = Σ [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] sin (ωnx / c) ……………………(5) The constants En ( En = An Dn ) and Fn ( Fn = Bn Dn) can be determined using the initial conditions of the problem. Therefore it follows that Cn = 0. (2) (u)x = L = Σ [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] sin (ωnL/c) And (∂u / ∂x)x = L = Σ (ωn / c)[ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] cos (ωnL/c) . n = 1.. E 7. 5. u(0. From Eq. Hence the solution now reduces to u(x. E 7. …. boundary condition (ii) is used.t) = Σ [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] sin (ωnx/c) ……………………(2) Where En and Fn are constants which can be evaluated using the initial conditions. Solution:.t) is given by u(x.(1) Condition (i) in Eq.(3) Or Or ωnL / c = (nπ / 2 )..2 : Schematic for example 7.gives cos (ωnL / c) = 0 ……………………….3.t) = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn cos(ωnx/c) + Dn sin (ωnx/c)]……. The above equation has to be valid for all values of t. k (u)x = L + A E (∂u / ∂x )x = L = 0 For longitudinal vibrations of a bar the displacement u(x.3:.For the given problem the boundary conditions are: (i) (ii) At x = 0.to ∞ ωn = (nπc / 2L) = (nπ/2L) √ (E / ρ) ……(4) Therefore the displacement u(x.A uniform bar of length L is fixed at one end and Connected at the other end by a spring as shown in Fig. k (u)x = L + A (σ)x = L = 0 i. (1) gives 0 = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] Cn.. Derive the frequency equation for the bar. x k L Fig. To find the natural frequencies ωn. At x = L.t) is given by u(x..e. Example 7.

(3) is the required frequency equation.t) = 0 (fixed end) (ii) At x = L. x m L Fig. E 7.4.. Therefore Cn = 0 and u(x.t) = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn cos(ωnx/c) + Dn sin (ωnx/c)] ………………….4 The general solution for longitudinal vibrations of a bar is given by u(x.4. Therefore k sin(ωnL / c) + AE (ωn / c)cos (ωnL / c) = 0 Or tan (ωnL / c) = − (A E ωn) / (kc) ……….t) = Σ [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] sin (ωnx/c) ………………………(2) Therefore − AE (∂u / ∂x)x = L = − AE Σ(ωn/c)[ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] cos (ωnL/c) . A bar of length L is fixed at one end and has a concentrated mass m as shown in Fig.(3) Eq. m (∂2u / ∂t2)x = L = − AE (∂u / ∂x)x = L 0 = Σ [ An cos ωnt + Bn sin ωnt ] [ Cn + 0] The above equation is to be satisfied for all values of t. Example 7.(1) The boundary conditions for the given problem are: (i) At x = 0. E 7.Therefore condition (ii) gives k {Σ [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] sin (ωnL/c)} + A E {Σ (ωn / c)[ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] cos (ωnL/c)} =0 Or Σ { k sin(ωnL / c) + AE (ωn/c) cos (ωnL/c)} (En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt) = 0 for all values of t. u(x. Derive the frequency equation.

(1) we get −ω2 X(x) = c2 (d2X / dx2) Or d2X / dx2 + (ω2 / c2) X = 0 ………………(3) . let u(x.t) = X(x) sin ωt………………………(2) Substituting this solution in Eq. E 7. Example on Forced Vibrations: Example 7.5 :.5.1 : Schematic for example 7..1 Solution to example 7. F0 sin ωt L Fig.Determine the longitudinal forced vibration of a uniform bar of Length L subjected to a sinusoidal force F0 sin ωt at the free end as shown in Fig. E 7.5 The equation of motion for longitudinal vibration of uniform bars is given by ( ∂2u / ∂t2 ) = c2 ( ∂2u / ∂x2)……………….Also m (∂2u / ∂t2)x = L = Σ−mωn2 sin (ωnL/c) [ En cos ωnt + Fn sin ωnt ] Therefore condition (ii) gives (A E ωn/c) cos (ωnL /c) = m ωn2 sin (ωnL /c) Or tan (ωnL /c) = [ (AE) / (mωnc)] …………………(3) This is the frequency equation which can be solved to get the natural frequencies of the given system.(1) For steady state vibration.

