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Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes

Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes

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Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes
Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes

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Channel Adaptive CQI Reporting Schemes for UMTS High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

Soo-Yong Jeon∗ and Dong-Ho Cho† Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu Daejeon, Republic of Korea TEL: +82-42-869-8067, FAX: +82-42-869-0550 Email: ∗ syjeon@comis.kaist.ac.kr and † dhcho@ee.kaist.ac.kr

Abstract— HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) is an evolved UMTS packet scheme that delivers increased user peak data rates and supports quality of service. A key technique supporting HSDPA is adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), in which the modulation scheme and the coding rate are changed adaptively according to the downlink channel quality reported by the user equipment (UE). Therefore, the channel quality indication (CQI) reporting scheme is directly related to the accuracy of AMC and the performance of HSDPA. In the current specification of HSDPA, each UE must periodically report to Node B the CQI. Hence, UE must report the same CQI value repeatedly when the channel quality is unchanged. Obviously, this is the waste of the UE’s battery power. To solve this problem, we propose channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes in which UEs report the CQI value intelligently using information about channel quality. With the proposed schemes, the battery capacity of UEs can be conserved and the uplink interference can be lowered by filtering off redundant CQI reports or the transmission error rate can be lowered by fast CQI reports.

I. I NTRODUCTION

H

SDPA is a packet-based data service in W-CDMA and it was specified in the 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP). HSDPA is designed to reuse existing UMTS structure and functionality as much as possible and intended for low to medium user speed and it is well adapted to the urban environment and to indoor deployment. The main target of HSDPA is to increase user peak data rates and quality of service, to lower latency and to improve spectral efficiency for downlink asymmetrical and bursty packet data services such as internet access and file download. HSDPA offers theoretical peak data rates on the order of 10 Mbps over a 5MHz bandwidth in WCDMA downlink. HSDPA implementations include Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), Hybrid Automatic Request (HARQ) retransmission protocol, and fast packet scheduling. On the air interface, the resources (timeslot, code) are allocated to the UEs on a subframe basis and the transmission parameters such as modulation scheme, coding rate and power can be changed with every subframe. With the AMC technique, the modulation scheme and the coding rate are changed adaptively according to the channel quality indication (CQI) reports of UEs. So, exact channel quality estimation through a proper

This research was supported in part by University IT Research Center Project.

CQI reporting scheme and a channel quality prediction method are essential in AMC. In [1], the channel quality prediction method was proposed for the reliable adaptive modulation with limited channel quality feedbacks in a correlated fading channel. In the current specification of HSDPA, each UE must periodically report to Node B the CQI indicating the downlink channel quality. Since this periodic CQI reporting scheme does not consider packet scheduling algorithms and channel quality information, it has many drawbacks. In [2], an enhanced CQI reporting scheme considering a scheduling algorithm is proposed. This scheme can be used only when a proportional fair scheduling algorithm (PFA) is used as a packet scheduling algorithm. With this scheme, UEs which have lower proportional fairness priorities than a threshold do not report the CQI values, since they are less likely scheduled for transmission. However, with this CQI reporting scheme, UEs must report the same CQI value repeatedly when the channel condition is very stable. Obviously, this is the waste of the UE’s battery power. To solve this problem, a new CQI reporting scheme was proposed in [3]. In this scheme, the UE reports the CQI value to the Node B only when the value difference between new measured channel quality and last reported one becomes larger than delta value which is a certain threshold decided by higher layer. With this scheme, the uplink signalling overhead is reduced efficiently and the UEs do not report the same CQI value repeatedly when the channel quality is unchanged. However, if the Node B receives the CQI value with error, it has incorrect channel quality information for a long time until it receives next CQI value. In this paper, we propose channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes motivated by the same idea as above scheme. Our schemes behave intelligently to prevent the Node B from keeping incorrect channel quality information for a long time by using a timer and an efficient CQI report timing criterion. Thus, with the proposed schemes, either the number of redundant CQI reports is decreased, maintaining the performance of a periodic CQI reporting scheme, or the accuracy of AMC is increased by reducing the probability of transmission error. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section II introduces the CQI reporting schemes in the 3GPP specification and section III explains the proposed CQI reporting schemes. In section IV, we describe the simulation environments and

