# Module 1

Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson 4 Theorem of Least Work Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Ra as the redundant reaction.2b) Version 2 CE IIT.. the reader will be able to: 1.. In this chapter theorem of least work and reciprocal theorems are presented along with few selected problems..1a.2 Theorem of Least Work According to this theorem. Consider a beam that is fixed at left end and roller supported at right end as shown in Fig.... 4. Let u1 .1 Introduction In the last chapter the Castigliano’s theorems were discussed. P2 .. 4. This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of least work... The forces developed in a redundant framework are such that the total internal strain energy is a minimum.2a and Fig... the partial derivative of strain energy of a statically indeterminate structure with respect to statically indeterminate action should vanish as it is the function of such redundant forces to prevent any displacement at its point of application... Pn be the forces acting at distances x1 .. viz. Kharagpur .. Pn respectively as shown in Fig. u 2 . Invoking the principle of superposition.Instructional Objectives After reading this lesson. P2 . This can be proved as follows.. the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of load.1a. 4.. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig... 4. Let P1 . x n from the left end of the beam of span L . 4.. We know that for the statically determinate structure..1b.. this may be treated as the superposition of two cases. 3.. u n be the displacements at the loading points P1 . a cantilever beam with loads P1 . State and prove Maxwell-Betti’s Reciprocal theorem. P2 . State and prove theorem of Least Work.. 4. 2. x 2 . Pn and a cantilever beam with redundant force Ra (see Fig.. 4. Analyse statically indeterminate structure..

Kharagpur .Version 2 CE IIT.

..2a). P 2 ...e... Pn . P n acting at x1 ... Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur . apply a fictitious load Q at A as in Fig.... Now the strain energy U s stored in the determinate structure (i...2. obtain deflection below A due to applied loads P1 ..1) It is known that the displacement u1 below point P1 is due to action of P 1. Hence........ x n respectively and due to Q at A . P2 . Let u a be the deflection below A ..In the first case (4. + Pn u n + Qu a 2 2 2 2 (4. the support A removed) is given by.. x 2 . 4.. u1 may be expressed as.. This can be easily accomplished through Castigliano’s first theorem as discussed in Lesson 3. Since there is no load applied at A . US = 1 1 1 1 P1u1 + P2 u 2 + ..

u3 .6) The deflection due to Ra should be in the opposite direction to one caused by superposed loads P 1...u1 = a11 P 1 + a12 P 2 + ....... un and ua in equation (4... ∂U ∂Us = ua = − r ∂Q ∂Ra (4... + aan P n + aaa Q ] 2 2 Taking partial derivative of strain energy U s with respect to Q ... P 2 . aij is the flexibility coefficient at i due to unit force applied at j .. we get deflection at A . Similar equations may be written for u2 ..a2 n P n + a2 a Q ] + ..4) (4. P n .7) one could write. From equation (4...ann P n + ana Q ] + 1 + aa 2 P 2 + .... u3 ... Kharagpur . so that the net deflection at A is zero..2) where. + aan P n + aaa Q ∂Q Substitute Q = 0 as it is fictitious in the above equation. Version 2 CE IIT... Substituting for u2 . + a1n P n + a1a Q (4.3) 1 1 + Pn [an1 P Q[aa1 P 1 + an 2 P 2 + .2). one could as well replace it by Ra ..1) from equation (4..5) (4. Hence. Ur = Now deflection at A due to Ra is R L3 ∂U r = −ua = a ∂Ra 3EI (4. 2 2 (4. ∂U s = ua = aa1 P 1 + aa 2 P 2 + ..... ∂U s = aa1 P 1 + aa 2 P 2 + .........8) Since Q is fictitious... un and ua .. we get..5) and (4.... + a1n P n + a1a Q ] + 1 + a22 P 2 + . US = 1 1 P P2 [a21 P 1[ a11 P 1 + a12 P 2 + ......7) 2 3 Ra L 6 EI (4. + aan P n ∂Q Now the strain energy stored in the beam due to redundant reaction RA is.

. Example 4. P n and redundant reaction Ra . Assume the flexural rigidity of the beam EI to be constant throughout its length.∂ (U s + U r ) = 0 ∂Ra (4.10) This is the statement of theorem of least work. Where U is the total strain energy of the beam due to superimposed loads P 1. Kharagpur . ∂U =0 ∂Ra (4..3a. 4.. Version 2 CE IIT. P 2 .9) or.1 Find the reactions of a propped cantilever beam uniformly loaded as shown in Fig...

This is a statically indeterminate structure and choosing Rb as the redundant reaction. considering only bending deformations is. Version 2 CE IIT. we obtain a simple cantilever beam as shown in Fig. We have only two equation of equilibrium viz. 4. Kharagpur . Now.. Rb and M b as shown in the figure.There three reactions Ra . the internal strain energy of the beam due to applied loads and redundant reaction. U =∫ 0 L M2 dx 2 EI (1) According to theorem of least work we have. ∑F y = 0 and ∑ M = 0 .3b.

