# Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Kharagpur .Lesson 3 Castigliano’s Theorems Version 2 CE IIT.

3. 1. Kharagpur . Version 2 CE IIT. 3. the complementary energy is equal to the strain energy. For such structures. Calculate deflections along the direction of applied load of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load. Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure in any direction at a point where the load is not acting by fictious (imaginary) load method. Castigliano’s first theorem is being used in structural analysis for finding deflection of an elastic structure based on strain energy of the structure. the Castigliano’s first theorem may be stated as the first partial derivative of the strain energy of the structure with respect to any particular force gives the displacement of the point of application of that force in the direction of its line of action. 2. where external forces only cause deformations. the reader will be able to. State and prove Castigliano’s second theorem.1 Introduction In the previous chapter concepts of strain energy and complementary strain energy were discussed.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. State and prove first theorem of Castigliano. 4. 3.2 Castigliano’s First Theorem For linearly elastic structure. The Castigliano’s theorem can be applied when the supports of the structure are unyielding and the temperature of the structure is constant.

Kharagpur .1....... + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3. x n from the left end on a simply supported beam of span L ..... P2 .. assume that the material obeys Hooke’s law and invoking the principle of superposition.. u 2 . x 2 . Now.. 1...Let P1 ..1) Version 2 CE IIT. the work done by the external forces is given by (vide eqn... Let u1 ... Pn be the forces acting at x1 .. Pn respectively as shown in Fig... P2 .. 3... u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 ...8 of lesson 1) W = 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ...

∂U = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ... In general. Kharagpur .... U= 1 1 1 P1 [ a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ....... U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + . differentiating the strain energy with any force P1 gives.. u1 = a11 P1 + a12 P2 + ..5) 2 2 2 We know from Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem a ij = a ji . u n in equation (3... + Pn [ a n1 P1 + a n 2 P2 + . + a1n P 1P ⎣ 2 (3.2) from equation (3.... U= 1 2 2 2 ⎡ ⎤ a11 P n ⎦ + [ a12 P n ] + .7) is nothing but displacement u1 at the loading point. x n respectively from left support..3) where a ij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j .... u1 may be expressed as. Substituting the values of u1 . x 2 .. ∂U (3.. + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3.. equation (3..7) It may be observed that equation (3....2... for determinate structure within linear elastic range the partial derivative of the total strain energy with respect to any external load is equal to the Version 2 CE IIT. Hence..6) Now..... + ain Pn i = 1...] + P2 [ a 21 P1 + a 22 P2 + .. + a1n Pn In general..........2) Displacement u1 below point P1 is due to the action of P1 .... P2 .. + ann P 1P 2 + a13 P 1P 3 + ...] (3.4)...5) may be simplified as.. u i = ai1 P1 + ai 2 P2 + ...8) = un ∂Pn Hence...4) (3. Hence. u 2 .Work done by the external forces is stored in the structure as strain energy in a conservative system. + a1n Pn ∂P1 (3.. Pn acting at distances x1 .... 1 + a22 P 2 + . we get..] + . the strain energy of the structure is.n (3......... Hence..

displacement of the point of application of load in the direction of the applied load. 3. provided the supports are unyielding and temperature is maintained constant. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant for the beam. Moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px Strain energy stored in the beam due to bending is U = ∫ L (1) M2 dx 2 EI 0 (2) Substituting the expression for bending moment M in equation (3. The procedure for calculating the deflection is illustrated with few examples. ( Px) 2 P 2 L3 U =∫ dx = 2 EI 6 EI 0 L (3) Version 2 CE IIT.2.10).1 Find the displacement and slope at the tip of a cantilever beam loaded as in Fig. we get. This theorem is advantageously used for calculating deflections in elastic structure. Example 3. Kharagpur .

Now. ∂U PL3 = uA = ∂P 3EI (4) To find the slope at the free end.14) we get the slope at A. we get slope at A . The radius of curvature of curved beam is R . apply a fictitious moment M 0 at A . we need to differentiate strain energy with respect to externally applied moment M at A . Version 2 CE IIT. θA = PL2 2 EI (7) Example 3.2 A cantilever beam which is curved in the shape of a quadrant of a circle is loaded as shown in Fig. 3. As there is no moment at A . the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force P gives the deflection u A at A in the direction of applied force. Hence substitute M 0 = 0 in equation (3. Kharagpur . according to Castigliano’s theorem. Thus. Find the vertical displacement of point A on the curved beam. ( Px + M 0 ) 2 P 2 L3 M 0 PL2 M 0 L U =∫ dx = + + 2 EI 6 EI 2 EI 2 EI 0 L 2 (5) Taking partial derivative of strain energy with respect to M 0 .3. strain energy stored in the beam may be calculated as. Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the paper through the centroid of the cross section. ∂U PL2 M 0 L = θA = + ∂M 0 2 EI EI (6) But actually there is no moment applied at A . Now moment at any section at a distance x away from the free end is given by M = − Px − M 0 Now.