homogeneous. u = 0 .1.(4) The boundary conditions for the problems are: (i) At x = 0. Assuming that the lateral deflection ‘y’ of the string to be small. Governing Equation :. . A2 AE (ω/c) cos (ωL/c) = F0 F0 c Or A2 = -----------------------{ AE ω cos (ωL/c)} 7. second order. ordinary differential Equation whose solution is given by X(x) = A1 cos (ωx / c) + A2 sin (ωx / c) And hence u(x.(3) is a linear.3.A flexible string of mass ρ per unit length is stretched under tension T. (4) gives 0 = [ A1 + 0] sin ωt .. Vibrations of strings 7.t) = [A1 cos (ωx / c) + A2 sin (ωx / c)] sin ωt ……….Eq. AE (∂u / ∂x)x = L = F0 sin ωt Condition (i) in Eq.3. for all values of ‘t’ Therefore A1 = 0. (ii) at x = L. Now AE (∂u / ∂x)x = L = A2AE(ω/c) cos (ωL/c) sin ωt Hence condition (ii) gives. the change in tension T is negligible and hence neglected.

t) A free-body diagram of an elementary length is shown in Fig.x y(x.3 . 7.

Let y(x.y dx x θ T y(x. 7. Therefore we get two ordinary differential equations.3.2 Substituting this in Eq.(b) .1 we get X(x) (d2T / dt2) = c2 T(t) (d2X / dx2) Or (1 / T) (d2T / dt2) = (c2 / X ) (d2X / dx2) LHS of the above equation is a function of t only and RHS is a function of x only.t) is small and hence sin θ = θ. Applying Newton’s second law for the string element we have ρ dx (∂2y / ∂t2) = T sin { θ + (∂θ /∂x) dx} − sin θ For small oscillations y(x. They can be equal provided they are equal to a constant.3.t) T Fig.3.3. (1 / T ) (d2T / dt2) = − ω2 .3. 7. namely. 7. and (c2 / X ) (d2X / dx2) = − ω2 Or (d2T / dt2) + ω2T = 0 ………………………7.7. Therefore ρ (∂2y / ∂t2) = T (∂2y / ∂x2) Or ∂2y / ∂t2 = c2 (∂2y / ∂x2) ……………………7. Therefore we have (1 / T) (d2T / dt2) = (c2 / X ) (d2X / dx2) = − ω2 Where ω2 is a positive real constant.3.3.1 Eq.t) = X(x) T(t)………………………. Therefore the above equation reduces to ρ (∂2y / ∂t2) = T (∂θ / ∂x) But θ = ∂y / ∂x.1 is a linear partial homogeneous differential equation whose solution can be obtained by the method of separation of variables.7.(a) and (d2X / dx2) + (ω2/c2) X = 0 ……………….3.3 : String element in lateral vibration.

2 we get y(x..(b) are given by T(t) = A1 cos ωt + A2 sin ωt …………….3.5.3.3.(a) and 7. Equation 7..3. This is illustrated in the few examples below.t) = [A1 cos ωt + A2 sin ωt ] [B1 cos (ωx / c) + B2 sin (ωx / c)] ……………………7.3.3.(b) Substituting these solutions in Eq.4. A2.5 is the general solution for the lateral vibrations of strings and the constants A1. 7.3. B1.4.3. .3.7.7. and B2 can be determined for the given initial and boundary conditions.The solutions to Eqs.(a) And X(x) = B1 cos (ωx / c) + B2 sin (ωx / c) ………………. 7.

8. J4θ4 = kt3 (θ3 − θ4) Assuming θ1 = Θ1 sin ωnt. J2θ2 = kt1(θ1 − θ2) − kt2 (θ2 − θ3) . θ2 = Θ2 sin ωnt. we have a Holzer-type problem which can be solved by proceeding numerically from one end of the system to the other.HOLZER’S METHOD 8.7. the above equations reduce to . Governing Equations : (i) Equations for a Free-Free system (Systems with both ends free) The governing equations are derived by considering a four-degree-of-freedom system as shown in Fig.7. Fig. θ3 = Θ3 sin ωnt. J1θ1 = − kt1 (θ1 − θ2) .The method is a trial and error method which can be represented in a tabular form as illustrated in the examples to follow.1 J3θ3 = kt2 (θ2 − θ3) − kt3 (θ3 − θ4) ..7..7.When only one coordinate is associated with each lumped mass of the multi-degree-of-freedom system.8.2. …………………….. and θ4 = Θ4 sin ωnt. Both the linear spring-mass and the torsional lumped mass system can be solved by this method.7.1.8.. 8.1 Introduction:.7. 8.1: Four Rotor Torsional System The differential equations of motion for the four rotors are: .

