Author'. acknowledgements
~

Picture credit..

Is inscribed to my son WUloughby, but Is dedicated to the designers in the book, all of whom I admire gl'6atly for making our Immediate environment, In turn, so oomfortable,

The publisher and author would like t.o thank the designers and manufacturers, and the following photographers for the use of their material: Ollvlo Barbieri; pliO ( Ulust I ): Alex Barrymore; p61 ( Ulust 14-20) : Peter Beard; p98 ( must I ) : Antione Bootz; p227, p228 ( Ulust 4-5): Dave Boswell; p229 ( Ulust 12-1 4 ) : Richard Brine: p64 ( must 2. 4 ) , p6S ( Illust 9, 10): David Brook; p29, p30 ( must 3 ): Simon Brunt.nell; p47, p48 ( Illust 2 ) ; David ChurohUl/ courtesy Edward. Marshall Trust; p30 ( must 1-2) ; Pedro Cloludlo; p57 ( must 12-13) : Frank de Wind; p221 ( Illust 7-8); EvV: p219. p220 ( Illust 2-a): Plero Fasanotto for F1os: pp215-217: Frans FeUen / ABP: p149, plSO (must 1-2. 4 ): Mltsumasa F\.ijltsuka: p99 (must 7): Courtesy The Oagosian Gallery, NY: ppI45-1 4 8 : Getty Images / 3D4Medlcal. com Collection; p22 ( Ulust 1): Getty Images/ Nucleus Medle&l Art.com Collection; p36 ( Illust 1): Getty Images / Dlt1t&l Vision Collection/ Frank Krahmer: p40 ( Ulust 1), p212 (must I): OttUy Images/ The Bridgeman Art Library: p6 4 (must I ): Getty Im~es/Stockbyte Collection/ George Doyle &- Ciaran Griffin: p68 (Ulust I ): Getty lm~es / Aurora. Collection/ Ian ShMve: p73 ( Ulust 7): Getty Images / Taxi Collection/ .Justin Pumfrey: p78 (Ulust I ): Getty Im~es / Dlt1tal Vision Collection/ Mark GIbson; pl02 ( must I ): Getty Im~es /Taxl Collection/ Dave Bradley: p 142 ( Ulust I ): Getty Images/ The Photonlca Collection/ Silvia Ot.te: pleO ( Illust I ): Getty lm~es/ Hult.on Archtve / Keystone; p 170 ( illU5~ 1): Getty I.tnages / GAP Photos / Frank Krahmer: pl74 ( Ulust I): Getty Images / Stone+ Collection/ Mark Lund; pl88 ( Illust I): Getty Im~e5/Photodlsc Collectlon/ Stock.Trek: p206 ( Ulust 1): Get~y lm~es/lmage SoUI'Ce Collection/ Image Source Black; p220 ( Illust \) : Getty Images / Photodisc Collection/ Stephanie Dalton Cowan; p224 ( Ulust I ): Getty Images/ Darling Klndersley Collection/ Simon Smith; p232 ( Ulust I ): OIjen Henrlksson / Fagerhult: p177: SaUl Hlmeno/ Sakal Design Associates; p191. p195: .John Hyam; p63: Steve Klein: p221 ( must 9-1 1): Raoul Kramer; pl29 (bOttom) , p133 (I.llust 25-28) : Yves Krol; p211 : Max and .Jane Lamb: ppI21-123: laurie Lambrecht; p228 (must~, 6-8). p229 (Ulust 16-17) : .Jonas Marking: p 175 ( Ulust 10): Antonlo Nascimento; p57 ( must 10): Daniel Nicolas: pll5, pll7 ( Ulust 5 ) , p118, pl19 ( must 13, 15, 18) : Marcus Oliveras: p 173, P 17S (Ulust 6 ): Courtesy Opel GmbH; pl18 ( illust 2-4 ) : Operation: Schoener Ltd/ COurtesy rAndom international; ppI81-186: Lena Ps..lm6/ V4verlet; piSS: 0 Panton Design/ courtesy Vltra. Design Museum; p48 ( must I ) : Courtesy Porzeilan Manufaktur Nymphenburg: plO9 ( t.op): Frank Stolle/ courtesy KRAM / WEISSHAAR; pl09 (bOttom) , pl12 ( Illust 8-1\): Fra.n.k Stolle/ courtesy Porzellan Manufaktur Nymphenburg: pl13 ( Ulust 14-17) : Tlmeoode; pp55-S6: Oliver To8canI/ Artemlde; p 170 ( lliust 2): Tom Vack; p64 (Ulust 3 ) , p90 ( lllust 1): Ms.arten van Houten; p 17: Barry WaI.z; p228 ( Ulust I ): Mlro Zagnoli; p141, p143.

interesting, enterta.tnlng and practical. I would llke to thank David Bothwell of Hybrid for all the hard work he put into designing a very compllcated and detaUed book, my editor, Zoe Antoniou, for her PfLtlence and perseverance In keeping everything on track and for her uneM1ng eye for detail, Nicola Hodgson the copy-edltor &nd Tessa Clark the proofJ"98der, for helping me appear less of an Ullterate, &nd Fellclty Awdry, Director of Laurence King's production department, for her remarkable skill In making the book look beautiful. lowe a dept of gratitude to Dr Russell Marshall for goln« through my glossary with a fine toothoomb, helping to make It both incisive and independently useful for student and young designer alike, and to Marcus Hirst In Ron Arad's studio who gave me advice on technlcal detatls. on more th&n one occasion, and not only in rel&tlon to Arad's design. Above a.I.l, however, I would like to say an enormous thank you t.o a.U of the people fea.tured who were so encouraging &nd spent the time and trouble to. not only be interviewed.. but to closely scrutinize the texts for accuracy and detail. Without their support ~ would not have been possible.

Published In 2008 by Laurence King Publishing Ltd 361-373 City Road. London EC I V I LR Tel +44 20 7841 6900 Fax +44 20 78416910 g·ma.!.l enQul.MesOlaurencek.1ng.co.uk www.Jaurenceklng.oo.uk Copyright 0 2008 Laurence King Publishing Ltd All r ights reserved. No part of this pub!..lcatlon may be reproduced or transmitted in &I\Y form or by any means, electronic or mechanle&l. including photocopy. recordtng or any information sto~e and retrlevaJ system, without prior permission In writing from the publisher. A catalogue record for thiS book Is available from the British Library. ISBN 978 1 85669 541 Designed by David Bothwell at Hybrid 2 Ltd Printed in China

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54 /.. P. Pewter Stool / . P......1r 1 .66 I... P.. Setsu &> Shinobu Ito One Liner bowls 1 . P.230 I ..SS I...... TokuJin Yoshioka P. Clare Lane P. Tavs Jorgensen Breeding Tables I My Private Sky plates I . Emmanuel BabIed UnIts 1...... P..... ISO I . 70 I. P. Yves Behar/ fuseproJect Lea! light 1 . .. P.239 I ...200 I . P.6 2 I .74 I ..SS I... P.. P. 19 4 I . Patricia Urquiola Orchid 6 fabric 1.92 I . Ron Arad Associates Sculpt furniture 1... P. Eugene van Veldhoven Mandala light 1 . introduction Bodyguards 1....... 164 I . Matane! Gluska Miura stool 1..46 I . p.24 I..ne chair 1 . P... P.. Propeller Dtgltal projects 1 .. Paul Cocksedge OnlyOne bathroom mixer 1. I OS I . P. 204 / . P.. Rlchard Sapper Bellflower lamp 1 . I O I... P. Index .. Stephen Burks Light as AII' lamps 1... Dean EPS Chair 1 .. Ronan 8e Erwan Bouroullec Vlagem tableware 1. Gaetano Pesce Talak light 1.. Laura Birdsall Steelwood chair 1 . IS6 I . 148 I . P..1 14 I . Emmanuel BabIed The De La Warr Pavilion chair 1. A1essandro Mendini I Pirouette lamp 1.. P.1 6 I.. P.. chair 1 . Konstantin Grclc Segesta cha. P.. P. 12S / . 140 I.....50 I .226 I .... Edward Barber &> Jay Osgerby Jawbone Bluetooth headset 1 .en Baas Lum lamp 1.. l OO I . Propeller Open Box light I ..20 I...6 I.. Karlm Rashid BODiBEAT MP3 player 1..TomAS Gabzdil Llbertlny STable 1... P..S4 I. Luke Pearson &> Tom Lloyd Tavolone table 1.. P...34 I ..... 164 I . Toshlhtko Sakal Sonic Fabric 1. P... Tom Dixon Chair First 1....96 I...... Max Lamb P... P. rAndom International Bokka lamp 1.... 144 I .. 134 I ....... Wieki Somers Chasen lamp 1 . P. P. P.. 124 I . ....... Amphora I Made by Bees Honeycomb Vases 1.. P. 168 I . P. . Reed Kram &> Clemens Weisshaar Bone chaise I Bone chair 1.. Alyce Santoro Halley Ught 1.. M..172 I. 16S I . P... Yves Behar/fuseproject Interior Landscape vases 1 . Yves Behar I fuseproject One Laptop Per Child XO Computer 1 . Lorenzo Damiani Entropla light I . Guido Venturini Patented Flexible Wood Laminate 1. P... P.. Marco Maran Micarta..... Maari:. Neil Poulton Kapsel Media Center I ..2 10 I .......Lionel T. P.. P...P..8 0 I. Marc Mewson B....222 I . Xavier Lust X3 chair I ... P.. Horse Chair 1. Yoshikl Hlshinuma Stardust vases 1 . P.. Satyendra Pakhale Soul chair 1 .236 I" Glossary P. P.8tefano Giovannoni The Long 8 Chair 1.42 I . ... P..21S I .. 2S I. Urban Fabric 1. P..... P.2 14 I ... P. Satyendra Pakhale Meander ecological textile I .3S/ ...I04 I ..120 I ... ....... Jorls Laarman P.. I 90 I . P. Fernando Brizio Part tables 1 Ha. P....176 I..ndmade furniture I . Toshihiko Sakai Spider 1 & 2 hard-disk DVD recorders 1... Kevin &> Barry Walz Pa. P. Alfredo HAberl! 3D Knit I . P...

.P. B I .. PROCESS I ... INTRODUCTION . ...

Having & revolutJ.y to rea.tion.tw'ed proves that design can 'look good and work good'.onary idea is not enough and. Its own revolution in what is accepted both tnsp1ra.nd 1a. Upon oompl9t1ng tIMdr studies.1d: 'Design IS the fundamental soul of a human·made creat10n that ends up expressing Itself In suocesslve outer le. sclent1fl. These lend themselves to atnDaecl processes suCh as rapid ~ptug.. Horse Cha. work. resea. of the complexities. InSPlratlOnal to the ftna.n.t1ons).mlnlng &ll stages from 1nItlal and CEO of Apple sa. Design (La. ~br1d of crea. market demands.hod1ca.' The downside to the current 'anything goes' a.hn.l requirements).1Dda!'8tand.nd.re gtven lIttJe idea. the design 1ftJIid.nlistIc attJtude towa..1tectu.ca. For the most part. routine or pre-planned process. tec.1y. trI&Is and tMbuJatlons tba.n's Bone furniture (a.lC1ans and craftspeople.rch.sual and emotional with the functional. Jom Laarma.ce.1erles IIId ooUected by the oonnoLsseur. Pakhalll's RM.rda what . 1Iodern technology and the increased aM of oomputer-&lded design in both tbI development and manufacture ~ JftduotiI have resulted in the ~ of new and super-plJable 1DIIiIrIala.sy to believe t.J. modus pperandl in order to expose the unknown behind the o~ects they orea. when courses 10 some lIIdmg scboolS plaoe an locreasing Elpbams OD the creation of the pera:mal votoe to the detrlment of a. jcJuI'Deya t.ng of the 1mporta. the stories in this book accentuate the collaborative wa. wtth no slngIe style ortnmd predomInatIng.1r (eight yea.tlv1ty. Yves Bahar's Leaf llght (whose expressive (orm is jUStl1\ed by mechanica. devised to look good.caJ innovation). an o~ect of desire equIpped with 8. Wttb the proliferation of glossy magaz1ne8 and the pubUoauon of bumper oompend.ry solutions is key.it is & synthes1.gner and the overabundance of fashionable and ffi-oonceived pleoes. Chris Lefteri's comprehensive book Ma.l product. and high·tech products sit oamtort&bly with cra. it 1. when encountered: &maZe us.y mass-produoed) cover the m. SInoe the mlllennJum.nd current DINatDr of CInC1nna. The desIgnS featured In thiS book all stand up to judicious appra.. ~ forms that were unreaI1za. lDto their creation. when ubd if be designed.urenoe King.<nlt products. the work fea. the desIgnS shown here emphasIZe that the development of a. but cert&lnly open us up to new worlds within our dally existence.mlne their design phllosophy a. vacuum with the emphasls on expression would result in m·thOUght. it is &ll too -. of a..cturlng techniques mentioned.tterns of bones). They represent the above-mentioned trends but..1C appllca.nd ClCllDlll8J't!ity.1ch we seek to IUJ'I"CUDd ourselves are produced vtrtuaJJy overnIght: the consumer aDd upirlng young designer a.. for pleasure or ftmotSon: 'What works good Is better &baD wbar. It is only with a sound underst. leading critic ADd.1BaJ.' 1. They Include Stefano Oiovanno01's Chair FIrst (which uses an lnnova. 2007) 1..ted by aJgOrith. in the medIa but with llttle technl.based low tIab.founder J'or DIBl'ly 8.Q. and often arduous. Involves a. Not only is . most Importantly. cre&t1ng complex. . but to produce that oQlecl:. however.r's Breeding Tables (1nfin1te threedlmenslonaJ structures genera.nslate his or her fJ. through.rch·led.l.l. wa.on.y and techn1cal. As the following pages demonstrate.tI Art Museum. tableware..s of the v1. Sa.tyendra. thr'Ough. 8.t1ve form of gas l.. Mass· produced. sense of mIssIon. Dean's Entrop1& llght (a mllestone in d.jor ty]X)logles: furniture.ses. graduatas of these IIIboola &r8 suddenly faced with la&vtng to design someth1ng for the 1"111 m&I"ket and real people. permj881ble. Is the rise of the speciOUS desl.t follow (from the highly conceptual one-offs..s emotion wrapped within a.tc form without the structure being vtslble).1inteliectua.a.t1oD and the test of time.. above all. in some ca.l. no matter how InnOvative. Because. the oQlects ~ de8tre with wh. To go deeper into some of the manufa.te.m. looks good. Exa.ce of rigorous method that & wannabe designer wUl be able to tra.y in which desIgners work with manufacturers and.ny wa..1. ..a:&sI mlSlnterpretat10n e.llze 8.1ghts of fancy Into o~ects that will stand ev&lua. textlles and products.rs In the maJdng and combln1ng ancient technique with technologl.a.tlvity and oomputer software that imitates the precise growth pa.t bave .l. "'~:uaJ approach and the llm1ted· tdIiIan design piece sold in ga..m and Clemens WelBSha.ys is an ego-drlven Indulgence of the deSigner.L\y llmlt. whether they be met.ok of asserts. what _ _ lasts. The designs tha. purpose .yers of the product. destgn and development to production. Reed.M3oufapturln( TAclmlgues for Product. decade. Cba.a.' Process looks not only at production but. Steve JobS.1ng. conoept.taJ manufacturing). F1nd. OODcept through evolutJ. as is consideration of the client's brief. To design in a.a. design SOCiety has witnessecl. In an intel"'View with Fortune MAlAzlne.n.J. along with the tnd1vldU&l1stlc.'I'be followtng pages descMbe the lIIOIDfItUDes long.rles limes famously responded.fl.l lntegJ'lty. baa been lJberated by & p1I. &180 dangerous 10 today's deslgn aUmate. few new faces) and exa. 'Design should do the same thing in everyday life that 8J't does Iit_. scare us or delight us. and Lionel T.1ums ~ product design. To destgo an o~ect involves problem·solving and crea. in ma.1ng a. Mran Betsky. &ll have been carefully selected to demonstr&te their creators' thorough knowledge of deatgn processes.1soour8e.ftrbased pleoes to the l1m1ted· edit10n collector's Item and the commercLa..IgI.hat. proponent.lection to create an orga.nd.ctJcallty.s a useful companion publlcation. magazines (plus a. consumer needs. with the InSpirational.ble --. ICIUDd IJI"OUlldlng in technique e. e. to see into the minds of those we read about In design. function and pra.ral lid deII«n d. aootdental or even.. lasting product is 5% InSplratlon and 95% hard.hat over 40 designers bave undertaken to bMng their very varied work to the IIl&I'ketpla. Kra. Above all. to develop and produce thelJ' 1nIt1&l ideas.tt1tude. Q(). seeks to marry the technlcaJ I.c. cra. however.k1ng It .a. llghtlng.

. ...... INTRODUCTION .B I . PROCESS I .P.

.' ."JI •41' .."'1 .... _ ...fL. . . . • _ .. 0(..

series sees a. Ron Arad was born in Tel AVIV.hrough the holes. vacuum·forming needs just one tool.eel.S of rapidly formed oJ.ll architectural practice before form. In the cavity method. The Bodyguards wer& developed usmg freehand sketehes that were tra. A process of investment-casting was used to make the tools In iron.1on (although It was later employed when Vltra.ry to work out the deta. he produced a series of volumetric chairs that. shln. Air pressure is then used to force the alum1nlum t. IO I . They were then welded. and in ba.rona. the cha.lve process to the llmlt.l into a.y surla. along with a collaboration that would see a series of Objects produced over the next ten years.AI'ad has experlmente(l with fol'lIl1Dg aIum1n1um. The aIum1n1um was blown. youthfuelled punk years of the 1970s.ck-pressure-formlng. incorporat1ng the Idiosyncrasies of the personal touch.d wa.tng his own company.y had never worked on furnJture before but saw no rea.g detaUs such as clamp lines.klng the aluminium take on the form of the tool. bubble.. Three blowing techniques have been developed to cover the large ra.I.. This would involve the creation of a number of dies . each cast in one piaoe_ For reasons of time and budget plastic couldn't be used for the instal\.stlng the complex shape of the chaIr in one mould and relatively inexpensively.r1. pressure IS applJed by a. brought him worldwide fame. To fonn oonvoluted shapes In &lum1n1um. put the chaIr into production) and Ara.ted into 3D computer geomet.. return to those early d&ys.lum1n1u.. made from stacking cha1rs.son why a chair could not be made in formed alum1n.l. a specialist manufacturer of precision· engineered components for the automobile and aeronautical industrles_ The compa.P gtant vases. Mixing hIgh·tech with low. in 1961 and studied fine art.P.ble to the process.1l1ng. During 1997 . streetwiSe and rugged pieces.re finished to create ultrasmooth. Fl.Uects. the mould IS forced. These sculptural objects are not the first time that . What was later to be known as the Tom Vac chair was born. Production: Bon Arad Associates Alwn1nlum Va. BODYGUARDS I . foam models were produced and then tested for comfort.IkuII. This offered Arad the opportunity of ca.m. The pieces a.ly. the air pressure forms the materla.n. RON ARAD ASSOCIATES .nsla.. orga. the Architectural Association and worked for a short time in a srna. One-Off. All of these were used at tlmes for the various depths of the intricate. in bubble·formlng.s introduced to Buperform Aluminium. Th1S is lowered on to hot alum1n1u. The basic technique ts to take a sheet of steel Into whlch profiles have been cut.. produclng individual. without undue stress being placed on the mateMaJ.a. the Sio-Void chaiSe and BodyguardS. A poly-tool model was mach1ned combtn1ng Arad Associates' 3D computer geometry and eng1neeMn. were sent to the tool-makers. Arad painted rough forms to determine the poslttons of the cuts. He trained at. pa. and then hand-finished to achieve brlll1&nt mirror surlaces. These include the S. Shaped by the pioneering techn1que of thermo-forming h1ghly plastic a. Israel.rad.com . whlch were incised by band. Once the deftnitlve shape was created.1n1ng all the information to create the mould.naJ. whlch were ftve·axiS·machined with a cutting tool to create a good ftntsh . .O.n1c forms of the Bodyguard pieces.rts ~ected from the mould and the flanges trimmed back to achieve the required form. maJe and female mould from both top and bottom.O.t. offeMng the poSSlbUlty of Producing reasonable-sized I"UD. at BezeJeJ Academy in Jeru&&lem before moving to the UK tempted by the ant.1um.ces.trs are cut and welded. the usual method would be to press It in sequence. up into It and then aJr pressure is applled to the top ma. air pressure and tool movement forces the sheet up into the mould.ygu&rd. ACUustments were made and the 3D files.i·establishment. Arad responded with the Idea of a 10m ( 32ft) column.a.m that has been heated to 400-6OO°C (752-l1 12?) and has the oonsiStency of rubber.ous dimensions Design to manufacture: 6 months LImited ed1tion www.nge of sizes and shapes appllca. the Totem. IIl8€&Zine oommissloned Arad to produce a temporary l&ndm&rk for the M1lan Furniture FaJr (S&ione lnternazlonale del MobUe). now conta. which push the Innovat. Teaching himself to weld and heat st. the Bod.

.echnlQue. Launched at.a In formlng &l. along with other p1e066 (lnOlucUng Sout..h6rn Heml6phere and Merthought) produced using dWI Nome t.Ygu&rd series is the !aUlA 1n At'8d's exper1ment.. 2007. Doloe l' Oabb&n&'s showroom during t. It .um1n\um.he llUan P'urnlture hJr.'l'be Bod.

. 3 4 .be number or parts needed 00 cast Bodyguard. The result. 12 I . rrom which 3D ftles are created to send to the &re 10.be a1umlnlum. ~. Renderings or the ftnal rorm or a Bodyguard. rour parte were needed. tool·makers.8 passed back to Arad..P. Or1glJlalJy It was intended to have only two parts but this put W'Idue stress on t. I I . Arad's sketches work out the rorms or the series... BODYGUARDS I ..ry Is used by Mad's IJwdJo to reftne the shapes. CAD drawtng work1n8 out t. RON ARAD ASSOCIATES . 30 computer geomet.. 1-4 . In the end.8 in the ftn&l rorm. who sketches amendments. Th1s ongoIng PJ"OOeIJa result.

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BODYGUARDS I . 14 I .he shapes.her CADs were created. . here for the seat of Southern Hemisphere (1 4 ). C&n:lboard was added to work out optimum oomfol't. lnv8stment. One of Arad's studio staff tests out the oomrol't of Bodyguard.(l"s experimentation with initial lines for the trimming can be seen. surface. usln8 a ftve·&Xls cutting machine to form a.hods (see text) and in various grades of aluminium rrom the 5. The moulds are then honed..P.. 13. Foam model of Southern Hemisphere. foam models were made.l sta. RON ARAD ASSOCIATES . The ftna..hem Hemisphere's base ( 15).range or met.perfect.. 14-16.yslcal testln8 revealed a certain lack of suppol't In the back. Once final (orms were created.000 to 7. The information was then calcula-ted and fed back Into !. dependln8 on the depth and Intricacy or !.-caBtlng Is used to make the Iron moulds.he oomput.&e before toollng Involves the creation of poly-tool modeta. 16.000 series.. Ph. such as the sphere for Sou!. The pieces are formed usln8 a.er and fuM.. 12. Ara.

The pieces a. 22. Here are the lour p&rta ot Bod. whlOb are then Incised by hand ( 21). 2()-2 L Ron Arad paints on me rough ~ to ma. the seat and the back.Mmmed to get the desired part and welded together.s (20). The parta are ejected from the mould.17-19.re ftnlshed to create a polished mirror effect. which Is cast In three parts: a sphere for the base. Addltlons to the range include Southern Hemisphere. create a weathel'Eld bronze aesthetic (24 ). 23-25. It Is finished in a mirror· like surface (23) or with a secret technique to .rk out LhIlllnes tor the cut. Aftert.hought Is cast using the negative form of Hemisphere (25).yguard ( 19). t.

The veneering of the cupboard and table proved complicated as It was difficult to measure the undulating dimensions of the metal surfaces in order to accurately cut the veneer.The less the tbought. Flatpack ( a sldeta. Baas has the expected conceptual attitude towards design: Smoke addresses notions of beauty and (1m) perfection .hlnk of his work. However. for the construction as It ls strong but.1n this vivacity Baas decided. These supports were then removed . MAARTEN BAAS .s. such as sand-blasting or powder-coattng. fire to contemporary and t.st veneering company who had not preVIOUSly worked With metal but rose to the challenge. are only a part of an ever-growing body of work that challenges oW' preconceptions about deSign. To create the compUcated organic forms.mmer. . ftnlsh was the walnut.lonal design classics.. The armchair Is leather-upholstered . furnJt. which loses Its spontanelt. tn collaboration with a speolal1.a. 'Opinions differ and I like them all: from very short.yrene foa. naU and found boards. to which various ftn1shes have been applled. To ret.neous elegance of a hut he had made as a child using ha.rr1es the Idea of functional imperfection to Its limits.maartenbaa. protot. metal support structures were employed to keep the ftnal shape and avoid the metal denting in and out during the weld.lon. I like It. The unique process was achieved. ... 3D sketch/ model made from polyst..a.1nS malleablllty from which beautiful shapes can be created.ble made of the parts of IKEA's stool lUngo and chair Stefan) compromlBes the Ident1k1t aest.lon and Is stm run of 'life' . with epoxy.y when It ls translated to a 1: 1 scale. ftnIshed. The inspiration for Sculpt comes from the model and embodies the notion that this sketch Is often more charming than the event.nd from the stainless steel and welded toget. Tralned. The most t. Each piece begins With a handcarved. impulsive rea. idiosyncratic approach produces otUects that. certaln freedom was kept. various finishes Various dimensions DeSign to production: work tn progress Limited. Asked. Maa.y complicated.P.com . which are scorched..or not. .. whether the Smoke series lB design or art. batch www. d1n1ng chair. to the manufacturing to allude to the notion of artlessness...ype and end·product tn one.m cut very roughly 10 five minutes with a St. I even sometimes agree with negative comments.rd to bend tnto the hollow shapes. whose raw. to recreate the model tn an oversized scale so that It becomes a real object whUe retaining the essence of Its orJ. are lntentiona.a. doesn't matter as long as people like It .ual.hetlc of self-assembly massproduced.urej Treasure (a s eries of pieces made from the leftovers of a furniture factory) recreates the spont. table. With the suocess of his Smoke series. The basic const.. so far 1Oclud. whlch tn turn was ha.round basic metal structures. with a blowtorch and their charred surfaces seaJed. reta.1ng an a. chest of drawers and cupboard. The production was kept as impreciSe as the lnJtIal insplrat. scale. Baas repUes. the more the joy' was the lelt. what others t.nley knife. .rmch&1r. to see how it could be made on a bigger Production: Maanen Baas Sta1n1ess steel. if my works give inspiration to others . these beautiful ethereaJ pieces. object.ha.her. Baas refuses to be categoMzed.ctlons Uke "00011 ~ to more over-thought opinions llke "Interesting because .1ng.lly imperfect and full of cb&racter.ructlon is stainless steel.radit. SCULPT FURNITURE / . at.Is typlcaJ of thlB Iconoclastic young designer.rten Baas may for ever be known as the Dutch boy who set..echnicall. hand-modelled. a. the DeSign Academy tn Elnctboven. The pieces do not llterally copy the model but rather the atmosphere of the concept. ca. The playful Sculpt range consiSts of Umited-ed1t1on hand-crafted and oversized furniture pieces. a. The sketch retains the notion of creat.motif of the Clay series. curved edges and uneven surfaces. 16 / . The model was examined. BlB reply t.t It. veneer used tn the table and cupboard. and then the parts were cut freeha.g1nal ch&l'acter: each Item Is a model. and the naive and colourful Clay furniture. He lB often asked. Sheet metal was used.

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y tu"ld quickly in polyst.nd out during the prooess.l otUect. which 8&a. hollow torm ot the I\n. 5-7. 18 rea. The steel 18 then welded Into shape.a. (Prevloua page). SUpports are used to keep the orga. it.yl'ene. MAARTEN BAAS . chest ot drawers tu"ld table.ely measure and cut the veoeer to be appUed to the metal.n be translated to tu"l overslzed scale and the stainleaa steel sheets &re cut freehand . The cupboard In the process of welding. The veneered table. The mOdels are examined to see how the oonoept ca. The supports are then removed..t.P.. . 4 .. The cupboard later receive a. 18 I . 9-12. 1-3.a. powder-oo&t.n1c. The oomplJeated shapes made It bard to &OCUI'&t. ( 5-6) w1ll 8 . 13. whIle the chair ( 7 ) w1ll be left In Its raw st.. whIle ensuring th&t the bea.e and then sand·blaated. leather-upholstered &rmcb&1r. 0009 the metal or the cupboard Is ftnlahed ( 9-10) .ed tu"ld S&lld-blaated d1nlnS chairs. walnut veneer. and to stop the metal denting In a. The lnsplratJon tor the ran&e 18 the 1n1t.s made rough1..uty or the greJn remained.d. SCULPT FURNITURE I .1al sketchl 3D model. The Sculpt seMes ot furniture includes (clookw1se from top left) cupboard.y to receive the veneer (11-12)..