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40 and 80 subframes. GPP-S PECIFIED CQI R EPORTING S CHEMES In the specification Release 5 of HSDPA. In the activity-based CQI reporting scheme. UEs do not report the CQI value although they are at their own periodic CQI report timing. hence the field size of CQI value on HS-DPCCH is 20 bits. a periodic CQI reporting scheme is included. Node B uses High-speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH). UEs must report the CQI value periodically. The CQI value consists of 5 bits and is coded using a (20. 2. Node B selects a suitable modulation scheme. 1. additional CQI reports are sent with every NACK of HS-PDSCH data. Each UE must monitor a maximum of four HS-SCCHs simultaneously. . coding rate and number of codes for HS-PDSCH. The basic behavior of CAS1 and CAS2 is as follows. since the short report cycle of CQI enables Node B to estimate the downlink channel condition precisely. CAS2). while at the same time minimizing the uplink interference and battery consumption due to CQI transmissions. an activity-based CQI reporting scheme and NACK-based CQI Fig. 20. and hence the current CQI value is the same as the last reported CQI value. After the selection of suitable CQI values. Also. 1. The report cycle of CQI is informed to each UE by higher-layer signalling. we analyze the uplink interference and the last section concludes this paper. II. The CQI report timing is determined by each UE’s connection frame number (CFN) given by the radio link establishment procedure. reporting the same CQI value consecutively wastes the UE’s battery power. However. The CQI is carried in the second and third slot of a HS-DPCCH subframe. 2. and can prepare to receive data. activity-based and NACK-based CQI reporting schemes. the UE reports the selected CQI value to Node B at its own CQI report timing. UEs with these schemes use more power than that with the periodic CQI reporting scheme due to the additional CQI reports. each UE measures downlink channel quality and selects a suitable CQI value which indicates transport block size. III. By monitoring HS-SCCHs. However. each UE is informed of the upcoming data transmission. Clearly. 4. although the channel quality is unchanged and hence the current CQI value is the same as the last reported CQI value. To solve this problem and to allow effective scheduling and MCS selection for transmissions on the HS-PDSCH. They send the CQI value only when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. In section VI. The selected CQI value must be such that the transport block error probability would not exceed 0.Fig. The CQI value is transmitted by using High-speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH). The proposed CQI reporting schemes are based on the Release 5 specifications. Apparantly. In the specification [6]. the short report cycle of CQI results in a larger CQI report overhead and uplink interference than the long report cycle of CQI. the timer is utilized. 10. Frame structure for uplink HS-DPCCH evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes. In the NACK-based CQI reporting scheme. but the throughput performance is poorer. 5. After receiving the CQI value from each UE. Conversely. The definition of the CQI and UE procedure for reporting CQI are described in [4]. 2 shows a diagram that illustrates the activity-based and NACK-based CQI reporting schemes. In order to provide control information to each UE in time. P ROPOSED CQI R EPORTING S CHEMES With the periodic.5) code. In addition to the periodic CQI reporting scheme. the smaller are the CQI overhead and uplink interference. According to the specification. number of High-speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) codes and modulation scheme. Both schemes enable a more exact downlink channel estimation of Node B using the additional CQI reports. the report cycle of CQI is defined as 0.1 under the measured downlink channel condition. the short report cycle of CQI gives better throughput performance than the long report cycle of CQI. Fig. If the channel quality is unchanged. both schemes still have a drawback that the UE must report the same CQI value repeatedly when the channel quality is unchanged. To prevent the Node B from keeping wrong CQI information of UEs for long. we propose two channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes (CAS1. where the subframe length is 2ms. additional CQI reports are sent with every ACK or NACK of HS-PDSCH data. the longer is the report cycle of CQI. Diagram illustrating (a) Activity-based CQI reporting scheme and (b) NACK-based CQI reporting scheme reporting scheme are proposed in [7][8]. Fig. The specification related to the method of deriving an individual CQI value by the UE is not changed in the proposed CQI reporting schemes. 1 shows a frame structure of HS-DPCCH described in [5].

