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Have you ever wondered why Aham is sometimes written as ‚−¿ and sometimes as ‚−ŸþÃ ? Have you ever wondered why Poojya Swamiji , when singing bhajans, sometimes pronounces ( say for example) Aham as ‚−ŸþÃ and sometimes as ‚−›þÃ ?
The curious may move onto Lesson No. Two.
Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.chitrapurmath.net
© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013
Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 2. ‚−¿ versus
To answer those riddles, we must first get familiar with the ¬¨þ£s (vowels) and the ¨¡þØþ›þ s (consonants).
‚ ‚þ ƒ ƒÄ „ … † †¼ ¥þ¼ ¥þ¼ ‡ ‡½ ‚ø ‚ù ‚¿ ‚:
be pronounced. ¬¨þ£ s are sixteen in number.
are the ¬¨þ£ s. They
are complete in themselves and do not require the help of another letter to
¨¡þØþ›þ s, on the other hand, are incomplete. They can be pronounced only with the help of a ¬¨þ£. For example, the ˆÅ we know and recognize, is actually a combination of ˆÃÅ and ‚ . ˆÅ = ˆÃÅ +‚ . Without the ‚ , the ˆÃÅ is unpronounceable..(is
The there such a word ? ! )
ˆÅþ = ˆÃÅ + ‚þ
and so on and so forth.
A ¨¡þØþ›þ HAS to join up with a ¬¨þ£ to be pronounced. If the
a combination of two ¨¡þØþ›þ s, as in œ¥þ , you still need a ¬¨þ£ , in this case
‚ , to be added to the ¥þ to pronounce the "conjunct" œ¥þ | The ¨¡þØþ›þ s are ˆÃÅ ‰þÃ ŠþÃ ‹þÃ ŒÃ þÃ ŽÃ þÃ þÃ ØþÃ ÙÃ ÚÃ ÛÃ Ã µþÃ ·þÃ ˜þÃ ¸Ã šþÃ ›þÃ œþÃ ûÃÅ þÃ žþÃ ŸþÃ ¡þÃ £Ã ¥þÃ ¨þÃ ªþÃ «þÃ ¬þÃ −Ã §Ã âþÃ
Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.chitrapurmath.net
© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013
Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Thirty five of them. Interesting fact..Sixteen ¬¨þ£ s plus thirty five
¨¡þØþ›þ s make up the
¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ | Add to it , three – s , it gives us fifty four. Fifty four plus fifty four, add up to a hundred and eight. We go over the entire ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ twice, forwards and backwards, when we do one Ÿþþ¥þþ of þœþ | ¨¡þØþ›þ s | The oblique stroke at the bottom of the consonants is called a −¥þ›·þÃ |
That means the sound of that consonant is clipped. A small example...the English word "cup" is pronounced as "ˆÅœþÃ " and cuppa (as in I wanna cuppa tea...gottit? ) In a sentence like The ¨¡þØþ›þ s highlighted in the table are called ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆ
‚−ŸþÃ ‚›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ ( i am Anamika) the ŸþÃ is written as ŸþÃ to enable it to join with the ‚ ( a ¬¨þ£ ) in ‚›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ , to form the complete letter Ÿþ | The sentence then becomes ‚−Ÿþ›þþ¹ŸþˆÅþ | If the sentence were ‚−ŸþÃ ·þþ£þ , the ŸþÃ is unable to join with the ·þ in the ·þþ ( a ¨¡þØþ›þ ) of the ·þþ£þ, to form a single complete letter. It could become Ÿ·þþ , but that would make it a conjunct and not a single
complete letter. Does the difference come through clearly? When faced with the prospect of becoming a conjunct, ŸþÃ converts itself into a dot and places itself above the previous letter. Maintaining an identity of its own, it now calls itself an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | The correct form of the sentence then becomes ‚−¿ ·þþ£þ | So ŸþÃ is written as ŸþÃ , in two cases..... 1. when 2.
ŸþÃ is the last letter in a word and when the letter after it , in the next word , is a ¬¨þ£ and when it is at the end of a sentence...eg. ·þþ£þ ‚−ŸþÃ | (Why does ŸþÃ remain a ŸþÃ at the end of a sentence? Beats me. Some rules are just
stated and we, poor things, just accept them.) 3/37
Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.chitrapurmath.net
© Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013
Only ŸþÃ has the authority to be used as an ‚›é¬¨þþ£. Answers to riddle two in Lesson three too. Details in Lesson No.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 4/37 . Three.chitrapurmath. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. This changes the entire concept on how to write and pronounce a word correctly.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Interesting fact..
The ˆÅ ¨þŠþÄ is called the ˆÅµÚ:. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. It also gives us excellent clues on how to pronounce the ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þØþ›þ s. one could be assured of hurt neglected relatives and a smile on every canine face on the street. Pronunciations had to be accurate. since the sounds of this group are based in the throat. The prospect of making a mistake was great..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 5/37 . No books.¸›·þ: ( the tongue touches the teeth every single time) and the œþÃ ¨þŠþÄ.ŸêšþþÄ (the top of the palate). Those are the ones that really trip us up.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 3. Now.' Just take a look at our ¨¡þØþ›þ table again. just as you would say ˆÅ. you'll begin to appreciate how systematic it is. That's all very well but what in heaven's name are that ŒÃ and ØþÃ doing there? When are they used? The rule is that one ought to use that ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þØþ›þ with only those consonants that belong to the same class. If one invited æþþ›þþ: instead of ¬¨þþ›þþ: to one's feast. The word ¬þ¿¬ˆ¼Å·þ itself means 'that which has been systemized.. The Anunasiks justification for existing. knowledge was passed on from guru to shishya verbally. definitely.chitrapurmath. Rehearing. It includes all the ¨¡þØþ›þ s in that class.. ‚ø«Ú: (here the lips are used) are easy to pronounce. ˆÅ is called the ˆÅ ¨þŠþÄ. þ ¨þŠþÄ | This group is called the ·þþ¥é . literally meaning Class ˆÅ.. Keep the tongue in the same position as you would when saying þÃ then say ØþÃ which ÙÃ ¨þŠþÄ .. but bring out the sound nasally as well.. say Œ. the ·þÃ ¨þŠþÄ ... A long long time ago..ˆÅ ‰þ Šþ ‹þ Œ | The first row beginning with Notice how the tongue remains in exactly the same place when you say these words out loud. No revision. ·þþ¥é roughly is a ›¡þ¿ | The rest is the palate.