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an unoompl1c&ted shape mltJg&ted the chance of a.nd with the ooll&boratlon of Ven1n1. with the sphere supported on a base that progresses from transparent to opaque as It nears the top. . mixing a glass flbre used 1n boat oonstruct1on with Czech orySt.ss was pla. Venln1 oould not take the r1sk of using the glass fibre.s h1ghl. Ven1nl's techniclans tried shortening the Murano glass to make It harder and as close to 80 s. a sphere sitting w1thin a concave base.l Ideal of glass destgn. the pieces showed a structural tension t.hought close enough. better Chance of comb1nJng if he found a fibre with a s1mJl&r chemJcal b&l&noe. of 80. BabIed desired. and caused cracks to appear within 2 4 hours. The only drawback was that.ziOne Spertment&le del Vetro.r1soope.. DurIng d1&cua8lons with an engineer from the Sta.n1c. An organic look was &ch1eved by wrapping oontlnuous threads of the fibre Manufacturer: Venin.er the Polar1soope tests.20 I .. type C. Glass is pure a. He 18 fasclnS. However.P. Rolling the molten glass over the fibres placed long:l. methods of optlm1zlng the oomb1n&tlon of glass and gla. BabIed's experimentations began in earnest. He flna.1ng a sinuous flbrous element with glass to catch.b&bled.smen In Murano. as BabIed puts It. In parallel w1th the tests to mix the around the c1rCum!erence of a glob of glaSs. which he !.net/ www.y unpredictable. The fOI'm of the lamp.lJy soUl"Cecl a fibre.ln diffuser to recreate the organJc patterning of the fibre ooncept.nd does not mix easUy with any other substance.i SpA Hand·blown Murano glass LIght source: halogen H : 20cm ( Bin) x 01&: 14cm ( SlAin) Design to manufacture: 24 months Mass-manufactured www.nges can only be made when the glass is stlli m&lleable.&l. two materials. Sheets of glass fibre were oombined with 'long' Murano gJass. coloured glass tube that adds a strong focal aooent to the des1gn.ven1nl.he oontrol of a Pola. he decided that the two materials would have 8.especially a. the gl&.s the I&. BabIed decided to work on & dlalogue bet. &88thetlo produoed by oomb1n. whlch in turn didn't. the next moment It cryst&lllzes and becomes.. DurIng 8. LUM LAMP I .lon of two materials. soften and sprea. splral of wh1te gJass. ooeft\clent of 104 .rver before blowing &gain had the effect of making the &eSthetlo too regimented. neW'OnaJ. halogen llght source and the thermal va. The method seemed to suooeed.oed in a sph er1cal mould and W&8 blown Into shape. EMMANUEL BABLED . Known for his subversion of the olasslc&.ss flbre were developed and several techniques were rqJected. which wasn't what BabIed had envisiOned. Ch8.. Once back in Murano. shatter.t.. A oouple of proofs were tr1ed with excellent aesthetic results. 'fr&gUe for the rest of eternity' . the worldfamous manufacturer of Italla. randomly. As the process wa. &tl..n&t. di1'ferent.h&t meant mass manuf&eture was not an option . Emmanuel Babied's innovative glass vases and lamps are m&inly produced by master cr&ft. option. the 'short' gJass reacting badly with the strong flbre.s suggested that the most commonly used flbre made from glass type E. sucoessfW. was kept as simple as poSSible.oom . It was decided to keep the form but to add 8. the fibre dlssolved. As BabIed was working with Type A Murano glass with 8. producing a cloudy effect. under !.mp would use 8. Although the two mater1aJs tln&lly OO&lesoed. a. be adopted. the result did not have the random fibrous look that. whlch has a ooeffiolent of 60.tudlnally on the ma. oombl. technique.ed by the nature and demands of the mercur1al mater1&l. The oonoept. producing a pattern Within the glass.n art gJass. It wa.s possible.nyth1ng going wrong In the delicate blowing and oooUng stages. As a la.st.d the llght from within the sh&de. The l&mp Is made entirely of glass. ftrst. The symbiosiS W&8 not. trip to the NovotomJ furnaoe In the Czech Republlo he tried 8.ween an industrial mater1&l and cran.r1aLiOns would exert even more pressure on the del1c&te symb10818 .er every revolutlon_ Once the fibre was added. in China w1th a ooefficlent. as the ftbre does not stick to Itself. Unfortunately. 1nBlde & ple. However. Italy. The electrlcs are hidden in 8. the ooolIng gJass had to be dJpped In glass and heated &tl. behind the Lum lamp was to create & dlffuser with an orga.

' .: ~.-'=-- ~~~~.~ ~~ .:~ ---=:--.

cracJr. Once In the mould the extrem. LUM LAMP / . The method ( 2) dld not. but the aest. and prod. 4 .e a dlff\l. to opaque.. the ma. EMMANUEL BABLED .rem1ty.as8 ftbre sheeta used In the manUfacture of wall oover1n8S wlth Murano glass. which was then blown t. the ext.het.ser wtt. have the ftbroua qU&l. Another experiment (3) wrapped a fibrous belt around the gIaas.t..l&solved the libre.hrougb It.teri&lS appeared to combine. A grlp Ia used to further reduce tllia quantJty at the top of the glob. neuron&l.ss d.1ty Is clooer to the heat and thus 8Of\er.h.. AgaIn..lc did. The molten glob Is rolled to reduce the quantity of whtte g1a88 on """"""'.. not.l~ Babied desired.h1n the glass. 1. an organlo.1x:ln8 glass fibre C with hardened Murano gI.22 / . The ooncept behind the Lum lamp was to cres... An early expaMmant mixed gI. cloudy effect.uoed.P. The Lum lamp's base changes from transparent. M. loB !.. ereaung .he g\aBs Ia handblown the extremity In1la1es becoming U"aIlBparent. (Prevtoua page). a restmentad p&tto8m wtt. .s. 2-3.

The comprom ise was to keep the form of the orlg1nal but to add a spiral of gJass to the insIde of the diffuser Rathel' t.ble t() use as a IIl&SS. the gJ.at.he ooollng gJass had t() be dlpped and heated 14.ftsman created the spiral In an organic paUoern to mimic Lhe fibre . alter random test\nS In a Polarlsoope.. Here ( 8 ) Lhey are p\a.llan apply\nS thIS In a normal wa:y. The glass was then blown Into a spheMcal mould ( 13).hI form. the cra.lly on the marver. Babled WIOd 5~ to convey to the Cl'aft. '!'he technique selected after each revolution (II and 12).otld longltud1na.ss flbre was found t() be too unsto.a.s oomblned and the flbl'Qus aesthetic WQB achieved.hem and Lhen blown ( 9 ) . !. manufactured technlque_ 15. However. Lhe glob I'QUed over t.8.smen bow hit Ulttlnded the glass \(I be worked_ ePo~model5 &-9. 10-13.al. As Lhe fibre does not stJc.er!. was to I'QU a oontlnuollS IJtrtUld of fibre aI"OWld the glob (10). weN produced to work out t. The m. VarlollS DltIthods were tried to oombine LIle glass ftbre with Lhe glass.k to Itsell.

echn1que with the notion of t&k1ng away glass to make 'windows'.. was last shown at.e gI&ss and then the oolour. Falled a. to the Centre Culturel Francal8 In MUan then to the Gallerle Mouvements Modernes In P&r1s. by a. In th1s prqject the concept was very much part. between the age-old techniques of gla. he began t.he dra.lted edition.able to org&n1c shapes. BabIed. Sandpaper was applied to fln1sh and smooth the cut.ys the shapes could be conceived pbysle&ll.ss. whIch was realized in cutt.y. he had no Idea whether he oould mUll them work in gIass.8 decided t.nd. durtng the a. and a great. of the process.b.. thought dld not. Onos removed from the mould and cooled.ed. the mast.1ng-edge 3D Maya comput. wh1ch he h&nd-delivered to the Murano masters.rcb1tecture blennale In 2004.er grapbJo and After Effect motion graph1c programs.red as If various layers Of gl&sB had been stuck together wh1le.e with the tr&d1tlon of glass-blowing. BabIed wanted the pieces to be appreciated for reasons other than the vtrtuoslty of the glass. the oold work began. PolYstyrene models were constructed and s. shapes were practical to mould and blow.t.ra. Venini SpA Hand·blown Murano glass Various dimensions Design to manufacture: 12 months lJm. The draW1ng8 were refined. vl8lona.a.ngS were JUSt for tun. WIlS for the series to be seen Only side by side with the vl8lonary aesthetic of the &. slJlgl.ss res. It. would express modernity and go beyond the merelY funCtional by genera..tt. oork wheel with abrasive pla8t. followed.tlnl an emotlOnal response.ed to t.h Ideal1st.y decld1n.n1. He st&rt.ntng.at.gtc.o la. Three layers were blown over a mould: tiret heavy crystal. adding &rut subtracting from the curves so the proposed. It. thud.1'1c. a classical aesthetic we have come to assocl&t. the idea of a.lect.t.na1J. they were created in one piece.l. The Manufacturer. t.ge t. With the manufacturer Veninl'e the viewer's peroeption of the ottlect. Each Unit had a oomplicated collabora.rt pieces was to be aooompa.a.w1. The special exhibition of e. EMMANUEL BABLED .babled. lOoMS. Because of the flowing nature of glass In Its molt. 6 of each colour www. Babied's rough eketches were turned lnto det&iled CAD drawtngB ustng Rhlnoceros® son-ware. feeling the thiCkness of the mater1&l to gauge the depth of etchlng needed.tlng away the whlt.net. By llnk1ng the concrete with the conceptual. The concept..e geomet.s more oontempor&ry and to gl. more sult. appea. and ftnalJy white g1au A fln&l result. His &1m was to add a cultural element tQ make these sculptural oll.g on a layering t.ven.ss t.er slowly turned the piece by ba. The Units series of sculptural glass pieces was born from gmmanuel BabIed's desire to produce works In g1a.P.. few examples were made with the coloured gl. mathematical forms that.be Gabrielle Ammann g&llery In October 2006. would provoke questions..mJned to test the ratio of the layering and the process refined.h1nk of different.ched &ll the angles and extremlt. cut.unch the series In an exhibition called 'Toys' a.oom .rt founda. fully express the modernity of the oonospt.s would change and a bridge be crea. Babied wanted to creat.e-plece forms and came up with the concept of a. the exhIbition t./ www.b. this 18 a simpler process but one that.empts were broken and exa. wa. Ta.tlon. 18 a mat. Mea&.e.klng as hiS st. as if by m.em mea.&ss on top. It W&. UNITS I .24 I . ft.ry city.oe.ss·blowtng and innovative computer technology. then coloured.velled. drop of g1a.n1m&ted tum. series of workIng sketches produced by Babied to inform the masters just how he wanted the pieces made.ertaJ. From the Bevllaoqua.lc.n1ed with a. the most presttglous e.t the Bevtlaoqua La. deal of sklll and expertISe was needed to make sure the gla..lon 10 Venice.les. video ceIebratJng BabIed's ruturl8tlc vl8lon..o sketc.en state. at each stage. At th1s st. Using a dJ&mond wheel. form.ve t.er to poll8h the surfa.rtlng point.

modem.t. oa. . geom~ seMee of aculptural pleoe8 tba.n be used as vases.yers 0( M urano gl&88 hand.Unlta is a. They QJ'tI made from three 18.·blown into • mould.

UNITS I . .P. .. EMMANUEL BABLED .: ~ =.- - -- .... .26 ! ....

uetchfII or t. A couple of pieces tra. The Ia.y.yel'S or sem1-molten glass were p1aoed 1n !..be gI&s8 was polished using a oomblnatlon of oork and abl'8Btve pl&st8r (1 4 ). a faJ' ee.mlned .he t1nIL M'IW of Vuell. &8 for the meJOMt.he fln1sh and lB..llures were smashfld a. One of the 8CUlptUrQ.he pieces oouJd be feasibly blown and moukled. FInall. coloured glass and t.rs of glass were cut away by a dIa. the oo1oured. 17.ru11n the Murano factory t. 5-1 4 . so It ooukI be refined. (10). madt to aooompan. whlc. -- O! !Ill! tl'Om WI anIm&t4d tum IhDwIng an imaginary alty.Ib" form BIbIed'I rutur\sUo city.he lB. whlch .Y of the pleoes.nd the rat10 of t.h CiIDlII1N of etgbt p\eOe8 (ormed III baM-bIown Murano g1aas..nBpooed. (13).be archI1a:WraI forms. Detail showing t. Example of a CAD drawing delivered to the Murano masters to be ret1ned so !.mond wheel (12) and sandpape:1'6d to tln1sh the cut.he oold prooeSB1ng (II). 80IIle of wbIcb would IIVi!Il\tua. Pa.hrou8hout the producUon process 16.I COrnJMel' renOerIng of t.yer!ng: crystal.he mould (6-7).yeMng exa.. Alter each blowtng.sler permutaJJon to blow and mould. 18.be extremltle8 of the mould ( 9 ). the shapes were examined to ensure that the glass trued the a 1II'SL.hen white glass..ye.y tbe pxwenWJon of t. !. Babied was on ha.l pleoes before !. 4. the three 1a. and white \aye1'S. and blown (8 ). The glass ~el'S were prepared (5 ) .

Su ch lS the popularlt.U1ng w1t.nd out.s In pJ.which involves the pa.la. The presstngs are then t.ble grade of alum1n1u. to oollaborate in the chair's production.sed designers and develop and produce a. They In t.s. A full·sca. A t. lnlt.l process .ing and d.d solld.llable cornmerctally.1al out.orla.y Osgerby were aw&I'ded the prest.ly made from alumInIum tubing but a.l. Unfortunately.e Fabrics has been used..lo In 1996 a.ser·cut. radius and t.t.ructed.a. experts in mew manufs.framed protot.gs and 3D oomput.h1S elegant. F1x1ng details a.ype was produced to refine the styllng. !. forward.y..nd received lnt. nylon. Sussex.he UK. Scm (23in) x D: 56.l. The 26 oomponents are fixed by 44 fasteners.y of t.tg1ous Jerwood Prize for Applied Arts in 2004. foam.rlmmed and !\xing holes formed by a flve-ax:18 la.1ng for us.r'e and the duo sought the newly founded oompa.est.cula.lt.he 1n1t.1r was exclt.ype was then CNe-milled from soM alu.1r. during Est&bllShed & Sons' UK launch during London Design Week in 2005. was to produce a plywood cha. In September 2004.i. around a former to determine the reqUired. are produced In pressure die-ca.nd the externa. approached London's Vlct. steel. 'that.er modelllng to work up the deSign.nd asked them to recommend a Brlt.nd pressed alum1n.lum for the ba.1Sh ma. three cross-sectJons and six oover pieces.ube-forming.ctured www. East.st.ny EstablIshed & Sons. The ln1tJaJ.lons are ava.rd and foam.oI'Que servo motor.ter.rade and det. e. from steel.. facade.rberOsg81'by used rough sketches. for oomfort.Vlbra F'1nlshlng . aJum1n1um for the frame a. 'Assembllng t.! curved oolumns on the seafront.Ie-cast.lum.' says Osgerby.r the balust..ywood manufacture. piece of furniture that It.1r t.y. the process m.rdboa.sler.heir work was commended by t. unorthodox lndust. keeping w1th Alvar Aalto's ortgtnal furniture a.nufacturer to produce a chair to mark the 70th annJversary restoratton of the Iconic ModernIst.re CNG-milled and all ooostlt.18h-ba.ylon.h1n the interior.a.r and pressed s. A rough model was made from ca.R I .he Scot. but the more recent ed.ing.oomJwww.kes 10-12 minutes to put.he Judges for Its 'comb1n&t. together.he rea. lncludlng t.'s when we saw t.s. so BarberOsgerby began working on a. dull galvanized effect.wlat. to determine the shape.m and t.ccl&1m followlng the release of one of their earliest. W&l'I' Pavillon in Bex. for a met&l cha.lme.urn suggested BarberOsgerby &8 the designers.ed by a high-t..ing the alum1n1um was selected. which oonceaJ the bolts keeping the frame together.nt. sand-cast. The PavUJon's ftn&l brief was for a chair t. Isokon are not. followed by ergonomIc models in polystyrene to test.. The seat and b&ck are laser-cut In a plla.kes mass production ea. and seat. EDWARD BARBER & JAY OSOERBY.Je protot. In partJ.lon from the stunning but.m.1 a.hat could be used lnslde e. an. tubula.It1ons adopt an. bulldl. The steellS bent.rlet chair made for the sole use of the Pavilion. chs.hen pressed under a two--part. the Loop table.h Brlt. specta.ir in All versions.lly. under hydraulic pressure into various moulds to form t. .y·. each chs.Iumlnum.lc beads In water to seal the surface and produce s. includlng the sca. The frame lS high-pressure die-cast.heir inspira.y on tooling was s1gn1fl.barberosgerby .lah textUe mill But.h1ll·on-Bea.wo side pieces. the directors of the De La.rts being shaken for hours w1th cera.· Manufacturer: EsubJ. bespoke upholstery designed by BarberOsgerby and manufactured by t.Scm (22 l.nd tsokon. Museum (V&A) a.t. coherence and beaut.P.. upholstery H: 78cm (30¥. They founded t. products.28 I .re now const.Sons Cast. has already become part. In some cases.! thtng for the first. concept.m1n1um to present. and lntelllgent. In) x W: 58. Edward Barbel' and Ja. Although t.THE DE LA WARR PAVILION CHAI.helr stud. Other colour ve.1l' arms were orlgtn.uents are polished prior to assembly.at.com .ck:l'est.. Various methodB of production were discussed. powdeI'-OOating and mirror-pollshlng ftnlshes were used..ng.la. The molten meW 18 forced. Ba.he flrst. They took t. concept.4 to) Design to manufacture: 24 monthS Mass-manufa.t.abl1shedandsons.erna. austere 1930s architecture of the bu1ldlng Itself.lona. a. steel tool exerting 60 toones of pressure to achieve the shape. presentation drawln. were put.ahed 4. who work only w1t. The cha.ca. Plastic partS used 10 the assembly are InJectionmoulded from glass-filled n.lon of clarlt.rla. t. of the permanent oollectlon of the V&A. to alum1n.nd Albert.rt. before pressUJ'tl diecast.1mber.Lst.ctu.ll their products in t.

shown here in white next to an early prototype. is available commercially In various colours and finishes. .The De La Warr Pavilion chair.

•• ••• • n L .. and Ul. 4 ..st..he tubing of the Internal brJustrade ( 1) .ecture of I!:Mc Mendelaohn and Berte Cherm&yerrs BexhW-on-8ea m&llterpleoe. In ~ !.l. L1ne draw1ngl and 3D oomputer render\ngl were used to work up the design..he l4odern. P.&rJ. The design for !. . 1.he De 1.. .THE DE LA WARR PAVILION CHAIR I .EDWARD BARBER & JAY OSOERBY.lr 3 WIUI NtI&Cted for a more oontemporary mM8r1al and aeethetJo. " ·0· ~I'IJ '''. but a plywood cha. 4-5. aroh1t.30 I .y h&nd-drawn Iketochee of the dell&D.n&J cha1r Is produoed In scarlet exalWllvel.y for use In the Pavilion.e eoatront fQ.0 In the frame MOtIon. The Il..& Wan" Pavllion chair W&II Inspired by !. 6-7.P. which was referenoed In the chOloe of cast aJumIn1um for the ch&1r's ooll8truOfJon....y referred.Qade ( 2). 3 Alvar AalloO's or1g1nal fUrniture WIUI an 15&I'1y Influence. 1-2. v1suaU..e external aurved oolumns on Ul.

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. showing the dlBunctlvlt akld leg at. are vlewod !'rom behind. 8..ab1l1~ of the ehalr. .y8\}'rene ergonomiC model to determine the comfort. 11 . .od In .han a moT'I u. 13. flutd torm rather t.P. THE DE LA WARR PAVILIO N CHAIR I .32 I .ec11n ". pan...he ch&1r Is (l1a~od by !. Th1a was creat.ha~ ItUU\Y chalrs. of the init ial design prooesa. A oardbo&rd model wu made In 8&rberOage-rby'. g .IPOnse to the observalJOn t.Ileg type . The ttrst ONe·mllled aluminium prototype ..1I'8..lcul&rl:1 d1nlng flha. pauern·maker ba8ed In London. The re&r protlle ot !. pol.ua.. . tl. . was made In timber by .be Ikld lee.. EDWARD BARB ER & J AY OBOER BY. and at. the re&r of the cha1r. Blue foam and card mock· up to determine proportlonl 12 A IMIOOnd protolOyp&. 8&rberO~ ohoIe to UN &n enoloeed volume. 10. NUmerous cardboArd modell reeUlt. studio as pan.ret shown at Est&bllahed '" Sona' London debu~ In September 2005 durlng London Dellgn Week..

e Pabrlcs on the Isle Of BUte on the west ooast of SootJand.1r Is !.14 .v select. Warr Pavilion Is engraved wlt.t. The IIlde sect.he ftrst-ever textlla designed by Ba.1r's frams. Is a dne-rlbtlecl deaJ. The 26 oomponent.ch nha.h a pla. 'l'h18 Is the negative mould into whIch moltan alumtnlum Is foroed to form a section Of Iohe cha.he ch&1r are hJgh-presaure d1e·cas~.ogether.11' takes 10-12 minut. 18. Each of the exclualve ch&1rs supplied to !. 18-20.lra are assembled. 16_ The dle-cast machine Is made ready for production.que bearlng the destgnera' naJD88 and c1at. TIle side p&rt.he De La. 21 .ys was eventuaU. The fabric for the upholstered vera Ion of the oha.s are fixed by 44 futensl"8.8 Of !.ed . A palette o f 34 oolourwa. The J'88uJ. ea. The unJque cheIT)'reel ch8.1on Is finished to re.ea to put r. 17.& of design.rbef'Osgerby and Is proctuoed by But.gn oomblnlng two oontraatin4 ooloura.move the fiAah tlnea.

P.34 I . . .JAWBONE BLUETOOTH HEADSET I ... YVES BEHAR/ PUSEPROJECT...
As founder of the award-Winning 8&0 Franctsoo-b&sed Industri&l

and branding firm fuseprqject, Yves Behar's mission Is to create narratives to develop emotional responses to products. His oonvictlon ts th&t the stronger and more complex the Unk with a consumer, the longer l.asting customer loyalty will be. B!har's designS ue a perfect symblosts of erea.tlv1ty and technology, which he admlts owes much to his bicultural heritage. Born to an East German mother and Turldah father. he says. 'One ts funct1on&} and modernISt; the other expressive and poetlo. I always try to marry the two in my prQ}ect.s.' Allph is a newly formed developer of mobile audio products. Based in San Fra.nclSoo, Its first offering IS the Jawbone Bluetooth head.set, buIlt around noISe shleld technology. The headset only t.&k:es notice of speech, wh1ch n&tur&lJy involves moving the moutb and hence the Jaw. The headset extends over the muscles that. activate the Jaw so that when the mouth moves a sensor is activated and any noise that Is not generated by the speaker is eliminated, through the use of a mWtary-gra.cte no1s& ca.ncelllng system. Behar sta.rted by researching eXISting Bluetooth headsets. Features such as a.qjustable ea.rhoops and buds, a choice of colours. and a sleek, contemporary aesthetic bec&me important 10 his design as they were gener&lJy lacking in the ma.rket and also sought by the oonsumer.

MlnimaJlsm and simplicity were key to the aesthetic, as was the contrast between h..Igh-tech and orga.n1c. The outer part of the beadset is a pa.red-down curved surface, with all buttons and sl1ders hidden within the unit. The inner side, which rests ag&InBt the Jaw muscles, IS soft and oontoured, emphasizing the functlons.llty of the cheek-touching sensor. The combination of the slmpUClty and style of the outer surfaces and the soft, ergonomic inner surfaces d.istfngU.lShes the Jawbone as technological Jewellery rather than a mere gadget. InltisJ sketches to determine the basic aesthetic of the unit and the euloops were followed by technlcal drawings, ergonomic stud1es and materi&l experiments. During these, Behar worked on the development of a soft moulded band of rubber over a rlgld extern&} structure to allow the soft flexlble materlsJ. to fit &round the eu while retaInIng an outer inflexIble form. Much Iteration of 3D files was made to determlne the location of the microphone holes and the smooth shape of the 1oterna.i parts in the body. lnltisJly the beadset was too large; a complete rethink was necessary to shrink the design. and the lnternals by 50%. The ea.rloop, composed of two different mateI'ials, was the most complex element of the headset to manufacture. The process of inserting the z10c metaJ part into the production machine and ir\lect.fng the rubber around It needed a lot of l'9finement: as the Intended wall thickness was

only Imm on either side, the zinc would not always be centred within t he tool a.nd would appear on the edge of the rubber, or the rubber would not. bond properly to the smooth zinc eurface. These ch&llenges wer e resolved by increasing the rubber section and creating a hole at the bottom end of the metaJ piece to prevent t.he rubber sUpping. Add1t1ona.l.ly, due to the varytng CI'OSs-sectlon of the ea.rloop, sta.mplng was not an option, therefore precluding the use of steel or tlt.a.n\um. The zinc that. was eventually employed could not be cast in the t.r&d1tlonaJ way as It bec&me too brittle. Tnst.e&d It was heated and forged into shape and then ta.ken through a heating and cooling process to l1mlt the chanoe of fracturing. The shape and softness of the rubber pa.rt.s took trlal and error, c1urtng whiCh both ea.rloop and bud were prototyped in t.hree va.rletles of TPE and tested on a durometer to find the optimum h&I'dness of the rubber for comfort. stabWty and sensor contact. To manufacture the h1dden buttons on the outer surface of the shield, the tool was progressively machlned towards a thinner section. At every O.55mm, the tool would be ir\lected. and the parts fully assembled and tested until an ergonomic and functlonaJ. balance was achieved.

JAWI30NE 13 LLJE TOOT H HEADSET
YVES 11EH,\IUFIISEI'IlIIJECT

Manufacturer: AlJpb

Client and program. engineer: Alex AsseUy MedJcal grade ABS plastic. rubber, electro-plated zinc
L: 5cm ( 21n)

Design to manufacture: 12 months Mass-manufactured www.fuseproject .com/ wwwJ awbone.oom

P,36 I . .JAWBONE BLUETOOTH HEADSET I ... YVES BEHAR/FUS EPROJECT...
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page). The high.

styled outer surfaoe or the
Jawbone BlUet.ooth headset ooD08&1a all operatJ.ng buttons, whkh are a.otJvat.ed by depressing sensors on the silloon boaJ'd benea.t.h. The 6&BJed oontrols min imize vtsual clutter and ensut'fI pure vtsua.l and. funot1onal

t.od.a.y'. oonsu.mer, He was made Vk)e Prea1d.ent and
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and. IB Involved. with &II or the CJ'ea.tIve and. oonsumer experience aspe0t6 of the Jawbone whlle m.a1nta1n1ng hlB

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.ted. interesting is that the Lea! lamp's very expressive form. B~hal' tried to add a fan.nd cold cathodes. 'LEOs have actually been around a long time but what's most.38 I . in collaboration with his Ban FranclSoo-based dest.a. a new technology demands a new expression.stlc H : 53 . Gecko.herm&nm1ller. from the golden glow of a candle to the whJt. By punchinS a. whIch could be ea. Is Justified by mechanical requIrements. The design was developed using simple sketches and paper models to fashion the slim. By the time work resumed.ght body.com/ www . meaning the lamp Itself wtll never be rendered obsolete.p.nge the llght from cold to warm.rm-to-oool colours within the LED driver circuits by using separate touch controls.! and replacement at the end of the LED's Ufespan. wrote. pla.1on system. the technology did not ex1st to mue thIs achievable. he crea.1nlum.3000 ( 21m) x 0 : 22cm ( 8 I1r'3ln) Design to manufacture: 48 months Mass-ma. Th1s allows the user to grab the head of the light. The Ideas were then tra.. Manufacturer: Herman Miller Inc Alwn.r1ly known for Its sOC1&Uy responsible yet innovative seat1nS for the oontract market.ctlce due to the worldwide economio downturn fOll Owing the dot.c!Justed to create different light effects. fuseproject. m. The development of a compact..sUy a.. the design curator of the City'S Museum.ture flues through wb.nufacturer Herman Miller 18 prima. Lea! stays 0001 to the touch through the use of a patented heat-distrlbut.nd the wa.lch the bea. experimented with a seMes of concept lights employing fluorescents.cWta. like a blade of grass that llghts up at nJght. ea.nslated.sily replaceable.m.sk la. The emotion of light touches you. US-based ma.nt It qUickly lost the sleek proflle of Its deSign. to help with the technical speoWcat. LEAF LIGHT I .ll Within 46 seconds. Incorporat. flexible &MllS of the lamp. printed circult board With an Integrated microprocessor in Leaf's base gave the user the abWty to control both the Ught's intensity e. which he e longated.. whlle one can actuslly touch the product.blllty to cha. YVES BEHAR / FUSEPROJECT.1ng a. but this mea.P.' Unlike other LED lamps. In a W83 the SlmpUClty of the form does enhance the experience.m body.t from 2800 to 6000 Kelvin. white LED meant that BlIha.a.ges of the deSign.r could keep a sUm proflle for the head of the lamp. He also developed a heat-sink l1nk1ng the LED bulbs to the alum1n1u.nta€eous. and were mainly used in brl. At that time. Yves BlIhar's Leaf Ught for Herm. corn burst and 9 / 11. LEOs were not widely ava. new function: the a.t escaped.ry Furnlture F&1r 1n New York in 2006. but the delay proved to be adva. Herman Miller brought In an engtneerlng flrm .Ing. A slmple..mp and BlIhar. Paola Antonelli. which burn hot and require compUcated cooling systems.. I wanted Leaf to be both futuristic and famillar.fuseproJect. of Modern Art.ting. At the 1nIt18J st.1n\. LED technology had adva. any worry that.. It was a departure for the company to create a whole new conoept in lIghtlng design. These Ideas were never put lnto pra.a. they will get burnt. and a.nufactured www. The design of the Ught was put on hold. f0CU8ing on the experience of the light.n Miller was introduced during the InternatlOne. mto CAD drawings from which working prototypes were fashioned to assess functional 18SU98. The maJn problem was eUmlnatlng the overhea. bubbled upper surface of the la.gn company.mp's head.1ons of the la. halogen a. in particular the ergonomic Aeron Chair designed by Don Chadwick and Bill Stumpf. 'It 18 rare to be able to design both the llght source and the Ught.r in 2002 and the commiSsion Quickly became a personal project for him. which BlIhar had imitated to create the aesthetlo of the stamped.nced.Uable.! Contempora. During the development engineerlnS phase.ghtJy coloured publlc displays. without.com . hole in each of the bumps. extending the heat dissipation to the entire ll.' The lamp uses a blomorphic grid of LEDs to deliver a Wide spectrum of l1gb. to showcase these tiny Jewels of light. hinge was deviSed to connect the head to the base to fa.e Ught of a ta. At the same tlme.te Its remove. The solution came in the form of the LEDs themselves.. the LED llghtbulb would fa. They approached BlIha. Although It has been involved in the manufacture of lIght.

8 and to dlrtIot.~ aa needed.het.s fUnct.lo of !.nge or llghtJng effe0t. l1gb.1on8 inclucle a flaxlble arm to glve a re.he Leaf lamp la bklmorphto.. 1t. .The &e8t.

40 t .lve user 3 L ..y . of grass. wtth a miOropl'OO86llOr Ioo&ted. rrom whlch worklng prototypes ( 4 ) were made to B.e(l c1rou1t bo&rd address problem &l'fIa8 . LEAP L1GHT t . Ium1noelt...ware waa CI"Mted."L B. Special aon.hers develop a hl.Y of Lea! 'I'hl8 18 &CtIvated. to develop an Interact.P. the temperature setting of "'" ". YVES BtHARt PUSEPROJECT.j the upper arm attaches to the lower to allow maxtmum flex1bmt. A senea of drawtngB. 3-4 .. 1. by a blacIe (3) .nge to attach the blade to the bUll. some addre8!I the ws. The lamp wu tnsplred. TIWI prlnt. a unJque iI\IOOtkln·moulded plastJo touch sensor 1ocatec1 In the base. by 2. ot. aontroJ. Interface to control and acuuat the bMghtneu aDd.. In Ita b&ge.. The drawtngl were tranalatec1lnto CAD drawtnga <PCB) ..