A graph of ∑Jωn2Θ vs ωn is drawn.7. for a free-free system.−J1ωn2Θ1 = − kt1 (Θ1 – Θ2) −J2ωn2Θ2 = kt1(Θ1 – Θ2) – kt2(Θ2 – Θ3) …………………8. Θi = Θi −1 − (∑Jkωn2Θk) / kt i −1 ………….3. 8.If the system is fixed at any point. Then. then the displacement at that point should be zero. 8. Eq. say Θ1. (iii) Fixed-Fixed System: .7.4 is used to find the displacement of the other rotors and hence the sum of the inertia forces.8.2.7. i = 1 to 4 ………………. From Eqs. ωn is found out by trial and error such that Eq. A graph of displacement at the fixed end vs ωn is drawn.2 We have Θ2 = Θ1− J1ωn2Θ1/ kt1 Θ3 = Θ2 − (J1ωn2Θ1 + J2ωn2Θ2) / kt2 and Θ4 = Θ3 − (J1ωn2Θ1 + J2ωn2Θ2 + J3ωn2Θ3) / kt3 i-1 Thus in general. 8.7. Consider a fixed – fixed system as shown in Fig. The frequency ωn which gives ∑Jωn2Θ = 0 is the natural frequency.8.2 −J3ωn2Θ3 = kt2(Θ2 −Θ3) – kt3(Θ3 – Θ4) −J4ωn2Θ4 = kt3(Θ3 – Θ4) Adding all the above equations we get ∑Jiωn2Θi = 0. . (ii) Equations for a Fixed-Free System: ..If both ends of the system are fixed.4 k =1 The method consists in assuming ωn and displacement of one of the rotors. Starting from the free end the displacement at the fixed end is calculated assuming ωn.The condition to be satisfied is ∑Jωn2Θ = 0.8.7.7. Therefore.3 is satisfied.7. then the displacement at both the ends must be zero. The frequency at which the displacement of the fixed end is zero is the natural frequency.

.5(c) Assuming harmonic oscillations the above equations reduce to −ω2 J1θ1 = − kt1θ1 − kt2 (θ1 – θ2) ……………………8.8...7.Then the equations of motion for the three rotors can be written as . 8. In that case the displacement of the nth rotor is given by n-1 θn = θn – 1 + [kt1θ1 − ∑ω2 Ji θi ] / ktn ..7.. J2θ2 = kt2 (θ1 – θ2) − kt3(θ2 −θ3) …………….7.5(b) .6 i=1 Eq...... J3θ3 = kt3 (θ2 – θ3) − kt4θ3 ……………………...7..8...7.5(b) −ω2 J3θ3 = kt3 (θ2 – θ3) − kt4θ3 …………………….7.....8 i=1 .... J1θ1 = − kt1θ1 − kt2 (θ1 – θ2) ……………………8.8.5(a) and (b) and solving for θ3 we get 2 θ3 = θ2 + [kt1θ1 − ∑ ω2Ji θi ] / kt3 ….7....5(c) From Eq.5(a) −ω2 J2θ2 = kt2 (θ1 – θ2) − kt3(θ2 −θ3) …………….5(a) we have θ2 = θ1 − [kt1θ1 − ω2J1] / kt2 Adding Eqs..8. 8...7 i=1 For a fixed-fixed system with n rotors the displacement at the (n+1)th station should be zero : that is n θn+1 = θn + [kt1θ1 − ∑ω2 Ji θi ] / ktn+1 = 0 .7.6 can be generalised to a system having ‘n’ rotors.8...8..7.7. 8....8..5(a) .7.7...