It should be easy for us to vocalize words. In the sentence ‚−¿ **************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.. only ŸþÃ has the ‚¹šþˆÅþ£ to be used as an ‚›é¬¨þþ£. Pronounced. the correct form of the word Shankar is ªþ¹£ and not word and then decide which ªþ¿ˆÅ£ .. The trick is to look at the ¨¡þØþ›þ immediately after the nasal sound in a ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ one to write. ‚−›þÃ ·þþ£þ and not ‚−ŸþÃ ·þþ£þ ( And written ‚−¿ ·þþ£þ | ) ‚−¿ ˆÅþ›·þþ is pronounced as ‚−ŒÃ ˆÅþ›·þþ. the dot on top of a letter at the end of a word. let us know. word . ‚¹ is correct and not ‚¿ˆÅ | œþØþ is correct and not œþ¿þ | ˆÅµÚ and not kçbÀÚ | ¸›·þ and not ¸¿·þ | þŸœþþ and not þ¿œþþ. It flows. the dot is pronounced like ›þÃ to flow with the next letter ·þ to whose class the ›þÃ belongs.chitrapurmath.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 WHEN WRITING For example. The ŸþÃ should sound like ŒÃ | Therefore ‚−¿ ¹Ùœê ¬é¥·þþ›þÃ is pronounced as ‚−µþÃ ¹Ùœê ¬é¥·þþ›þÃ | If we have royally confused you... Therefore to give you examples of words from all the ¨þŠþÄ s. WHEN PRONOUNCING Sanskrit is like water .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 6/37 . Also. Therefore the ŸþÃ in words adapts its pronunciation to flow in with the next ·þþ£þ ....
How come I don't get any mention at all in your last message ? The ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ too is extremely adaptable. In an isolated word.. is not pleased with me. Many schools have dropped the ŒÃ and the ØþÃ from the ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ because they might "confuse" our kids.rumour has it that the ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ too will be struck off the rolls..i have heard that † will soon be given a 'termination of services' notice. We need him a great deal in the days to come and we can't afford to get him mad... Interesting fact? No.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 4. Forget the Gods.chitrapurmath. sad.£þŸþ: is pronounced £þŸþ−. i loathe to think what ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ will feel when he hears this bit of self defeating news. So here goes.. the two dots sometimes found at the end of a word.. Don't want him unhappy.. Placating Visarga ¹¨þ¬þŠþÄ .. sad fact. he takes the sound of the letter just before him...... the Rishis have not been spared either. For example. And keep this to yourselves. Ÿþ¹·þ: is Ÿþ¹·þ¹− . OUR lessons WILL stick to the original ¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ | i'd like to believe that she (¨þµþÄŸþþ¥þþ . i mean) feels safe and protected with us. ¨þþ›þ£þ: is ¨þþ›þ£þ−þ | Ÿþþ¥þþ¹žþ: is Ÿþþ¥þþ¹žþ¹− | And so on and so forth.. I think he is happy now.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 7/37 . These so called do-gooders have spawned an entire generation of children who read Mç¹j as Shadkar instead of Shankar. −¹£: is pronounced −¹£¹−. Šé²: is pronounced Šé²−º .. Here is what he has been thinking. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.
.... He spoke only in Sanskrit but in the space of a few minutes. ¬þþ ˆÅþ ? (Who is she?) Ravi answered ‡«þþ ¬þ£¬¨þ·þú | ¬þþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | (This is Saraswati.) žþ¨þ·þú ˆÅþ ? (Who are you? .) ¬þ: ˆÅ: ? ¬þþ ˆÅþ ? ¬þ: £¹¨þ: | ¬þþ ¬þ£¬¨þ·þú | Jagadeesh next called out to Ravi..žþ¨þ·þú is the respectful feminine form of you as in the Hindi ‚þœþ..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 8/37 ....ˆÅ: = masculine who) žþ¨þ·þ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþÃ ? ( What is your name?) Chaitanya answered ‚−¿ ù·þ›¡þ: | ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ ù·þ›¡þ:| Our Jagadeesh grabbed Chaitanya by the shoulder and said ‡«þ: ù·þ›¡þ: (This is Chaitanya) and pointing to a man seated some distance away asked.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 5. Take a look... Just by asking questions and answering them himself (and with exaggerated gestures and an infectious smile!)our vocabulary jumped up from zero to five..... No kiddin'. ˆÅþ = feminine who) žþ¨þ·¡þþ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþÃ ? (What is your name?) Mala answered ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | ‚−¿ Ÿþþ¥þþ | Jagadeesh next pointed to Chaitanya.. He looked at Mala and said. ŸþŸþ ›þþŸþ þŠþ¸úªþ: | (My name is Jagadeesh... žþ¨þþ›þÃ ˆÅ:| (Who are you?) (žþ¨þþ›þÃ = masculine ‚þœþ ... ¬þ: ˆÅ: ? (who is he?) ¬þ: £¹¨þ:| ( He is Ravi ) Jagadeesh then said.. we were greeted very enthusiastically by an energetic and bubbly youngster called Jagadeesh.chitrapurmath.) ‚−¿ þŠþ¸úªþ: | (I am Jagadeesh. ‡«þþ Ÿþþ¥þþ | (This is Mala) and to Mala said.‡«þ: ù·þ›¡þ: | This is Chaitanya) Chaitanya answered ( Pointing to Ravi and Saraswati seated some distance away... we figured out what was happening. Meet our exuberant Jagadeeshaha When we entered our Sanskrit class for the very first time. That is Mala) Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.
the same person in the dove and eagle story .. Next to you are seated Ram and Sita. Away from you are Lakshmi and Shibi (yup.and for those of you who want to know the story.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 9/37 . write to me) Introduce yourself to the others and then ask the others their names. Listen to their answers and then introduce each one to the other.) Those at a distance from you are ¬þ: or ¬þþ (ditto) Game for a game? You are Suraj. when Lesson 5.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Those sitting close to you are ‡«þ: or ‡«þþ (depending on whether it is a man or a woman. Pay special attention to žþ¨þ·¡þþ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþÃ and when žþ¨þ·þ: ›þþŸþ ¹ˆÅŸþÃ are used.. and we are socializing in Sanskrit already!! Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.chitrapurmath.
I can become a verb. I am a root word called a šþþ·é and like my other friends. the ¹·þ is added to the root verb. adjectives and grammatical whatchamacallits in the column to your left. or a noun. ¹¥þ‰þÃ (write) etc. ¨þ¸Ã (speak). she.) To make me into a verb. Let me introduce myself. My friends have also chipped in to help.. nouns. I was going through the lessons that have already been sent to you and I can't believe that I have not been given my due. all in the present tense and you will see what I mean. œþÚÃ (read/ study).net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 10/37 .And that is far more than the visargas and the anusvaras of this world can even hope to be. Dears all. you have to use my avataar ŠþŽ | Add different suffixes called œÏ·¡þ¡þ s and hey presto I am ready to be used! Look at the following sentences. adverbs . Affronted ŠþŸþÃ speaks up.chitrapurmath. (By the way.. which makes it compatible with he. and with any name whether masculine or feminine BUT Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 6. check out definitions for verbs. I think I better introduce you very gently to my multifaceted personality.. By the simple addition of suffixes or prefixes. or an adjective. I am extremely versatile. or an adverb. ‰þþ¸Ã (eat). ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þ: ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þ: ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | He goes. it. She goes It goes He speaks He reads He eats She eats It eats He writes She writes It writes ¬þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þþ ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þþ œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | She speaks She reads It speaks It reads ·þ·þÃ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ·þ·þÃ ¨þ¸¹·þ | ·þ·þÃ œþÚ¹·þ | ·þ·þÃ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ·þ·þÃ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | £þŸþ:ŠþŽ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ¨þ¸¹·þ | £þŸþ: œþÚ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ | £þŸþ: ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ¨þ¸¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ œþÚ¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | ¬þú·þþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ | Yup. I am ŠþŸþÃ (go).