The light can be att&red from 0QiI:l to warm. 1 ~ll MulU·lltAtlon stamping was used to form the &J'IIlIJ of the \amp ( 10): trim d.. and stamping d. cnacram abow1nI bow 1M vvIouI paN at the lamp where axtreme precision was not needed. 14 .""" .rect. The arm moves through 90 degrees to dJ. to ensure oonslstent costeffective untfOrmlt. Yves Behar was InvOlved. link ILOd aIumtntum blade that &!laws MaL to be 41spersed &Iiq tlw Iengtb of the Wnp. .Ie-cut for the Internal 8tnlCtur&I elements 12. The alumInIum .Ie-cuttlng for the overall shape and quaJjt. 16. The head was deII\gruId to emphasize the gMd or UIDe.as If\)ecUon-mouJded to ensw-e consistent wall thickness and good sut'faoe 9 /0: 0 0> C> q --- " .nal form (1 ).'1-.y. the llght wherever It Is nooded.8.btou&b &n eng1nMred heal. 13. 9k&ch and CAD dnLwlng IIhIIWtln( WI p&Lented hlMtdlIu1buLIon system achieved !.. " ~ uooometnc "0. Le&f Is pNlSll6d In several progressive moull1!l and then slowly bent Into Its tl. In Lhe marlteUng and branding of th8 product..y of form.

ll a.t permits the computer to run Indeflnitely without an electrical outlet. ruseprqJect 18 ' Idea-oentric'. clearly defined form that 18 unmiStakably a child's oomputer. a..cl. 86bar considered many options .4 2 / . The OLPC scheme has received & lOt of orltlolSm from for.' version that was developed. superf!. 'OLPC IS the ftrst thing I've seen In many years that IS In Une with ~ orlglnal goal of the PC: to bring lnlormatlon. communJca.h&t would be IntultJve to children who had never before been Introduced to modem technology. When opened.me Involved In the prqject.er the first design team hIred.ry leaders.ctured www.. to create a. and.8cm ( gln) x 0 : 3cm (IYftIn) Design to ma. this was abandoned In favour of rechargeable batteMes. to Simplify the w1rIng so that keyboard &Od motherboard no longer oommun1ca.t the final Idea.rt.t&d through a. with Internal layouts a. 10 the tlnaJ. All technolOglca.tw / www. oommunJca.Uon and education to all. All early designs were powered by a b&nd-cra.org . rough mock-ups. Design Continuum.oom / www. as a. weatoher.rd.. The One Laptop Per Chlld (OLPC) Wt18.nk.ten in developtng countries and. was demandl. On top of that It had to reta1l for less than any other oomputer on the market. Two Ideas for ftxtng top to bottom were tested. The first.M the SUI'I'Oundlng coloured bumper seals the unJt from dust a.. The second. r.rea.nd hundreds of COnfiguratiOns to make the assembly work functionaJJy and to alSo be visually e. YVES BEHAR / FUS EPROJECT .Quant&. to create an a. Once a.1S~ the USB ports. had run out of Ideas . pla.: It is known as the $100 oomputerl Yves 86har and his oompa. It IS sealed to protect It from dirt. The antennas were alBo It\lectton·moulded but then lnSert. design.1le Quality with & unIque rubber-moulded keyboard. In plastlO. It starts a commISsion by str&tegiz1ng ftrst the experience and then the message of & product.d1cal scheme alOltng to provide low-oo&t computers to educate chUd.resistant.ch oomputer &Cttng as a router.ptop.y children don't have a. supporting the displa.. m oat importantly.ing IS used to allow many machines Internet aooess from one connection. became imposslhle after the size of the battery Increased twofold .t.fuseprqject . ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD X O CO MPUTER / .act. MobUe ad hoc network.proflt rr indust.yer of protective rubber.ny f'Useprqjeot. democrattzer.tlon between remote oommunJUes.. It has & soft.nufs.s together.shield ONE LAPTOP PE I~ CHIL D XO COMPlJTEI~ YVES IlEH. Bt:lha.1ng.nd integrates the rubber feet. unstable.&l requirement in a. but after testing this function on prototypes and ftndlng It exerted too muCh stress on the hardware. everything serves a double functio n : the antennas fold down to .2cm ( 9 Ih ln) x W: 22.IIl/FIISEI' IIIIJECT Manufacturer: Quanta Computer Concept/ engineertng: NiChOlas Negroponte H : 24 .-moulded to add a la. however. Using & oomblnatlo n of these methods. thanks to antennas that network up to lakIn ( 10 mUes) 8opa. and then glued over the connectors on to a steel plate and mounted on the unJt so It relnloroes the construction and se&Is the electrical components from molBture and dust. The brief from NIChOI&8 Negroponte.tlve is a I'8. loonJo design that 18 dust.r started from scratch.proof and beat.ooesslble cheerful. sturdy ~~ebeb1ndtbeMyboa.ooess to classrooms. tohe handle oounterbalances the display and doubles as an attachment for the shoulCler strap. let alone oomputeNJ . Simplicity and efflclency were key. hum..la. fragile hJnge.s where ma. Three processes were considered.ctng the battery under the keyboard. BAhar himself sees It as & great.ocesslble. single piece. 3D modeUtng studies and prototypes that it carries out col\lunctlonaJJy rather than sequentially to arrive a.reas of the design had been defined. made the unJt. When closed.. ' he says. ' Pol' the k1ds It 18 about making pf'QIeot. betng oolourful and possessing whtmslcal features such as the Rabbit Ears a.ng: to provide a. double-shot and InSert-moulding were ~ect.ed because of their lack of recyclabllity. Th1S. with ea.P. The rubber keypad was moulded In a. collaborating and oommunlca. founder of MIT Media Lab's OLPC Wt1&tlve.l innovations are Integrated Into a monollthlc . a. powerful WtPi system with an energy source tha. the PC's ABa meJn body was It\lectlon-moulded. beca.cture: 30 months Mass·manufa.proof. before beginning on sketches.y by the counterwelgbt or a.oom .tt.ntenna.n. design t. The OLPC eng1neeI'lng team and fuseprqject d90lded to Incorporate the mechanics behind the diSplay Instead of underneath the keyboard.&n power puU-oords and the harnessing of solar power.

" Thanks to a transformer hinge. the OLPC can be used as a standaI'd laptop. for e-book rea.ding as well as for gaming. .• ) .

s a oomm168lOn by strateglztng before beg1nnlng on sket. oonoelved anC'l engineered by Squld Lab.Ches ( 2 ) .5>. The laptOp oonsumes ftve to ten umes Je&8 )Xlwsr t.h&n a sta. 6-9. Both prototypes were generatad ustng a handheld crank.1on was NUected because of the need ror longevity and the reuaoWty of the overall unit. I .yo. concealed the e1ectrorucs and were thus top-heavy.ery beneath the keyboArd to give an ergonomic tilt ( 6 ).Mclty.lB of the deSign. can be rech&rged by human power..h. wlth antennas folc11ng down to shield the USB porta. ThIs fUnct. foot.t.6. st. Fuseproject. 5-6.y prototypeS were presented to MedlA Lab.ndard laptOp and solutions Include rechargeable ba.. ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD X O COMPUTER ! . 80th oounterbaJ&noed the display t. 7.t.aM.er18..P. Two earJ.. Power 2-4. and the human- powered yo. 3D mode111ng studies (4) and prototypes (40 were created tn tota. pedals. YeUow was propped up by 4 7 8 .!1. solar power. Blue had a ba.t. . CAD drawtngs were used to ftnallze detaJ.ndl8 behind the keybollrd ( 6).tt. a sturdy ha. Exploded perspective. YVES BEHAR ! FUSEPROJECT. Everything in the desl8n S8I"VeS a double funoUon.I). rough mock·ups in foam (.44 ! . This 18 advantageOus for children in areaa where there 18 no elect.

10 'lbebod.lon· mowded pIMtlo part. submitted to Va.Moua performance _menLl such as drop t. A system was (leveloped . Core tool ror the 1r\jecr. ImIaIt or the oavtty tool ror lobe uppar b&nd.he underskie or the 16.est. II Copper !OM tool used to IPPt7 tuture to the upper b&nIUI (XN8I'.ndle.he chlldnm oould recognize their own laptOp!I. ua.est1ng.l DIIahujII Wach1nir!C (EDlL) ~ plutID "'""' or WI I&pt. and the u. IIJong wttb the .shot and bauII the ~ or two mat8I1AII wcuJd mate the ~ u.J. for'IM t. upper ba.nreoyc:IabJe. to be U8ed by achoola in NIgeria and \Uen during !. apLuh·prooftng and rM\St6noe to uJWoaVk:llet.0 that !.e 14 Aft. 4 00 dllferent ookrur oomblnAtJone: of the XO Iogo were added to the deslgna.6'rI8la were t. that. II IIIIIrt-moukllnC _re ~ 13.op...ywu ~· moulded.m. DoubJIt. our.mplel "fere aeru.ed.at.he Electnca.ntt.er the.

urablrd&all.r. When she et&rt. an tnsplring contempora. The judges reoogn1zed In the aeries of vases. The work was band-blOwn and formed without the use of a mOUld.My lAndscape (1970).' Her inspiration came from looking at microscopic photography. Oett. The physical process of making an object.Uy translucent. A simple tool . For 81rdsaJ.. Each vase has sUght varlat. INTERIOR LANDSCAPE VASES I .y illum. from the 1988 sclenoe notion fllm Fantast.rlnslc fluld qualities.ntc. a. 18 this sense of wonder. and Verner Panton's orga.nt..be 1mport.l.lc Voyage. ~er is st. that J wa.000 Bombay 8&pph1re Prize reoogn1zes the outstanding acbJevements of international artists. of glass-blowing.lque of glass·forming and blowing..scape. she can manipulate at. t. After experimenting she decided to cut through each vase independently.ry appro&ch to the age-old t. was crucl8l to the procedure. Is possible In hand-made glass and explore the way Ught oouId be made to movs through the material even when opaqus. invention. The outer transparent.ime they allocated a further £5.oted to expl'88s the depth of colour that. Production: Laura Birdaall Ha. d1a. It is a soft. when molten. to convey. in contemporary g\&8s design. Va. In 2006.nt.mond saw.nd·blown glass H: 40cm (l6% 1n) x OIa: 16cm (8 IAin) Design to production: 12 months LImIted batch www. It. 'The interior spaces of my work suggest a mlcrosooplc world of d1mJ. They are tmagtned spaces inhabited by strange and curious orga..ted.l. LAURA BIRDSALL . art. .' comments B1rdsaJ. womb-like foam-rubber interior environment. Btrd. but 1f the aperture was made too btg then all sense of maglo would be lost.nt.ed her training she felt d1ctated to by Its mercurial properties.nd recognizing its int. to lAura B1rdsaJ.sall wa.me the confidence to harness these same characteristics to her own ends. She has always bad a hands·on attitude to her work and 18 aooompUShed In the ancient. which were ftnaJJy sand· blasted on the outside to achieve a matte appearance.a. then in glass.ass deslgn from the Royal College of Art.ed caves.k.echn.' says 81rd. for the ftrst.mond and emery-ooa. Each yea.nd ref\ned in a series of abstract.retched through !:. interior Land.ecessa. but. drawings. The vases are informed by a journey into interior space.he two oolours on the inslde.w them In. but found the effect too contrived.46 ! . of the concept.000 to be awarded to the best newcomer. The vases were allowed to 0001 ovemIght before the oold work began.a. designers and archltects working In that.1nat. The ball was blown and fashioned by hand us1ng wooden bloc. part.rusms. the openIng in each case.nt. In Interior lAndscape. in which shrunken doctors 10 a m1n1·subma.ed by drawing a Une tor the rim and caref'ully cutting It using a d1a. were employed to give a smooth flnlsh to the vases.r1ous wheels. a. It was n.. then white.was then used to create the indents.od ftna.od ftnd something unexpected.stJo voyage through awe-insp1r1ng landscapes and mtnlature worlds. judg1. The Bomba. medlum.a. B1rd.lons. will.l studJed 3D dlmenslooaJ design at Bucklngbamshire College of Htgher Educat. coloured.ng where the Une should fall based on the first.ry for the viewsI' to see just. in manipulaUng the glass a.1ng the temperature correct.l.terl8l tba. t. the £20. The aooolade went.pph1re Foundation was set up in 200 1 with the a.hing very small. Indent and then sUc1ng through It so that the form d1ctated..1m of supporting the best.com .t.y 8&. The design was worked out using 3D models made QulckJy In Clay. a young British g1&ss designer fresh out. enough of the interior to dra.sall. and the unexpected. of London's Royal College of Art. '1 wanted the Viewer to look inside the vases a. was to achieve the optimum opell1n«. This gave a much freer Une and each pleoe became unique.P.A In gJ. Birdsall st&rt. Pba. The shape was achieved by rolllng and push1ng three ~ers of glass over one another on a steel marvel': tlrst. to Blrds&ll &8 the design Itself.1natlon.1 am interested in a chlld's abWty to see a whole universe in somet. giving a sense ot lIlum.saJ.nt attribute of glass IS that.18. They are a fa.lon and received an M. and pUab16 ma.s and a pad of dampened newspaper.r1ne are llijected Into the body of a dying Czech soientlst.a metal rod . 18 as Lmport. with experience ca. The hardest.

ss to give it more depth and intensity.Each Interior Landscape vase is hand-blown in three layers of gla. .

eel rod lIlto the gLau ". 14 Important to thll procedure.re quick and easy to CI'8fLte. inlplred by Laura B1rd8all'. fuc1n&tlon ~t.yer Lhl'ough the white and Iin. one of Lhe I!'8IWI8t Influences (or the vuea. 2 . 7. The vaaee were blown to size ( 10).ed to look inlkie the vaaee Lhrougb the uynunet.rlotJ openlngB to d1Soover the unexpeoted: a 1andaoape of st.. The villllt'er II l... followed by g1a. The layers of glua were formed Wling dampened newspaper (8 ) and wooden b10cka ( 9 ). ro1l8cl on the steel marvel'.48 / ... Keeping the t.emperature oorrect. 1. .rangel. 6 . F.aU. 1~ 1 1.y Into the ooloured glaas.reteh1ng the traJ'IJIP&J'8!'1t g10wtng protuberanoee.empt. INTERIOR LANDSCAPE VASES ! . Abetract drawtnga were al80 made to move the oonoe~ Phaowy 'andn[)O . rorwa.as and 1 2 ..lnS aometh1nl hklden.. LAURA BIRDSALL . st.ach shape II judged by eye and every piece II lndlv1dual (It).h looktng Inside and tlnd. The lntollr1or L&ndscapes aeMea "'. Blrdsall worked up the dealgn Wling 3D clay models ( 3 ) IJuLt a. A white layer of g1aU was I&Id over the coloured g1a.rd. lI.as 8-9.. modell ( 4 ). The ooloured g1a. The Indenta weNt areatacl by pushing a at.hUe aUlI malleable.as waa added to t.P. 13.be blowpipe. She quOtol!8 Verner Panton's 1970 3-4 .y 6 .

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easy to assemble. and the basic beech seat and legs cut a. would compete In cost. So price competitive toO an loonlc plastic cha. types of furniture or products by recreat.lonal reputa.hed by Ph&1don Press in 2003 a. to their deSign.nd the Boijm&rul Museum of Art In Rotterdam (2004). RONAN &. The complex pressing and bendlng technIque was dlfflcult to achieve.h&t the user customizes with slovan partitions) .nd unpretentious work places t. thought. The screw holes were added during the cutting and bending. however.he Design Museum. JiB the JUnction of ps.nterest. the chair was already very precise: the ma. Their creativity lies not in technical or t.ly commiSsioned by EugeniO Perazza. They have the ability to reinvent tradJtlonaJ.ha. BTEELWOOD CHAIR / .rt. comfort.n examtna.kes on a pattns..hen t.. The brothers were taken to a st. Ronan a. founder of t.S in wooden objects is the most complex element.magtsdestgn.o collapse and tra. The Bouroullecs a.a.lla. making the flnal result as close &a possible to the last. London (2002) .he ftn1shlng of the wood.hem at t.rt. Their functional a. nine tools gradually curve and shear the metal In sequence.eJ and wood used in more-or-Iess equal proportIons.a. The only ha. the brothel'S' work is multHUnct. with met. all their pieces appear to have In common Is a concern with the needs of today's consumer.com .s of the cha.oom/ www.metre..etaJ. and It was !. Since their d1soovery in 1997 by G1ullo Gappell1n1. and the wood wears. What appears to be a simple form Is the reSUlt of & series of complex deformations. and the Algue modular clipping system (which snaps Into place without toolS to create walls that can be constructed and deoonstructed following the various life ch.hs Mass-manufactured www.re hesitant to define their style.nd involvement W&8 in the assembly of metal a.nd wcOOen parts and t.t.tion. The design was developed t.l prototype were produoed. tha. the end versIon correct.bouroullec. but in a. wtt. who in turn has championed the paJr from the begtnntng.50 / .nd then shaped using a numerical m1lllng machine.n ma. The Steelwood ch&1r was ortg1nal.ed to think. st.t the unIts were produced at.h&t they sta.n Interna.ing them In a way that Is paculla. Manufacturer: Ka4is SpA Steel plate.echnoIOgle&llnnovation. t.nsport. In Los An8eles (2004) . what.mped met.t. who request. and ftnish . practical way to create private sleeping space in open-plan apartments) to the Joyn offtoe system (consiSt. of a more mixed chair.he eponymous Ita.he forefront of contemporary desIgn.nt. mllllmet.s would result.. set. t.re great admIrers of British designer Jasper Morrison..J. beech H: 75cm (29 'A1in) x W: 65cm (21 Wiin) x 0 : 40cm ( 15~Un) DesIgn to ma.nuf&Ct\l1'8: 29 mont.mptng factory.s. weldIng was carried out by robot.nd Erwa.nd maJor solo exhibitions at t.ERWAN BOUROULLEC . would have a long shelf-life and t. to get.eJ part.quettes. 3D modelling and the creation of CAD drawings using Rhinooeros® to glve concrete shape to the drawtngs and refine the form and assemblage point.s. In a relatively cheap ch&1r. of sketches..tr.lng In1LIaJ drawing process. The pair then reverted to modelling and dr&wtng to examine det&lls of shape. the Museum of Contemporary Art.mplng factory created the moulds. but.lonal and conceived to be adapted and personalized by the consumer. They wanted to create a piece t.ota.1med at.tng of broad. Alter a long and I.n Bouroulleo have built up a.h a monograph publ.nd disclpUned with a real spirit and poetry'.nufactU1"1ng company.tlon of the peripatetic and flexible living requirements of modern SOCiety.a. The construction of prototypes helped in the understanding of proportions and the physical aspeot.hrOugh sketches. Eight suooesslve versions of the ftna.raJ. From the Lit Clos (a modern.re by mUli. Flnally. with a plastic ch&1r but.lr.anges of the inhabitants). descrlbing their work as 'thoughtJ'ul a. communal deSkS t.. prototyptng and rendering stages were a.gbtlorward 8t.he owner of manuf&Ct\l1'8r Magis. The brothers a.P. In t.ed an inexpensive wooden chair with simple Joints in pressed m. Once set up. Perazza. a. and the InItlaJ tooling Investment was high..l.rly appropriate to our generation. the level of mech&n1Zation of the prooess mea. a new set of CAD files was developed from which the st. These were then modU'led.hroughouL the years increase in character as the metal ta.

wooden seat with J)t'eS8ed metal junctions. The IIcW'oulIeCI brothers developed the OODOept uslng wood and IIIII\&I ln .oelwooct chair wu for &.slon for the St. .!m1lar proportlOllB.The orIglnal OOmm1s.

The m08~ oompllcated aspect of the deelgn was to make the final curves resemble t. Md incising the holes for the screws. in sequence. 16-19.8 the assemblJ of the wood and metal p&N. the ftrst. of the mould (13). to cel't.I prototype were produced and modlfted.aser-cu~ the shape of the metal back.nce Md load·bearing. . from lnJtlal steel plate to rtna.P.er a long and det&UecI draw1n( ltage. was the use of the mater1&l.:1eI1ng8 • bowing how the metal and wooden parte were intended to slot. The lateral windowt are curved .raJ part.ted.om part of mould (1 4) . Presa housln8 the mould for .o attach the steel1n the tool ( 12). to carry weight.he or1glna. In total. Bot. 15-16. 12-14 .t.I form . 17. ~.eelwood eha1r 18 hJ4hl.e re. and t. A1t.oe.. 26-26. nine tools were developed to gradually bend. The onlY lwId involvement \. El4ht .y mechan1. to help undel':!lta. Into p\a.: the result. .tnoar.y as possible in .lon or the steel sheet depended on Its ability 1Ul4le' after folding. curve and J.plte of the UmIt.MIn the the proportJona and the pby. vary Uttle from the end rel\llt. and the tmlahing.lata. 27.RONAN 1-'3. 9-10. ~ ERWAN BOUROULLEC . Mould to fold Ute central ~.nd 1 2 3 J 4 5 6 Ii 7 u 6 . 20-22. FE Me 366 wt~ a tbJcltnes • or 20/ 10. of the rtna.8 of ~he rabMca~lon process. the ReS8&I'Cb Md Development Centre. Mould to !. A seMea or prototypeS was developed in plastic and wood (7 ). I 1. • ketehe.leaI aspecta of the cha1r. Top pal't. and met&l and wood (6). Mould to shoar the lateral windows. Mould for coining the peMmeter and oent..l drawinga as closeJ. The Hlect. 7-8..UOOIIulve verelon..hearing the flattened metal sheet. Computer ren.62 I . The production of the St. 23-24 .. The t\n&I was then tested by CATAB. Mould to fold the perimeter and oentral part.. STEELWOOD CHAIR I .

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ged interna. To many design purists . However.a oountry that ha. Brlzlo's most thought-provoking prqJect...ga. For over 8.mlntng as It does OlateMaJ behaviour and production processes. The Vtagem tableware IS probably Brlzlo instructed the potter to create the deslgns. In hundreds of stacked steel discs. VLAOEM TABLEWARE I . The concept was inspired by the collapse of a birthday cake In the back of Brtzlo's car while he was driving to a party. Milslca wa.rchitects to undertAke commissions in the country: Rem Koolha.a. e:xa.s completed in spring 2006. As the Jeep travelled over the tortuous terrain. call1ng on collective expeMence and humour. rebirth. dB. Today. morphing under the speed and bra.l1 extI'8. the 09nt. The young designers of today are the first generation to grow up without fear of repl'SSSion. All thIS activity helps to focus international attention on a country that lies on the western border of Europe with Its back to Its dominant neighbour.J.s. and the bullding and tnfra. sl. he 18 the key figure In the PortugUese product design scene.s selected. these are designers with an intellectual curlOslty.P. BrlZlo's Sound SysteOl l&mp and Jar recl'68.m1le.1ll in work that examines how objects interact with one another and with the user on both a functional and emotional level. series of drawtngs that outline the generic shape of pots.pt .ura..zed earthenware piece.s BrlZlo's response to the ugly sta.s born In Angola.1n that a leaking fountain pen left on hIs trouser pocket.nza.l1y unheard of ten years ago.ted by the words 'lamp' and 'Jar' as they are recorded Into a sclentifte Instrument of sound measurement. but unique to the latter material IS the fact that. of Portuguese pa. Taking an ungI.tlonal a.64 I .. LLsbon 1B one of the top weekAnd dARtlnatlon. Brlzlo chose to develop his concept In the city of CaJdas d. The poUtical isolation imposed by the fascist Sala. decade.t function and in forms that are never far from their archetype. characterized by inventiveness and sensitivity.te.n.re defined by a moment of serendJplty: In the Vtagem series the unpredictable informs the aesthetic..a Ra.l IS heated.red.gn. this oversimplif1ca.r colour and texture to porcel&ln.rrative and shared memory in items tha.tes were tested before porcelain wa.r regime was lifted following the Sweet Revolution of 1974. Droog Desl. and with a freshness born from the fact that the disCipline was virtua. having a.tlon would Ignore the way in which he mixes ingenuity and technical sk.k1ng of the vehicle. the pieces were shaped and took on the lmpresslons of every curve and bump. ce. Clay performs In much the same way.va.pturing the ksJeldoscoplc effect for ever. FERNANDO BRIZIO .. the physlca.re of a cult.. Bapttsta. Most of Brlzlo's pieces a. Fernando BrtzlO wa..1nha. Using 8. any attempt to correct irregularity pMor to firing is useless as the defect returns when the mateMa. His earUer Patnting with Giotto bowl wa.rttsa. Sp&1n.Mng a passing resembl&nce to some of the more refined pieces by the h1ghly conceptual Dutch oollectlve.s's ca.structure regeneration that led up to the footba. his work &Iso bea. Brlzlo's work might appeal' too close to that of the a.rents and came to Portugal followtng the revolution.!l. &long wtth Miguel Vle1r8.s untU relatively recently been on the edge looking out. Br1zlo combines na. Portugal has been at. capturing for ever the memory or their creation. ProducUon: Fernando BrUdo Porcelain Varlous dimensions Design to production: 7 months Limited batch fernandobr1z1o@cllZ. and Frank Gehry's Parque Mayer theatre complex Is currently on site. of Euro 2004 ha.cecl in the back of a jeep and taken on a Journey. he attached 95 felt-tipped pens to the rlm of the bow I and let them leak their colours Into the porous limestone. not only for Its wealth of good ceramic workshops but because the area 1B Mch in the choice of both urban and rur&l paths and roads. Several types of ceramic w1th different drying ra.. and facing the Atlantic . The raw vessels were pla. The pots were then removed and f!.za.sa. bottles and water containers.s encoura.I shape of the sound waves geneI'8.

• For the Vlagem tableware. poroela.ln was selected over other cera.m1cs such aa cla.y or stoneware because of Its abWty to embody memory .

.. FERNANDO BRIZIO .56 / . VIAOEM TABLEWARE I .P.. ...

sn on a journey. which recreated.he words 'lamp' and 'jar' as they were recorded into a scienUflc lnst. The Painting wl!. In dozens of 8t.l'U\'tlent or sound measurtlmen~ a porous limestone bowl.oed In !.heir oolour8 Into or vases. 10. steel dlscs.acklld. 3. wb. 6-9.a. The city of CaldAa cl& Ra.be &I"ClIetyp1oal SMpM bowl (2006). The Sound System lamp and Jar ( 2003) ( 12-13) Is another interesting early Pl'Qlect.ched !.h OIotto CUe plloed In the b&ck of rtmando amICI's ca. an earlier work.1ch recorded every c\u"vs and bump of !.I The lnBpil'aUOn for the VIIgIm t. ( I I ). The ilE'nsr\c forma weNt liven p~1oI.r.. The kalsldosooplc effect 18 PNt88rved for ever. The deformed pota.k. !.n 11 13 .1nha was chosen no~ only for Ita oera.he physJcal shape of the sound waves generated by !.he Journey.&blew&re was !he ooil&ple 0( a birthd&y 4-6. was created by a.uowing 96 felHlpped pene to bleed !. bowll &nd boWes. 11-13. The tTe8h vessels weNt pJa.mlc workllhops bu~ because of the varted terraln that surrounds It.hs back of a JII8P and t. 6-7.l form by a ~ In pol'Olll&l. WSNt Ntmoved and ftred. 2 8t1zlO altet.

Both are sanded smooth using a. and the toner Is lined.ct. Work1n8 with models. MoJ"080.ymade Projects Pa.t.y expresses the mateMaJ quallty of the alum1D1um. stools and tables and brushed evenly untll dry.STEPHEN BURKS . woven fibregIa.per.rchit.m.de range of outdoor 'paper' fUrnIture compriSe elements of the sa.yed with a rubberized (soft-touch) pa. . Both the m&8S-ma. Hand sketches are always part..P. Early prototypes were created.ngtble.ce.ctured. Pa.nuf&eture.rea. His formal.terlals to make this possible.. .me body of resea. a range of outdoor fUrntture. epoxy resin.h&t subtl.1nt ftnjsh t. foamboard sheet. t. Handma. The nat tM.e of Technology before tra. cleaner weld. mea.1s. He has been the only AfMC&Il-Amerlca.med1&tely to 3D. hand-held rotational sander. more organic finlsh to better reflect the tnltial Idea and bring out the aBsthetic of the ma.y's design SChools. It can be touched and a.r1ous dimensions Design to manufacture: work in progress Prototypes www. WIth woven fibregIass to add strength.echnJcaJ. a lot of work was carried out by hand In the fa.nal pieces.ecture a.bebltal.dymadeprojects.s to onJ. of the way Burks works.ter control and a thinner. Boffi and now B&!B lta. styllst and more interested In how things are crafted and In ma.tteI'llS cut from Sm.ly formed aluminium . brake-formed In three places and oontlnuously TIO (tungsten inert g&s)-welded along one sea. whJch included some shapes that were impossible to create In brake·formed alu. Several ooats are applled to the outside surfa.rt nesting tables e.S8 ! .erlal into the shape of the die and is then further formed at an angIe deteMIlined by the operator) . and Peru to collaborate with 10C&l craftspeople to create objects to be marketed worldwide and unite the contemporary design world with the develOping world.rtng processes.ctu. in 1997 and has collaborated With m~or European manufacturers: C&ppelllnl.S and the open edge welded with hot glue.sercut nat sheets of 4m.nufa. and to achieve a. Covo.nufa.r patteI'llS were develOped to be cut.n non-profit Aid To Artisans in collaboration with home accessories ma.r10UB dimensions Design to manufacture: 11 months M~8 -Ill&IluflM:W.ndmade.roh that sees Stephen Burks experiment With ways of fOlding flat patteI'llS to achleve pyramidal structures . Be uses Form Z and Rhlnoceros®. The P&l't collection of nesting tables was oommlSsloned on the basis of }:10 scale study models .com! www.' he says. epoxy resin IS poured on to the chairs.ns of understanding proportion and us&bWty. but as brake-foPmlng alumInium 18 an unforg1v~ process (the metal Is bent over a large tool forclng the sheet ma.lled h&nd drawtngs and oomputer drawings th&t a..y at full sca.m (lI&ln) foamboa. whlch. The or1g1nal concept wa. prefer&bl.lla.notta. . and Mgorous tr&ln. as are deta. Be formed his own company. are not concentrated on enough In toda.. Burks studied a. Burks used these modelS as a means to explore the posslb1l1ty of a paper furniture collection that would allow him to work Without the limitations Imposed by Industr1al. PAI~T TAI3LES Manufacturer: B&B Italia SpA STEI'HEN IllJIlKS Alum1n1um. the former as a.nsferr1Dg to the product design programme.a. beC&use It's ta. The pleces were then cleaned and spra.nd the Handma.tn1um.re printed out In full scale and then drawn over and corrected. AdditionallY.rd sheets that are then creased and folded into threedimensional forIll.ss Va. to the engineers.le. Readymade Projects.y use paper. 'I think everyone responds more 1m. The p1'Qject was made from la.. from which he graduated in 1992.ngul. sketching tool to make ffiustrative models and the latter for fin&l models and to translate t.lySed as a. Burks Is currently experimenting with additive ma.the most efficient form of support. Missonl.m (Veln)-thick alumtn1um to llm1t the weight of the fl. PART TABLES I HANDMADE FURNITURE ! . At the time of going to press.ments.1t . he la. data.ng m&kes him less of a.nufa. Is formed from nat pa. real thing..a.l'ttIJ HANDMADE F LJ I~ NIT LJ I~ E STEI'HEN IllJllKS Production: Read.hrough his work with the AmeMca.m on the underside of the part.cturer Artecnles.de was lnSplred by study models left over from the P&l't tables.t the lliInolS Institu!. Za. Ba. Is CI'ltical to Burks' development process 80S a.l.na.n designer to work with these companies and has become a role model for young African-Americans In product destgn.lnt Va. soft-touch pa. be the fin&l mateMaJ. Even If It may not. this process allows for g:rea.ory to develop the col"l"OOt shapes and the prototyping phase was extended Into the ma. Burks has travelled to SOuth AfMes.teMaJ.

created In brake·formed alum1n1um. . ne9tJng tables (above) .) Ia a studio PI"QJeCt that was born f'I"om the mU9manufactured Part.The Handmade range of outdoor 'paper' I'Urniture ( len.