which is the maximum CQI report interval of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. In the CAS2. TABLE I S IMULATION PARAMETERS Fig.3 or do not change with a probability of 0. At initialization.7 [10]. the CAS2 enables more exact downlink channel estimation of Node B by fast CQI information update. the UEs either change their moving direction randomly with a probability of 0. 3(b) shows a diagram that illustrates CAS2. If the channel quality is stable. since when a data transmission is performed to a UE. it is likely that more transmissions will occur to the same UE in near future due to the bursty nature of data. battery capacity of UEs is conserved by preventing consecutive reports of the same CQI value. S IMULATION C ONFIGURATION AND R ESULTS The default simulation parameters are summarized in Table I. The timer of CAS1. HS-DPCCH transmission Channel estimation Roundtrip delay Delay between CQI measurement and time of availability for HS-DSCH Traffic model Explanation / Assumption Hexagonal 19 cells. and the location and moving direction of Parameter Cellular layout Site to site distance Antenna pattern Propagation model Std. 3. k=4. if the channel quality changes quickly and hence the CQI value changes frequently. Therefore. more CQI reports may be sent than with the periodic CQI report scheme. the probability of transmission error is reduced.19 GHz 0 dB 20 (uniform distribution) 15 4 0. In the CAS1. when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. UEs wait until their own periodic CQI report timing and report the CQI value at that time. with the CAS2. This fast CQI information update is very important to the Node B particularly during a data transmission. number of retransmissions HS-DPCCH/UL DPCCH power ratio HS-SCCH. Fig. We consider 5 MCS levels shown in Table II and the link layer simulation is executed using the FER data in [9]. So. the number of UEs in each cell was 20.5 (-3 dB) Error free Ideal 6 subframe (12ms) 3 subfame (6ms) Open-loop traffic model for HSDPA [11] in which the distribution of packet size is pareto with cut-off α=1. no sector 2800 m Omni Proportional to 1/d4 . 4 shows the normalized transmission error ratio according to the various speeds of UE and the CQI report intervals of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. So. Since CAS1 has no fast update of CQI information and we assume that HS-DPCCH is error free. However. Every 5 seconds. the performance of CAS1 is the same as that of the periodic CQI reporting scheme with respect to the probability of transmission error.5kbytes and m=2Mbytes TABLE II MCS L EVELS MCS level 5 4 3 2 1 Modulation scheme 16QAM 16QAM QPSK QPSK QPSK Coding rate R 3/4 1/2 3/4 1/2 1/4 Info bit rate per code 720 kbps 480 kbps 360 kbps 240 kbps 120 kbps . The timing of reporting the CQI value of CAS1 and CAS2 is different.1.each UE were assigned randomly with a uniform distribution within each cell.5 times greater than that of UEs that do not transmit the CQI value. with CAS1. with CAS2. UEs report the CQI value immediately when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. Diagram illustrating (a) CAS1 and (b) CAS2 The timer is initialized whenever the CQI value is sent by the UE. Therefore. Fig. maintaining the performance of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. IV. d in meters 8 dB 1 path rayleigh 2. the battery power of UEs also can be conserved with CAS2. 3(a) shows a diagram that illustrates CAS1. We assume that the power consumption of UEs transmitting the CQI value is 1. CAS2 was set to expire after 160 ms. The normalized transmission error ratio is defined as the probability of transmission error with the proposed scheme divided by the probability of transmission error with the periodic CQI reporting scheme. deviation of slow fading Fast fading Carrier frequency BS & UE antenna gain # of UEs in each cell # of codes for HS-PDSCH MAX. Fig.