¸ªþ£˜þ:.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 ·¨þ¿ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¨þ¸¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ œþÚ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¹¥þ‰þ¹¬þ | You go You speak You read You eat AND You write ‚−¿ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ œþÚþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¹¥þ‰þþ¹Ÿþ | I go I speak I read I eat I write 1. ¬þ:. ·¨þ¿ . œþþÃ cook.) Now .. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. £âþÃ protect. œþþ (drink) becomes ¹œþþ and ´ªþÃ (see) becomes œþª¡þ. you can now make two word sentences in Sanskrit using ‚−¿. I can simply say ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ and the message that I am the one who is speaking and NO ONE ELSE. šþþ·é s to make the verb compatible with a particular subject? ¹·þ is loyal to ¬þ:. ŠþŽ¹·þ conveys both meanings "goes" and "is going" Thus you can safely translate ‚−¿ ¨þ¸þ¹Ÿþ as I speak and I am speaking. two very important šþþ·é s . ¬þþ and ·þ·þÃ or for that matter to. œé¬·þˆ¿Å . since ¹Ÿþ is loyal to ‚−ŸþÃ . ¬þþ and ·þ·þÃ .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 11/37 . I do not have to even mention the ‚−ŸþÃ or the ·¨þŸþÃ | The ¹·þ though.. −¬þÃ laugh.. Ditto with ·¨þŸþÃ. it's YOU who are eating and NO ONE ELSE. 7. ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ: etc. ¬éšþþ. ›þŸþÃ namaskaar (to salute. if you notice. has been conveyed. does need a specified subject.the minute I say..Let me provide you with a few more " everyday" šþþ·é s. ‰þþ¸¹¬þ . Similarly.. 6. £þ¨þµþ:. 5. Do you see how the same suffix ( œÏ·¡þ¡þ ) has been added to all the 2. Also.gettit?) ¹¬þ is loyal only to ·¨þ¿ AND ¹Ÿþ is loyal only to ‚−ŸþÃ | Please note that it is ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ and not ŠþŽ¹Ÿþ | There is an þ Ÿþþ°þþ added to the šþþ·é before the œÏ·¡þ¡þ is added. (Refer to 2 for reasons why) Knowing this. say. ¬é¹Ÿþ°þþ.. All the rest remain the same.chitrapurmath. 3. ŠþŸþÃ ( yours truly) becomes ŠþŽ before the suffixes are added.( £þšþþ ¹¥þ‰þ¹·þ œþ£›·é ‚−¿ ¹¥þ‰þþ¹Ÿþ. if you noticed. 4.
Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Henceforth. If you find this lesson difficult or need clarification of any kind. they have to impress their teacher Smt. my debut. All love. please do not hesitate to write. Tarangini Khot.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 12/37 . Use œþþ (¹œþþ ) and ´ªþ (œþª¡þ) too to make some more two word sentences. Besides.Ed. Besides having a post graduate degree ( and a B. More next week. if the šþþ·é 's form must be changed before it can be used. These guys out here can't wait to be useful. but honestly.chitrapurmath. On the contrary. I have no trouble sharing the limelight with Tarangini. I am honoured. the usable form will be given in brackets eg: ŠþŸþÃ (ŠþŽ) or œþþ ( ¹œþþ ). if you ask me. This may be my coming out ball. for good measure) she speaks and thinks FLUENTLY in Sanskrit. ŠþŸþÃ | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. A Sanskrit wizard.
Here." So what. Thou shalt tell thyself. ¡é¨þþ¿ œþÚ˜þ: | You two study. Thou shalt reassure thyself. just books. Panic Button.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 7. Present ing the entire present tense deal.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 13/37 . Thou shalt not press the panic button. is the works. "Thank the good Lord that we do not need to learn a triple!" œé¬·þˆÅþ¹›þ | Books. if Sanskrit has not just a singular and a plural but a dual as well ! " ·ø œþÚ·þ: | They two study. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ‚þ¨þþ¿ œþÚþ¨þ: | We two study.chitrapurmath. my dears.
I. the subject can be none but ¡é¨þþŸþÃ.) ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular M F N þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ ¬þ: ¬þþ ·þ·þÃ He She It ·þù ·ø ·ø Two He s Two She s Two It s ·ø Many He s ·þþ: Many She s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s ŠþŽ¹›·þ ¡ê¡þ¿ / ¡ê¡þŸþÃ All of you Ÿþš¡þŸþ ŠþŽ¹·þ ·¨þ¿ /·¨þŸþÃ You ŠþŽ·þ: ¡é¨þþ¿ / ¡é¨þþŸþÃ You two „îþŸþ ŠþŽ¹¬þ ‚−¿/ ‚−ŸþÃ I ŠþŽ˜þ: ‚þ¨þþ¿ /‚þ¨þþŸþÃ We two ŠþŽ˜þ ¨þ¡þ¿ / ¨þ¡þŸþÃ All of us ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ 1. 4. is given to he.chitrapurmath. she and it. Here the first preference. the subject need not be given.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 14/37 . These Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. two of us . on when ‚−¿ is used and when ‚−ŸþÃ | 5. For example. The ŠþŽþ¨þ: ŠþŽþŸþ: œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ has distinct words based on gender. N=Neuter. all of us. in true altruistic style. This style of presentation is what is original. When the verbs of the Ÿþš¡þŸþ and the „îþŸþ are used.. 3. you two. all of you. if I say ‰þþ¸˜þ:. (Phew!!) M= Masculine. It is only for the œÏ˜þŸþ . œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ contains within it ALL the nouns and pronouns in the whole wide world EXCEPT for you. Therefore. F= Feminine. that the subject has to be specified.. Refer to Lesson 2.. Only the 2.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 ŠþŸþÃ œé²«þ Person (to go) ¥þÙÃ ¥þˆÅþ£ (the present tense.