.I..he t.uentlAl 88M"".. PART TABLES! HANDMADE FURNITURE ! .----. . The son..te 'ketches.In 3D ill cMt...~\ \' ( 0. • . Prototype reeea. . .ern to brake-form the painted.. .rch1.. with 'oolta.ypu . • .. EarJ.I i:: ..n« on the side aea. The drat three prototypes t.. lIUJ'(aoe.< h. a:eet. ...luminlum. of Into the rea.j. a. . but e!\lOYs brlng1ng the otJject..not&t....welcled and pollsh.he J)068lb1l!ty of oloslng the edges TIO.s to test 6.. band-drawn.n. Whenever possible he worka In full scale to tl'8.g out the poeaible forma (or the PaJ1. TIlls needec1 to be rectJtled and a way of holding them In plaoe developed.l -- C3. .u.ed aket.--. . A prototype In the factory that haa been brake·formed. • ..aCtllIty 9 Later prototype wtth or rubber.ng t. . sheeta of a. STEPHEN BURKS . 3. ..l.-.t the edges were not. \ l--'.touch ftnizIh has t.~ a~" .2 A HQ. Workln. .ha...y sketch work1n.ms. Burka USM renders both ~e&8 In the atudlo and prefMIn' ~e&II to cl1enUl.. . ~ . {/ .rled to 1'II801ve the open edge onoe the aJum1n1um had been rolded. world throu4Ih models and prototypU.lDg properJ.!... 4 ....rdboard.. Models In ca. ! 2 . 6. . . l.tf ... A c108e-up of one of the protol.6D ! .lUl1a.. t&ChnJcaI drawtnga and rendel'1ngs. I.{Y . neatJn4 tables. 7 ...y...7 • .._'-.cbe8 working OUt the pe.hoWs t. .P.Ical for Burks.. 8. (j).

1t1ves to ma. T8chn1e&l dre.10 '!be Handmade . III far consI8tIn& of & chair 11 12 13 ' '---~ ~ .hoWI ..t.ni With add.a. .ke t. 1e to produce outdoor t'urniture In paper.ble Insp1rec1 by Pan A IWICSIW for .s cut (l~16) I~ Ia creued (17) and then folded (18) Into t.o _lop th1I 8hape In brak&fI:Irmed alum1n.wtngs or the pe.mbo&rd I.he open edge was welded with hot glue (19). of B3PB. the foambo&rd for each. 18 bruahed Into an even coat Handmacle II an until dry several ooata are appUed to both surflDM ( 20 )_ ~ I'IIMratl prq)ect.".1dN UI&t &lope inwards.lmenslon&l rorma and !.hree-d.h18 poulble.mentJ. Despite U!t IoW!ruoal IIOphlsUoaUon ~ 11'11 (13).. Burks 18 CUl'rently experl. & stool (12) and a t. Once the foe. 16-20.u.ems uaed to cut. The outer and inner surfaoes are oovered In epoxy resin th&I. B\1tU wu unable r.lWll_ 1l-1~ 14 The go&! or tM prqject.udlo (1 ).

he RoyaJ College of Art. because ot us but. His mind is forever enquiring and It.t. normally you're very fast.allurgy. Choosing PVC for Its glossy finish. 'How do we know that. In cla. with LEns that are programmed to be on. wh&t.. Rome and In Europe up to the end of the 19t.6<1 were cooled With eJr or cold water to create undulating shapes.n electric current. found on ceramics formed..nd be influenced to create a simple vase ot water that is transformed toto a light SOUJ'CS when a flower Is Inserted? ( Bulb.? (Bombay Sapphire.hat.uk ..1r 2007). small st. and fused. ) He asks himself the questJon.ng effect slmll&r to that.) Who would think of lnvisIble mes&a.l. at which point the melt..t. . As the tube began to expand. as sculpture: a.an08S that are easier to handle: PVC. pieces all explore the beauty and emotional qualities of light. when charged With a. Cocksedge st. nor is he turn1ng base metal toto goll1. It.eMals a.u of natuI'&l ga.ely mag1ca. coloured p&t. Who would look at a leaf.. the interiors coated with PVC pa1n~ to prevent light.. to sWitch on a light. that.n manufacturer of luxury e. 18 poetic a.sslce. InvastJgat. feel like a mentor to hIm . explores the ooncept or l1gh.ed with llght. the It&Ua.udio In London.cant. he wanted to blow biB own deSign. teaching 18 t. That.J'y. one end IUld blown Into at the other using a compressor. London.Mous Deslgn to manUfacture: 9 monthS LImIted edItion lnfoCtpauloocksedge.be ea. 1s made In plastJc but looks like oeramlc.rUest. are flOoded by vivid colour (NeON. Por him.nd goes far beyond a simple Wumlnatlog component.tual1sm.nd prOOuces not only a doodle but a way to connect two points of a ctrcuJt. ) Cocksedge sketches With a pencU a.1s work. spUl1ng through the structure's sides. But.stlc. Inspires b. Once the des1r'8d form was reached. The tubes were then cut. we see is all that. t. llght.co. and. 10 spite of us. but. 18 now being practiSed in 8. be reminded of a ctrcuJt board a.s. to Murano to study the techniques of the master craftsmen and was so Insp1r'8d that. 18 sensitive to lnfl'&red llght.nd heated It. Knowing the main component. exists?' ana uses the 'eye' or the mobUe phone or dlgltaJ camera. Cocksedge's latest work.UIms on to WILliS .absolutely notl The thing about. LIGHT AS AIR LAMPS I .ccessories. or by mouth. (Watt.he power to do Is t. during the MUan Fu. yet.nt.ransform the quoUd18. These were pinched ana sealed at. but. on a potter's wheel.rology and sp1rl. to see what would happen If he used gJass. and unstoppable not.ed other granular SUbst. polypropylene and ABa.ypecast.62 I .ury: it. met. Production: Paul Coclued4e PVC plastio L1ght source: LED H : 26-9Ocm (lO IAo-35lhIn) x DI&: va. Th.n toto something precious and compIet. He travelled. is shone on to It. biB most. slgn11l. examples we've had of someone who was plucked from the anonymous world of Industrial design toto being the author of hlS own work. I don't. appears to breathe. the ends were gent. was pushed through a metaJ rtng to meJte tubes. Cocksedge then InvestJga. PAUL COCKSEDGE . what.a that. This would have been impossIble as the level of expertiSe 18 so great it. Paul Cocksedge may not be In search of the elixir of life.l. who has S&1d : 'Paul is one of the best. physics.nd processes rarely &8socl&t.'s !.l Greece and.udents. ast.mp from gln IUld tonIc that glows an unearthly blue when UV light.1on of nMural phenomena and combines elemants of chem1St. I think some people are bMllla. ) A lightning bolt causes him to dream up glass tubes ru.. a. to allow us to gllmpse the world like a reptUe that. he has t. or glass to be sand.rn1ture Fe. Each Ught can be Swivelled to cast. In the ancient. unlllte us. When they reached thelr melting temperature they became soft.. and fln&Uy attached to metal bases by way of a simple kettle connector.'s his fa. e ooncept was born from Cocksedge's desire to mue something In glass. to claim credit for successful st. under Ron Arad. the areas to rem8Jn defiat.udled product design at. by hand to cause a horiZOntal Mppl.h cent. lamp that Is formed by gIass-blowtng methods.P. in daylight appear translucent. world. off or to gradually fade and bMghten. (lru.ma. was prevaJent..taJlation for Trussardi. takes a lIfetime to perfect.' CockSedge refuses to be t. L1ght as Air.ges written In Quinlne and then roue a 1.k1ng processes on pla.he case With Paul. he placed the bead into a metal pot.ly compressed. exerting approximately 147 psi (pounds pel' square Inch). Alchemy refers to t.t.scln&tlon with ma.

as sculpture. pe..hBy 0I.The I.8t. .UBrna on t.hII wall. 88 t. magIo&J coloured.Jght 88 Air lampe Invesugate U(ht.

. 6 5 .84 / ..... PAUL COCKBEDGI!:' . LIOBT AS AIR LAMPS / .P.

. ... and fused. A small light.ug ao &w-nlld .cbM on a liliiii WIl at the bue or vase -""""" tbAtllllXlJllCUllhed whm 1bI &lowII' dial or \I recoved 8. Bom~ Sapphire (2004) uses t... PVC bead was hea.J1elU'.Jb.hers are grouped as famUles. &-e.t. They are prodUOlld by oompreutng t..he tube gently by hand !'rom each end ~ I O. TbllIlAptratlon b!hInd aU IIf Paul CockleCS.. They ask ed Cocksedge for a new piece -~ .e a mysterious blus ( 3). NeoN (2003) oonslsta of hand-made glass v_is fUJed with natural guo In dayllght.Itlon of an electMoaJ ch&rge produoee vMd and atrIk1ng COWl'S In the dark They '""' InIplred by the adenlJ1lc expl&naUon of llght.e.ed.be natural properties of qu1nlne A bu. One end was cJoeed and the tube was then blown. .h ~ p!"CIJIIf'tIM The IU!:Ul . or eVi!IIl lUll 2000'. Llght as AIr began as a commlsalon I'rom the flablh Haf(e Gallery.. 1'h8 tube was cut Into lrregul&r shapes and h&l8ht. br\nIII ~ tled. (2)..lfs work 1& till CIIrtOI!I. P&ul tIIlW1I U.n1ng ( 4). Bome remaln Ind1vldual.ranaluoent. but the add.. alllllil.. Is slmllar to the horlzont&l oontow'S f ound on ceramic pota cast on a pot.. (1771 ) by J OIIeph or work that would form a range of unique ~ A1\er atud.l of gin and toruo Ia IUBpellded. 8O\lI'Oe at the top of the Iphere sh1nee UV llght on to t. Cock. wheel. ot. and IIWIt.ssbk»rlng t.t.dor tor the 1IiIIUEIty. 0I"Iilnar)' Into """bJnC ~and _IlIA. These are InltJal sketches 7.IgIJL.y about..er's . FInIShed single and group of vases st&ndlng on Lhelr ba&es.6ecIIe cklcldac1 on a seNe! of lamps blown In PVC.alner f\... then made Into a l60cm (Sf\) tube.ytng t. wtuob. m&tocIrI&ls IDd pI'CiCIieSa DOt nonnaJl..he g1a. they are t.ah&ped oont... The rippling effect. lJater and bIw 10 Cf'MII! • \amp wtt.. whklh glo.u .y wltb 1. In a glass Iphere.Il.ech!Uques or Murano cr&ttsmen.he Uqll1d.

rs later. The body of t. From the beginn1n8. The test carried out with water and air was undertaken to Check the tap dId not oontaln micro holes In the internal pa.s at the Balon Ba. After some dellberatlon.n1 presented sketches and computer drawings to [8 Rublnetterie.' ReoognJ.ctured www.lbrubinetterle. Da. as the object Itself' reflects the democracy of his own work.cted with the user. while another verlftes the seal of every appa.. Me.n Furniture P'&1r and asked him to design a sertes of taps for them.n1 was so enthused that he began to SCribble down his 1nlttal thoughts on the front and back of his metro ticket. with many tests and s1mu1&tlons being underta.1r t.. Rough sketches of early solutions were followed by a raw working model us!n8 an industrial plastic pipe a.pproach.ratus. LORENZO DAMIANI .ys of both hot a.be tap Is made of moulded brass.phy.nI was mainly attracted to furniture and let the opporrun1ty pass.n a different wa:y . The simple and sober sha.tt . Th1B lnBuI&tes the water from the brass body of the mlxer as well as regula.tlOn pipe a. could make you guess how an obJect might be destgned I. '1 usually buy cheap and functional objects. a mOCk· up was constructed in epoxy resin by mea. he struck on the concept of a Joystick.nI in 2002 when he was exhibiting pI'QIect.llza.gner and manuf&eturer oollaborated In the Inlttal operative phase. Each unit was lnBpected.ly conta. when he was approached a seoond t1me durtng the Fa.oet/ www.ss·manufa. In a recent. but It was only when he showed them the 3D vtsua. interview Lorenzo Damla. fully functional result.tlng the flow.ch1nes were spec1aJ.noeuvred llke a JoystiCk: up a. be was ready to undel"t&ke the task.the former with the pipe cut obliquely. mounted on a wooden support and operated by straJ. Trial and eM'Or eventu&ily determlned flow and temperature control..nd turned on t. with all the Internal oomponents In pl&oe. However.nd down to open the flow and from left to right to Cha.nal.g8.6e I .: 40cm (1 5341n) Design to manufacture: 18 months M a. the desl.. Rublnetterle.m1a. DamlanllnBerted a gum 1rt1.m1a.tltudes and a.p. It.rbona. Following his first meeting with the owner of [8 Rubinetterle.he water flow.m1a. Everything Is reduced to Its essence In a perfect combination of flowing water and movement. Using stereollthogra. of design pieces.n1. new at..tlon t.lorenzods. one tests the t1me duration of t.nyth1ng t.ha.zlng thiS a..ly designed to test and analyse the successful functioning of the tap att.ghtrorward mechanlcal a.n.lonal1ty.m1a.tlon.te.. DamianI's idea was for a miXer that would be or OnlyOne belles Manufacturer: IB Rubinetterie SpA Chromed brass H : 195cm (78"'10) x D1a.nl was asked whether he buys a lot.nI's designs are cha. A second model was made of the whole tap.hree yea. 88 important.er a certaln number of cycles. televiSiOn.n emotional and cultural level.be same mould . s1mple actions.telllte during the M. IB slInple in both form and function. Da. The constant diameter of the round section and the gentle curvature allows easily handling. although understated. It was the first time he could determine whet. allows his projects to communicate with the user on a.&}y's leading manufacturer of kitchen and bathroom fitttngs . and the single hole mlxel' is ava-Uable In both cascade and aerator versiOns that are produced In t.coesslbUity and f'unct. ONLYONE BATHROOM MfXER I . An element Inserted from the front of the tap is made from lI\lectlon· moulded transparent and coloured poiyca.rtlCula.pe Its technical innovation.nge the thermal variation. oMg:l.s of rapid prototyplng to evaluate the volumetMc aesthetic and to study the water behaviour both inside the tap and during the exit phase. 'I ~h1nk a deslgner's work should be influenced by observation of what is going on in everyde.be water opening and closing the system. Dam1a. desl.tter cut perpendICUlar to the tap's generatrlx. The tap Is ma.nd oold water.hat.t they could appreciate how the obJect intera.her the water ran In a uniform manner from the spout and d1rectly 1oto the centre of the washbasin.cted Da. At that early stage in his career.gner of which Is not.ken to achieve a.m1a.racterlzed by their a.. His reply that.1la.ssagewa.nd adhesive tape.y life: the street. and the la. After the first demonstration. combined with an or1g1n&llty that. Da.

yOne can be eas1l.y manoeuvred.be t.Onl. up and down too turn tbft flDw on and orr and rrom side to aide to change t.emper&tllrtt. .

<1 . the sketchell. joystlck.IcaI df'a. ~ .l Jottings on the front &.a. annotated 1'8ndeI'1ng.a. A seMes of 6IlI'iy hand ( 7 ) usln« Infol"'m&t.ONLYONE BATHROOM MIXER I .-S "==" ~ J .ment.m1anJ m. wooden support.echn... 10.<" .lon from ba. a~ ...8 and from t. LORENZO DAMIANI. made from an Indwm1&l p1&lltlc pipe and adhealve tape and mounted on Ii. . . he bought on return from hill ftrIIt meeung with the owner of IB Rublnett.hat he llketobed on to workloS render1ng8..te In the same way 88 Ajoylltlok the movement of II. .ha.her 7-9. An 6IlI'iy model.t the tap should oper&.p.de f'urt...t.8 t. The form of the OnlyOna 3-6. 2 . was construoted &dJUBt.hroom mlxer Is b&8ed on drawn s ketches wor ked out Daml.w1ng5 ( 6-9).nl' s Ides t.. .6e I .erle. Lorenzo Daml$.nl's Wtl$. I . 3 r 6 6 . Da.nd back of the metro Uoke!.

• ." r ...-- .

electronically from Dean's studio in Llnoolnsb1re.8 ma. However. ..g oommerc1&l systems for the creation &Ild market. and. as It gave Sp1n1 and Dean confidence in using a new. loops with a round. a.t both designer and manufacturer a«reed t.ed so that.raru1 made up of repeated elementa t. oompeUng in price with tradlUona.ha. and Ita size and form dev1Sed to be Manufacturer: Kun4alini U'1 La.Jy..l's Pb1l0S0Ph. flower-like head. The lamp was designed to SUit.: 120m (4 ~ in) Design to m. the fleXible nylon sphere would not. the time the t. Although pioneering t.ured. deform under pressure.ss and oeramlc from desIgn·led manufacturers. mUestone to d1g1t. as his tnsplrat. giving an appropr1&te feeung of permanenoe and Quality.ha.yping.s that. lees freQuent.s Dea. or tradiUOnal met.fUt. and is mass· manufa.ll.. We want.hoda and materials in 8.ct. It was & yea. the founder and Creative Director of Kundallnl. At. ready for Kundalinl to use oommsrc1a.l1zed product. This wa.lve desigD at.r later t. of desigD for manufacture with repeats and p&t. Ta.ln. level of light. maxlm1z1ng the potent1al of the rapld-prototyplng mat:h1ne to create 8.ha.ctured product.teMlS.alln.hs.orles in 2002.y manufa.he usual mathemat.1ng processes.lly.. they are either one-off or llmJ.ime of going to press.o assess on screen.cterlzed by an attent.l form In product. giving no clue as to how Ule llgbt.echn1que had developed sufftclently to proceed.lca.1ll that.be first. marks a.be prototyplng technlque of select.J.er. up Fut. the Royal College of Art.t the economIcally viable and exploit. other t.mp is the first. the t. research1n.lon pieces. appeared sparse and the whole made thinner to lmprove Its translucency.ha.. This was fundamental to the suoosss of t.rametMc computer models.s using 3D prlnt.t.bs.P.ureFact.orles.lrundallnl.sed llnks were creat..y raptd·pl"Otot.ha. during London Design Week in 2004 .a. .nutacture: 3 \011 m ont.n's work and they d1scussed the posslbWty of ooll&borat. by a reoogn1zed oompa.Og (SLB) in a.l form developed with the aJd of a comput.s were msde between t.rop18.rlguin( sphere defy oomprehenslon. Dean studJed automot.al manufa.n. dl!fuslon was achieved.y &cuustment.. was designed or made.a. These were used as templates from which the elements of Entropia were generated t. It was not interested in producing & llgbt that. EOS.. Dean and Oregorto Splnt.&t. oorroot. thiS small ta.ededJt.h1s lnt.lt!ng brain ooral there are ma.70 / .lve laser slnterl.he form had been refined. selecting A1las for Ita h1gbend surface-modelling capabWt1es.urefact. is a continuous Interwoven st.Y is cbare.ructure based on degrees of freedom rather t. Bpl. prototype and the ftn&l design. to develop a sr.a.lon given phystca. periodically swell and flatten to form 'leaves' and. ftles were sent.8 aware of D&a. DEAN .ed to explore a new Iangu.ecbnology. iterat.n.ly. to It. The irregular chaotic &M'angement of the Interwoven mesh of leaves and flowers was d1fflcult t. relauvely unproven t. giving the lmpression of natural growth. first. and set.t.echnoIogy was not.he prqJect. where the prototypes were developed. The concept. EntroDIa became achievable by employing t. UK. oontemporary way. but the viSual mass had to be euch t. LIONEL T. Ma.lon to sensation and emot. a well-known manufacturer of rapld·prototyplng machinery. the potential of t.. in low volume. was brought into the experiment.ion and gentle mutatiOn.lon.&ke up t. oould not reach the mass market. Sp1n1's brief to Dean was to embrace the oomplexlty that the technology ILf'forded and not to Simply follow t.t.be technology. The structure required integrity.n absolute dlmensiOnal values. 'The language being used wa.lll W8. ENTROPlA LIGHT / . Kund. The oomplex and amorphOus shapes t. the prooeee at rapid protot.ha Maas-manufactured www.he market.8 possible in one bulld. flat.b. met..a.s IInport. Ent. bureau.lt.oturtng.t. London.ing of lndlvtdua..1c product.ser·sintered polyamide LIght. albeit..brougb oonst&nt. The leaves were made denser in areas t. Llonel T. ret&1l desigD plaoed on t. use innovaUve technologies. souroe: 09 halogen lamp D18. lncrea.1ng on a d1g1ta1l. m.ny unIts 8. Once t.nt for a plast. production capacity.' oomment.yped deatgna in the public dom. Tbe features were defined by pa.age of form and pusb the technology to Ita l1m1ta.s st. Dean worked direotly in CAD.com/ www. .n.ly manufactured artefacta in materials such &8 band-blown gl. at.n 8.ny.

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he fol"JM.c:h1ne at. 6. Knt. seema to b&ve evolved In a oompleteJ.ertng mo.hat.around the light aource for reuons of temperature 2. 0&Ch depleted In a dl1Torent oolour for Identilloa.l1Y ..ed.y1Jlllde It II . A oompute. • wu ~ \0 be the l1li* I!bI. by hand from the n.!\oW tbI ~ underlytng the funD.y and the 006t .he ftrst. work.. 7 Dee.e secuona can be creation of It ilaWJ"&l fonn !.ct"I!en.y10n Three tma«es show !. Th1e 1rireframe I.at.y was to maxlm1ze the poteJItJal of the . VarIoUs prot. In lull. pa. A oom~ spherIoal form rnetUU.pll!.. The d1f1Usef'lll are ut. the OII\I!I IIIded to be oomJ*:L ltd ~ dearaDoI ~ ~ ).\gn.pnerated render produced for vlsuallutJon wilen t.otypu .be dI!/II. DIgII&l manuracwre allows prototypeS to be devoloped b68ed on sect10ns of tho design !.he flower element and the morpt\1n& poeelblo wiLh1n It atUwt8CI In the development or the dealgn. lnoomplet.n was used to rapid-prototype the lamp Ul BLB n...t II a dII!Wr pf'OdUC*!. IIIISered pol."ay to vlsuallza the model on .be gu."s tho aasombJ.J Muon . 3.hat are oomplete.. .IdIng princIple In !he 12.. 'I'll1a bas been t. 4 The rendertng of the 0t'8t P6l't. organlo world.200 The nylon Is epread O. The 1Uer-slnt.tlon e.Inlertng machIne. N the design became progreulvel¥ more oompiell:.ylon powder.n&ntt.rate stMngs.tage.I&tII . A MCLlon Of !.rt buUt.a(e.y allen but.tlon of ~er 856 OUt of 1.he CAD dr8.hraugh \.ser burna the sitae of the dealgn.ra. tt.lons or simplY omitted..' De&n oommenla. I mIn before Ie&". the build ch&rnber oould be I'Illed to oape. IWlpenalon UII WIll v. . .ho pl"QleCt was at an advanced st. Pl'G:D an tI. bullt Ag&1n It 8ho. 8-10 The information oontalned In !. I I The beat ohaDo8 of commerdal viabllll.ma&e vlsu&Uy ~heIS the dl1Terent SU'1ngI in two colours. 13. OClmponerl. \ .lble.c!l.ropla'."ore m&de and the Le. I W:tefl'Ul' tm.n's InaplraLlon for the fonn came from br&ln ooral 'Q~Mo ISplni or Kundal1nIl wanted my ~ of 1n8plratlon to &how t.wtng8 produoed by Dea.. repl&oed with approxlm&t.y of sope. A cloee-up of !. became lncreaalngly (1lMcult to ftnd a . between the number of oomponenta oonlAlnecl wttllin It.va:labliin t.

s since coated them in copper to form an exclusive range from the d8ID.st they were CNG-cut on the surface for the finlsb and boles W6l'9 drUled for the tlUer guns. Since then. flexible.lr.blt.rbon footpl'int. Dixon's first intention was to cast. examine new appllcatlons of traditional materials and manufa.t the Festival's 100% East venue when they were put in touch with Tom DlX. It was decided to design a c:h8Jr. he has gone from design ma. developed.I\lected new life into wha..1ghtforward and workable. Va. Working from templates produced from t.ct. a protoOtype was form-cut With hot Wires from 8 saUd block of polystyrene. FInally.'7cm (32 ~ in) Design to manufa.8S were formula. It does not use CFCs. slides. cooled and ejected.a. design competition to be announced a. For the past three years. and manufa. design was rea. The parts were assembled using JOints at the four corners and then glued with hot-melt &dhesive for extra.t had become a moribund business.reer in the 1980s with the formation of Creative SaJvage.I\lected.ng Group.l so relevant for manufacture in many appllcatlons: It is llghtwelght but strong. for 8. for reasons of tlmlng and pra.net/ www. Early Sketches were inspired by the Iconic fan-backed wicker Cha.m.uk . Ma. a.he Group's englneers thIS was l'EIlected as being too difficult to produce In EPS.warded an OBE in 2000 and.a. small ca.zed the opportunity to lnfluence consumers and make good design ava. A CNC-cut plate was also made to a.ng design to the people and ra1Bing awareness of envlrOnment.esthetlc but more stra. Fifty pieces were set &BIde for Duon. It bas 8.l. who was looking for an Idea for the Traf~ar Square event.wtngs for a geodesic dome.a. EPB CHAIR I . who ha. prodUOB.J. before the flna.bl..eps.ctur1ng techniques.crure: 10 weekS Llmlted edition of 500 www . an event In which 600 pisces were to be g1ven away absolut.ocrattc oMgtnal. but in his oollabora. as Creative Director of Ha.ed ma.b'.. but a!ter d.a. .vef'1ck to p1l.aJgamation of the prevIous Ideas.1llng. To most. Tom DIXon began h1s ca.scusslons between Dixon and !. It is inert and innocuous. was born.1r in one piece. In addItion.a. The casts were deUvered to the factory . To showcase EPS.1ar of the oomrounlty.l.tlon with Habitat Dtxon recognI.he drawings. He was a. Today he has h1s own oompany productng a. and the bead l. oompany productng one-off sculptures and pieces of furniture from industrlal scrap. The Group wanted to make the design world aware of the properties that make this undep.rIous versions were then assessed. people.1lable to everyone.toOmdlXon.ely free.l1ow lnf'ormation about the event to be embossed on the seat of the Ch&Ir. providing stability in landftll.co. '74 I . the cha.y of DIXon's oolleagtles were surpr1sed when he entered the est..ched: an a.ctured withln a tlmeframe of ten weeks from ln1t1al sketches to batch production. It Is I 00% recyclable and. Dixon oame up with an assortment of Ideas.al ISsues. An economical product had to be designed. world Of ret. l. who made a resin model to design the reverse mOUld and sand-cast the alwntnlum male and femaJe tools. above &lI.tef'1a.P. Inoludlag clra. vents and ejector rods and pInS. . suitable for CNC-cutting and moulding and. EPa is Just a pa.. line of elega.lcallty. Spl1t lines and Jolnts were introduced to produce the c:h8Jr in two parts. In 2006.cturer.1shment.tJon with the EPS Pack.ckaglng mater1a.ges of working in expanded polystyl"Sne.ted using Pro E and dellvered toO the tooHnaker. heated (causing them to ruse together) . TOM DIXON . retatntng someth1ng of the ortg1nAl a. and the Idea for 'The Gra. he promoted the advant. cheap to Presentation drawings were sent from DIXon's office to the manufa. shock-absorbent. DIXon has taken over Trafalgar Square durlng the London Desl.n. the Group was working on the Idea. but this would have meant a heavy Investment in developing a mould with movable Manutacturer: The EPS Packaging Group Expanded polystyrene H: '73cm (28 ~ 1n) x W: 93cm (36 Ik ln) x D: 82. and the struts were Increased in size to augment the stability a. because Its composition is 98% air. safety.nt yet individual products that.. CAD draW1D. This was checked for funct10nallty and sent to DIXon toO sign off. who reftned them for production.gl.nd to facilitate the fUl1ng of the chalr With polystyrene bead.gn FesUval with the aim of bMngl.t.on. In collabora.explolt. Once the tools were ca.

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or lUI evolving s.. I . means that the chair's m&rks and deformatJoD.6kg (l2Ib).. (Prevtous page). 2-6.. The EPS Chair weighs 6 . The ch&I.esthetle..er1al. the ehalr ltaeif remalns strong and Ni\slllent. 50 grams per Utre. TOM DIXON . .. The inBp1ratlon for the InlU&! oonoept. EPS CHAlR I ..P. The density of the mat. was the loonle wicker cha1r with s. fan·shaped beck.r was lnst.8 beoome part.alled in Tra!&JSar Square during the London Design Fest. but.76 / ..1val In 2006.

. Ilned up and given .ystyrene oha1r haa given me the opportunlt.lme on or working In la.he London Design Fest.me UterallY. • clelJi!l8r get8 .lna·att.rge saUd volumes..lval at the lClO'lb E&8t. At lD~t..- . "!be Cb&1I' Grab'. 'IPS II. 01) • -- aooe.ke daslgn available to all: t. by giving away 21 llpembel" &00 cha1nI . The ch&1r WaB also exhIbited during t.y 100 ruuu &n ambltJon to m. I 009b free.mgbt and tot&lIy tII'Mt1Ie .' (Tom Dixon interview. 'IUm Dixon 86L aside 60 pl8008.he liemooratlo orlginal. ..y ICJ!I.I1IlIqIle amongst . It was used as the Ioon1o symbol to promote t.ahsolute\y. .y hunclreds or these chalJ"'8 to Londorun'S .. whlch he ooat8d to oopper to rorm an exclusive ra.ached.oame ftrst. lncnIdIbJ.nge from t.. f'lrst.. .. .. venue on the I!!PS ~ Group st.hls tJ. 9.M oompetltJon that invited !1eslgrulrs to enter oonoeptll for tnnovatIve products made to the material. ) 8 .. no-cha..a. Maklng a poJ.and... \IIlUIUIJ oppol'tUnlt..

' f 12 r-".. It was (orm-cu~ with hot.8. versions and retalned the wide..y.blllt. 10. Th1s was NIleoted for reasons of t. Serl. three-pleoe. design was for a ohAIr In two partS.rst.. In one pleoe. . ._. which refined them for manulacture. The orlglnal concept for thfI 2006 'l'r8!aJPr Square but It was too expensive and oompUcated to tool. EPS CHAIR I ..~--- 16 ~J . 1 1. The tmaJ.tme and pract. vertical spUt ( 12) . FInal drawtnga were sent to the EPS GrouP. TOM DIXON .howint varl.- I' .. Dixon dlAaUBslng the oonstruction of the prototype. spUt (13) . and three-plooeJlgse.81:1 of sketches I!.ous versions of thfI chair: two-pleoe. 18.1oaJlty..he former 19.. m&de from the dra. wires from a soUd block of polystyrene using temp\aWfl n.w (16-17).7B ! . two-~.he aasthet1cs of t.. This was an amaJg&mlUlon of event was a huge geodesic dome fash10ned f'rom EPS fa.. hOMzon~ t. lB " .. DiXon's 12-17. 10 11 <. horIZontal spUt ( 14--1 5 ) .cat. sketch was for a cha1r cast. encompassing back of the or!g1nal concept..P..wIngs..