80 3 1 − 0. Illustrative Examples 1.. if m1 = m2 = m3 = 1kg and k1 = k2 = 1N/m Fig.00 0.0 ∑mω2X ----------k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 −1 −1 0 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Since ∑mω2X = 0.75 0.44 3 1 0. Position m Assume ω = 0. Using Holzer’s method determine the natural frequencies of the spring-mass system shown in Fig.1. E 8.44 1 0.0 is one of the natural frequencies.0 is one of the natural frequencies.31 0.44 0.51 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Assume ω = 0. E 8.1 Holzer method is shown in the form of a table.7.25 2 1 0.25 0. Since ∑mω2X changes sign from +ve to −ve when ω is changed from X mω2X ∑mω2X k X mω2X ∑mω2X k X mω2X ∑mω2X k .7.3.00 0.7. Position m Assume ω = 1.75 1 1 1.20 0.25 1 0.5 ∑mω2X -----------k -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1 1.7.80 1 0.0 ∑mω2X ----------k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 −1 −1 0 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Since ∑mω2X = 0. the assumed value ω = 1.07 0. the assumed value ω = 1.36 −0.8.56 1 0.19 0.56 2 1 0.56 0.1 : Schematic for example 8.24 0.60 Position m Assume ω = 1.

2J 4J 3J Fig.2 : Schematic for example 8.96 1 1 1 1 − 1. ω442 = k / 4J Therefore 1 / ωn12 = J / 4k + 2J / 3k + 3J / 2k + 4J / k = 6.31 3.19 ∑ mω2X 2.2 (Fixed – Free System) Determine the natural frequencies of the system shown in Fig.24 k 1 1 (∑ mω2X )/k 2.00 2.84 1 1 3.5 and 2.06 1.80 0.84 −0. The other natural frequency is ω3 = 0 (semi-definite system) Example 8.88 2.0.72 rad /s Position m X mω2X 1 1 1. Position m X mω2X ∑mω2X k (∑mω2X)/ k 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 − 2.96 − 5. E8. ω332 = 2k / 3J .96 −2. E 8.96 − 2. 1/ωn12 = 1/ω112 + 1/ω222 + 1/ω332 + 1/ω442 Here ω112 = 4k / J .7. ω222 = 3k / 2J .2 using Holzer’s method.25 3.06 Assume ω = 1.06 −6.06 −3.0 rad /s.5 to 2.7. the order of magnitude of ωn can be approximated by Dunkerly’s equation.06 0.06 −3.60 Therefore ω2 ≈ 1.7.06 3.1. it is obvious that another natural frequency should lie between 1.7.75 rad / s.42 J / k .72 rad / s.2 J To assume the order of ωn. Assume ω = 1.

00 0.60 0.50 θ Jωn2θ ∑Jωn2θ kt (∑Jωn2θ) / kt 0. Position J θ Jωn2θ ∑Jωn2θ kt ( ∑Jωn2θ) /kt Assume ωn = 0.36 −0.05 −0.342 1 2 3 4 0.395 √(k / J) The table for finding the natural frequencies is given below.37 0.27 0.26 0.59 0.Or ωn12 = k / (6.75 kt 1 2 3 4 (∑Jωn2θ) / kt 0.53 0.62 1 2 3 4 0.10 0.41 0.00 0.84 0.80 0.317 0.105 0.19 0.64 0.17 0.20 0.2√(k / J) 1 1 1 1 1 Position J 4 3 2 1 ∞ 1.36 0.02 0.056 0.42J) or ωn1 = 0.01 −0.02 ∑Jωn2θ 0.71 0.31 −0.36 0.64 0.05 .17 −0.07 0.16 0.27 0.16 0.00 0.3 √(k / J) 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 2 1 ∞ 1.13 0.4 √(k / J) 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 ∞ 1.17 0.15 Position J θ Jωn2θ Assume ωn = 0.81 0.024 0.64 0.16 0.09 Assume ωn = 0.64 0.36 0.50 0.

78 θ5 2. The order of magnitude of ωn can be estimated by Dunkerly’s equation.The above procedure is repeated for different values of ωn and the displacement at the fixed end. ωn3 = 1.7.01 0. The displacement at any station i can be calculated from the equation θi = θi −1 + (1 / kti) [ kt1θ1 − ωn2 ∑Jiθi ] The table for calculating θ4 for different values of ωn is shown below.0 ωn / √(k / J) − 93.7. θ4 = 0.63 −1.0 2.8 1..0 1. .2 0.000 N-cm / rad.5 1. ω112 = ω222 = ω332 = k / J = 10000 / 100 = 100 rad / s.03 2.3 0. E8.83 √(k/J) Using Holzer’s method determine the natural frequencies for torsional vibrations of the system shown in Fig.8 ωn / √(k / J) 0. θ5 is calculated for each value of ωn as follows: ωn / √(k / J) 0.3) rad /s.02 −0.6 θ5 0. kt1 J1 kt2 J2 kt3 J3 kt4 Fig.5 589.3. Therefore 1 / ωn12 = 1/ 100 + 1 / 100 + 1 / 100 = 3 / 100 _______ _____ Or ωn12 = 100 / 3 0r ωn1 = √(100 / 3) =√(33.e.3 : Schematic for example 8.81 √(k/J) .50 0.4 0.50 −1.3 if J1 = J2 = J3 = J4 = 100 N-cm-s2/rad and kt1 = kt2 = kt3 = kt4 = 10.5 3. ωn4 = 2.70 −40. The condition to be satisfied is that the displacement at station 4. From the plot we find that ωn1 = 0.7.0 θ5 A graph of θ5 versus ωn is drawn and the values of ωn at which θ5 = 0 are the natural frequencies.45 √(k/J) .3 √(k/J) ωn2 = 0.0 −225. i. E8.