the second person... All of them ( Feminine) see.. and the third person is called the ·þ¼·þú¡þœé²«þ ..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 become the first person.. So certain texts will have the table the way it is the other way around where written here and certain other texts will have it "upsidedown" 7. ( ‰þþ¸Ã ) . 6. It doesn't really matter which way you learn it as long as the right form of verb is used with the right subject. 1. one refers to oneself as the „îþŸþœé²«þ| 6. is the œÏ˜þŸþ. use the correct form of the verb given in brackets and translate the following .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 15/37 . Šé²Ÿê·øÄ ·¨þþ¿ ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ ¬þ·þ·þ¿ ‚þ·ŸþˆÅþŸþ ¬þ¿¨þšþÄ¹›þ ‚Ÿþ | Exercise. here are the words. the Ÿþš¡þŸþ is referred to as ¹×·þú¡þœé²«þ ... We two eat. 4. Brain Teaser.In the second stanza of the bhajan œêµþÄˆÅ¥þþŸþ¹¡þ ¬þ¿¹¨þ·¬¨þ³¹œþµþú.) Those of you who do not know the bhajan. who is the subject? What is the verb?(Ignore the other words that have not been taught as yet. 5. He speaks. (¸¼ªþÃ ¬þþ ¹œþþ¹·þ | ¡ê¡þ¿ ›þŸþ˜þ | ¨þ¡þ¿ œþÚþŸþ: | Go over the table at least twice a day for the next few days and you will see how easily you will begin to match the verb with its subject...first person..Using the given table as a guide..chitrapurmath.. (¨þ¸Ã ) 2. the style that you see in various text books will be „îþŸþ is referred to as the œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ .. Yet knowing that the Divine Aatman resides in oneself. in this table.where. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. To make Sanskrit available to a generation already accustomed to English grammar..œþª¡þ ) 3.
" to connect the right verb œÏ·¡þ¡þ s with its subject. the words begin to flow. Once you remove the " I can't! " block from your mind. It's fun. Try it. we can move onto our next set of lessons." May i lend you a shoulder? When i first landed up with this memorizing process. ´ªþÃ ( œþª¡þ ) are all there for your ready reference in the index. ‰þþ¸Ã . ›þŸþÃ . Once you are more or less comfortable with this..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 The tables for the šþþ·é s ¨þ¸Ã . i wasn't too sure i could do it. −¬þÃ . i had left school years ago. Use the words often during the day.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 16/37 . Have titled it "Verb conjugations in the present tense. it makes it simpler. ¹¥þ‰þÃ .. When faced with a limited vocabulary. my learning ability adapted itself to my new requirements. £âþÃ . Till we meet again. But once i got started. œþÚÃ . œþþÃ . " Adios Amigos!" *************************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. œþþ ( ¹œþþ ). i have even constructed sentences like "‚−¿ milkam boi ¥þþ¹Ÿþ .chitrapurmath.
had a very interesting question to ask. " AND. even though the sentence contains three 17/37 Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 7 A. Gottit? • £þŸþ: ¬þú·þþ ¥þâŸþµþ: þ ›þŸþ¹›·þ | The plural form of the verb with more • than two subjects. a subject is the one who performs the action in a sentence.. if one person is a man and the other a woman? Okey Dokey . What subject form does one use." Sushma Nadkarni from Australia. correct but rare. but a mouthful!!! File this usage. "Gender and Person combinations. Back to Sushma's query. List all the objects and add þ after the last listed object.. the Masculine form of the pronoun always takes the preference. away in your memory bank. So one can say ·þù ŠþŽ·þ: | For all the feminists out there. Say instead --. This is the most common usage and is THE PREFERRED one while conversing. there's a way out. ·þù or ·ø .." The verb HAS to be singular.. When the two are a man and a woman.chitrapurmath.) RULES THAT APPLY TO þ ( AND) NOTE: • There are two ways in which þ ( and ) is added in a sentence. For example: The cat. Therefore. Sometimes one may come across a sentence like. mouse þ play.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . nor character nor truth exists. if you want to say .. " In him neither cleanliness. elephant.. dog.¬þ: ¬þþ þ ŠþŽ·þ: | • £þŸþ: ¬þú·þþ þ ›þŸþ·þ: | The dual form of the verb is used to match with the two subjects. • Musical. • Put the þ in between all listed objects.here is what happens."They two go. For example: The cat þ dog þ elephant þ mouse þ play.(By the way.
use the dual form of the verb. use the dual or the plural form of the verb (depending on the number of subjects) and give preference to „îþŸþ œé²«þ first .. Looking forward to active participation from all of you.. £þŸþ: ·¨þŸþÃ ‚−¿ þ ŠþŽþŸþ: | Plural form AND „îþŸþ œé²«þ | £þŸþ: ·¨þ¿ þ ŠþŽ˜þ: | Dual And Ÿþš¡þŸþ. 3.he insists on making his presence felt!) I must thank Sushma for her question. use the dual form of the verb for the „îþŸþ œé²«þ.. For example. don't you think? Everybody benefits. What if you have subjects from two or three different œé²«þ s ? In that case.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 subjects. greater and a very "useful understanding "of the language.. 4. ·¨þŸþÃ ‚−¿ þ ŠþŽþ¨þ: | Since there are two people. ·þ¹¬Ÿþ›þÃ ›þ ªþùþ¿ ›þ ‚þþþ£: ›þ þ ¬þ·¡þŸþÃ ‚¹¬·þ | ( ‚¬þÃ + ¹·þ ) ‚¬þÃ • the root form meaning " be ". the verb form HAS to be singular. ¨þþ prefers to be between all the words and at the end.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 18/37 . ·ø ·¨þ¿ þ ŠþŽ˜þ | Plural And Ÿþš¡þŸþ | then to RULES THAT APPLY TO ¨þþ ( OR) • The verb matches the subject that you place last in your sentence. Ÿþš¡þŸþ œé²«þ and last of all to œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ. All questions are welcome. ‚−¿ ¨þþ ·¨þ¿ ¨þþ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ·¨þ¿ ¨þþ ‚−¿ ¨þþ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ‚−¿ ¨þþ ·ø ¨þþ ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ( Yup.chitrapurmath. This kind of interaction builds a quicker. Since „îþŸþ œé²«þ features in the sentence. 1. This got me a reading and a referring again.. And a very " G'dai to you mate!" ************ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. 2.
. Just as in English where the verb has to match the subject ( "Boys goes" is an absolute howler. born and brought up in the U.chitrapurmath.. Sanskritofying English!!! Something happened a few days ago. the verbs HAVE to match the subject . Now that Sanskrit has an additional dual. The others will be introduced by and by. Boys go. With young people like him... A boy goes. Sanskrit verbs are always shown in a tabular form. In English we have a singular and a plural. Lesson 6. a fifteen year old. The present tense ŠþŸþÃ (to go) ¥þÙÃ ¥þˆÅþ£ ( ¥þÙÃ ¥þˆÅþ£ are Sanskrit ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual words that mean the Present Tense...." Let's take a peek at the table again .. dealt with the introduction of a root word called a šþþ·é | A šþþ·é is the most flexible thing in the universe. we can be assured that the future of Sanskrit lies in good and caring hands. First let's get a few concepts absolutely clear. Deeply interested in India and Her culture.K.a boy goes. pride and hope.net ŠþŽ¹·þ ŠþŽ¹¬þ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ ŠþŽ·þ: ŠþŽ˜þ: ŠþŽþ¨þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ ŠþŽ˜þ ŠþŽþŸþ: 19/37 © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . So here goes. by the addition of prefixes and suffixes. we need separate verb forms to distinguish the duals from the singulars and the plurals.. Let us just concentrate on the verb aspect first. It is the basic form of a verb and can be converted into a noun or an adjective etc.. Nimish Ubhayakar.. So we have. To understand grammar better.. seems to need further explanations. Sanskrit has an additional "dual " besides a singular and a plural. Lesson 7..) œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ Ÿþš¡þŸþ „îþŸþ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. Boys.) in Sanskrit too. two boys go and many boys go. he learnt the Devanagiri script to be able to learn Sanskrit. Boy.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 7 B. wrote to us.something that filled my heart with deep appreciation. Vertically they denote "Number" and horizontally the "person..