. Poly8tjyt'ene bead was l!\Iect. 01 ftbrI!CIua IDd woocl.WingII . """" 2 4 A plaLe was aIao made 80 that. to 0001.aIe moulds are sand~ In lIlumlalum.y. The part.yered . a pf'OOllllll aooelerated by tbe lDt... The moukIla mounl. The paN were assembled uatnc joints at the four OOm8rB.roduoe bolee for ftller guns. The m&le . II p. 'n'Iey have been CNC-wt. produced In Pro J!. to h8&t them up and tuae them togIItiler.IJl.nd fem. . of the oh&1r .uro and the pe. . Information about the event could be embo69!ld on the seat. II) A _ _ 0( CAD dra.illed OUt to -.roducUon o f oold water running throug1:i t.. . and MftNd 10 !.. b -"" "model II n. . for ftn1sh and !..ed &ncl steam \. . 26-26.«!. NIID modeIla la. 27-29. vent.re @Cted ( 26).O lnt.rte a.O wlLhdl'aw CUlOOllS IIlQI.nLrochIoed. NJet. Ia allowed.be tool-mAker to """"- 2&-Bt5. Vacuum prM8UJ"e IB then used t.he press behind the mould.. They were glued wtth ~melt adhe8Ive for enra. . Onot the depth of IIIIINl needed 11 uosrtalned.a and ~r rods . in the preu (25).

a. leather or eJum.ls proved too compUe&ted to achieve. A gas (azote .ICkness. ha.rll.ys & week to meet the target. form of n1trogen) Is lrijected s1.er extensive stress-test1ng It was judged to be too unstable. block of hardened steel.1re mould with a. as if & thin skin had been dra.Uy turned down the conoept.000 per ye&r. The innov&t1on of F1rSt was to push the technology further by lrijectJ.. Eugenio Perazza.tJon in mind.dity.s-1rijected plastic cha.Bcm ( 30'hin) x W: 60cm (l9 ~ 1n) x D: 520m ( 20 'hin) Design to manufacture: 60 m o nths Mass-manufactured.1r moulded in two ma. In 1999 MagiS commiSsioned Giovannoni to design & steel ch&Ir made in two pa.1r.n1es began using the same technology to pI"Oduce gas-1rijected cba1rs.y Ntlected for being too heavy and too expensive to tool.f't.l. uniform.ny compa.BO / . Giovannoni then introduced &n ea.a.er.ooordlng to the pa.t are seen in other chairs. oosUy 1n1t1a. so each Of his designs begLn with t. des1gn. In the case of Be1l1n1's cha1r. but also into more complex volumes around the seat and back.nuous exchange between the designer and the manufacturer.llows for & J.rs before It was f1nalJ.ll t. for two yea.. www.a.Il' to utlllze tb1s technology was Me.lt.m.nufacture.r in one 1'1608.ysls progra.1n a. a.rI8J.ms (Abaqus for sta. Th1s unfortunately mOOe It lIDposslble to reta. The Cha1r First ga. rna. cont. It has only recenUy been adopted by the f'urnlture industry. to reduoe wetght and cost. The mould itself was ma. seven dB. then carefully refined in a. All Critical points of the ch&Ir were studied using atructuraJ.s: & met&l structure to form the b&ck a.r section of the leg led to compromLses in the surface Quallty and wetght.tn tlla glossy finish on the back surface.nd rea. Olov&ruloni developed the clla.1r for Mag1.Yna.mag1sdeslgn. a.1c load tests) .on from the mOuld.rUer proposaJ for & cha. . solution was to mould the ch&Ir In polypropylene with a.l outlay.terl&l combln.s in 2000. Followtng d1scusslons with the plastics suppUer It was decided to produoe the c.de from a.1r will be produced in & QU&Iltity of 100.STEPANO GIOVANNONI.ped over & chair fra. Gas-trijectlon mouldtng a.com .ulta.t1c load tests and ls-ct. but left the tubular form V1Blble. not only Into the empty tubula. The stru.d tnitt..stefanOgiovannOnl . ThIs allowed for a.a.atlons such as maklng the b&ck section in pla.l.h.neously with the plastk: to ma.. creatlng an empty structure within the Sha. textured ftn1sh to prevent sUpping.c\ded fibreg1.n1c form without.s entered waa optJmlzed.hJ'ee.k1ng products for mass ma.ng the gas. shiny ftnish and the seat. for dyn.chIevtng an eXQuisite aesthetic result.ngula. using gas-lrijectlon moulding. textured ftn1sh.h1S consldera.ce & rougher.l.a8s for rtgI.ight. the tria. Morrison's design optimlzed the section of the legs and structure.s' owner. was to give the back of the chair a. with the mould working around the clock.1n1um.noe between soUd plastic and hollow spa.na.me.terl&ls and &lthough Mag1. the ba.. he decided to go &he&d.s-1r\lectlon moulding has long been used in the automotive and electrorucs industries.self as an indust. Although ga. He Is prtma.1nt. After the A1r-Cha1r.pe of the cha.r sections. He worked on this Idea. Dlfferent plastic materl&ls were tested.y interested in rns. A clean JunctJon between the dl!ferent materla. surfa.m.cturaJ. dimensional orga.r1o Belllnl's Belllnl Cha1r for Heller in 199B.ctJ.l. Stefano Giovannoni describes hlnl. Glov&nnoni's inJt1&lldea. The first Cha.ate extra. despite a. but a. Manufacturer: Magia SpA Reinforced polypropylene H : 77 .P.r legs and & simple plastic sheet to create the se&t and front legs.haJ. hollow structure and. tilted a. and the lr\lect1on·mouldlng ma. CHAIR FIRST / ..Gtlc and the sheet in wood.cuusted until the right settlngS were found.rtJng Unes of the ch&1r to fa.lt/ www. more t. consistent wa. so in the end It was decided to treat the ent.rt. the complete cha.1r can be moulded QUickly and cheaply.1r's 3D form using A11a8/Wavefront software &nd experimented with v&rlOUS ma.oes where ga. The first prototype was made In polyamide.chine was a.cl. so he considered m&king the ch&Ir out of two pieces of plastic Instead.a. .. followed by Jasper Morrison's Aircha. the visible structures tha.

The ftnal Fa. .m1ly First seMes includes the mass-produced Chair First and Table First.

.utJc sheet. wu an earlier dllMllgn oonoept oombl. eepecl.() . . CHAIR FIRST I .P. simple pl. fbn:n the back and ree.y developed the 3D form for the present. ( 3 ). Th1a too wu at. 1.he seat.ualI.. The lnsp1rat./'UCtunl I. 4 .() Magis In t. STEFANO OlOVANNONl . whIch Giovannoni had preeented I..6 2 I .r legs and . 2-3. and rront legs (2).a metal 1'IIIected tor being too haavy and too expensive tJ:) tool.lon ror t. ror t. ch8Jr using A11a8/ WAverront.he mould rOI' the back part.be mld· J{i9Oa.a. . 8Ortwl!Ll"e. . Giovannoni event....n1ng two matel'lala.ll. The oonoept wu ~ In tavoW' of a IIlMI ch&lr made 10 two palU .he ChAir nrat.y !.

a 6.lc 3D d. lIS IItIIIbInaUon wlt.he oha1r to Improve t.. An.urII to prevent IUpplnS.er at. A cf'ON·seot. mould lhown here mounted In the press). 'Ibe 6. ldei..h /IIIan]\l. A prototype W&I developed In polyamide.. nub.ree8 te6t. leather or fOr WlIheet.I ~ were aeveloped Ia . ooolin«. and f&C1l1tat.y surl"aoe And the seat. was to give t.het.e 1lXtract.fi-tonne mould UI made (rom & b10ck or h&rdened It.he draf'I.echnlC&1 lAUlII aucb as dr&w. 10.IIIIl In male and female p&lU ( rema!. gas ch&nnels and pl&lt.he cb&Ir a ah1o. ~ mat. A m&Le11alll proved too .&t&.ab1e !'Or m&nuf""".!lCtul'll ~I pIutIQ bIck IIIICIoIon. the prototype was judged to be too unr. resolvln. to examine the cavil. 'Ibe mould was t. beLwtllln the 7."- _ .lon.)' created by !.t t..h1n the chair.Ion of the arst mouJdinf teat.lIUld aooordlng to \.he Iin&I ael!. . It took two monUUl to tool from t.lc flow 9 loI&le mould..he gas wtt.be back or \.he parting llnlll Dr \.lng.eMall Nt! u wood. 8. Otovannon1'. however. text.

ree.rospectJve.n unt.n Schrager. before him as a bluepr1nt. Karl I.l. with every Item a on&off.anelglusk&.he lessons learnt f'l'Om llCe is that everything has an antlt.ors' items.ned yet.1l he was sat.sp1ra. Btnoe than he has built up an int. releasing their forms from t. or a sculptor a chisel.k. the RIetveld Academy in Amst.com .. Oluska's work la unique. beech..n~ business 1nJtJa.Iture.n1sh that dIsplayed the natura. Ph1l. Design 18 no longer only about problem-solving but about expression and having pel'SOnallt.he body and to gl. wtt. and design Is as strsJgb. Be Is ooUected worldwtde.. Be keeps the fI. The intervening y8&l'S have seen a prodigious output.he famous Sw1as department store. re&llty. wbore the design and development.ve the surfaoe a defl.k. beHeving that beauty oemes from sUght. which he describes as f\J.ed the BUOOEtSS of designers who have transformed their oonoepts and protot.glehandedJ.Ippe Starck. In 2007 he was featured 1O their t.l!I notebook a!l. pausing.hrough his local park and..m. Donna Karen and !.y Oluska st1ll works lo !.ton for his pla. can be summed up in a few words.y sUll the piece most closely asSOCiated with Oluska e. where he oa.&Ct.s trunks with at least an 8Dem ( 31 ~ in) dlameter.tJon for the Long B Chair came to h1m while walking home one evening t.e. He had never used one before but lns1ats that It came na.. almos~ Lmperceptlble.h cllents includIng Ia. Toda. number of foreetel'3 who oont&ct b1m when they have SUitable timber aveJlable. He traJ.ry lo his furniture he uses measurements.elllte PrqJect.B4 I .y. chestnu~ and elm . Be workS only In European hardwood. One of t.1on'.I.yf'Ul.nd Its s1lbouet. He then &U. Nat.t.y he spent the remaining hours of the night laboriousJ.ther than any other masslve material lets his craftsmanship prevail and prevents his work sUpptng lOto gtmmJckry or parod. He underIlnes the importanos on the culture of design of 1ndIv1duals who etm make by hand and whose small but SlgnIfioa. In limlted-ed1t1on oollect. but he now has a.rtlat would a pencil. Olobus.hesis. s. lnhlbitlons. The result Is probabJ..en·yea. He launched himself on to the design world in the lat. that has securec1 Oluska a nlchs market. LmperfectJon. He used a saMea of ch1BeIs.agerfeld.bly. roughly hewn. a cha. reassessing ILJld carving &ga.rt1stlc f\lrn.! reputat. The fact that Oluska works in wood ra.er notebook with dra.y relies on his expert eye to create the shapes.nel Gluska's Long B Ob&1r is an otijoot.. 0&1< H : 70em (27 Y11 ln) x W: 65cm ( 741n) ( 21 ~ ln) x L: IBBcm Design to manufacture: 1 month One-off www. He need.. the offshoot of the Mlla.nat.w. N&t&nel Gluska was born in Israel and now Uves and works in Zurich. THE LONG B CHAIR I . can be shed.n's BaloneBateWt.y rolllng the trunk to his nearby studIo and the next.P.Ught. on dIBooverlng the felled trunk of a t.ypes into oommero1&l.1nS away. above &II sculptural o}:Uects.a: from lnoeptJon to Product.e 1990s courtesy of M1la. 'A Dream Come True . These are transported to his workShop by truck and crane. Toda.y.ked It with the chalnsaw. To keep symmet. whether creative or market-led. graduat. cut. TIlt! Lu.lnsa.n1sh as simple and natural as possible.1nS in Dne art in 19B9.s It appeal's. but f\J. The exhibition h1gh.lr that showcases the work of emerging t&lents. From a series of qulckly sketched forms that he kept. adding beeswax only to the pleoea intended for outdoor use. usually oa.e appears on his letterhead..hat would come lOto oon!.r ret.rd a..t.ndamenta. The technlque he uses to make this hybrid of art.U.l beauty of the m&terlAi used.erdB.. from inSpiration to production.tur&lly to him to be able to wield It the was an a.n Furnltu1'8 Fa. Olusks.w1ngs.ned at.ernations.y there Is a sltuatlon In the design world wbere the boundaries between art and design are blurrtng. rasps and abrasives to smooth the areas t.run.M'lss out his 60/ 60% commissioned and personal pieces.he soUd blocks of wood.tforwa. this Is a movement loOO which OIuska's work sits comIoI"t8.Balone8at.ac. Bln.ed wIth the result. ~ bought Production: Natane} Ohulu.. allowing for a freedom mlselng in mass product. Be fI.1on. ooarse fI. vis1JAU "ng the Iconic shape of an upholstered armchair. NATANEL GLUSKA . with t.1onal but.tlves have found suooess.he same way.lsfl.B. marked a rough outllne on the t.nct.

merc1al manufacture (left). . He ta now worktng on an alternative.ch.brag1aas that.. IIOUlpted from . for oom.N&JAne1 OIuaka fashions a hybrid of BCUlpture and f\1notJonal It.em from ona plOOll of wood (above). 1& intended. he attacks a virgin tree trunk wlth • cha1nsa.w (overleaf). solid block of Styrofoam 00&ted In !l. After the Initial aket.

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s a structure with a oomputermodelled skin. the stool would have to be gs.he chair. Be considers It a prlvilege to be able to work in this hands-on wa. game of chess where the master ~ not alwa. his prlnclpal approach l.ng It possible to produce s.'s moves. KON8TANTIN GROIC . Miura.Icker sect.ng method.rectl.ment to the geometry of the stool to add this tmport. It. very d1st. Orcl. needed to be hollow.Ynam1o stress stmulatJ. but.ght awa.s. the stool was st. correct. Orele Is an int. an alternatJve plastics engineer was found who malntslned he oould lr\Iect.cal1y safe. as viewing the CAD dr&wtngs was thought. d.pla. It or1glnaLes from a structural work.n) Design to manufacture: 30 months Mus· manufactured www. He oompares this stage to s. The computer came lnto the development process for mode111ng the complex free-form surfa.lona.s created that the stool was Judged top-hea. depending on what.. It was only once the full·slze model ws.s down considerably. Aft.s being tested.88 I .com/ www.ultlve designer. and where the design could lead. Software Ill&3 appear to model a form perfectly.s only when it Is viewed In I : I scale that physical problema become appa.hn1que needed fine a.sl. Although Orelo uses the computer almost.y.nk .atJ.ualJy suooeeded in cutting produotlon oost. prototype were not. Be then quickly produces I : 1 scale models in vaMous materials. He inltJally designs on the oomputer. It.on to !.er one year of development. to check proportion and then as ergonomic. of the MIura. was only alter creat1ng a built structure that.set of a project.rent.n. model he can assess U.y. me. ln1tla. stool without refeM'1ng to ch&1r_ONE.y to sort..nBform d1gital reality Into physical reality. was not conceived t.ln detaUs to h1s 88. It.s s. It. l.t.est that. alum1n1um and developed for Magis in 2003. the pl&stle soUd. . but It. . It. opportunity for Orele to take t.vy from a normal viewpoint.s for Miura..rol of h1s oppone[lt.a.ng oooUng. onos ~eoted from the mould.ccurs..s made of rapld-prototyping fac1UtJes .st.ra. risk as so muCh plastic. 'l'h1a would ha.lJy. After further consultation. Gro1c develops prototypes from an earlY stage. It Is the most. intrlguing stage for him.ces of using the computer in the design prooesa. first. a work that showed.t1n) x D: 83cm (211.s form and aesthetic strs.s not.hl. which he produced in d1e-cast. however.y. MIURA STOOL 1.rt. but geneMLlly as tools to expla.nt functional feature. The viewpoint on the screen tends to be rather low down and the modelllng seemed oka. l. While chalr_ONE l.. CAD data was fed d. serles of Ufeslze models of the stool. whether It has potent. The radIcal lr\IeotIon t. was deRned enough to enter tho produotton phase.ppro&Oh to the stool was therefore less pragmatJc and more sculptural.h1ngs one step further.it.s·lr\Iectlon moulded as the t. CAD fUes were forwarded to the structural engineers. they used a stress a. l. Onos he has made s. very aUght.nalysl.st&nt. the overa. or ps. but. lasersinterlng machine. but his sklll and experienos direct. lot of pressure.J. in order to t.l or is f888lble.s tmpoaslble for Konstantin Orelc to talk about the development.s just a naked structure. The commissJon from the manufacturer Plank to produce a monoblook bal'stool in pla8tJc created the perfect. Pla. from the out. Like t.ely on the computer.1nct t. heavy use ws. oould distort durt.o and d.a..c could see It would take s. such as the legs.cUustment.y lnto s.m the wrong perspective.lg1tal but physical Be uses sketches.i.s wa. out. Is that It stacks.ve involved oonstruotJng a very expensive mould.uraJ oomplexity.h.ea. and s. basic prlnclples of volumes and form.a.ra. ThIs was pa. The proportJons of the first.d. However.s program to perform both st.1&.kJ. Manufacturer.fu.k COllODont 81'1 Reinforced polypropylene H : 81em ( 32m) x W: S60m ( 21 Y. structural and aesthetic tests.. l. One of the greatest argutnent. Dur1ng this pha&e. very prtmltJvel. a bare skeleton. which Is from above. Parallel to the desJgn process. but event.oes of Miura.tJ.ec. soft surfaces and refined curves made It difftcult to Judge a. For him th1a was a personal breakthrough in terms of technology and expression.l. onoo Groto had oatabllahed had given the t. whose st.ll geometry. his own moves to find suooessful solutions which in turn lead to new consequences. Orcic's a.ys be in oont. sometimes expressively.ruct..konstantin·grcie. Miura..y.rtloularly the case with Miura. ws.P. s.

... .I - .

ckers (oen~) . 6 .in P1a.rl.lng Ita t. plaelJo.l volume and lhape wae determined on the oomputer GroiO qulokJy moved on to produdng . .rt1n Plank. rrom hlgh-denslt.Ist.hl!I st.ble. Ita aestheUo and: technology referred <UrectIy to the UM of the oomputer In the d_lgn prooesa_ 2 I!:arlY lkeI.nd one or Orelo's a.ant. o( deta1lecl CAD dr&w1ngB ( 8 ). hill design dlrector.1 uelng rapid prototyplng In a. Ttll8 W&8 ma. the nrst.er1e. Konst.Y&di d1acuIs ""'_.y roam &nd the teat lIl&d. .a«e that.hree-d1menslonal shape develope a.n..881Itant..fl.ch _ GroiO 4 A. . Wa.. (ounder of Plank CoUezioni ( rigbt).ml Ay&CU C lWddle ba... very rough OOIlOfl~ of a. Bere.Ulle ma. 1!!a.me Ia milled...ype.l (7 ) ~m .antJn G~o(~nt~t) &nd .hIa design 111'&111 sem1na.n be seen In 7--6 . va.ltantIJ. It. hold. or an earJ. seM_ of hand·made modeLe to M8f11II (orm and &elthetloa.... product on the oomputer but UIe8 lketchu to communicate wtth hta asa\. Se.lJl c1&pendlng 0 0 whaL 1& belng tested.eena. 18M.y&CU work1ng on an ea. M IURA STOOL I .he rra. Ol"do dlaoovered that & chAnge In the contlguraUon &nd the (ootrest oould make the Ie. Benoit St.e.nk and Sa.d.per Mlle 11mulal. Here t. stool st&Cka. 3 _ Alter the lnltJa.I . BLagIo ClBoW ( len. M a.&nd. 1 Chair_ONE Is the lneptraUon behind the ltiUl'& stool.clt) ..e.t. 6 . KONSTANTIN GROIC ..Ing on the ar&t produotJon pleoea of the Mlura stool.90 I .) a.rIlI8 out the comfort. KonstantlD GrcIc t..rl~ or maUtrla. (Pntvima page).m1 A. development meeting Ch&1r ONI!: ca. mock·up. 1ncJud1ng the pI"QJeCt Ileslgner.y modeL It wu aL t.. Pol' OroiO t.P..r1y modelll were m&dfI in a.y protot.e from ora.pa.

One of the most Important features of ..urks on 13-14 MJura I8lt\lect...S.he flrst off.he mould.. draft. a.}' (or the oonsumer but for cut.OO .he most eoonomloal means.Ilne of deve}opmenl.yadl (right) and Benoit 5t.1ng MIJl'l.re low MJura'a lD&nufacture la lnnovaLive as It prodU088 16. MIUI'!L Is that It staclul.ng the expense of t.tool sample of Mlura on the phone wt\.eens.y advan06d design: u.a 8equeru:Je of mock· ups w:I pt'(ItC(yJ)ee Wustrat.lon a t.ctUt4te easy the part. ooets and C8.Wl4l down on transport.sLng t..cM1'S d1souss t. f\lrnll..echnologtceJl.'. and draw are calculated of to fa. 1-1:2 The MIura toolla lII&de from ateel In live I*N r.ruot solid Instead of gas·!nJected. &unI A. This la good not on!.Oeer ...ure produotJon levels 15.l'bon footpMntlng .bereby greatly reduc1.o caat the oomplu jIOlIIetry Of the 1ItOO1... " An tIIlfP.- • CAD dl'awtng to oonst. t.h the mould·m&ker. ~ect. The Compared to other lndU6tMes.

a d. arong with Al1a. He read1J.y elemeDt.h1nk1ng sometJmes too hard about t.1ll have a I'86pect for tradltions_' BAbeI'll 18 a strong baIlever t.Uever cb&1r. need to innovate but st.RE:KTM. want to produce yet another plastic cha..ruct.h1ngs.& not only uses a new pl&st. I cross boundaries. is relat1vely new on the m&rket. & multi·la. t. EiAberll was born In Argent. The CAD rues were then used to develop the mould.ractBr. t.llasdeslgn. Begest. new f'Unct1on.he a.est.ber over d1nner.ct. With hiS youthJ'u11ove Of ra.ntin Grc1c. moving between the worlds of dlsoovery &Il.est. . boldness and nalvet.yered techno-polymer oompoe1te made from poJyoleftne and polyester.hetlo skln.&utr&Cbel' reoogn1zeS In R4berU 8.n.1r to add to the plethora.echniol&DS several were made In va.lo technology but Is unusual &8 It has &rm8 yet.lREK"".na.pe.h1ng was oorrect.y of tr'8dJtiooal plastic but. close persooal &Od work:1ng relatJ.yfulness and a poetry that gives " soul. The lnformatJon was transferred to the oomput. hiS openness to people.rytng th1ck:nesses or the shell. He can be extremely Introvert. It was only when he stripped a~ tbe textile to reveal the bea.y and emotion.SuaU.Ung with ma.s Uke that everyt. 8t. 'He bas two opposites inside hIm In many d1!ferent w83s. his close friend and fellow des1&ner. a.aCks.nufacture: 24 months Mass-manufactured WWW.It. he pl'9fars to continue to work on 1: 1 seale drawtngs. & much richer VlSual appeal.n grtUe as an In8plra.ed. With a. very serious and reflexlve.yuret. Commentlng on Alf-redo HAberU'S flamboyant yet. some to teat ergonomics. series of 1nf0l'Ill&l meetJ. a.ches to set. which appears..dm.&ke the form V1.ers Of the pIece. hIs olar1ty and abllity to a. Once BAberU had an idea of Segest. SEGESTA CHAIR ! .s ( male and femaJe) . R4berU admires Allas' wlJUngness to take on 8. whlle his ooUI'84{e for ooroplex1ty.a.1m&l.ptUt'e the sinuous l1nes of the be.a that. for proclucuon.h&t. out the baslo p&ramet.lt . was born. The stru~ was lDJeCtIon-moulded In one piece.he cut.6. He studJed IndustrlaJ design at the HOhere 8cbule ror Gesta.onahIp with Renato Bt. 'I seek slmpllclty with an added vlLlue.er and both 2D and 3D drawtngs rendered using Porm-Z software. describes hIm as a unique mIx of rational1fi.hetto and form . that exist in the design world toda. Bt. 0Mglnal). bad the quallti. ftn&l CAD drawtngs were developed by Al1aB and a prototype was created using rapId prototyping to check: solving oomplex problems. designer who Is able to thInk oonceptua.nt. alumlnlum H : Slem ( 321n) x W: 590m ( 23 L AIn) x 0: 560m ( 22in) Design to ma.h1s '11&8 remarkable for being developed In only two pa. oontemplatlve cha.a to cre&t. H4berU has 8.. Although BAberU Is aware of the Importance of the computer.s.1na but moved to Switzerland when be was 13. Given the oomplex1ty ot t.Iyse comes from his SwiSs schooling.Ic InteMlAl structure that.&uffacher.ltung before openIng hI8 own studJo In Zurich In 1993. and designs of\en develop In 8. It's Manufacturer: Aliu SpA H. mater1al to ca. It feels like Corlan® but behaV81 like pJ.. dea. In turn.t1on oame In HAberU's search for a.rtous materials.. atabllity and practicality and others to reftne t.rt.es.a.y Ughter. lIl.-our. for the cha1r.rr1ves at 8. ALFREDO HABERL!.ywood.com! www.e a well-t'unot1on1ng product. he st&rted.&lfredo-baeberll.rdJy surprising that he drew on the evolution of the Aston Ma.& in mind.art1ng with a few sket. with the iIlIect10n point on the undersurf&oe Of the se&t. yet bas a pla. if not m1n..P. . t.rU. point of innOvation.1l.y oommIssloned by AlIas to des1gn an upholstered dining cha1r with an alw:n1n1um·st. pI'Qfeota and !.y and.h18 is the case with the Segest.c1ng C&t'S.s. variable density.' he 88.age. cha1r. Bt. In the backrest and reduce the mater1&llti. The oul"V8d b&c:krest. Slmple. The true lnnovs. In oollaboratlon With Ali&s' t.d reoollect1on. as we know It.hemes derives from hIs South American herlt.y of the material. a twist.y and who el'\l0y5 ba.reas Of the design were tlnallzed. lS honeycombed and an outer a.y a. to m. 'I look (or a 08I't&1n flaJr.uti. Once all s.he concept. Be dJdn't. the studio then worked on a seMes of sm&!l-sca.8e.ured base.hane foam to dellne the sha. Konst. and the va. cut.le maquett. a ca. challenge.ngs toget.y of the cha1r. And then the next moment he's like a flrecracker: ThIs dualllQt 1nl0MIl8 HAberll's work. which he then turns Into t'ull-sca.t1on to make 8.92 ! .y of the sheD that t. the CEO of AUas. depend1ng on the 1'UnctJ0n of the mock·up. researched polymers t.ha.yn&m.le models In po1. bec&u8e of Its dlstJnoUve cut-out shape and the tlex1b1llt. It rea.Ys.t design often a. Is drawn out at the seat In a continuous llna and.

HiREKl "'. whIch includes bar stool and swivel cha.a range.1r. .l' The chair 15 part of the multi-purpose Segest. and was produced using a new plastic technology.

P.94 / ... SEOESTA CHAIR / ... ALFREDO HABERL!.. .
I. The InaptratJon ror the disUnotive cut.-out In the backrest and along the integraJ annreElt.a was the

3. Once HAberl! had an Idea
of Segest.& In hIB mind. he st.a.rt.ed on a. seriea of hand· rtra.wn sketches to work out a. way of m&lt1ng the struoture visually l\ght.er by creatJng A hole In t.ha backrest.

S. Vanous models were developed In different II'ULt.ertal8. The orange model Is 16cm (8ln) high and mac.Ie from foam; It was used at

Aston

M&rt.ln grUle,

2. A1las commlasloaed an uphol.st.ered d1nlng chaJ.r with a.rmrestIJ to make It comfortable enough to be used for relAxation. rtrat mock·
ups appeared !leavy, and It

a. very earl,y stage in the development to a.ssesa the shape before information was
fed Lnto t.he computer.
8 Met.hods of nwng the baSe

4. Prom sketches, HAberl! Ukes to work on a. series
of reduced·BCale mock·upa. Here the skinned structure Is receiving the first Ides. for the cuWlut,

was only when the textlle ooverin4 was taken awa,y that the beauty or the shell was revaaled and the oonoept ror
Begest.& bom.

worked on from an earl,y Bt.e6e. The ftrtIt. prototype was made from cast aluminium; the oonoept W&IiI the delle&t8 balancing of a. tra,y on a. wa.1ter'lI tLnsers
to the shell were

2

6

7 Alfredo HlberU a~ an MI'l,y st.I(e In t.he Pl'OO8llll· Shot. In AllU' 1tUdio, he 1& holding the ~ vm'B1On or !.he alumlnlum

-log
S CAD drawings were made bJ' Al1&s' IN:hnloIana using tt!cmw.lon from HAberU's mcdelJ &Dd techn1caJ. I : I scale m.W\niII (.boWn here).

mat.el'1a..l performance, and the propoM.lonaJ v&ri&t.lon in the thlokness of the shell to give BUpport and strength In the seat. ami a llgM and spMngy upper Mm. COrrectJ.ona were mArked and ~tment.a made prior to ftnallzlng the tool.

and female) a..od the UUect.lon carried out In one pleoe 12 The production une. 13 . The HiREK'"' expanding In the m ould. The images were oreated by stopping the lQjeot1on alter dlfferent t.1me Intal'Vais and opening the mould 14 . The Segesta ch&lr was designed In 2002. but the range Is sUll being expanded.

