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Leadership and Influence Process

„ Leadership can be defined both as process and property.

„ Process definition: leadership is the use of noncoercive influence to shape the

group’s or organization’s goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of
those goals, and help define group or organization culture.

„ Property definition: leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to

individuals who are perceived to be leaders.

Power and Leadership

„ Power is the ability to affect the behavior of others.
„ Kinds of power:
‰ Legitimate power
‰ Reward power
‰ Coercive power
‰ Reference power
‰ Expert power
„ Using power:
‰ Legitimate request
‰ Instrumental compliance
‰ Coercion
‰ Rational persuasion
‰ Personal identification
‰ Inspirational appeal
‰ Information distortion

Approaches to Studying leadership

„ Leadership traits approach
„ Leadership behavior approach
„ Situational approach

Leadership Traits
„ Assumption was that leaders possess certain psychological, personal and physical
traits which distinguish them from non-leaders.
„ This approach focused on identifying leadership traits that will help to predict
future leaders.
„ Various studies found different leadership traits as intelligence, assertiveness,
above-average height, good vocabulary, attractiveness, self confidence, and
similar attributes.
„ Other studies also found many exceptions. So this approach of analysis proved
not to be very successful in leadership analysis
Leadership Behaviors
„ Assumption is effective leaders behave differently from less effective leaders.
„ Three major study in this field are
‰ Michigan studies
‰ Ohio State studies
‰ Leadership grid

Michigan Studies
„ Study approach: interview of both leaders (mangers) and follower
„ Major findings:
‰ Two basic forms of leader behavior
„ Job centered
„ Employee centered
‰ The two styles are presumed to be at the end of a single continuum.
i.e. leaders may be extreme job centered, employee centered or some
what between these two.
‰ Employee centered leader behavior tended to be more effective

Ohio State Studies

„ Study approach: extensive questionnaire survey.
„ Major findings:
‰ two basic forms of leader behavior/style
„ Initiating structure behavior
„ Consideration behavior
‰ The two styles are independent of each other i.e. a leader can show
varying level of both style at the same time.
‰ Initial thought was that leaders having high degree of both style
tended to be effective
‰ Further research complicated the findings as
„ Workers of high initiating structure leaders are high
performer but less satisfied with the job and tend more to be
„ Workers of high consideration leaders are low performer but
highly satisfied and tend less to be absent.

Leadership Grid
„ This is an extension to the earlier two approaches
„ It provides a means for evaluating leadership styles and then training managers to
move toward an ideal style of behavior.
„ It is also based two types of leadership behavior – concern for production and
concern for people
„ Five extremes of managerial behaviors are shown on the grid.
„ 9,9 is the ideal behavior.
„ Mangers are trained to achieve this style of behavior.
Situational Approaches to leadership
„ Assumption is that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to
„ The goal of this approach to identify the situational factors and to specify how
they interact to determine appropriate leader behavior.
„ Models to be reviewed:
‰ Tannenbaum and schmidt continunm
‰ LPC Theory
‰ Path – Goal Theory

An early model of situational leadership (Tannenbaum – Schmidt continuum)

„ The model has similarity with Michigan approach i.e. considers a continuum with
two ends boss centered (job centered) and subordinate centered (employee
centered) but considers some intermediate manager behavior.
„ Each point on the continuum is influence by characteristics of the manager,
subordinate and the situation.
„ Mangers’ characteristics: value system; confidence on sub, feelings of security etc
„ Subordinates’ characteristics: need for independence, readiness for responsibility,
knowledge, experience etc.
„ Situational characteristics: type of org., group effectiveness, the problem itself,
time pressure etc.

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Theory

„ Proponent: Fred Fiedler
„ Assumption: It argues that the style of behavior is a reflection of the leader’s
personality, and that most personalities fall into one of this two categories by
„ Task-oriented
„ Relationship oriented
„ Approach:
‰ questionnaire survey of managers about least preferred worker that
measures mangers personality through sixteen statements with by polar
adjectives (positive and negative at two end)
‰ It used 8 point scale with 8 indicating positive and 1 indicating negative
‰ Leader’s LPC score was calculated by adding up the scale value and high
scores reflect relationship orientation whereas low scores reflect task

„ Other elements of the theory:

‰ Favorableness of the situation
‰ Favorableness and leader style
‰ Flexibility of leader style

Path-Goal Theory
„ It is an extension of expectancy theory of motivation.
It suggests that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired
rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds
of behavior that will lead to goal achievement and valued rewards.
„ The Path-Goal Framework:

Subordinates’ Leader behavior Environmental

personal •Directive characteristics
•Supportive •Task structure
•Perceived •Participative •Authority
•Achievement system
•Locus of oriented •Work group.

Subordinates’ motivation to perform

Personal reading
„ Related perspective on leadership
‰ Substitutes for leadership
‰ Charismatic leadership
‰ Transformational leadership
„ Political behavior in organization
‰ Common political behavior
‰ Managing political behavior