One cat ŠþŽ¹·þ . alongside this one and begin to compare the two. Ÿþ: . Use ŠþŽ¹·þ with singular forms of ANY noun.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Keep the ŠþŸþÃ table that has earlier been given in Lesson 7.. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. These verbs will therefore be used for the third person.. two tadpoles ·þ£·þ: and three or more tadpoles ·þ£¹›·þ | ·þ¼ ( to swim) being šþþ·é | Ÿþš¡þŸþ | 2. ˜þ. Catch a hold of the suffix. ¨þ:. To identify the verb forms. ¹Ÿþ. You.. Use ŠþŽ·þ: with dual forms of ANY ŠþŽ¹›·þ | Yes.i? you? we?.these fall into the The subject is so specific here that just by looking at the word ‰þþ¸¹¬þ ( the suffix ¹¬þ is the indicator) i know that it is you who are eating and nobody else. ˜þ:... i needn't add the subject at all in my sentences... 1. Use ŠþŽ¹›·þ with plural forms of ANY noun. For the moment. noun.but if i say Šþþ¡þþ¹Ÿþ..whether cat ..Three or more cats the noun form "cat" is written differently for one cat.. into giving us a solution. For example.. two cats and three or more cats.. If i say ¨þ¸˜þ:.. ¹¬þ.. Similarly..dog. you must look at its tail end...but that will be explained in Lesson 8. the suffix ˜þ: indicates "two 3.. museums. ·þ:. two rats. two cobs of corn ." 4.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 20/37 . one bird.. the of you". Every noun and pronoun in the dictionary fall into the œÏ˜þŸþ ..and then figure out who the subject is. three or more of you ..one tadpole the ·þ£¹·þ. These concepts should come through clearly. many fish.. is it ¹·þ. Therefore since both Ÿþš¡þŸþ and „îþŸþ have predetermined subjects.. Two cats ŠþŽ·þ: .. ¹Ÿþ tells me that "I am singing.. If i say "sing" it is unclear as to who is singing. combine English and Sanskrit to "remember" which verb form goes with which subject form. two of you.chitrapurmath. ¹›·þ. Now let's tease the brain teaser in Lesson 7.
till the verb suffixes. Let's see if i can tease my brain into coming up with better explanations! Looking forward to your feedback.‚−¿ singþ¹Ÿþ .until our vocabulary grows. write to the chef ( yours truly).subject combinations have more or less been memorized.. ******* Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. come back to Lesson 7. If you are still in a soup. two elephants trumpet·þ:.. Once you have finished reading Lesson 8 and Lesson 8 A.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Šé²Ÿê·øÄ ·¨þþ¿ ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ ¬þ·þ·þ¿ ‚þ·ŸþˆÅþŸþ ¬þ¿¨þšþÄ¹›þ ‚Ÿþ | ›þŸþþ¹Ÿþ tells you that the one who is performing the namaskaar is none but "I. Mother cook¹·þ. Use these verb suffixes with their matching subjects to form Sanskrit/English sentences. things will begin to make sense then. ·¨þ¿ meditate¹¬þ ..sentences like that .chitrapurmath. Go on to the next lesson." Simple. Father snore¹·þ | ..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 21/37 .
. Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. In it. Let's go through each one of them in sequence. a œÏ·¡þ¡þ.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 8. Insights into ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ s Have a look at these two sentences. For example. She sat under a tree. are all set to a particular metre in the form of poetry. "to Raghava " as "Raghavato" and "with bats and balls" as "batsballswith" The subject's word form. as in the one performing the action.suffix became a completely new word whose meaning became crystal clear.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 22/37 . • The cat drinks milk.. Krishna spoke to Raghava. and then add that to the noun. What we essentially do in Sanskrit is write the word "under tree" as "treeunder". The noun plus the preposition-turned. Clarity any clearer??!! ) It was a long time ago. Each of them convey a different meaning. Almost everything that we have in our shastras . We needed the freedom to be able to put words in any order in a sentence. without any changes to the meaning of what had to be conveyed. is a beautiful verse. The early morning was vibrant in the silence of meditation. the meaning of the sentence changes. It is rhythmic. our scriptures. The Rishi Budhakaushik had disappeared within himself. in His infinite grace. our texts.. £þŸþ: (£þŸþø ) £þþŸþ¹µþ: ¬þ¸þ ¹¨þþ¡þ·ø £þŸþ¿ £Ÿøªþ¿ žþø | £þŸøµþ ‚¹žþ−·þþ ¹›þªþþþ£þŸê: £þŸþþ¡þ ·þ¬Ÿù ›þŸþ: || £þŸþþ·þÃ ›þþ¹¬·þ œþ£þ¡þµþ¿ œþ£·þ£¿ £þŸþ¬¡þ ¸þ¬þø¶¬Ÿ¡þ−ŸþÃ | £þŸø ¹þîþ¥þ¡þ: ¬þ¸þ žþ¨þ·é Ÿø −½ £þŸþ ŸþþŸþÃ „Ö£ || Notice how the word £þŸþ appears in many different forms in the verse. the minute the words are shifted around. In most languages. They played with bats and balls.. remains unchanged. gave to the Rishi the Ramaraksha stotra.chitrapurmath. The only way to ensure that was to convert a preposition into a suffix. Sanskrit is musical. The changes occur with the other noun or pronoun in the sentence with whom the subject seeks to establish a relationship. The Lord Shiva. (A preposition is a word in a sentence that shows the relationship between two or more nouns/pronouns..into. • Milk drinks the cat.
. Ÿþ ŠÏ›˜þþ·þÃ | Simple. If you remember. For example. Let us put it in the form of a table to make it easier to refer to. all I have to do is make sure that my words rhyme. is the form the word takes when calling out to someone named Rama. with þ·é˜þúÄ for œþØþŸþú from «þ«Úú (denotes possession) ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ singular ¹×¨þþ›þ dual þ−º¨þþ›þ plural £þŸþ: £þŸþ¿ £þŸøµþ £þŸþþ¡þ £þŸþþ·þÃ £þŸþ¬¡þ £þŸø (−½) £þŸþ ¬þœ·þŸþú in. £þŸþ: is an ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ word. Ÿþ−½ªþ. 23/37 © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 . þþ¥þˆÅ (boy). Since Sanskrit is so musical. on ¬þŸþøšþ›þ (used when calling out to.' And £þŸþ by itself. £þŸøµþ means 'by or with Rama.' £þŸø is 'in Rama. £þŸþþ·þÃ | So therefore. For example if I have to say "from the book. ¨þ¼âþ (tree). ˆÅµþÄ (ear). "from the book" JUST HAS to be Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ŠÏ›˜þ ( book).Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 £þŸþ: is the subject form. £þŸþ¿ becomes the object form.' £þŸþþ·þÃ is 'from Rama. ‚Ÿþ£ etc. £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object ·þ¼·þú¡þþ by." I look at the word for "from Rama" It says. Žþ°þ (student) besides so many names like ¹ªþ¨þ.net and is a masculine word.' £þŸþþ¡þ signifies 'for Rama.chitrapurmath. That means that it ends in the sound ‚ = ŸþÃ + ‚ There are lots of masculine words that end in ‚.' £þŸþ¬¡þ conveys the meaning 'Rama's.) Now.