Thus the natural frequencies for the given system are: ωn1 = 7. θ4 is calculated as follows: ωn 5.00 0.e.20 16.00 18.86 −2025 −0. i.75 4375 2.00 0 ∞ ∞ 1 1 1 1 100 100 100 100 2500 2500 2500 ∞ θ 0 1.20 Similar table is constructed for different values of ωn and the displacement at station 4. k4 = 100 and k5 =150 N-cm / rad .75 0.00 θ4 15.0 Jω2θ 0 2500 ∑Jω2θ 0 2500 6875 k T = k1θ1− ∑Jω2θ T/ k 10000 7500 3125 1.00 ωn 0.00 − 1.00 A plot of θ4 versus ωn is drawn and the values of ωn at which θ4 is zero is read from the graph.57 rad /s.06 5150 12025 1. J4 = 10.7.00 0.66 rad/s .00 θ4 1. k3 = 200.00 20.4 (Branched System) :. J3 = 20.00 8.Determine the lowest natural frequency of the branched system shown in Fig. J2 = 15.49 ωn θ4 10. E 8. These values of ωn are the natural frequencies. k2 = 200.95 0.4 if J1 = 10.31 10000 10000 10000 10000 1. ωn2 = 14. J5 = 10 .57 −4. Example 8.7.86 − 0. J6 = 20 N-cm-s and K1 = 100.12 rad /s and ωn3 = 18.Station J Jω2 Assume ωn = 5.

Example 8.4. J = 20 . E 8.7.7. J1 k1 k5 k4 J6 J5 k3 J3 k2 J2 J4 A preliminary estimate of ωn can be made by reducing the given system to a two rotor system as shown in Fig.4(a) below.

78 7. To make amplitude of J5 the same.23.4 150 0.46 Jω2 θ Torque acting on shaft k5 equals the sum of the inertia torques by Discs J1J2.61= 1.12 5 20 10 0.4 2.78 and 0.10 At the junction.1 2 15 15 0.00 10 10 100 0.0 1 10 10 1.6 25. ω2 ∑Jω2θ 1.29 5 10 10 0.2 rad / s Position J Jω2 θ Jω2 θ ∑Jω2 θ k ∑Jω2 θ/k Assume ω2 = 1.15 11.8 31.37 10 10 0.10 4 10 10 0.61 6.e.8* The above procedure is repeated for different values of ω2 and the remainder torque ∑Jω2θ is calculated and the results are tabulated as follows.10 35.0 163.7.28 25. A graph of ω2 versus ∑Jω2θ is plotted and the value of ω2 at which ∑Jω2θ is zero is read from the graph as equal to 2.J = 10 + 15 +20 + 10 + 10 = 65 ____________ ___________________ ωn = √ k(J1 + J2) / J1J2 = √ 150 x[20 + 65] /(20 x 65) =3.13 10 10 1.4 6 20 20 0.61 at the the same time.5 23.0 68.64 rad / s.6 200 0.4 74. let 0.8 68. disc J5 cannot have amplitudes of 0.0 −214.78 / 0.00 20 20 200 0.2 3.7 .1 + 7.32 6.5 37.90 13. J3J4 and J5 i.78 7. Therefore ω = 1.90 9 29 100 0.5 200 0.8 = 68.28 be the new amplitude for disc J3 Position 3 4 5 J Jω2θ ∑ Jω2θ k ∑Jω2θ/k 20 20 1.3 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 20 20 1.5 + 37.1 100 0.