For the uplink interference analysis. 5. the battery power of UEs is conserved. UEs in soft handover (SHO) area and them in non-SHO area have different CQI report intervals. Normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS1 and CAS2 according to various UE speeds and CQI report intervals the normalized transmission error ratio of CAS1 is very close to 1 regardless of the UE speeds and the CQI report intervals. According to the simulation results.5 × N ) (1) Here.75 0. with the CAS1. In this system model. As a result. As the periodic CQI report interval is longer and the speed of UEs decreases.1.2 2 4 8 10 20 40 80 160 0.6 0. and hence the proposed schemes bring lower uplink interference than the periodic CQI reporting scheme. we assume a system model that is similar to that employed in [7][8]. and the number of CQI reports during one periodic CQI reporting interval increases as the periodic CQI report interval is longer. with CAS2. because the CQI value changes more frequently as the speed of UEs increases. The uplink interference for CAS1 is always lower than that for the periodic CQI reporting scheme and the CAS2 also brings lower uplink interference when the UEs move slowly and the CQI report interval is short.0 0.1 1. the consumed battery power of UEs for CAS1 is always smaller than that for the periodic CQI reporting scheme.05 1. and hence CAS2 performs better than the periodic CQI reporting scheme with respect to the probability of transmission error. Under this system model. The normalized consumed battery power ratio is defined as the consumed battery power of UEs with the proposed scheme divided by the consumed battery power of UEs with the periodic CQI reporting scheme. R is data transmission rate. Hence.5 × N represents the interference of uplink HS-DPCCH. with the CAS2.7 10 km/h 20 km/h 30 km/h 40 km/h 50 km/h 0.8 0. Normalized transmission error ratio of CAS1 and CAS2 according to various UE speeds and CQI report intervals Fig. the fast update of CQI information has more effectiveness in enhancing the accuracy of AMC.3 0. the probability of transmission error can be much smaller than that of the periodic CQI reporting scheme.65 2 4 8 10 20 40 80 160 CQI Report Interval [ms] CQI Report Interval [ms] Fig. Eb Eb × R × SF = Io Eb × R × (N − 1 + 0. the redundant CQI reports of the periodic CQI scheme are filtered off. However. According to the simulation results.5 0. N − 1 represents the interference of uplink DPCCH and 0.1 Normalized Transmission Error Ratio Dashed lines : CAS1 Solid lines : CAS2 Normalized Consumed Battery Power Ratio 1. the Eb /Io of uplink DPCCH can be approximately calculated as follows. the normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS1 is always less than 1. Fig.2 1. The normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS2 is less than 1 when the UEs move slowly and the CQI report interval is short. SF is spreading factor.15 1. U PLINK I NTERFERENCE A NALYSIS In the proposed schemes. the consumed battery power of UEs is reduced by up to 30% when the speeds of UE is 10km/h and the CQI report interval of the periodic CQI reporting scheme is 2ms. Since the redundant CQI reports of the periodic CQI scheme are filtered off with CAS1. N is the average number of CQI reports that the Node B receives in one subframe. the normalized consumed battery power ratio of CAS2 can be greater than 1. the probability of transmission error is reduced by up to 77% when the speeds of UE is 10km/h and the CQI report interval of the periodic CQI reporting scheme is 160ms.5 (-3 dB) 256 Negligible . V.95 Dashed lines : CAS1 Solid lines : CAS2 1 0.8 0. 4. However. UEs report the CQI value only when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value or the timer has expired. if the speed of UEs increases and the CQI report interval is very long.9 0. reducing the probability of transmission error. In this case. with the CAS2.7 0.4 10 km/h 20 km/h 30 km/h 40 km/h 50 km/h 0.9 0. and it is calculated as follows in the periodic TABLE III S YSTEM M ODEL FOR U PLINK I NTERFERENCE A NALYSIS Number of UEs (N ) Percentage of UEs in soft handover (SHO) area CQI report interval of UEs in SHO area (k1) HS-DPCCH/UL DPCCH power ratio Spreading factor of HS-DPCCH/UL DPCCH (SF) Other cell interference 100 30% 1 (2 ms) 0. The system model is summarized in Table III. 5 shows the normalized consumed battery power ratio according to the various speeds of UE and the CQI report intervals of the periodic CQI reporting scheme.85 0.