" All my students fell asleep while reading my lesson? " Therefore. here now is the entire table. Since Rama does the action. Let me give you some concrete examples..there is so much less to memorize. New Concepts taught in this lesson • You can arrange the words in any manner in a Sanskrit sentence.. on ¬þŸþøšþ›þ (used when addressing) I have tried to show you that certain words are repeated in the table by clubbing them together in the same colour. with þ·é˜þúÄ for œþØþŸþú from «þ«Úú shows possession ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ £þŸþ: £þŸþŸþÃ £þŸøµþ £þŸþþ¡þ £þŸþþ·þÃ £þŸþ¬¡þ £þŸø (−½) £þŸþ ¹×¨þþ›þ £þŸþù £þŸþù £þŸþþž¡þþŸþÃ £þŸþþž¡þþŸþÃ £þŸþþž¡þþŸþÃ £þŸþ¡þø: £þŸþ¡þø: (−½) £þŸþù þ−º¨þþ›þ £þŸþþ: £þŸþþ›þÃ £þŸþ¾: £þŸøž¡þ: £þŸøž¡þ: £þŸþþµþþŸþÃ £þŸø«é (−½) £þŸþþ: ¬þœ·þŸþú in. They are used not too often . £þŸþ: ¹ªþ¨þ¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ | ›þŸþ¹·þ £þŸþ: ¹ªþ¨þŸþÃ | ¹ªþ¨þ¿ £þŸþ: ›þŸþ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ›þŸþ¹·þ ¹ªþ¨þŸþÃ | ¹ªþ¨þ¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ £þŸþ: | ›þŸþ¹·þ ¹ªþ¨þ¿ £þŸþ: | All these sentences mean exactly the same thing. Thank God for small mercies ..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 24/37 .chitrapurmath. £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ pu<iLl¼ (Just to look at my dears. Rama does Namaskaar to Shiva. Are they needed? You can betcha bottom dollar that they are! What in the world would you say for " I hear with my two ears ?" Or for that matter . you use the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ form which is ¹ªþ¨þŸþÃ | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. the Rama is picked from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | Since Shiva is the object to whom the namaskaar is done. that is why the need to create new words did not present itself. don't get flustered!) ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object ·þ¼·þú¡þþ by.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 I can see eyebrows raised over the blank spaces for the dual and plurals.
The study of Sanskrit should not make one tense." If you mix up the words. I must use the word £þŸþ: | Hope these two concepts have been dealt with clearly in this lesson. Here is a little limerick that might amuse you.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 25/37 .. put the birds. In a lighter vein. For. you may safely assume that I am calling out to Ram. I MUST use the word £þŸþŸþÃ | If Ram is the person performing the action. In the end. "the birds sat on the fence. In Sanskrit..chitrapurmath.a word is NEVER used by itself. If I use the word £þŸþ.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 • A word + a preposition is used in Sanskrit.. it will still make sense! ****************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.. look at the sentence. If I intend using Ram as the object of my adoration .
Reinforcing Vibhaktis. I remember going into a complete tizzy when first introduced to the vibhakti idea. œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 8 A .. Luckily for me. the matching subject forms are also given.chitrapurmath. I asked more questions than a talkative four year old. ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular M F N þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ ¬þ: ¬þþ ·þ·þÃ He She It ·þù ·ø ·ø Two He s Two She s Two It s ·ø Many He s ·þþ: Many She s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s ¡ê¡þ¿ / ¡ê¡þŸþÃ All of you Ÿþš¡þŸþ ·¨þ¿ /·¨þŸþÃ You ¡é¨þþ¿ / ¡é¨þþŸþÃ You two „îþŸþ ‚−¿/ ‚−ŸþÃ I ‚þ¨þþ¿ /‚þ¨þþŸþÃ We two ¨þ¡þ¿ / ¨þ¡þŸþÃ All of us Now let's concentrate on the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 26/37 . Divide the lot completely as so. Here is what I gathered in an oyster. Ignore the verb forms and just concentrate on the subject forms. Take a look at the ŠþŸþÃ present tense verb table. Besides the conjugations of the verb. Tarangini had the patience of a growing pearl. The table is broken horizontally into three œé²«þ s.
. Ÿþþ¥þþ ŠþŽ¹·þ. Ÿþ¹·þ:. þþ¥þˆÅ etc. ›þ¸ú N ·þ·þÃ It Šþ¼−ŸþÃ. ¹Šþ¹£ etc.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 27/37 ... All ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words are declined like( made to rhyme like) words are declined like Šé² | −¹£ | words are declined like Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ·ø Two She s ·þþ: Many She s ·ø Two It s ·þþ¹›þ Many It s At the risk of sounding terribly repetitious and boring. ¹ªþªé (child). All „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ 3. Šé²:| ·þù Two He s ·ø Many He s F ¬þþ She £Ÿþþ. £þŸþ: ŠþŽ¹·þ. ¨þ›þŸþÃ. there are „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words like Šé².Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 œÏ˜þŸþ M ¬þ: He £þŸþ:. The 2. −¹£:. ¬þþšé etc. žþþ›é (sun). Therefore. 1. words like dictionary except for those of the Ÿþš¡þŸþ and the Just as there are ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ £þŸþ. Šþ¼−ŸþÃ ŠþŽ¹·þ..chitrapurmath. and words like there are ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ ˆÅ¹¨þ. ¨þ›þŸþÃ ŠþŽ¹·þ . Šé²: ŠþŽ¹·þ. £Ÿþþ ŠþŽ¹·þ. All ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ £þŸþ | 2. 1. œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ accommodates every single noun and pronoun in the „îþŸþ . −¹£..
chitrapurmath.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 28/37 .) Similarly we have different ending feminine words and neuter words.. All rhyming words are declined in the same manner. i shan't give you more than you can chew. (We'll take it easy. BUT remember that a masculine word is rhymed with its masculine counterpart. See you next week! ************************ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. and a neuter with a neuter. why not convert Šé² into Šé²¸½¨þ or maybe −¹£ into ›þþ£þ¡þµþ ? Makes conversation simple! These antics are alright in the beginning but eventually we will have to learn all the forms of different words simply so that we may recognize them in shlokas and texts.. a feminine one with its feminine rhyming counterpart.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 „ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ differently from words and ƒˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words are declined words BUT the most beautiful thing is ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ that Sanskrit allows us the freedom to convert all words into ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ words and decline them like £þŸþ | For instance. relate your woes and we'll provide instant relief! The Agony Aunts and Uncles here are a prompt lot. Just hit the feedback button on our Sanskrit page. Just try and understand this concept. Things will become clearer as we proceed and i will keep explaining and repeating concepts for as long as you require me to. And that's a promise.