P we get uA = Example 3. ∂U b π PR 3 = 4 EI ∂P (3) Version 2 CE IIT. Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant through out the member. 3. Neglect strain energy due to axial deformations.The bending moment at any section θ of the curved beam (see Fig. M2 U =∫ ds = 2 EI 0 s (1) π /2 ∫ 0 P 2 R 2 (sin 2 θ ) Rdθ P 2 R 3 π π P 2 R 3 = = 8 EI 2 EI 2 EI 4 (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to externally applied load. Kharagpur .3) is given by M = PR sinθ Strain energy U stored in the curved beam due to bending is.3 Find horizontal displacement at D of the frame shown in Fig.4. 3.

∂U 5 P L3 5 P L3 = uD = 2 = ∂P 6 EI 3EI Version 2 CE IIT.The deflection D may be obtained via. The beam segments BA and DC are subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < L ) and the beam element BC is subjected to a constant bending moment of magnitude PL . Kharagpur . U= L ( Px) 2 ( PL) 2 dx + ∫ dx EI EI 2 2 0 0 L (1) P 2 L3 P 2 L3 5P 2 L3 + = 3EI 2 EI 6 EI (2) Differentiating strain energy with respect to P we get. Castigliano’s theorem. Total strain energy stored in the frame due to bending U = 2∫ After simplifications.

x is measured from B) . 3. The beam segment BC is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a . P 2 a 3 P 2 a 2b P 2b3 + + 6 EI 2GJ 6 EI (2) ∂U Pa 3 Pa 2 b Pb 3 + = uA = + ∂P 3EI GJ 3EI (3) Version 2 CE IIT. x is measured from C )and the beam element AB is subjected to torsional moment of magnitude Pa and a bending moment of Px ( 0 ≤ x ≤ b .5. U =∫ After simplifications. 2 b ( Px) M2 ( Pa) 2 dx + ∫ dx + ∫ dx 0 2 EI 2 EI 2GJ 0 0 a b (1) U= Vertical deflection u A at A is.Example 3. Kharagpur . Assume the flexural rigidity EI and torsional rigidity GJ to be constant for the structure. The strain energy stored in the beam ABC is.4 Find the vertical deflection at A of the structure shown Fig.

To find the vertical deflection at C . Now. introduce a imaginary vertical force Q at C . the strain energy stored in the structure is. Assume the flexural rigidity EI to be constant for the structure.Example 3. ∂U 2( Pa + Qy ) y = uC = ∫ dy ∂Q 2 EI 0 b (2) 1 uC = Pay + Qy 2 dy EI ∫ 0 b (3) Version 2 CE IIT. U =∫ a ( Px) 2 ( Pa + Qy) 2 dx + ∫ dy EI EI 2 2 0 0 b (1) Differentiating strain energy with respect to Q .5 Find vertical deflection at C of the beam shown in Fig. The beam segment CB is subjected to bending moment Px ( 0 < x < a ) and beam element AB is subjected to moment of magnitude Pa . Kharagpur .6. 3. vertical deflection at C is obtained.

. Hence. if strain energy is expressed in terms of displacements then n equilibrium equations may be written as follows. + un [k n1u1 + kn 2u2 + ..12) We know from reciprocal theorem kij = k ji ...... Kharagpur .. n (3.5) that Pi = ki1u1 + ki 2u2 + ... vertical deflection is...9) This may be proved as follows..... The strain energy of an elastic body may be written as U= 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + .. + Pn u n 2 2 2 (3. ∂u j j = 1. Hence.... + k1n u1un ] + .. U= 1 1 1 u1[k11u1 + k12u2 + .11) where kij is the stiffness coefficient and is defined as the force at i due to unit displacement applied at j .. U= 1 2 2 ⎡ ⎤ k11u12 + k22u2 + ..] 2 2 2 (3... 2 (3. equation (3. Pab 2 uC = 2 EI (5) 3.3 Castigliano’s Second Theorem In any elastic structure having n independent displacements u1 ..13) Version 2 CE IIT... + knn un ⎣ ⎦ + [ k12u1u2 + k13u1u3 + .......] + ...] + u2 [ k21u1 + k22u2 + . + kinun . u n corresponding to external forces P1 ... 2. 2.10) We know from Lesson 1 (equation 1.. Hence.... P2 .uC = 1 ⎡ Pab 2 Qb 3 ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥ 3 ⎦ EI ⎣ 2 (4) But the force Q is fictitious force and hence equal to zero.12) may be simplified as.. i = 1.. strain energy may be written as.. u 2 ..... n (3. Pn along their lines of action. ∂U = Pj .

..Now.. Kharagpur . the procedure to calculate deflections in a statically determinate structure at a point where load is applied is illustrated with examples.. The Castigliano’s second theorem is stated for elastic structure and proved in section 3. Also. ∂U = k11u1 + k12 u2 + . Hence. ∂u j j = 1.15) Summary In this lesson.4.. 2. + k1n un ∂u1 (3... ∂U = Pj .14) Or. differentiating the strain energy with respect to any displacement u1 gives the applied force P 1 at that point. Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved for linearly elastic structure with unyielding supports... n (3. Version 2 CE IIT.. The procedure to calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load is illustrated with examples..