9-10. Prototypes _re
UIIInB rapid PI'OtOtYJIlni to evaluat.e
~ekIped

II Due to the oomp1ex:!r,y of the shape of the shell, and Its var1&b18 thlcltneBS8S, It was impressive t.hat the mould was made In only two parts ( male

8

--•

i~

F. 96 / . .. 30 KNIT / ... YOSHlKI HISHINlJM.A ...
Y 08h1k1 HiBhlnuma began his

career &8 one of Issey Miyake's ass18t&nts, traveWng extensively to research new, exotio fabrics. and then returning to transla.te these materials into f&8h1on Items. He set up h18 own stuc1lo in 1992, working only with the most progressive Japanese manufacturers, using modem &rt1fici&1 mat.ertalB &nd the most up-to-date mach1nery. Text11e design meets fashion &Jld theatre 10 HlBh1numa's work. His clothes are bod,y-oonscious and d1st1nctIve in their form and oonstruction. in which haute oouture &Jld handlcra!t a.re oombined.
From !.he start. of his career. Hlahlnuma has been interested in creatJng sculptUrSJ and a.rch1teotural cloth1ng, such as b1s klte-llke stage garments, whtch use Ught materials llke polyester and nylon, and rely on wind to gl.ve them their flnaJ form. Ada.pt.1ng the triangul&r shapes. inspired by Buckm1nster

orga.n1o fOMllS and p&t.t.ems that are no longer constr&1ned by t.he geometry of squares, C1rcles and stra1ght. lines and the haute couture pract.loe of m.&k1ng compllcated shapes from cut. pa.uerns. There 18 not.h1ng new about the 3D knJtttng mach1ne. whtch has been used to make mass·produced knitwear s1noe It was introduced in 1996. HiBblnuma's intention was to h&me88 its t.eohn1caJ posslbWtles to make compUcated designs. For H.I.shlnuma the possibility of producing intricate fOMllS Without

shr1nk1ng the pl906 by 30 to 40%. The first at.t.empts were distort.ed but & progression of reflnement eventualJ,y achleved t.he result thAt. was required.
Knit Body was based on Shiro Kuramat&'s Homage to.Josef Hoffman, Begl.n to Seguin. In

seams was an

exd~

prospect..

Fuller's ph1108ophy. to fabricate
~o~clo~on&hwrum

sca.le, he then experimented in making 3D pieces using & shrlnk process. 'l'hree-<Umenslonal shapes were made using blocks and wooden propellers. The material W&8 p1aoed around t.hem and then shrunk to half UB size using hot. wa.t.er, causing the garment to ta.k.e shape over the wooden pa.tt.em.

He llkens It to ms.k1ng & one-p1eOe plastlo lI\leotJ.on·moulded cha1r. Over a period of three months, and In oo1laboratlon wit.h 30 or Sh1m& Belk1's technioians, he st.art.ed. work developing oomputer programs that. would work out !.he oompJex shapes of a range of clothing and o~ect.s. These included & jumper th&t takes on the shape of a sitting person, & t&1lor-made jacket. wtth buttons. oollar and pockets integr&l to the knitted structure, a ca.rdJ8ao where the decoration becomes paM. of tlle oonstruct.lon, & 3D handbag, and the Crooodile Bcs.rf. C8.s&bl&noa. Shawl and Knit. Bod.y mannequin &8 featured here. The Croood1le Bcs.rf was inspired by reptlllan scales. The most oompllca.t.ed part. of the piece W&8 to create the c1rcul&r bumps essentJ.al to the design. Several a.t.t.empte: were made to produce t.he effect. d1g1tal.1y, but these were hard to &8$888 a.oourat.ely on the oomputer &8 the woollen scarf is made In an enormous size and then felted,

wh1ch Kuram&l& took Hoffman's oelebra.t.ed bentwood ohair, wrapped It in steel rods, welded the jOints and set It on fire, bw'nlng out the wood and creatlng what he refeITed to as 'the guttering aura of & Modemlst loon'. Tbe knitted tallor's dummy was made ustng & oompllcated prooess t.har. began wtth & oomputer progpam to make a. seamless knitted sock. Then the knit was pl&oed on a Btyrofoem form &nd hardened W1t.b resin. The mould was removed by dipping It in & liquid t.ha.t. dissolved the foam and the ~ect. was oomplete. The C8.s&blanca Shawl was inspired by Ferran AdriA. the world-claas chef of El Bull1 rest&ura.nt In Oerona, Spain, who is famous for his deoonstructed. dishes. I.ngredIent.s are sepe.rated, cooked 1ndJvldusJ.ly &nd t.hen reassembled in layers, relying on the dinar's knowledge of the or1glnal to reoognlze what. he or she Is e&Ung. To miI'I'Or t.h1s prooess, HlSblnuma sepe.rated & UIy Into two parts - p1st11 and pet&l - and then created oomputer patterns for each constituent, reforming them to produce & shawl of 3D frills .

Hlshlnuma's oollBctJon 3D Knit sees him experimenting wtth knitwear. A visit to Sh1m& Belkl's manufa.cturlng oompany Introduced HlShlnuma to the 3D knJtt.1ng machine, which he U888 to make completely seamless, entire garments from begInn1ng to end. ThIs process gI. ves r1se to

Production: YoahUdHlablnuma Wool, polyester, nylon Various dimensions Design to production: 3 months L1mIted batch www.yoshlk.ihlshlnuma..coJp

Y08h1k.1 Hlshlnuma, crouch1n&
be6lc1l! ShlnUL seUtl's 3D knlt.tIng m.achl.nes.

creatJng the bumps C&Ill& ou~ distorted ( 4 ). YOSBlKI BISHlNUMA .h18 OD Ule oomputer without & series of t.. reftnement8 ( 6 )..ck of & crooodlle InBplred the CI'OCXX11le 8c&rf'. .boratlon with 30 of Shima Sellti's tachnlclana to develop the oompl1catec1 shapes of the scarf. 'It's very easy to change the faoe with heat. .r1al washing mach1ne at Ule h1ghe&t temperature to shrtnk.1le·s scales..empt8 at.ly symmet. The scarf Is felt. 2 .aUon. 3D KNlT 1 . and agll.98 1 . I .a. It was impossible to vilIual. Here the red diamond shape m.ed.used by heat. 6 . a prooess ca.r1&lB and.u. The ftrst a. The garment was plaoed In an lndust. 4--6..ys Hlsh1numa. and boitlng: se.P.rlcaJ.Ize t. The BCales OD the ba.. 3 . The lin&! pleoe Is perfect. The scarf Is made on & huge scale and then shrunk by 30 to 4 0%.ke8 one of the croood. Computer programs W61'11 creatad in oolla.

Htshinuma separated 1J.hree. The first model. The oomp\eted Knit Bod.y Is based on Sluro Kllram&t.nt In Geron&. BocI.ed in resln.? KruI.a's Homage \O.ret. which produoed the Int.!ents are 118p&rat. tmn1n( OU~ U!e orl&J. Ingred.y Into plsU. The tlnIahed.l &nd petal. A oomputer program. AdrIa.ed. the plstll Is In blue &nd the petalln white. TIle sock was then st. 9 .Y. The two were oomblruKl &nd the Information fed Into the 3D . was m&de for each oonst.rlcatB f.dlmenslona.ltuenf.m1su Of Parr&n the world--class chef or 81 BullI 1'88t&ur&. 12.yrofoam moUld and 00&t. 10.ched over & S1. 18 I t 1'he C&Babl&nca.JoIeI' Hoffman. leaving the Mrdened form and ftntshed otUeat.. shawl. who Is f8JllOU8 for hIB deoonstructed dlsh8&. by the IJr&. Shawl was inspired. Beg1n to BfCuln· Kur&mata wr&ppecI tbI bentwood ModernlsL loon In Mel rods and . . oooked lndlV\dualJ. 14 .l frills of the design. TIle foam wa. knit IIl&ChIne.y &nd then I'M88embled in ~rs. ftre to It. & 13.nt'U. 18.s d1880lved In IJquld.J.

eS from their J&pa.oom / www. of the Buboonsdous Polyhedron. followed by foam models to assess the surfaoes. A pl'Q)ect.t.rch1tecture.tion. all llnked to the Japanese beUef that.nd product destgn. by sun sh1nlng t. The doctrines all examine the space around a product.s.y-painted on the outside in metalllo black and sUver to emphasize the a.teMal or technology. such as the bandcra!tecl Ste. but spra.. to us. 'What 15 lmportanr. and the visible and the invialble. e. which 18 cheaper and easter to work. without acute faoet.hn1cal dr8..t.nese background. '18 to make cultural comparisons in our work between East. stand in lsol&Uon..ys to dry.rchlt. in the rapports between individuals and society and the Interact. The Japanese divide spaoe .rdust. Travelllng to Seato Fiorentino. an area outBlde Florence famous for oer&m1c art1sa. However. The pe.. The ltoa ftrst oonsidered using oryst&I for the vases to aooentuate the sharp angles of the design.erior from the exterior and the privata from the pubUc . STARDUST VASES / .studiolto. a skUled oer&m1cLst was needed as poroelatn lends Itself to organIc shapes and. The ltos worked on a series of sketches oonfounding th1s prtnc1ple by developIng a competition of polyhedrsJ planes and curved surfaces to produce visual puzzlement.1zlng in the production of Indian carpete and vases.nd West.8ed oompan.hrough leaves. The moulds were left for a few da.es1. form .ckaglng and tableware art.wtngs were then created and printed.".erners. or1g1na.nd Shlnobu Ito were born &tid educated 10 Japan.y spec1&l.nd lines.rd. The vases are dipped in a pool of paJ.l-and·\. the vases were designed to be seen in multiples so that the surface and the surrounding Sp808 become interchangeahle.1on between user. rurnIture e. The multi-fa.oe. The reoognllJon of our heritage Is what gives our deslgns theIr tdentJty and or1gl. using foldlng screens and sUding doors th. It.oeted St&'dust vases are based on the ooncept. ortg&m1 and the shqll eUding screen.aL create a contusIon between interspe.tJ. has to have a d. the ltos souroecl 1+1.y of the deslgn.ned was emptied out. They are based on Japanese traditions such as the SukJ.the Int. A series of resin models was made 8% larger than the vases to allow for the shrinkage of the poroe1a1n in drytng and sent to the producer to make the fem&le gesso stamp moulds. lJQuid oer&m1c was poured into the moulds. What un1ftes thla diverse output...ecI. the dappled shadows crea.P.on. Is a strong pbl1080Ph. Tec. remai.lt . Its exact.y than West. rege.nt. They moved to M1l&n 20 &tid 10 years a. to create an Irregular hand·made aesthetic on the interior. cree.wtngs 80 the form COUld be conceived In a 3D way. the factory of a small Mllan-be.heUc or functional v&lues.' To do th1s they have to lOok beyond the destgn Itself.' S888 8etSu.ranBform.sman to hand·ftn1sh the angles to periect10n using & knife and sandpaper.hat are 80 various &nd multiple Lhat. vases. 'We do not.ns.nstes e.nguJarIt. but. typOlogy. SETSU ~ SHINOBU ITO . and paper models were made from them to understand the dimensions. otVect and envtronment.ua. who oould band-ora!t the neoessary a. design does not. Emotional Island. a.nd Its conn8Ct1on to the lndlvidual. IOO / .ng elements t.c Various dimensions Design to manufacture: 3 months Small-scale production www.. th1s was "lIected 10 favour of cer&m1c. Senscape. and the vases then removed and sent to the cratt. LIke looking at. Shape Is reoogn1zed by perceiving a oomb1natJon of two &xes: the horizontal and the vertJcal.. ago respectively and have worked there ever since..ynam1o that changes from place to pl&oe.nall~. has to be able to t. into CAD dr8. we are interested in exploring the act that unfolds around them. deslgn otUects that have purely a. pe.ya Manufacturer: 1+lsrl Co". ma. Sb1nto rel1gl.ectural style.. They are then 6red. and to nature. which were shaken to make oertain all the surfaces were ooated before what. These were oonverted. Betsu a. Buboonsc1ous Polyhedron and Lea! BoUd). the memory of an otUect can be recalled but not.in a much more nebulous ws. the oonoept of Stardust would have been lost.Y that.' The1r work is based on nve dootrtnes (Spaoe Rhythm. from lndlvidual to individual and from sltuat10n to slt.less of scale.rtners have prodUoed a Wide range of work lnCIuc11ng a.

..r rocks that fall to earth and smash into multi-faceted pIeces. The Stardust vases are named after stelle. The vases were designed to be seen in multIples so that surface and space between become confused.

O!18 such as the dappled.ches were crea. confusion of muitl-elementa and sur18. 4 .-<1rawn aket..o assess dlmensloI'l..ed to develop a competlUon or POlYhedral planes and curved.. • 4 • . surfaoes to produce viSual puzzlement. I. Computer mnderl.ngs gaY!! 3D rea. 6-6..lt. to make tempi&tes to ~ e. series or paper models. The Va&fIEI wem inspired by the vtsuaJ.!l. Technica. SETSU & SHINOBU ITO.I02 / .t. 3 .P. 2.y to the sketches. STARDUST VASES / ...l c1r&w1ngs were developed and then printed. shadow of sunllght through leaves.od.l. Ha. The paper models were used t.

yl and. rea\n models were CI'Mted !At largar t. were hand-IhaJ'pened. 12. then removed 11 .ecl In met.l!l the angul&rtt. dry In the mould.l 00&ta all t. OlD the Cieelgn had. W&I poured. but .I were ahakan to rnaluI lure that.oea and the lurplus II poured awl. been re!InecI.. The resln modell were sent to the producer wno made female stamp rnouJca In gesao aWl 8% lI.u8. 8.n !..y- vases.y 13. for several c\. sandpaper 18_11le V8S8I were then tlred. rurt"aoM of !. planes """"" -- paint. The anglea and.he lurfa.pr.han the aot. The mould.alllc bLack and II1lver on the exterior to aooent\W.y or the c10algn (17).he ceramic Ih&ped using knlVilll and.he de818h.7 PO&m modell were I!IIpJoyed to look at. .ha. lJqU1c1 ceram1c Into the moulds 14-16. and. t.I. the vanou. 'Ibe VMe W&I allowed to lf~17 : The vue wu dlpped In a pool of paint to create a band·t\nJahed &88theUc on the Inloertor ( 18) .be M:CU&I vus to allow tbr the IIhrtnItage ~ oorurs &II the 9-10.rpr !.

fl.a. (The ns. far from being a.t. or Autonomat. ut. also arm and ftnger movements into dlg!t&l drawtngs.IgI.h&t. the UnJversity College of F&l.5mm st&1nless steel. 02 dlglt1zing arm . Under heat the gl&ss will soften and gp&vit.ng the bowl Is removed from the mould and the gJ. Jorgensen flrst became involved in oomputer technology in 200 I after being invlt. They all share the belief t.ss that overhangS the edge can be trimmed or left. J. These Production: Tav.k1.ed by two two-dimensional prqject.lc effect. In order to do this.ry world of cra.pld protot. point-and-cllck device for sce. thereby Int.on. There is not. of physlca. as 8.1nless-steel ed8e to develop the rtm.1l1ze the matert&l properties of molten glass as a. paper.lon: 2 months LI. medIum for the concept.llty Into CAD: 'I want.y will allow It tD 'slump' in the cent.lc &8 they c&ll themselves.sm&n.ranslates not. only h&nd but. It. . Is in the utilization of digital technology by the deslgner-m&ker. crea. ONE LINER BOWLS I .m1t.m.co. of digitally designed chl.1nless steel into the l&ser-cut loop In the MDF.ocura.ng It.' he ss.n& bowls uslng a l&mln&t.taJ technology and introduce It.na. m&ehl.. The models were used 88 kiln moulds to shape the bowls from flat sheets of glass.rehers with sk1lls in ma.ed to pa. Ortg!n. . By squeezing the sta. His tirst.thema to freedom of expression. Clrcula. from bendable 0.ft and design. Subsequent.ys.1ng element to the formal geometry. and the linear mot..ted via IT-based drawing tools.t. The result.ons with human self-sufficiency.n. howevsr. repetlt. Holding the t. to use dlgltaJ tools but.r discs of 8mm (JAin) gJ.enaen Olas.ed ed1t. freeh&nd tool.n1te susplc10n of the use of IT in their crea. a.he Mlcroscrtbe~".uk lines were extruded In the Z-ms and turned Into two-dimensional surfa.. computer&1ded destgn and manufacture.t1ng the body of the bowl whIle ta. Jorgensen d. whlch builds up 3D forms by the la.Ir to form the rim of a. bowl.er and toda.ly he worked with the ShapeHand™ motJon-c&pture glove..necl as a pot. It.ny crafts.er oool1. a.he mould bel. Rhlnoceros® 3D software. The1r &lID IS to dernyst.I04 I .lc' and 'autonomIc' .1on and special effect. whiCh can often be the result.1p of the Mlcroscrlbe"'. Aft. was the Contour CUps. London's Roy&! College of Art.yptng. of designs crea.yeMng of 1&ser-cut. TAVS J0ROENSEN.enslons Design to product.s.lon with the dexterity of the human hand. Is wired to a oomputer and t.t. to be further supported by castJng refractory pl&ster around It. Thickening the lines and g!vtng them volume meant they oould then be rendered In solid form by using ra. They ut. the st&1nless steel had.lsoovered It oould record spontaneous threedimensional drawtngs that are fed directly into the oomputer. Jorgensen Is currently a research fellow at. represents the combin&tion of involunt. Comblned with the X-Y dimension (top view).m1cs and gl&Ss at.te models of the threedimensional splines were a.ion d1gIt&lly recorded via. The Z-axis was CNC-cut.yplng prqject.roductng 8. the three·dimenslonalline could then be represent. from metalwork to textiles.ed pl'Qlect.fl.nntng phySIca. The One Liner bowls were designed with the a.smen employing modern production methods.n1m..n1z.ne-llke a.1ve.chleved. to the oontempora.ng on the form of the sta.g fired.oktavius.lled free fa. sertes of loops were described in m1d-a. 'ravs Jorgensen Is a cra. Independence and uniqueness.P.lons.a.y runs hls own design consultancy and lectures on cera. a set. He tl'&l. and the X-Y ws from 5mm (JAlo) MDF.s. His ploneertng research.1llze them in ooll&bora. on for aesthet.&lly developed for use in a. .ss were used to create the shapes of the vessels by using a process ca.llz&tl.1d of t. Jorgensen's focus Is now to int.aJ'y..1on www.me Is a neologism formed from the woI'ds 'automat.rtlc1p&te In a rapld-protot.. offer equal soope for individualism.. largely due to Its asSOCIation with autom&t1on and lndustr1a. After working on a number of re1a.roduce an element..lm.ed otIJect.h1ng new in cra.i objects.. huma.. V&I'1ous d.a.a.ctJ.t. By usl.ll slumping. so the flammahle MDF could be removed prior to t. expertments used the Mlcroscriben . as a member of the 3D DIgital Design Research cluster tea.tlve processes.r.ces by using the software's unroll surf&ce command.lfy d. manufacture (LOMTM) process.re.) The group IS composed of resea..mouth. but there Is a defl.

he materl&! qU&1luea of mollen gJass. .--- / The One Uner bowls were designed with the aJd of a M1croscrlbe'" 02 d1gIUzIng arm to uUllze !.---- "---.

. computer.ruded and unfolded using Rll1nooeros® 10 convert the t.lmenalonal representatJona.wtnp can be m&de in mld·a1r. TAVS J0RGENSEN .hreedlmeoalonal drawing tool.s. .. hut unlike the M. U) 3-4. whiCh was used as an lnteracuve t. The glove was orlg1naJ. I .ed and 3D modela sub86qutmtly prod~.Icroacrlbe H '. fed lnto a.Ioe I ..re. It also records !. Rh1nooero6>:t 3D CAD program ( 4 ).he dynam1cs of individual cHgItB.wn f"reebalId uslng the dJgttJzer ( 3) a.ly developed for an1matIOD and special efTect.. It captures arm gestures. Dre.he Z and !. The line Is ext. The One LIner bowls were deVeloped us1ng tJle LlIcroscribeT" 02.he MlCl'OElCl'l.hree-dimensloneJ information Into tvro twod. Jorgensen uses both the ShapeHand'" motlon-capture glove and !. ONE L INER BOWLS I . A loop descrlbln8lJl8 rim or a bowl was d. 5 ..t. one of t.nd..nlpula. ma. 2.be"" 02 cHgItally create hiS designs .he oUler or the X-V aJds. reoorded In a.p.

Inle81I steel IIlC1 UlII X-V u1J.n Ule k1ln wlth a gI8Ba d!8C pLaoed m top ready 10 be ttred bit alpported_ lsavtng the optJca.y to be uood Wlth the glassalumpLnt rorm 12 The 1I.lons.&-7 It.""""". 10 &!low the ataInlMs steel to slumping mould goes to the luln The swnJe8a steel 15 p...I qu&lJllftS glass to crea.1 Une I'IIOOrded Wlth 13_ The slumped gJa. CIlC machlne (6) ..- .'eben~ to ease t.. or " ."""""'.se piece after ftrIng 14 The rtm of the One Lmer bowl ts the r:n&ln focaJ JXlUlt e{ thp oQlect...y evident when the exOMa glAss has t. In lIDJI' 17 l. L. pl"Clv1dJ.1 . YMd 10 CUL \he t¥fO..tijh'lW«lt&t.!l IS parUcularl.nS a physlOBJ marufMtauon of the .er drawing &-9 'llII tlIQ two-d1menston&! ~ ):eC ~ 10 !ann a J:t\JIIC&t moQe\ the th.te a dark edge much llke the original oomput..n tnmrned.. WIU' It was created Thl. 1bI Z Ull in sta.)U!d 1& plaoed. "'..be fttUng lnto the MDF section.."'k. or the I I Clroul&r g1a8a discs read.

ppointment that not enough design oompa.a. The a.bles were lnSptred by the designers' d1sa.ser-cuttlng ma.ncl reUes exclusively on hand labour.ch1ne.re based on NASA's da.re more surprIses than a.re moments we appreciate a lot. d!gI. which Is st11l owned by the Bav&l"la. The ftna.cs that make up the cutting pa.1c appllcatlon then continuouslY generated tnfullt.n1es were uslng IT &.ll&n furniture manufacturer.ly.. have boon given the l10ence to produce two models.ng the Aesthetics and Computation Oroup led by John Meada.y .t1CI.. produce exclUSive. entttled Count. some dating back to inventions by 19th-century mathema. Moroso. These a.l manufa.nympbenburg.tes using gold and pi&tlnum paint to produce dIgitally bespoke pieces. where it 800res the sheet steel. Breeding Tables bega.t manufa. The pattern is then h&nd-palnted on to a ser1es of seven ceramIo pla.1J.lture Fair 2006.Jgorithms were used. Tbe manufacturer oontinues to use w&termllls a.ln manufacturer.yth1ng else. Production: KllAM/ WEISSIIAAB..re very different.e&l manufacturing methods to produce something oompletelY different. the famous Bavarian porcel. & self· financed personal project. where the techn1c1an follows the Instructions on the leg. the program uses an unrol. before found.ttem is tr&o8ferred.te potent1aJ.echn1olans and craftsmen around Munich.re works out a construction surface by tr1angula. ' The softwa.mJtted to the philosophy that cuttlng-edge technology and cre. The cut-flat leg is then m oved to the bendIng machine.ng Video games As In nature.t1on for assembling the table engraved In the table leg Itself.hm. Kram spec1al1zes in med1a. . My PrlV8.JgOrit. KRAM /WEISSHAAR was founded in 2002.ta.1on.com Manufacturer: Ponellan Manufalctur Nymphenbur. height and length as well as typology rules) was lnput. The Breeding Ta. My Prlv8.n royal f8. Reed Kram &nd Clemens WeiBshaar's ba. .a.s a.ll. Their first tablewa. first shown dUring the M1lan F'um. The duo began WJ1t1ng softwa.y tested and Is passed suitable for product. This beUef Is ev1dent in both the computergenel'lLt.ch inheriting a set of properties from the mother table.te Sky. design a. I 0 8 I . 'Breeding Tables: La. ea.ach #996 and #626.ed aesthetic of the Breeding Tables and the hand-pa. 'The computer Itself Is neither Intelllgent nor orea.. As w1th the Breeding Tables.able structure. The duo deslgned softwa. Hand-thrown and hand-painted porcelain Dl&: 32cm ( 12Y11 1n) DesIgn to manufacture: 9 monthS Limited edition www... in tI'8dJeiona.y tha.Od advanced technoJ. Into the J.t1ng the base geometry th. Once t.a&r studIed pl"'Oduct design and was assiStant to Konstantin Orelc before setting up his own studIo. calculating their position 10 the night sky on a customer's birthday aooording to the longitude and latitude of the place of birth as well as the date and hour of delIvery.a.r clusters and planets.a.t1on Into which da. BREEDING TABLES I MY P RIVATE SKY PLATES I .l. the prestigious Ita. nebulae.n1ng the table legs together.ttern for a given t. Sheet metal Various dimensions Deslgn to manufacture: 8 months One-off www.ckground.tabase of the 500 brightest stars. R&ooolta' .n 8-9 8.inted dIgital Im~ery of tableware series.I s~es Involve Jol.b1s has been computatlon.kramwelSsh&&r. unique copies of the tables for pMv&te collectors and museums. and attaching the tempered gla.ppllca. applytng a powder coating that Is hand-ftn1shed by local craftsmen.t1ve but rather known for meltdowns and errors. the pi&t. WeiSsh.tshop) to create iterations of a simple table. (table Width.. oomputer 8.ctur1ng techniques.te Sky". Each leg is incised Indlv1dual.tl8manshlp can llbera.re (which they refer to as their digital swea. While KRAM /WEISSEiAAR st1ll can lead to advantageous results.com . rogue mutations by the Pompldou Centre in Parts.. with the bend and Joint informa.' sa. turning each bend the speclfted number of degrees.e three-dimensional structures. and subsequently aoqUired.. 'WhIle we craft the computer code there a.ogl. The company is com. Basic a.ss or sheet-metal tops. later reoeJvtog support and becoming the su1:Uect of an exhibition. stell.llng facWty to produce flat geometrl.es oombine sophisticated oomputer technology with h&nd-ftnlshlng.tal three-dimensional model of the table Is now 8.re series.Ill.v&1lable.ys WeiSshaar.ncl began by des!gnl.n. REED KRAM & CLEMENS WE ISSHAA R . was produced In collaboration with Nymphenburg..ctuMng in Europe wUl be able to oompete with the production lines of the Far East.e.t is extracted uslng angled cutting planes: 8. Kram and WeiSshaar have built up large network of hIgb. to develop 8.anB.ly sk1lled t. which the designers believe is the only wa. so unpredictable things happen.P. The pa.

.se table form tha.ruHnade and hand-painted with a.My Private Sky plAtes Cleft) are ha.t. The BreedJ.Uons of a be.ns Tables (below) are oreated from computer Itel'8. generate thousands of unique pieces.tlOIlll at the date and p1&c8 of birth of !. digital lmpresslon of the potIltton of the OOnsteUa.he buyer. .

.hms that.' u.ftware . ppl1cat. 3 e .hat. e.ohlnery.er-oont.r production..ys Wewha..able data: measuremenr.' 4 . oomput. used in oe. such &8 t. 2.hlnk and extract.r. The Breeding Tables were inspired by Lhe latent pot. 'It 1.. are made uaa.a. a logic Lhat haa to be oryelal·olear.. computer to dealgn things.. IIO I .rolled manufaaturlng ma.he way you t.0 help you Ia both th1'1lUn8 aa well as &IlJlOytng at times It foroea you to reverse-engtneer !..ble In .er environment by Lhe programmlng of .1 'bred' aocordlng to .each .ent. .able 1.\a.lon bullt &roWld them e. 'Production llne' of Lhe Breed1ni TabltHI from Lhe virtU&! to me physical.nd the addition of apeclftc \.P. '0eu..1n& It 1. Each \. I .1 beautUUl to t. REED KRAM k CLEME NS WEISSHAAR .... set of alIoMt. BREEDING TABLES I MY PRIVATE SKY PLATES I .. 3-4 .l of oomput.nd deftned typology rules The poealbWtltHI are endl_.

5 .