. vibhakti. Sanskrit English what here there from-where where all together everywhere elsewhere Hindi ¹ˆÅŸþÃ / ¹ˆ¿Å ‚°þ ·þ°þ ¡þ°þ ˆºÅ°þ ‡ˆÅ°þ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‚›¡þ°þ So I can accurately say Æ¡þþ ¡þ−Ü ¨þ−Ü þ−Ü ˆÅ−Ü ¬þþ˜þ ŸÝ ¬þþ þŠþ− ¹ˆÅ¬þú ‚ù£ þŠþ− ‚−¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | ·¨þ¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹¬þ | ¬þ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | £þŸþ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ‚þ¨þþ¿ ·þ°þ ŠþŽþ¨þ: | . verb. Since £þŸþ: is from œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ ( Third Person Singular. you name it.chitrapurmath." The Ram is the subject.. they hold their own..Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9. Therefore you pick the word Ram from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | £þŸþ: | The verb is " is eating" and HAS to follow the subject.. Having introduced our Non. there are some heartwarming. ‰þþ¸¹·þ | the Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. They are called ‚¨¡þ¡þ s.Caterpillars.according to English Grammar) the verb also has to be from the œÏ˜þŸþœé²«þ ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ . shall we get familiar with our Caterpillars? In a sentence such as " Ram is eating a ladoo. gender. Of Caterpillars and Non-Caterpillars. in a changing world..net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 29/37 . steady ones that never...and so on and so forth. tense. Much as you have been introduced to verbs and nouns that change their shape and size at the drop of a hat. Let's go through a group of them in every lesson ." ( Ah! NOW the reference to caterpillars becomes clear! ) You can use them with any noun. ever "metamorphosize.
Therefore the sentence becomes. the subject. £þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆ¿Å ‰þþ¸¹·þ | CLUE: Whenever a sentence is constructed or translated. ) ·¨þ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | You are eating a ladoo everywhere. ‚−¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþÃ ‚°þ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | I am eating a ladoo here. 30/37 . The conjugation(Changes in a verb form) of the verb in its various forms remains the same for all three genders.. the verb. £þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþÃ ‚°þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | Ram is eating a ladoo here. ‚−¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ is an absolute no no.. change the word according to the ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ table to include a preposition ) Rules that must be followed. ·¨þ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþÃ ‚›¡þ°þ ‰þþ¸¹¬þ | You are eating a ladoo elsewhere. neuter words will be introduced with an (N) and feminine words with an ( F). The verb HAS to agree with the ˆÅ·þþÄ. 2.(Don't even try and imagine it.. grab (for dear life) the verb and its subject. i shall put an ( M) next to it.(Probably Let's add an averse to sharing it. ‚¨¡þ¡þ. THEN add the rest of the words to complete the sentence. Whenever i introduce NEW masculine words to you. To use them in sentences.chitrapurmath.) ( New Concept Ÿþø¸ˆÅ is a masculine word.. £þŸþ: Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ·þ°þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | Ram is eating a ladoo there. The verb is bound by Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. not by ¹¥þ² © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 gender.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 The object that is being gobbled up is the ladoo (Ÿþø¸ˆÅ .the root word) The object form of the word Ÿþø¸ˆÅ is Ÿþø¸ˆÅŸþÃ . Let's change the subject AND along with it. 1.net œé²«þ person and ¨þþ›þ number.. ‚−¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ¿ ·þ°þ ‰þþ¸þ¹Ÿþ | I am eating a ladoo there.
Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 3.) ( Easier to say. ¬þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ .. £þŸþ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ .. ·þ·þÃ ›þ ‰þþ¸¹·þ | The subject ˆÅ·þþÄ ALWAYS is in the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ and the object ˆÅŸþÄ is ALWAYS in the ¹×·þú¡þþ | Šþþ (elephant. the place to where the "going to" happens ALWAYS is in the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ| going to. add the ŸþÃ or the anuswaar to wherever you are ‚−¿ ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ | Šþþ: ¨þ›þ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ¬þ: Šþ¼−¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | ŠþŽþ¹Ÿþ ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þŸþÃ ‚−ŸþÃ | The faithful shall follow me into solving the exercises in Lesson 9 A. The ladoo is eating an elephant.Ÿþþ¥þþ ‰þþ¸¹·þ . M ) Ÿþø¸ˆÅ (laddoo. M) Šþþ: Ÿþø¸ˆ¿Å ‰þþ¸¹·þ is translated as The elephant is eating a laddoo. ****** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. or other yet to be introduced forms. Šþþ¿ Ÿþø¸ˆÅ: ‰þþ¸¹·þ is .net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 31/37 .chitrapurmath. New Concept Whenever you use ŠþŸþÃ in its verb. Thou shalt tread this path with care.
Subsequent lessons will introduce one vibhakti at a time.. are the first two ¹¨þ0 ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ œÏ˜þŸþþ subject ¹×·þú¡þþ object £þŸþ ‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿çquuç² ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ ¹×¨þþ›þ £þŸþ: £þŸþù £þŸþŸþÃ £þŸþù þ−º¨þþ›þ £þŸþþ: £þŸþþ›þÃ Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.Exercises in sentence building.. Time now to introduce a new concept. ´ªþÃ ( œþª¡þ¹·þ )| All you have to do is separate the word œþª¡þ¹·þ into œþª¡þ + ¹·þ and understand that the usable verb Whenever new verbs are introduced. œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ ‡ˆÅ ¨þþ›þ will be given in brackets alongside the šþþ·é | For example...net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 32/37 . The ‚ ending masculine (‚ˆÅþ£þ›·þ œé¿iLLa¼ ) noun " £þŸþ " has already been introduced... the form is the first part of the word.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9 A .chitrapurmath. ´ªþÃ (œþª¡þ¹·þ ) to see ¥þÙÃ ¥þˆÅþ£ (present tense ) œé²«þ Person ‡ˆÅ¨þþ›þ Singular ¹×¨þþ›þ Dual þ−º¨þþ›þ Plural œÏ˜þŸþ Ÿþš¡þŸþ „îþŸþ œþª¡þ¹·þ œþª¡þ¹¬þ œþª¡þþ¹Ÿþ œþª¡þ·þ: œþª¡þ˜þ: œþª¡þþ¨þ: œþª¡þ¹›·þ œþª¡þ˜þ œþª¡þþŸþ: For quick reference to help you do the exercises. You can build an entire present tense table based on this by the addition of œÏ·¡þ¡þ s ( suffixes) as so. We will work with just the first two vibhaktis today. Let's build a vocabulary now.