14th IEEE Proceedings on. With CAS2. 3GPP TSG R1-011055. In case of CAS1 and CAS2. Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications. [7] 3GPP. k 1 and k 2 are the CQI report interval of UEs in soft handover area and non-soft handover area. 3GPP TS25. Dong-Ho Cho. “Radio Resource Control (RRC): Protocol Specificaition”. 605-611. Bonghoe Kim. Also. Dottling.3 × N 0. [9] M. In case of the periodic CQI reporting scheme. Sept. Raaf. “Physical layer procedures (FDD)”. (3) k3 Fig.0. [4] 3GPP. April 2004.3.848 V4.0. 3GPP TR25. 2002. UEs do not report the same CQI consecutively.1. pp. [3] 3GPP. 0. “An enhanced channel-quality indication (CQI) reporting scheme for HSDPA systems”. R EFERENCES [1] Yang et al “Reliable Adaptive Modulation Aided by Observations of Another Fading Dhannel”. vol. 1. So. IEEE Communications Letters. 336 . From Fig. With CAS1. (b) 30km/h and (c) 50km/h [6] 3GPP.0. UEs can conserve their battery power. “Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD)”. 1125-1129. 6. at their own report timing with CAS1 and immediately with CAS2. (a) (b) (c) Fig.899 V6. the probability of transmission error is greatly reduced. . IEEE 55th vol. They report the CQI value only if the current CQI value is different from the last reported CQI value or the timer has expired. 3GPP TR25. J.” Personal. 9. 6.8. [10] Wha Sook Jeon. B.214 V6. respectively. [5] 3GPP. “Downlink Channel Quality Report Scheme”. vol. “Physical layer aspects of UTRA High Speed Downlink Packet Access”. the redundant CQI reports are filtered off and the uplink interference is reduced. it happens more frequently that UEs report the same CQI value consecutively as the channel quality is stabler. 30km/h and 50km/h. May 2002. [8] N. IEEE Transactions on. N = N . 3GPP TS25. Fukui. Communications. pp. 3GPP TS25. 13th IEEE International Symposium on 1073-1077. the proposed schemes have better performance as the speed of UEs decreases and the periodic CQI report interval is shorter. vol. ”Hybrid ARQ and adaptive modulation and coding schemes for high speed downlink packet access . maintaining the performance of the periodic CQI reporting scheme in view of the probability of transmission error. C ONCLUSIONS We have proposed two channel adaptive CQI reporting schemes (CAS1.434. As a result.7. although there is a possibility that UEs consume a little more battery power than the periodic CQI reporting scheme. the Eb /Io with the CAS1 is always lower than that with the CAS2. the first term represents a number of periodic CQI reports of UEs in soft handover area during one subframe and the second term represents a number of periodic CQI reports of UEs in non-soft handover area during one subframe.0.7 × N + (2) k1 k2 Here. 52.” PIMRC 2003. 3. N = VI. May 2005. 432 . even when it is time for them to report.CQI reporting scheme. since the CQI is sent immediately when the current CQI value is different from the last reported value in case of the CAS2. respectively.340. Michel. pp. we can see that the proposed schemes obtain maximum 1.5 dB gain in view of Eb /Io compared to the periodic CQI feedback scheme. 2003. when the CQI report intervals of the periodic CQI reporting scheme is 2ms and the speed of UE is 10km/h. With the proposed schemes. 6(a). “Study of Channel Quality Feedback in UMTS HSDPA . Therefore.0. “High Speed Download Packet Access (HSDPA) enhancements”. vol. Sep. [11] 3GPP.331 V6.7.1. pp. (b) and (c) show the Eb /Io of uplink DPCCH according to the various CQI report intervals of the periodic CQI reporting scheme when the speed of UE is 10km/h. Dong Geun Jeong. [2] Soo-Yong Jeon.” VTC Spring 2002. “Design of packet transmission scheduler for high speed downlink packet access systems. CAS2). Eb /Io of uplink DPCCH according to various CQI report intervals when UE speed is (a) 10km/h. the N is calculated as follows using an average CQI report interval (k3) found empirically in the simulation.211 V6.

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