~'l I-i ..r1o shApes ( 6)..-.-....he specified number of degrees.. CNG-oontroUed press 11 .. "- ..~ 'c( . . r \ ~ . I T " \ .-. /' •• . \_ ... "''<' . had a set.- • -< . .''!::i.t.lons engraved on brake bending mach1ne. bending. . REED KRAM 6 " .. Each part. '" 6-7. or tnatruct...-" s " r:. whlch were then used as S .. \- -- .. >/' . r • l~ ... The patterns were t&ken to the CNC l&ser+CUtUng mach1ne that manufactW'lls the oomponenUl of the tables. .. whlch were used by the t..ed and t\n1ahed by hand. 7 1 •. BREEDING TABLES I MY PRIVATE SKY PLATES I ..echnlclana operating the sheet.P. . ComponenUl/legs pMor to It. . The table legs were powder-ooa.• -. . 9 .-metal rolding machine to turn each bend !.../. . r . . '/ .f-. 10. .. <-' . ~.. cutting p&t.' ~.t8NU1 for the laser machlne (7 ). " .112 I ... The unrollln« facility ot the Breeding Table 8OrtwlU"fl formed :aD blueprlnUl from 3D voiumet. . ~ CLEMENS WEISSHAAR I . <--" ~ .-" .

however.oa1n) x L: 148cm (681. with every strut.re hollow and oonsist or flbrous structures.ha.rge enough to sit. I. freedom and more'.way.rlng pa.taJ. CNC-cut.Mn&.a. 1 have found & way to oopy the sma.ry and with more oonstltuents bearing welgbt.n met.t. is I'8pld-prototyped In hoDow pieces of oeram1c that are aasembled. t. sma.knesse8 and produoes difTerent. on but.l added.ha.meters and the oomputer ca. to give design and manufacture authentlCit.P.1ns logical.lnjum cha. The spaces around the sh.us Ma.bora. but. and then strengt. Is skeletal. ma. as It.ck1ng in the lndustrl&l aesthetIcs produced by the erflC1ent mould.oom .hened by genera. derives from & biological process.t1ng material to support.tes the stresses and where they w1ll need st. M&tt. adding mass to the exterior but.yslcs and Production: JON Laarm.r polyuret. The &lum1n1um cha.ems of bones.e.a. products should have a. information for a. La.rman &d&pt. t. oonsist.pe are 6lled 10 by cubes with lo&d-bea. basic cha1r. created by whim but. and seat. into & positive ftrst.hIs time into a uniform ftne matte dnish.s that are both bea.n was a.yped rrom & CAD drawing. as a. rubber H: 7?3cm (30lAIin) x W: 77. laboratory for 'lnnOVa.' & more materia.. His aim is to go as far as possible without.Ion. 114 / .ra..1ns: 'My work is about.gn to production: 24 months IJm1ted edition of 12 Production: JON Laarm.ed M&ttheck's software with the aid of Opel's IT depa.t.t. In nature. curiosity..h1s & neg&t1ve mould.heck·s program can detect.pproached by Droog Desl. The nega.onauzed . the information fed into the oomputer and cutting-edge technology.gn to production: 24 months IJm1ted edition or 12 wwwjorisla.1r the mould Is broken a. Deco exhibition during Design Miami/ Basel 2006 the oonespt. aesthetics. structuraJ. If & bone is broken and left.n's research into theoretJe&l ph. . L&a..ng &W83 ma. rather t.. The data.ne Ch&1se are just the beg1nning and are bot.rma. This method was Innovative as It.4ln) Desl. is created from around 30 pieces of eprucy.!U't.n1c beauty that is 1a. the sinuous design produoed.an AIumIn1um H: 76cm (30ln) x W: 45cm (l 7 ~ 1n) x D: 770m (301. wID calc1fy.ect. losing sense or the form.heck was a sem1n.t.al momant ror La&rma.t1ve mould can be assembled e&ch time for castJng in one piece. Laarman's Bone f'Urn1ture tmitates the growing patt.abllshed h1s own stud10 in 2004.4 1n) Desl.1ng technIques of the ma. The design can be rendered in &I\Y mater1a..h&ne with a.es ror the re1at. & weakness can be det. started as a personal experiment.rengt.nd-polished. With t. BONE CHAISE / BONE CHAIR / .ldng functional oQjects as beautiful as possible.erla.3crn (30 I.rol density and gaJ.. Afterwards. Tbe ch&tse is flrst..Mnan. from the interior to oont..tecI. It. qUite bArd and not qulte soft..h.heck·s work h1s own desire biomechanics has resulted in new aesthetic.&rma.gn and the Barry Freldma. J ORIS LAAR MAN.hS &rid wea. 8.lonal and believes t. three-way oolla.ech. SLml. by the soft.heck. describing It.&l-clea.fter La.matte on the struts and mirror on the seat. .a.ll enough to cast in one pleoe.la. wblch have a very efftc1ent way of deaJ. the German blomech&nlc Prof Kla.rly. This too is ha.1r Is created ustng a newly trademarked CAD/castIng method produced by Or&vot.n.uUful and f'unct. given to the program is ratl. The shape rema..rtment. He designs o~ect. proftles. Bones a. In the rorm of a.on between designer.l is taken away and 1: I blue foam models to work up his Ideas.ckrest.h produced in & llm1ted edition of 12.1r and polyuret. a.h&ne UV-res1stant. which is not.hen1ng. In 2004 L&8. was adopted and received oonslderable f'Undlng. leg!.an Polyuret. he reoogn!zed in M&tt. given reason. who had developed a oomputer program ba8ed on the fracture behaviour of trees and bones that were beIng used by German car manufacturer Opelln the design of ultra-IJtht. oomponents. He expla. 1a. In one piece and for e&ch cha.1ng or ba..n protot. &llowed the structure to be cast.n produced sketches and 'nle product. It.ly.wa. The car parts produced by t. The ch&tse Is cast.ch1ne age.tt.b1s program have an orga.tng with material and weight. as the program oompens&t. puzz1e.s. their forms and aesthetics not.lcula.. shore of 90.al'Inan est.y.J function. r&1lure and know where to strengthen a design. Nonstress materla.hat..J.ed.re. MeetJng Ma.l. The result. to the parts that bear the welCJ. The mould. growtng prinCiple in nature: bone growth. His lde& is to develop a.tJ. symmet.ld. The cha.lve st..rengt. having & stJ'Uctura.t.n st. mould. JoriS I.aarma.tJmacy. The &lum.rengt. La&rman oonslders the prooess to be a. Rapid prototyping W&B used as It recrea.n Gallery to produce work ror the BIll. the piece is hand-poliShed .1r is cast. series of t'umiture without. in cryst.rtest. is analysed d1gI.

w&re Intel. .rman aeat..ed In the Bone chaJ.ybMd of creatlvlty and sofl.loris J..ae.lJgftnce.&a. a h.

looking O&l' oomponenta 3-4.ma.re to UIe It.1ng tool.beclI.lure ana.resl. .Wd1es in faJ.. 11 6 / .he work of Prof Klaus Y.1gn for each ..a.reee and bol108 resulted in hts clevelopment of software currently being used by Opel to produoe orgaruo.A. 1-2.rm. as a h!4h' t..e the opUmum deI.P.dORIS LA. by !.ysll of t. a seat.he aottwa. ) he st. Le.IIe (. The Bone furniture was ln8plred.an ad&pc.a.rted with & 3D model. BONE CHAISE I BONE CHAI R 1 . The oomputer took Blx montJul to oa1cuI&t. a . WIth the help of Opel's IT deJ)fLt"tInent.att..RMAN . Ji'Or both the chA1r ( 3 ) and cha.uive block on whlch he marked.... and back...\.ech aculpt. whoM ..ed \.

..8 t. L&&rm&n Inspecting the I I blue (O&m models of both the ch&Jr and the cha. He does I\O~ use oomputer rendeMngs.h&t Inter-act wlth people. bellevlnS that full·scale models &re esaentlal (or otiject.' .lse. 6.er-gener&t.Od sketchea generate the dlmensLons (or Lhe ch&1se.e. '( \I "( I J . COmput./ -. I .

.. by OI'avot.rut pll.t.S load· beaI1ng properties. .P. the greater II. surface and backrest.b designer Vincent de Rijk 9.e on the st..hod pioneered 12. 7 . mat..v1t.IIS / . which Is aast.10.rut.ylng a structuNLI fUncUon. A 3D p!'lnter Is used too make the oeramlc mould for each one of !...eI' each pouring to reveal !. The m ore complex the design of !. In one pleoe. 8 . 11. and the mould Is smashed &ft.ech.he ch&1I'.be 12 ch&1rs. The resUlt-is skeletal.st producUon me!. The alum1n1um Is hand· poUsbed.b every st. (rom a patented CADIea.y. BONE CHAlSE I BONE CHAlR / . JORIS LAARMAN . Molten aluminium 18 poured Into the mould ea.be flnlshed product.. The models &nd Lhe mould for the ch&1I' were developed In oollaboraUon wit.s &nd mJI'TOI' on the seat. wtt.

a nna. which eM be rousembled each Ulne for 0UWlC In one piece.l rOrIn. Designs for Bone rUm. It la theo b&nr:I.at In one ~ of cryst. any ma.&H:lear polyuret.lLnt NbbeI" (i 4). .h&ne OV·resl$t.es for the releV&rlL IItrengtha &rid weaJl. The aluminium Bone ch&lr In It.eMal. In 30 PlII08I of epoxy.W! I\nlah (16).t.·pol14hoed to a nne IIl&I.nesses. U the computer 14-1 t! The ch&lBe la ca. 17. The polyurethane ch&lae hall a more aoUd profile than the aluminium ch8Jr.Jture can be rendered. The n$Uve mould or the ch&IIt la made from around 16.13. oompenaat.

es to save on the amount. high tide.he sand was excavated by hand.ect.y dlITerent lengthS. (armed of 16 tessell&t1ng tria.al had hardened and t.ely covered by the sea.Y 00&8t.rtangu1s.be product.hrougb the mould.1n mIn1ng and for lte fine.hane rubber: & oopper stool 'grown' on to & wax substrate using a soph1St.oe of one of t.h and 19th oenturles for lte copper and t.P. Molten metal Is poured Into & cavtty mould made from green ss.h1s ancient. Max IAmb oomplet.ed in laser· sintered poly&m.y.ecb. allowtng the stool to ~ pulled gently awa.l.1ghtly oooled pewter In the first.n) diamet.Lng.org . In both halves..he legs were short. 8&nd-cast. at.rles a. gra. sta1nleas-steel chair: & bomb-proof seat made from carved expanded polystyrene ooated In poJ. topped by a t. perfect.be boxes and :.1nlng legs oomplet.hroughout.h&t was complet. A!'t.e to the depw of the m&rk. MAX LAMB . of Max IAmb's Exercises in Be&t1ng.ed.ngUage. Itself'. Thls recent.ls. inspired by & desire to explore both t. The ss.In.rtangl. t. Exploring t.he surfa. A port.om WIlD ounk in turn into ooch o( the three oornera of the large t.t is sl. Max IAmb was born and brought..he l8t. the stool would remaln stable even if !.xlamb. the castJng once the tide had gone out. The pointe were oonnected. Lamb then excavated furthsr V-shaped grooves along each of the InteMor tMangles.be bott.1ghtly la.rla.ally t. oomblnl. & pewter stool using & very pM. It. The sand-cast.. 10 the end. forming 16 smaller t. gave the leg a st.nd & V·shaped cross-section.be two halves into four sections.e side. IAmb decided on & threelegged design. A seoond pouring was then added to the el.ng these w1th high-tech and dig:..lde. with & prooesa. an &re& famous t.y. forma of castlng. qu&llt.ngI.nd.al as It. work Is focused on exploring the potenUal of di8&ppe&rInS local sklli·based Induat.at at.b of 2cm (~ 1n). ~low the tMangular channels.!n.in) equ1la. and error to asoel"taln whiCh pattern &llowed the pewter to flow ea.rad1t1onaJ a. rather than on t. In add.r seat... 120 / .rger t.ngJ. in which the emphasis is more on resea.hs t.e on the sand with the sIdes d1Vided Production: Mu Lamb Pewter (92% t.ma. The pewter was poured Into each of the legs to & level just. wblCh is poured in and allowed to 0001. ( 15lY.wo halves.wo rema.be opposlt.be channels untll &ll the t. whlch meant.er rod marked 40cm (l8 ~ 1n) from t.s 'an ongoing pI'Qject. during which time IAmb experimented wltll a saMes of shapes sculpted in the sand.er&l trIa.1ng IS one of the earliest. ss. ca.nd Is oompact. by lines drawn to the oorrespondl.ely fUled .es.n1que lAmb decided to cast.tal prooesses.ed. of met.n required to allow for the shrinkage of the met. and at.m1t1ve met. 6% antlmon. The movement.ln) Destgn to production: 4 ~s lJmltect edition of 6 www.ie&ted elect. sllghtJ. where he developed his design la.er ten mInutes We met. A 10m ( I¥&l.. a point t.rch and then engagement.rengthenIng natural taper a.refUUy carvtng out the sand from each ch&nnel to a dept..ve cavity Is ready for the metal. 00018.lve m&teri&ls.l. up to Cornwall. & oollectlon that he describes a.teria.ha. shot.ent.ng marks on !.hroughout. Pewter Stool forms part.1es of nat. A mast. 1n London In 2007.&tlle gas oook. for cast. t.nd pressed together.ed and t.ngJ.hod. With a knife.er was bw1ed in the sand and then covered w1th & wooden board to prot.•..ro-deposlt10n prooess stmll&r to electro-plat. PEWTER STOOL / .he t\re from the wind and to raise the temperature.he sand remained compact &nd damp t.o.lng.t.nd. is Lhen removed and the negatJ.rlangl. the aeries oonsista of a 1aser-cut.er and was pushed backwards and forw&rds towards the neighbolll'ing angles until the sand restated. t. that t.er of the design Is cre&t. (ree from shellB and small stones.ed his Master's in design pro:1uctB at the Royal College of Art. t. It took three ds. and ca. ThIs ensured.ha.al used. Be chose a location that had & oons1St. and an SLB stool creat.es were oonnect.ys of trIa.e3ed as a Chlld. leg and &llowed to Dow along t.nd exploiting the lnheT'ent.lUon to the Pewter Stool. The I kg (2¥alb) pewter IngOte took about 1B minutes to melt. the tool is plaoed on t.yuret. Tbe moulding box 18 made in t. ~b~~~~~a4~m unconventional ma. 2% copper) H : 400m (l8~ln) x W: 40cm (l8~1n) x D: 40cm (l8:. A 'sprue' and rtser are added to the tool. on the beach where he had Pl.

er~B beach in Comwau.x Lamb U&ed to p~ as a chUd . where Ma.The Pewter Stool WILS cast on ca.

r 1IS't joined to form 16 tessellAUlll tMangles.he tlain8s from wind and rtLi8ed the temperature 3--4 . The points on the peMmete. One saucepan of molWl pewter was poured Into of !. protectec1 !. '!'he hole was covered wlth a wooden bo6rII that. . . . MAX LAMB.122 I . 6--6. met&l ftrst leg and allowed. lAmb started. PEWTER STOOL I ." ' . 7 .ang1e and moved ftJ'IIt towlLrds one of the S!\)acent. the stool was excavated by ""''' •.l the t!'l&t\l!lL 6-9 Once the pewter bad hardened..Ion toward. 10 !'WI through the channels.'!t three corners of the Ial'III! t. The movement gave the Ief a natura. by an equll&teral tMa. increasing Its strength. A rod was sunk IntoO I.y to prevent It from crumbling.r\. connecting aJ.ru1.ec1 free of the sa.he otber..he three legs.he s~tly cooled..B the top of the leg. The saucepan was !. ."'" 1Ift. '!'he surface had Ie be oonttnU&lly dampened wttII water spra.! V·shaped aect. 1-2. angles untll the sand ...P. '!'he peW1er tngota Wll11l melted In two sauoopans beated over 11 portable gas cooker burled in a pit tn the sa. and then towllrds !.hen added 10 \.nd.he &and and then c1Ivkler1 It Into four sections.ng!eln t.

ys l"IIIMh the same depth In all !.he stool II removed from !. Onoe sufftolent depoalta hlI.nd.depoalUon ta.ed 80 thai.as seJect.hat demonstrates hlJ.he ta.10.. ""'"" 11-12. nanooryst&l by nanoeryst&l.ecI:I proclUc!Jon methlXl. rese&rCh into traditJonal or WlOOnvenUOnal m.rged.nk 00llt.aterlal8 oomb1ned. A threelegged clangn . In &Il eJeot.nk and the wax Is melted out ( 12). alwa. the stool would rema.&1nlng an aqueous solution of copper. lIfIIb hlgIJ. '!be surfaoe of !. 13.ure.he tide Md the pewter didn't. The Copper stool roM'llS part or M&x IAmb's 'ExerCises In Seat1nC.hat the water table Gropped more slowly t. I>tlrtn8 his experiments Lamb notIoed !.-t.ro.he oopper cl1ngJ to the 8tr11C1. or !L ooueeuon of chalrs by Lamb t.y WleVenly.ln stable evan If the Jegs were cast sJ.. .. The oomplel.. !.h&n t. !. wired up 10 electrodes and lIuhmergec:l.he stool Is textured by !.ed 'grown' COpper &001 Is J)611. I~ Is then ooated.VB oocurred.he sa. When chA. A II\lb8tI'at8 of wax II ICUlpted and pattarnecl in hot water (11). in a eonduouve silver solUtJon.\ghtJ.he .8.

urn of the oentury. Sinoe the t.n UnIversity in the embroidery depa. The oomposllJon Ie laboMously reftned. the internat. craf't. worklng In that industry before changing her career 00 study text1le design at Leeds College of Art and Design. and &rt.ed 00 scale to form the bASe of the montage. and was scanned InOO a oomputer at.ween the amount of &J'8a Hned with stitch and the amount left. who describes his own work as 'slmple'. was calcul&t.1glous development In the Splt&lflelds area of London and the extensive photographiC records held by Allen & Overy. The ftn1shed image is scaled up to f\Ill size before printing. gallery'. in stitch. is oonst. Church as well as the construCtion process of the new development. The key theme was to examine both the hlsOOMc and d. this Is anathema. CLARE LANE ..rt. The full printed canvas Is then backed with an lron·on stiffener in woven fabMc to stahl1!. he J'Elject8 the adherents to a more conceptual approach to design. The sky. embroidery oot.oo. tlmber frame H: 1m ( 3 1Ao ft) x L: 2 . The bASic sat. As It Ie Lmporta. WhIle her earlier working llfe was concerned w1th the physlcallty of the buUt..n·fabMc.he stitch work. Award for Creative Industry.nt t. Clare Lane's work sits within such a context.ry. ft x 8~ft). with the huge popularlt.Ine.uk .. M. The Bishop's SQuare textile piece takes inspiration from a prest.t. designers. araft. However. The printJ.urba. Lane trained as an arch1tectural and bulld.ton. She reoentJy oompleted a twoyear residency at. URBAN FABRIC I .1ng surveyor. A simple oomposllJon. pattern design..ng process Involves oolour testing with many samples dlg1t.tus of rubbish. & qua.ze t.rl.anchester MetropoUta. which makes the texture more vlslble In the end oomposltion. and with consumers oollect1ng one·orr and llmlted·ed1t1on design 0~ect8 as if they were p1808S of art.m1c settlng of Spltalftelds.lly printed on cotton canvas.ooeptJ. huge buildings and bold monuments surrounded by a det. 124 I .ry bas been far more a. formed the background Production: Clare Lane Prtnted.rt) Design 00 production: 4 months One-orr www. The slze of the piece.ba8ed. and to lnclude loonic referenoes such as the 18th-oentury Hawskmoor Cbrtst.in stitch Is added on a freeneedle sewing ma. in flat print... Lane's wall hangings examtne the frenetic.o achieve a balance bet.ch1.s and gr&phlc designers. the canvas Is stretched across a timber frame. modern city with dlsturbed sight lines.ntly referred to. an A4 paper record.68m ( 3 1A. oomplete with notes. too. are either declin1ng or sh1f'tJng from a state of derel1ct1on to renewal. whlch bas seen a blUJ"I'lng of the boundar1es between architecture. only the desired areas are covered. bel' current textile practice represents the urban habitat.ect. Photographs were the primary source of research for Lane. texture and rel1ef in a unique form of tapest.ns of the man·made environment.rtment and won the Cran. demanded a panorama. Tom Dixon. from dense and smooth 00 open. oomblned with a thorough InvestlgatJon of the scale.a.t. dlglt.ng. As there Is no footplate the fabMc can be freely moved 80 th&t.P..y of shows such as Design MIam1/ Basel.. a line draW1Ilg pa. there &J'8 obvlously many who see this Cf'0S8' over as UberatJ.a. The bASe composition. and colour added and blended .nt views of the area..g1ng and the expression of outline. should be the guardla.1onal law practJce who oomm1saloned the piece. indlvldU&listic approaches are eI\loytng &Il unprecedented popul&Mty. digit&! I. was the first Image to be added. cotoon canvas. along w1th archlt. Her current interest Ues in places of transition tha. he oonslders 'too close to the art. The main linage is &$lSted untll the print matches the oolours on the screen.a. To some. The piece 18 a oombLnatJon of photographS and drawings. and comblMS a mix of photogr&phy. Wben the stitch work Is dnlshed.ne. painted in blue oU pastel on paper. environment. For UK·based Jasper MorMson. is soeptJcal of products that. bill posters and graffttl. the design indust.lly oomblned.. CouncU's Development.ng of a refresbing plur&l1sm. design.er scale. street pat.yna. manJpulated and ' painted' on the oomputer.. low·tech...eI'Il8 and domlna.66m (S lK. All the other images were then gathered and overlaid using Photos hop.1nted In with wateroolour using & select colour palette. The stitch width can also be varied. 1m x 2 .

. • . .. ~ ..!. j ' I~ ~ -I • I • I - I .... ..

The next. whloh wa. Btro08 vertlc&ls divided the panoramlo view. The inspIration came from t.ltlelds. preselect. . Reds &ad oranges predominated. which documents the prestigious development of Bplt. added depth to the completed work. shown 1n Its entirety (right).a. Black acted a. when stJtched.126 ! .s regeneration...Le1'D.U and colour. Lane also researched and photographed the soaJe..ngs explore the modern city. The first Idea W&.t'clroom where the commission waa exhibited. DetaU from the Bishop's SQ\ULl"e textile. Lane's Blshop's SQuare textile in full. Wei for the overla. 2.s a routh Slwtch 1n 011 pastel.y the 'dlagram for b&. these were based on the oolour of the f'ra.se compoeltJon ·. det.a.8 and dom1nAnt vIews of the area. foil to the other colours and..me. 1. step W&S to overla. 3. stree~ pa.. ( Previous ~).e soannea into the computer. The dlagr&m for base composition worked out Une.. The b&. . Clare Lane's wall h&rJ8I. The nOloe8 wen:. 6.ed by the interior designers of me boa. and Includes references to h1storlo landmarks &.t.P.e a.a ..age was of the sky in blue 011 pastel on paper..-l..se lm.ylng of the final montage Of Images.. CLARE L ANE . URBAN FABRIC ! . 4 .s well &.be huge photographio coUect.lon of Allen &0 Overy and inCludes Images of the development. .

tJtohlnB was very I1ense and pulled \. An embroidery hoop waa used to Itretoh the rabrlo drum t. UOll'Orked.he print ~ were to be len.cI\1ng. The . aa were oont.exture. The aUtchlnC was ca.e me&nt the rabric could be saaUy moved to vary the .6 .rrted. . 6 .al oomjXlSiUon waa printed out.oshop and overl&1d.reu a.uaJ llhou.rmary).oxt. The rln.ckled relief to the t.nvaa... and to ot t.pl&t.1ght ( ruustratlon lie or~roo~wn.tJt. DeL&1la of photoogrAphs were aut. out on a free·needle 118w1ng maahlna. C\o8e·up of one of the det&JIo. 10. out. The abIIenoe of a root. avoid a t . 7 . These a.he fabric.~r B\a. on ootton ca.ckbum Royal intI. Computer with I1eWW to be overl&ld. 9. 10 Phot.

At this polnt Uberttny asked hlmself whether It would be possible to make a product at the pla. on already existing natural mecha. of des1l'e.a. 'These mounds &J'8 so precious. For Llbertln.dy there.128 / .a.a. For Ubertln. ephemera. .tlon by plt.rds or dur&bmty. Art.. logical product to develop was the vase.ooesslble.lking about a series of pieces compr1sing mounds ot pollen..c:lemy. t.x poured Into It in stages using a sertes of dlfrerent qualities from very yellow He sts.coesslbll1ty and built-In obsolescence.nce of time and 1a.nsient.!1n) Design to manufacture: 8-9 mont.gtle. of his Masters of Design thesis for the Design Aca.he Idea. functionality and technological innovs. happiness der1ves from the f'ulfllment. for It .fi'sgtllty.ce where the matsMal oMg:Lnates: the hive. AMPHORA / MADE BY BEES HONEYCO MB VASES / .x R: 130cm ( 81tn) x 01&: 70cm ( 27 Y. It Is about having certatn e:xpecta.roy It? After two weeks not.nces tn his work.\11ZIJIL LI11EIHlNY Production: Tomil Oabzdtl Libertiny 8eeswe. TOMAS GABZDIL LIBERTINY. 'For me.n t.u.nst culture tn the use of nat. At every pouring the mould was rotated so that all the surfaces were equally covered.ral subst. the Idea of Intervention In the growth process 18 more tempting t:.' The beeswax pieces oonnote time and value through the repetitive to brown to give the piece textUl'8 and pattern. Eindhoven.h1ng had happened. As beeswax shr1nks when it cools. AMPHOI~A T1IMAs G.rea.lb. autonomous orea. FundamenteJJy.. cast. a. but. or has to be s. The otUect. Each vase made by ~e bees Is the only one or Its ldnd.kIng what Is perceived as the negative values of s. Llbertlny Is lnsplred by postmlnlmalism.an imperfection that LJbert1ny kept as part. the rorm.bJs re&l. in pa. of an lndependent.t1ons from a prooess but not oompletely being &ble to control Its out. of the concept or rra.ys.ttng one of his solJd beeswax vases In the hive to see If it would be dIsassembled by the bees and reoonstNcted. not only in terms Of physlcallty but eJso mel. the most.he amphora.a. hiS essay criUques consumer society. or growth (design process) that Is dependent.ble.c. TomM Gabzdll LlbertJny's beeswax pieces form p&rt.y t. .y.llza.mlnlng the dIalectJo that.\S GAllZlJlL LlllEllTINY Beeswax Va.ll. tactlle yet fragile subsr.rt. ' ft . Lalb sa.1l. who Cha.ked .t1on of natural matter and cultu.n lndustrlal product .hs One·orf Production: Apia: Mell1J'era Carnioa (honey beea) MADE 13Y 13EES HONEYCOMI3 VASES TIIM.tIon oontl'adlcted his preconceIved Idea Of a product as something solld.s wax comes rrom flowers and 10 the rorm of the vase ends up serving them on thew last journey.ch1ng nature agaJ.ng seems..rIous dimensions Design to manufacture: bees actlve Apr11 to June L1m1ted edition www. Ta.lcul&r the work of Gulseppe Penone as well as members of the 1960s lta.P. Ts.Llbert1n.llty and pr1m1tiveness . Libert1ny'S work advoca.nd labor1ous work of t. a sculptural expression and an object. A mould was made in wet plaster and the wa.n art. in most cultures.1za. tn all Mpr1m1tlve cultures t..he honey bee.ted by excess.lenged oomme1'Cla.ral lconio rorm. precious nature of otUeots made from this fragrant. Could be make the bees COnstNet wax dIfrerently rrom how they normally buIld their honeycomb? s. or desire too delJcate and precious to be used or touched but with unJque symbollc value.tes the Importa.bour in buIldIng on something that 18 aJ. After a week the hive was opened and to Llbertl. so fra.ses.gll1ty.b1ngs were handled wlt.which Is all too oommon tn a market that Is dom1nB.aphyslca. by examining the tra. In plaster moulds that were elegant in tJletr simpliCity and surprising in the1l' honey·like scent. He reasons that. so small and yet so big. He then experimented wlth a construct In t1'&d1t1onal vase form made out of preprinted honeycomb. and 1na. touchable and av&1la.t1on. It IS in same way an extension of the Idea. crs. m&ny th1ngs were too precious to be touched.t1on by oreat1ng unU8&ble otUeots or desire. a.rted by put.y. Des1l'e lnforms O UI' need to purchase but the value of an otUect dissipates wlth possession.y seeks to compete with the consumer st.ocesslble. And before.e Povera.com .n1smB.oome.studIollbertiny.noo.ny's amazement the bees had tnflated.h much reverence.ha.I. an otUect becomes vulnerable and consequently ephemeral when affection Is 109t. adding their own extensions. most notably wolfgang La. would they make holes in it 0 1' dest. The ftrst otUects made were a series or small beeswax va. tn our culture everythJ. Exa.. Is a comb1ns. movement. ThIs was rollowed by an amphora: an exhJbltlon piece or exaggerated proportions.nda. oolourf'ul. Today.

.atJonaUy moulded uatng varytng grades or wax and was Uhlblt.ed as if' It were an arch&eolog1o&l artefact. .The Amphora ( above) was rot. In the hive by honey bees. TI\e Made by Bee6 Honeyoomb Vase (len) was oonstructed.

Mu. 1 .1WpllJJ< 1tI 2-4.1lled.. TOMAS QABZDIL LIBERTlNY.&d to be cuatom·ma(\e because r:I Ita large s ize.b polystyrene blocks.1ng that. VaI'loUB modela of t. on a lathe that..y illustI"&t. materlala Th1B model was never developed Lnto a mould.ed tum made by LlberUn. sectJons were taken from a CAD drs. h.P.. to moisture and wsa used to react with the wet. t.. Cross· realatant. Screengrab from a short anl.hods and 6 . It Ia made out of multlplex butu'\hl . a vsse ( which serves U'lem on U'lelr las~ joUrney) Ia the logIoal product to pI'Oduoe tn beeswax. The oross·sect1ons were put. plaster. usln8 a CNC 1lI~. . lUI W&.w!ng and cut (rom multlplex board.mat.. AMPHORA ! MADE BY BEES HONEYCOMB VASES I .JI.hen glued.he amphora were developed using dtfferent met.he gaps three-quarter ftlled wtt. together and !. roughJy m.he computer. together and. The 1: I model of tJ:\e ftnal version was developed on t. 130 ! . cu~ ou~ by hand and. . oullin frum flower'll .

The prattle was at. oovered 10 pluter ueln4l: a techmque of ~ wtth a protUe.be model It wu Lhen rot&l.yllr gradually bUllt up &round it.le to Bet thll perfllCt ahape. 9-10. Tha m~1 aandlnS thll was tlnlahed by wet.m W8..h&n1l and attached . oompJeLeJ.tlon of epolY and nbregJ..t.&Ched WIth h1ngeII to t.y tul1ng tbt .ed in a separator and a 6cm (2m) plaater lI. to harden and removed. fOMDlDg the two p&JU of the mould that were later st. 8.ben acoothed wlth Lhe praft. Th8 model . Hand1e6 were made in poJ.t. A Mfal. The ~r waa len.I::! 'l'hII mOdlll ( which wu proctuoed in eymmet. Template for hamUli ( 9 ). The frame to perform the rot&tIonaJ mouldlng was bu1lt mto the plaater mould by embedding It In a ftbregtaaa OO&tIng..aaa.er W&8 addIId and t. II . 13-14.. PlU\.he II&UlII &XIIIII &B t.PtoC8I.yuret.!I ~ in.hll moael Tbe prorue iii llightly 1&rger.II Pol.hened by the applJce. . evenly oovertng the IUrfaoe.rlc&l h&lvee) was ooe. . plaaulr (10)..ed followtng t.rengt.yur«h&ne foa.lve proftle was cut <Jeen bere laan1ng ag&1n8t tbt table)..

§ GABZDlL LlBERTINY. Each of t. wax d on't mill:.e of the die..exture ana pattern (10 ). in tum into !.. the wu 6011dift8d &6 soon &6 It touched the wet p\. TOMA.en wax to rum!)ie around the tnald. ea. Different quallUes of wax were used from bMgbt yellow to brown to add !..a. 8J'Ound two 8..JUIS at. Inside. 132 / . AMPHORA I MADE BY BEES HONEYCOME VASES I .ch stage: allowing the molt.Btoer. poured. 15-20.. The mould W&6 revolved. . w here It built up to develop a hollow fOnD . 15-17. The mould W&6 wet.P..he mould (17).heee W&6 h68t6d (16) to 68"C (1 54"1') &lid. and as water and.