( R x − wx 2 / 2) x ∂U =∫ b dx ∂Rb 0 EI L (5) ∂U ⎡ RB L3 wL4 ⎤ 1 =⎢ − =0 ⎥ ∂Rb ⎣ 3 8 ⎦ EI Solving for Rb . we get.∂U M ∂M =0=∫ ∂Rb EI ∂Rb 0 L (2) wx 2 2 (3) Bending moment at a distance x from B . Kharagpur . M = Rb x − ∂M =x ∂Rb (4) Hence. 3 RB = wL 8 Ra = wL − Rb = (6) wL2 5 wL and M a = − 8 8 (7) Example 4. Determine increase in the diameter AB of the ring. Version 2 CE IIT. Young’s modulus of the material is E and second moment of the area is I about an axis perpendicular to the page through the centroid of the cross section.2 A ring of radius R is loaded as shown in figure.

Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .

4. ⎛1 1⎞ M 0 = PR ⎜ − ⎟ ⎝2 π ⎠ (6) M 0 = 0. Thus. 2π U = M 2R dθ ∫ 2 EI 0 (2) Due to symmetry. Kharagpur . increase in diameter Δ .The free body diagram of the ring is as shown in Fig. the slopes at C and D is zero.182 PR Now. The bending moment at any section θ of the beam is. 4. The value of redundant moment M 0 is such as to make slopes at C and D zero. may be obtained by taking the first partial derivative of strain energy with respect to P . Δ= ∂U ∂P Version 2 CE IIT. According to theorem of least work. Due to symmetry. 2π M ∂M ∂U =0=∫ Rdθ 0 EI ∂M ∂M 0 0 (3) ∂M =1 ∂M 0 ∂U = ∂M 0 π 2π ∫ EI Rdθ 0 M (4) 0= 4R 2 PR [M 0 − (1 − cosθ )] dθ ∫ EI 0 2 (5) Integrating and solving for M 0 . M = M0 − PR (1 − cos θ ) 2 (1) Now strain energy stored in the ring due to bending deformations is. one could consider one quarter of the ring.

3 Maxwell–Betti Reciprocal theorem Consider a simply supported beam of span L as shown in Fig. Δ= PR 3 π 2 PR 3 { − ) = 0.5. Similarly let u12 be the deflection below load P1 . we get. ∂U 2 R = ∂P EI π /2 ∫ 2{ 2 0 PR 2 PR R 2 R ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}{ ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}dθ π 2 2 π 2 (8) After integrating. when only load P2 is acting on the beam. 4.Now strain energy stored in the ring is given by equation (2). Let this beam be loaded by two systems of forces P1 and P2 separately as shown in the figure. U= 2R EI π /2 ∫{ 2 0 PR 2 PR ( − 1) − (1 − cosθ )}2 dθ π 2 (7) Now the increase in length of the diameter is. Let u 21 be the deflection below the load point P2 when only load P1 is acting. Version 2 CE IIT. Kharagpur .149 EI 4 π EI (9) 4. Substituting the value of M 0 and equation (1) in (2).

.. Q2 . P1 × 5 P2 L3 5 P L3 = P2 × 1 48 EI 48 EI (4.. δ 2 .27) we get.. Let u1 .. δ n be the displacements due to system of forces Q1 . Pn and the second system of forces is given by Q1 .. u n be the displacements caused by the forces P1 ..The reciprocal theorem states that the work done by forces acting through displacement of the second system is the same as the work done by the second system of forces acting through the displacements of the first system. Q2 .. u12 and u 21 can be calculated using Castiglinao’s first theorem. Qn only acting on the beam as shown in Fig. Substituting the values of u12 and u 21 in equation (4.. Kharagpur . u 2 . 4... according to reciprocal theorem........6... Qn ....12) Hence it is proved. Pn only and δ 1 .11) Now... Hence... This is also valid even when the first system of forces is P1 .. P2 . P1 × u12 = P2 × u 21 (4. P2 . Version 2 CE IIT...

2. This theorem when applied to the statically indeterminate structure results in the theorem of Least work.Now the reciprocal theorem may be stated as. Kharagpur . In this chapter the theorem of Least Work has been stated and proved. Couple of problems is solved to illustrate the procedure of analysing statically indeterminate structures. In the Version 2 CE IIT.13) Summary In lesson 3.... the partial derivative of strain energy with respect to external force is equal to the displacement in the direction of that load at the point of application of the load. For statically determinate structure.. n (4. Pi δ i = Qi u i i = 1. the Castigliano’s first theorem has been stated and proved..

the celebrated theorem of Maxwell-Betti’s reciprocal theorem has been sated and proved. Kharagpur .end. Version 2 CE IIT.