And since there are two men.chitrapurmath. two men HAVE to be matched with œþÚ·þ: the dual œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ verb. Avyayas.All nouns and pronouns except for the ·¨þ¿. ŠþŸþÃ ( ŠþŽ¹·þ to go) −¬þÃ (−¬þ¹·þ. ¬þ: ·þù he two he s žê ( žþ¨þ¹·þ to be) œþÚÃ (œþÚ¹·þ to read or study). He is reading. Ÿþ›é«¡þù œþÚ·þ: | Recall. Those two men are reading. 1. ¹ˆÅŸþÃ ‚°þ ·þ°þ ¡þ°þ ˆºÅ°þ ¬þ¨þÄ°þ ‚›¡þ°þ ‡ˆÅ°þ ·ø all the he s £þŸþ ( M) ƒÄæþ£ ( M) þþ¥þˆÅ boy ( M) Ÿþ›é«¡þ man (M) ›þ¼œþ king ( M) ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ school ( M) ŠÏþŸþ village ( M) Example sentences. ‚þ¨þþ¿. and ¨þ¡þ¿ fall into the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ | Therefore logically. Verbs. the word for two men HAS to rhyme with £þŸþù which makes it Ÿþ›é«¡þù | Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 33/37 .Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Do you have a notebook . a pencil and a HUGE eraser ready? Then let's gettagoin' ! Nouns / Pronouns. ¡é¨þþ¿. ‚−¿. ¡ê¡þ¿...−¬þ›þþ to laugh) ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2.
8. 12. Ram is namaskaaring( for lack of an appropriate word!) Ishwar. 6. The boy is going to school. He is laughing there.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 3. þþ¥þˆÅ: ·þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | Try doing the rest on your own. What is happening there? ·þ°þ ¹ˆ¿Å žþ¨þ¹·þ? Whatever is happening also falls into the œÏ˜þŸþ œé²«þ | Since it appears to be singular. But you shall be honest and take a peek only after you have tried completing the exercise.chitrapurmath. Ram is going to the village. Answers are provided in Lesson 9B. 4. žþ¨þ¹·þ is used. Two men are going to the village. All the men are going to the village. The boy is going there. 11. 14. 10. Two boys are going to school. 3. 9. ¬þ: œþÚ·þ:| ¬þ: œþÚ¹›·þ | ·þù œþÚ¹·þ | © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 34/37 Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. 1. 2. 3. Ram is namaskaaring all the boys. 16. All the boys are laughing. 5. The king is going elsewhere. 2. Translate. The two are reading here. 15. All the boys are namaskaaring Ram. He is reading. 13. Correct these sentences. 4. Ram and Ishwar are studying ( Refer to lesson 7 A). Two boys are laughing.net . Where is the boy laughing? 7. 1.
8. you may take that peek now. By the way.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 4. 5. 6. 7.chitrapurmath. You have my blessings. ****************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 35/37 . ·ø œþÚ¹·þ | þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹›·þ | ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø ¹ˆÅŸþÃ œþÚ¹›·þ | Seems more than enough for a first time session. 9. Will see you next week.
£þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ| 5. The two are reading here. The king is going elsewhere. ¬þ: ·þ°þ −¬þ¹·þ| 3. £þŸþ: ƒÄæþ£¿ ›þŸþ¹·þ | 9. Ram is namaskaaring all the boys. Ÿþ›é«¡þù ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ·þ: | 12. þþ¥þˆÅù −¬þ·þ:| 11. Two men are going to the village. ›þ¼œþ: ‚›¡þ°þ ŠþŽ¹·þ | 6.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 36/37 . He is laughing there. Ram and Ishwar are studying. ·ø ¹ˆÅŸþÃ œþÚ¹›·þ | ·ø ¹ˆÅ¿ œþÚ¹›·þ | How was the goin' ? Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www. ·þù ‚°þ œþÚ·þ:| 10. £þŸþ: þþ¥þˆÅþ›þÃ ›þŸþ¹·þ | Corrected sentences. ¬þ: œþÚ·þ: | ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2. ·ø œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø œþÚ¹›·þ| 5. þþ¥þˆÅù ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽ·þ: | 13.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Lesson 9 B. £þŸþ: ƒÄæþ£: þ œþÚ·þ:| 8. ¬þ: œþÚ¹·þ | 2. He is reading. Where is the boy laughing? þþ¥þˆÅ: ˆºÅ°þ −¬þ¹·þ ? 7. Two boys are going to school. þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹›·þ | þþ¥þˆÅ: −¬þ¹·þ| 6. Ÿþ›é«¡þþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹›·þ | 15. All the men are going to the village. The boy is going to school. ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹·þ | ·ø ¹ˆ¿Å œþÚ¹›·þ| 9.chitrapurmath. þþ¥þˆÅþ: −¬þ¹›·þ | 14. þþ¥þˆÅþ: £þŸþ¿ ›þŸþ¹›·þ | 16. ¬þ: œþÚ¹›·þ | ·ø œþÚ¹›·þ| 3. All the boys are namaskaaring Ram. Ram is going to the village. All the boys are laughing. Answers to questions in Lesson 9 A 1. ·þù œþÚ¹·þ | ·þù œþÚ·þ:| 4. £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | £þŸþ: ŠÏþŸþ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ | 8. ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹›·þ | ¬þ: ŠþŽ¹·þ | 7. Ram is namaskaaring Ishwar. 1. þþ¥þˆÅ: ¹¨þÔþþ¥þ¡þ¿ ŠþŽ¹·þ| 4. Two boys are laughing.
dual or plural. That wherever is the place that one is going to. Know.net © Shri Chitrapur Math 2002-2013 37/37 . That nouns.. How to correctly pronounce ŸþÃ or an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ ending word depending on what letter follows it.chitrapurmath. Suffixes have to be added to a verb root form to match the subject. That nouns or pronouns have to be attached to a preposition before they can be used. the place falls in the • • • • • ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | That is. That the subject is picked from the œÏ˜þŸþþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ| That the object is picked from the ¹×·þú¡þþ ¹¨þžþ¹Æ·þ | That Sanskrit verbs are so familiar simply because we use them everyday when speaking our own mother tongue. What you would have achieved at the end of Month 1. That nouns and pronouns may be masculine. And that's tremendous progress. it ends in a ŸþÃ or an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | That ‚¨¡þ¡þ s are words that do not change their form. Ditto neuter.. Ditto for same ending feminine words. feminine or neuter.Step by Step Sanskrit Learning Programme – Month 1 Summing up Month 1. • • • • • • • • • When to use ŸþÃ and when to use an ‚›é¬¨þþ£ | How to correctly write a word with ‚›é›þþ¹¬þˆÅ ¨¡þØþ›þ s. That all "same ending" masculine words are declined alike. pronouns and verbs can be singular. if i do say so myself! ******************** Level 1-Month 1 Lessons 1-9 www.
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