.k8 DOles In an attempt.hat beee do not. !.&. plAn.1Q. Atl. time the beN were glveo t..oe. at the ute of • beI.ruct."- \\ / ~'" // .g ra.o. . ooloured wax OOll8t.be honeyoomb..a I TbI cr.. Th18 enabled them to build up !. . 10 the cr.&udl". Llbert. thorough Ulldel"lt..Boneyoomb V. oar 8unLbof and COrneUua Blokl&nd. oorreapondlng honeycomb vaae 10 es.. ruponded by embo8&ecl hexagonal. drtve to push t.. made 8Dd added to the hive. bu1ld..1ses up f'rom . Sk etch of the oonatruct.the wttlJ 881Il8 w~ . to Cre&UiI 6Om~ the S&me &II predeelgned {arm new.he bees wou1c1 ma.cb cue. The 1n1U&lI<ie& was to plaoe . .y.he result wu . E&cb. ..er two weeks not. 2&-26.t.ha honey t .he hive.y '. CIoaa ooopera. . natural behavlour aDd QYcleI.lI.h1ng had happened 23. see red.tIon of the wadi by S .he colour of t.Ion o{ the VUMI 22 .he oomb !'rom ground up .. was eaeeoU&l to the PI'CIIICL No beee were burt..1ng up extenBloru. bu11d1. After learning \\ \\ II II II \ // .ure on the lJUl'fa.t1on WIth pro{eu\onal beekeepers. A vaae m&de f'rom .. Amaztngl. requ1red .h1nSs furthe r led him to manJpulate t.ruot was the hive to see If t. lOikI wax vaae In 2 4 The vuea 10 t. honeycomb construct was then employed &nd t. ground.

nd the base ~ected . Met&Wc pegs were fixed under the top. Experiments wef'S conducted to find the optimum way of att&ch1ng the ta.cle. . who a. S TABLE I .tion of surfaces'. the metal· folding machine was found wa. Extremis and MDF ltalia.ly. The S Table's complicated proflls links two'S' shapes Joined In a s1ngle surface. assessed.h a bi--oomponent res in called Ekotek that has the appearance and texture of CoMan® .. 20% reduced prototype was produced in epoxy using stereollthograpby. Fin&lly It was decided to make a cross Une In the ba. inserted Into the holes and finally att.a.mdfttalla.s a graphio/ typographic aesthetic. which takes 20 mlnutes. examples of which have been manufactured by the likes of De Padova.ation' technique: cuUJ. sca. due to the mateMals used.ntlnS as it oould not enter inside the convoluted design to produce the complicated curves of the doubleS base. which looks like a Chinese character.. It.nd his work has recently been the su~ect of a 5010 exhibition at the Orand-Hornu near Mons in Belgium and a monograph written to accompany the show. Lust's timeless furniture combines aesthetic and technical innovaUon With function . As the mould is m&de from mixed media a..P.eel cube.a.n manufacturing to produce the necessary models of both the product and the mould as. it has to be remade after a certain number of pieces h. although computer rendertngs can present deta. Lust then presented the idea to Bruno Fs. a.s been produced. the owner of MDF It&lla..1Uonal. va. made by bending and shaping s1ngle alum1n1um sheets..tion'.. however.re.sed Atelier OeoMs.ted. Xavier Lust Is recognized as the most talented designer in Belgium.y intended as a new ph. Once the resin had hardened. or imagined visua.a.rs curved but Is gener&t.lso rea. into it . Before the mould was constructed.ooepted the design.com/ www. Its form.. He coined the expression 'Cde)form.cl1ness of the base by enlargtng the S-proflles on the floor to allow larger tabletops to be used. but always made in collaboration with lJ~ge-ba.ppea. although. a polyurethane resin form.1ns why the upper S Is 'seMffed '. is tr&dltion&11n ltalla.M. It Is no coincidence that the 8 Table e.bletop to the base. The S Table started out as a personal prqject.1ls of the design visually. 'l'h1s.d.ttoMni .a.ous alterations were ma. A I : I model was made from rigid foam and multiplex wood. The exterior of the m ould Is made In two parts from welded steel and the Interior In four parts: two In fused aJum1n.cls as 'stable'.se in the working process focused on '(de) form.en h. the only folder of metalln the world that can reproduce Lust's involved designs. Based on Lust's production instructions. The idsa of using metal was abandoned in favour of Baydur®.. which trIed to develop a prototype using t.a.nd not milled from a st&1nless-st. without the eJd of a computer and was developed ustng Rhlnoceros® sol"twa. . ThIs expla. has the advantage of aJIowing the manufacturer to make improvements from one series to another.ed by the oomblnation of two components. the mould was opened . revealed both in the names he gives to his pieces and their profiles.l. the PicNlk combo-table. from multiplex wood. it Is relatively inexpensive. a. including an increase in the stea. a full ·scale mould was created and the two oomponents of the res in were mixed and poured.ed by many stra.le models of the m ould were crea. After that. and the computer-eJdad diagrams were dieoussoo with MDF's technicians. However.s& In which holes were cast.1um and two in mixed media.X&vlerlust. a. XAVIER LUST. It was oMginalJ.y'dur® wit. he has beoome famous for his sculptural furniture . Once this was Manufacturer: MDP ltalia srI Baydur® (Ekotek for latest series) H: 730m ( 28~in) x DIa: l58cm ( 61 Ihin) Design to manufacture: 36 months Mass·manufactured www. Lust took the concept to Atelier OeoMs. The technique used in mouldIng the Baydur!l is tra. Lust's work ofl.he '(de)form. rotated a. 134 I ..ng alum1n1um using either laser or water-jet and then cold-folding the sheets. they cannot express the rel&t1onship between the volumes and h ow the user w1ll interact with the o~ect.ched by small screws .1ght lines that have been unrolled using the software to produce a nat 2D surface from a 3D volumetric shape . for example.a. It has a dyn&m1c that would be difficult to produoa by hand. The latest seMes of the S Table replaces Ba.lt .

. single sW'face.The 8 Table's base links two '8' shapes joined in a.

136 / . .P.. XAVIER LUST". S TABLE !"..

e O.r-"'- i . scaled modea were made of the IOnwa.he (di)formatlon would be Impoeaible to cre&t.• r- 6 . . e The Wlllt.y using tbe use or oompu~r It. !. BOaled B Table m&£le In resin. From t.hey lntaded 100 be an nerclse in the bend.he prototype..--r" 1"r--"- • VV .r\C ahApe Into & flat..he PltNIi oomtJo../ r--. 1.he aoaJed mould 9 A 1'1 model was made or surfaoee' P'reY1aua lIIumplea have Included IA Bane ( I ) and !.lch was poured into !.MetA.at.So A Mlr1eiI of CAD drawtngB mould tel vertfy ~ the bIL6e could be ~ect..hogro&ph.&lld the OOI'l'8Cllo from rtgtd roam and multJpJn wood movement of each pArt Ihowl tNt oompUcated ahapeI ..ry.he nnn.he double-S mout. wh.8 fOrm ~ t.tab1e (2)..ereollt. which LuIt..Dd to U!lderat. Computer drawtngs l!lowtng the result of U\e unrolllng or the 3D volumet. 7.. rel'al'l to . 2D wr(aoe The two S shapes are p1aoad to design !.he rot.. A acaJed prototype wu mAde In epox. 4-C\.re.y (rar rttht). \.1ng and shapin« or lteel . laS~waa o~ " •• W1t.ed lfUooessfUUy I.lonal geomet.hou~ of !.

. .P.136 1... . S TABLE I . XAVIER LUST. ..

.&1l1c pegs to at. 22 The upper 8 of t.ed from st.~ .he ruu·1IO&le mould ( t~ In &1um1nJ..Be tB serttred due to the holM cut In the s..um.. 18.tach to the . which allo..1~ I 7. to h&rd.. two tn m.B or t.Xed med1& and reain. Imagea Of the six part.. to cJoee It before the pourt.en for 20 mJnutes..ed.he table's be. and the two ext..vdur.1.eel and resin ). The mould Is ready for Vert1lc&tlon of the opening and closing WI8 19-21 The ~d~ 1& poured in and len. "'P . showing all the ste. then tdect.ng begins . met.emal parte oonstruct.

l. prorx>rt1ons.hs Ma.yearbone. c1B8J' pol. He Is not concerned with statements and his work is democratic: he never designs in llm1ted ed. the innOvative technology used in Its manufa..y It. grid of lines W8.he slmplest. and create voids.nd 8.noe and ve:rsatU1ty. a.Ithough prior d.r poJ.rbonate for the base and soft and matte Desmopan'" for the lines.nd ba.rbona.. would not.d and transparent.yurethane elastomer combining cbaractertstIcs of rubber with the strength of pol.nd prec1se edges &rid a good adhesion to the polyoarbonate: if the Desmopa. resin that.roh.u'ntsh1ngs. The ma.8Jned from the bl·lI\jectlon of two mAte:rl.echnlque that has been applied for the ftrst. He noted that.catlons needed to be made.Ln1ng as an tndustrtsJ desJgner and a. a. pb. when set. bala.I. tn) x W: 52cm ( 20lh ln) x D: 47cm (lB lAI in) Design to ma.ed on two previOUS designs: the Rloclollna and So Happy cha. Manufacturer: Ma.tscusslons with the t. the second part.valJable to all at a.ra. The fold/constructIon lines are in DesmopanTW.s built.nTM cooled too qulckJ.noes and oomfort. The X3 range of fumlture. fllllng the empty spaces &rid ooollng.uMng process wa.ctured www.or.s passed throUSb a 'hot.yuretha. The mould was then a10sed and the Deamopan'TIo' lGlected.nd Simple aesthetIc made with 8. Experimentation bas given rise to saa.t.t.. of the chair.nce between temperature and pressure whlle ltijectlng the second ma. M&roo M&ran is well known for sea. In casa mod1fl.yca. widths and sections to see which comb1n&tlon worked best. The data wa.\}1th.rbooate surface.nd soft and transparent.yslca.ma.logue between hard a. sharp a.t. share flexibillty a. 8.nd wants his prqjects toO be a.Itect.te panel a..echnologl. Is the result.s It.zdeaig:n srl Clear polyca. is a.ck is obt.hls spec1ftc sector.e. and its ult1ma. outllned. a.ne.ceJ procedure for fUrniShings: the stngle-plece ssa. The gr&. MARCO MARAN . Great skill wa. a small mould was created to experlment. ph.1.wtngs were usec\ to construct. of ustog bl·1r\lectlon in 8.umbrella.t. The design bas been patented..t1ng with & transparent.s needed.t.ure. He remained on hand t.me in t.hrougIlout. The X3 Cha1r was commJssloned by Maxdeslgn.ned.he lines.s executed follow1ng the same productIon process suggested for the f\na. a.rtIculated by the fold lines.erlal ftllad the tight channels to genera. On a.t.yalceJ form to evaluate the ahape. of the mould was replaced by the third in a sliding movament. whiCh lnclude& a.n'" lattice H : 770m ( 30 1tr.1ng larger scale.ng1ng Its state from solid to Uquld.ha. r\gI. Desmopa. The first stage was to give 8.lons ( a norma. Once the shell was obt.Irs. If ltiject. resista.. with the 1nJectIon of the second mateMaJ. wa. bar stool as well as the Cha1r featured here. Chair. This resembled an unfolded handkereh. cha. Insp1r'at1on came from Ma.nufa. was then forced through t.8 but never In 8.lzed from the CAD calculat. chamber' in the plasticat.ss-ma. He wondered why this dla.ches of the mould and cause imperfectlons. elega.rbonat. The melt.8 created 10 dIfferent. JXllyca. reasonable price.n's examination of a toothbrush.nufactul'8: 24 mont. The manufact. agal.ransparent.l evolution of a product.e wa. X3 CHAIR I . A steel mould in three pIeces was rea.n dedded upon t.echnlcians bad deteI'm1ned t..l form to Maran's Idea.s then fed.s completely new both toO Maran &rid the expe1"t8 In bl·lGlection who worked on the produotJon. thermoplastic poJ.P.xdeslgn.tng designs that.I ch&lr A wooden mould wa.n6t.nd was created to highlight. new t. using glossy. Once the aesthetic had been determined.hln lines.als. further sketches and det&lled dra.be DOzzle at h1gh pressure into the mould. ftll the grid. with whom Maran collabora. .lef with the surface a.. hence the name of the chair).e t.aJ. to achieve a. and m&te had never been applied to f\.ra. and then 1r\Iectad with 8..er1a.140 1. . The technologlca. of a complex moulding t.ed too foroefully It could brea.it1ons a.t.l..he parameters with wh1ch they WOUld be forced to work. llghtness of spirit. gave M&ran 8..rbonate and mass-ooloured Desmopan". & prototype t.ot. the t. into & computer and CAD drawtngs created 10 order to maoh1ne the tool.te accessibility to me consumer.lt.n exercise in quaJ1ty. polyca.nu1a. Maran's work also bas an honesty that derives from his tra. poJyca.! mould usually has two pieces.k the cat. are of utmost tmportAnce. First.lt ..l to achIeve t. 10 rough Sketches before Ys./ www. a. t. the pl'OO8SS of bl'1r\lectlon had been usec\ 10 small oQlect. Various options were worked out.

ruuJons.The X3 chaJ.h oour.l design. wlt. & Bubstant1a.r has & simple look but. .Usu posalble oolour oombl.

and gummy textw'e..ted from e&l"13 sketches.rtS of the mould used to CI"8Qt6 the P013O&ri:lonate sheU The mould Is open and shoWs t. 8 .aeoond ps.P.Ile mould sUde8 downwards and Is poslLloned In front of the third part of the rnoukI. and seoond matar1als oomblned) wtthln tbe mould.. X3 CHAIR I . au cleBlgMcl in order not. . MARCO MARAN .'. 6 .. and bow !. pe.." I .I'I the body ( polyo&rbonat. . 'Ibe M(IOOd pu1. 10. The Idea of !. 2 "... the aesthetic came from the klea of an unfolded handXerctuer. only eervee an aest. and ..md mater1&l ill lqtect.e 18 VM'y slJppery). I I The mould opens and the 3-4. Th18 one 18 annotat. This gave Maran II.he steel legI . 'Ibe ftnn.rt.&11&n with the words 't. 18 intended to 0l'S16 frIoUon wlt. They show to rtght): !. created by If\IeCl.he X3 eh&lr 18 the bHJ'\lected toOthbrush _ 2 Developed drawtngB weN crea. Is cbied on the t.ycarbon&te.he prqJect.&14 into CAD flies 5 . 12 Thls Show8 the 8heU H18 computer experta then tr&rullatecl the d. The tlrst. Wall to be able to 'slt' on the drawing. part. ph. \ • • ( I ~ 9 . l 5 .yslc.Ine or the shell..l'&rulp&MInt' and 'gr1dlIOn.h1rd part and the -. the grid. A p~ W&II .he rod rr.ecl in tt. • • - ) ""I aheU II compW!te. (ftnn. The IMplratJon belllnd the design of !.he baBe. The Desmopan rW not.al form to reMs Lhe design. of t.. wooden mould.ed on the pol. The ftnn..Ile shftll.ycarbonate shell.142 1 .1Il<< resin Into II.me "'ache!! to !. to d1Bturb the l. of the mould. due to Its aon. t nen.hetIo purpo88 but. I . and grid.. colour' . The CAD drawtngB were used to machine the tool. which will be tu1lId by Ule Desmop&nr. at the mould c:reateII the lines on the poJ.

.

! ve and techn1C&lJ.h the explolt.. he readU. a Duld hand·made met&ll1c form thai.s as dlvel'Se as the ROCk Doorstop for Magis and a prlvat.t G8g08lan h&s showcased & designer rather than an artlst.a. is almost synthetJc It. For him t.hat. t.ed Kelvtn40.eMalB and cra.ers. the GagoSIan Gallery very liberating: 'The t.lery In New York from d&nu&ry to M&rch 2007 brought. his prim&ry concern.s I. and the composite was fa. sympathetic and t.st&noe. and made his name In 1988 with the Lockheed Lounge. t1me t.r 18 made from M1carta. 10 t. the la.ra1ghtforward.s to 18 the specious deslgnsr oQIect and those who have jumped on the bandwagon in search of easy money. world.tle qualltles of M\0&. The hardest p&l"t. of the process Is very similar to woodworking.a 'relatIvely unusable' .y rigorous. t.he Sydney College of Arts.yplng. this 18 not.t.&Ot.rt8 with a.ure for Newson to be assocl&ted wit. was used In elect. Newson comes f'I'Om a gener&.ton held together by phenollo resin and. Newson ~ be able t.e jet.rical1nsulat. although It.ted to the thickness be desired.ed edit.r1.lons at the Galerle Kreo In Pa. work directly on comput. does not.b. org&n1c.lcart. Marc Newson 's exhibition at.oom .1ons were CNC-m. has an organio subst. had to be made to order. He mocl.h1B 18 not how I generate my livelihood. The chair Is smOO'". Once the material was sourced It. baa a b1z&rre anachronistic quallt. In 1996.erations.'s very much somet.he avtatJon lndustry.lon.y the Ia. the oagos1a.h1s 1: I 0 model he made aesthetic and fUnctJonal alt. Here.. obses8lon with the art.m. Is multJd1rectJonal. was t.h1ng t..11l8d from CI. MICARTA CHAIR I . llke most.. It.y lnvolved In !. Is a strong laminat. They were then bonded together with the same resln found In the composite 80 that when the piece dIsooloU1'ed It.ation of tr&dltlonal mat.t1on that.ra1ned aa & jewellery designer and sculptor at t. For Newson It. The sect.. was Invented in 19 10 as a by· product or the development.9am ( 301n) x W: 74. All the ten pieces of the llmIt.h1ng for me 18 thai.P. He t. together 16 llmlt. producing otijeat. would do so evenl.s and at. he t.' As the name suggests.hIs wa.1lama. 18 the ftrst.e and behAves llke wood but.a. MARC NEWSON.ed edition of 10 www. Newson rema1nB susplc. Newson otiject. a. oompoelt.e ProEng\neer and oocaslonally h1a to give the sketches a 3D reaJ1ty.a.y for 20 years.hat are at once v1suall.n O&l. sh1n.ed editions t. Is not. He h&s exhibited Um1t. of Bakellte and.. 'It.' he oomments.bs lJm1t.nship. I.Uled the weight.y seduct. by the sale of one or two pieces from Galerle Kreo and the oagostan Gallery.o obtain the MiO&.d. I need to do. which 18 now produced by only a oouple of oompanIes. predating fl.l.rate of silk. own code - ma.: Marc NewaoD.ctiOD.es tooo sketches and then uses software .a no depa..tJve D1rect.h1s 18 not.rl.marc nowaon . He st&. 144 I . the very Orst. Unen or cot.y. Its colour constantly changes llke a living material. h&s a weave that 18 both subtle and evident.ted as an experiment&! exerciSe In oombining advanced technology wlt.l dIsc1pUnes from lndustrial t.tous of the design lndustry's ourrent.lBo in Pa.I"t. the Fonda. a sculptural lnst&ll&tlon.o ea..hen made to vaJ1date the changes so that the next ten pleoes would be Identical. exploiting the Iuxur1ous.hat can be carved and Is highly sculptural.rn a sigrillloant. but. amount.y a.o Interior design. oomposltes. ultraviolet-resistant. be created Bucky.hat. Nevertheless. Is a beaut. MJe&rt& H : 78. It. Prod.1g1t&! data.brtca.b1ng new: he bas been work1ng In t.tertal. Tbe rest. In 2006 he was made Crea. Newson then produced a prot.1t.I"t. Newson chose linen as his substrate because It. as well as the orientation of the weave of the material and lOme minor proportJonalJ&'Uusunenta. From t.ot.-resl.rt1sts' proofs were t.yers fttt1ng together with perfect.oouracy. Newson's Woart& cba.yers werejolned.u.1f'ul subslance t.t. 10) x D: 800m (31 1A1in) Design to pr'OOuct1on: 10 mont.ba. Toda.he case of M.y.n Idea The manufacture is st.breg1&ss by 40 ye&l"8. low and very heavy.h the exclusivity of the oollector's pIece.ed edition were hand·made in the USA. Although It. . Two a.. Newson 18 one of the most aooompUsbed and tnfiuential designers workIng acroas &l.y. He found the expertenoe of exhlbltlng at.ranslat.s.a crea. and in 2003 exbJblt.lon Cartier a..ype using rapid protot.or of Qant&s AIrUnes and is currently beavU.4cm (29 1/ .rt. wide. It.y. as It. It. and the ws. What. a prototype a1rora!t..RhtnooeroslZ. beoause of noll hea. Each pleoe I.

.

ftnal chalr Is sanded and. 1 (Prevloue page). here It has been formed from & single p1_ 3 . He st. 'lb.e In the wel&ht..yptng from which aestheIJo and lUnctJonal alterations were m&d.eclmology.ireetJy on the oomputer.. M lCARTA CHA IR ! .erlal. !.h&L v1sUAllze the Ideas he h&s oonoelved.he Lll. 4 Tbe skftt. I 81noe beoolll1ng Creat.erl&ls and t. The Voronoi shelf II ma. MARC NEWSO N.e with sketches t.y used to shape the oomplex manlfolds of jet. which is norma.Yera of Ilica.rta are e Ne ·milled from the c1Igita1 d&t&.P.t. 10. refined.be lustre of the ma. 8-9.ro-fortll.y marble would.. eng1nes 2 . A 1-10 moclel was procluoed using rapid.Ches are then fed into a oomputer to give them a 3D re&ilt<}' and to produce the daUL fl'Qm whic. tradluonal mat. so they ftt together with perfect ~-. be fabricated by joln1ng pieces together. Normali. Pleoes from h1a recent G8(081&n Gallery exhlbltkln retlec\ t.h18. met&lllc culturs on to sllM'Og&t8 forma)..'l the ch&1r will be fabrlCWld. to brln( out r. ~7. Newson f'IU'Oly woru d. Newson has been heavUy Involved In the av1at1on indUSLry.&rt.de from a soUd piece of Carrara marble.ive DIrector of Qu&ntaa In 2006. OUler Newson pieces llnk oraftllmanshlp...1n& (the grow1n4J of . Random Pak gploree eleet.yel'lni and o rientaUon of the weave and lte proportiOD. .1 4 6 ! . The Mlcart. The la. protot. .a chair's saUd ye~ sensual profile.ll.

front .Ide - .

allowed to set.ur'les.y t.hat.y is orten ml&8lng in mus·produced design.8Pur. Into spagbet. & met&llurgica.aJ wall Is cha.1n technique.he chair using t.khal6 found a. horse form. areas of the world for many oent. It.kha.roduced int.be senses and has thus lost Its cultural and symbolic meaning.he bell-met&l lost-wax process.b1s methocl in a more refined ma. s.er. Germany Bronze &lloy .he mould IS broken a. When I\lect.rch was on to find A foundry t.meter tube in a pla.st.he bespoke oroer. CAUSing the wax to melt. engineering and ma.bregl&Ss) mould was produced.ny f.ech industry and is acut. The ftnished cba. a.llengtng.hro\l.er or Design degrees in India and later oomplet. Pakh&l6 created a.be Iaok of sensorlal quality In industrial design. A fleXible 6mm ('41n) dla.ube and a sll100n mould.rs 6 m onths Ltmlt.h a t. an oQject.ely aware of t.tes emot.s t. During t. He now worM In hlSb' t.kha. It. yea. Met&! is poured into t.oom .it.: an lcoo1c IdentJt.he fa. Tactillt. In a combination of bMck powder &nd pla8ter.kh&l6 moved t. Horse Chair is made by t.le .he wax strands.&le Client.a. 148 / .o harness t.l technique.klng members of t.yendra Pak. t.t. eight. To achieve t..cllltJes available in rursl India.IC composlt.he wax.ed to t.y.lve to be used in piaoe of the nat.he wax mode1l1ng. was ooa.hey wind around a cl&y mould. After five months An enterprisIng company in northern ItaJ.ural chaJr wlt.st. this big In one piece using such a.P.t.ru1 finsJly ftred to melt.rengthentng layer of plaster. Again Pa.e was needed for the int.h him t:.s were wound.ted for ten days to slowly harden.or's st.aJ was t.lal sketches to determine proftle and rough dimensions. The mould Is left t. Production: 8&tyendr& P&kb.rs. Pa.h tradIt. By adopt.y t. From 2000 to 2005 P&khaJ. The met.ra.l test.part. using 3D scannlng and reverse engineering: t.y to modern technologtcal oQject.he ca. with a sf.hen chiselled.m1/ Basel in 2007 . 80 Pa.l6 hand-sculpted t.noe for t. SATYENDRA PAKHAL1L .h Its mix: of crait. and sta. was an enormous suooess.rled four Urnes to cast. t. From f.rtcat. A repla.he mould crea. 8 .kha.a. Wlt.hlnk of an a.t would work With t.rt.M .he next.o undertake t.kh&l6 was lucky to ftnd a compa.aJ.tlon and cultural reference.s there have to be enough polnt.he exercise to Europe. and t.he patterning.h a. and t. "as sought for t. Design MIa. was broken away..ized version of the chaJr was ca.6 t.h&Ir in a sIngle piece of aeamless casting was to dominate Pa.hls absent. thin met..s for the gases to escape.r1be in cent.er and brick powder.ed in all1oon.udio in N&. fa.rtbe8people collect beeswax and roll It.er from which & polyester (fl.ed. The process bad worked. has a culture of making &J't. Ce.M.t. rela.s . recycled bell met&! H : 96cm (37I\4 in) x W: 66cm (21 ~ in) x 0 : 850m (33 IA1tn) Design to manufacture: 7 yea.he outoome IS unknown unt. Pakhal6 Chose to work w1t.ral Indi& tha. ThIs is fired in a basic furna.. sculpt.. oQject.ref'Ully studied to examine the met.ll t.he paL1n& fl. The polyester model was sk1lfull.ional mater1&ls and technIques.v1ty and allowed to set.gh symboUc oonnot.he ses.he wax/rubber piping.hat gave hIm the Idea. A oore was cast.y encased in t.8 .b1s unoorta. be devISed a new way to do t.o dry and t.hat believed in his research. By going back to basics and work.tHilte st. repllca. t.he cha1r using inlt.ry fulftlled t. around which the rolled wax stI'8.hen t. and the clay to harden. To cast.o a oomput.l6 ca. whiCh has become divoroed from t.he desired fonn and surface quallt. A 6n&l full-sca.ed. These were lnt.ed a two-yea.r1a.er program to check ergonomics and over&ll dimensions before a 1:3 model In clay.nn. t. flow over the h1ghl.e work.he enUre c.nner.khal6's Ufe for t.~endra· pa.ural subst.smanship and lndust. The cha. sculpt.ecl ec11tJon www .st.ed in plast. In 2006 Pa.1ng wlt.b1s time Ps.he d1g:lt.llenge. quallt. and t.y sculpted surface. There It.ubes for indust.s t.n1shed . Sat.rr1ed out.rch.lled each time. of designing a.n. The B. design in Switzerland. A manufacturer of &1l types of t.nds.r course in advanced product.oement. range of contemporary oQject. 88.t.y took on the cha.lleDge of producing t. t.a. was produced in hiS Amsterdam studio.y Hlled wlt.lonaJJ. but. The bronze was poured.ha.rryIng out a small casttng using rubber t. Pakh&l6 alms t.h pla8t.brlelle Amme.oe. The t.lld. would have been tmoosslble to cast.. prlmaJ.he trtbe wIt.hen a seoond l&yer of cl&y Is added. the metal retaJ.ha. rued and t.he patternIng of t.tng f.1r was present.terlal resea.he chair.he plastic tubing and was shipped to the foundry .he cast.le form was made in pla. whiCh t..eroat. HORSE CHAlR I . The mould was hea.ed at.he h1ghly skllled wax spaghetti work . which has eX1Sted in different.h8J6 earned hiS Bachelor of Eogtneering and Ma.: Designer's Gallery Ga. a hollow wax model was made and the cavit.

The B M Hol"88 QuUr IS made from a unIque 8JX1 innovative prooeu that oombines old and new matertaJa a.ru1 t.eohnoJog1ee.

P. I SO ! ... B.M. HORSE CHAIR I ... SATYENDRA PAKHAL~ ...
1-2. In the ,fWJl.fIler of 1998 ~ creat.ed a range of contemporary bell
mct&l ~ dioUngulBhod by thew Mm8OrI&l qua.Ut,y.

reftnecI. use or wax patterns and eophlaUcat.ed designs, tlnesee and .ftnIsh. He adapt.eCI the loet-wax ca.st.lng techniques of a tribe In oent.ral Ind1a t.h&L had a specMo culture of creating and making art oQleats.

3 The ~ gave P&kh&l6 the 1I:la 01 de81go..1Il4[ a aoulptW'8J. aha1r with a prtmal, Ioonlo berM form. 'Ibe size of the pIeoe made It tmpoe.alble to 0&IIt. In one pIeoe in l"Ul"ai tndl&, 110 a aoulptOr's st.udl.o was found In the dt,y of Necur. Pak.ha.I4 needed the spec\1\o oran. skill of the trlbespeople eo he took t.hem wltlJ. h1m.; t.h1a waa a logLsUc n\ght.m&re, ILl many had never tr&velll!d out of t.h8lr

4 F'&kh&l8 'lfaa e~ to oonUllue by the po&IUve response he received for a 1: 1
~I

of Ho1'H Chair In floek

t.echnlque UW he designed for Cappelllnl and exhibited during the YUan Pumlture Pair, 200 1. He 8OUgh~ to t\ru1 an altemat.lve method 01 subl!lt.ltutlng the natural aubl!lt&noe. t.nd ret.hOUShL the

enure Pl'ClOlU.

Imrred'au IIJIlvtronment. Pour IMIlf.tlnanoed &WImpt.a were made to out. the ch&1r. All or th8M r&lled and the uerc1se
waa moved to Rurope

,

4

5-6. Pakh&1* oeveloped !.he
rorm using 8ketchea (5) and

I 3 models made !rom ~. than repUoated In piaBter (6 ).
7. PaIthaWI CI"'II&IJn& t.he poJ.yest.er (ftbre«!&Bl) model, winch WU or\gl.n&lly aculpl8d to ~ and then plaster

8-1 I. Tho model 1B p&.Instak1ngly covered. by the 5mm ( VBin) plast.1c oompo8.lt.e; t.hl8 1B IlOI. too 8tltr and IlOI. too 11U1b1o, but. just. I'I4IhL ro .. woI'k1n4 with.

P. 162 1... 8 .M . HORSE CHAIR / ... SATYENDRA PAKHALlll ...
12 The sltUled operation of utmost. importance to !.he pt'QleOl.. as .... hat i8 len. at. t.hls point WUI. be !.he fI.nal appear!UlOlll 0( the caat. oQIeO\..
W&S

13. The tube being

manuflldul'ed. The nrm t.I'l6lo undenaok t.hls work made pipes for 1ndWn.ry. and Ita
owner was a t.ecIuUoe.I expert. who was al80 oultura.l.l.Y interested in deelgn. She took !.he gamble 0( cbJlnC her factory for two hours to I'ultI.l
!.he

14 . Packing the m odel In the Amsterdam studio to send It to the foundry in nort.bern It.&Iy. Pakhal6 had aouroed. an ind.ustrtal glue WI8(I In !.he autolDOUve industry to sUck the plaaUc tube LO the poJ.ye6t.er. However, & 8U'Ict schedule meant there was no time to test. the glue and there was a. ~ OOIlOern that It might beoorne brtWe In the sub-zero tempera.turee or the pLane's hold.
16. Once at. the foundry c.he model was ooat.ed In sWoon

ordar.

along wtth a strengthening
~r of pl&8ter, and the mould was created.

hed.I cs.erdam.ys to h&I'den and. Then the cast.Jy pl&ctng the runners and risers on the wax model are lmmenseJ. OpenIng the met. .16-17. . 19.ln.y h8tU. Anoer dedJ.lon.ortJon. .st.enBUa) was poured Into the cavtty and allowed to set. the I'um&oe and strateg1oaJ. The chair being cb18eJled. modal wu made and then checked by means of a custom·made tool to oorrect. 21 . 22-23. Luck1ly.be castlIlg.g of t. the real casting work st.ng It in 20.Ied and t.a. (a oomb1natlon of bronze and bronze a. n.ed fOI' ten da. Af\er the wu mooel prepara. The mould was ready. onoe the mould. W&8 broken. and cIlst..y skilled tasks.Ing.nall. and awaited the news in AmBt..artecl The pLann. years or hla llfe to the PI'Qlect.nt.l:. lnst. 18. ftnls.e&tlnS eight. movement.llDy made trom broken old Ut. the prooeSIJ had worked.&lll. The bell met&!.he patlna. bear to be present at this pol.fl. was prepared.y fired 80 the wax melted. A hollow wu. PaJduLlj ooukln't. It was slowl.

Edra. evoklng both the memory of the meander as weU 88 a i8.or down·scaled aooordlng t.gn to manufacture: 15 months Mass·manuf&etured www. to fit wlt.ract fa. The company's aim Is to produce the highest quality furniture textiles in the world. using the Iat.ys.vaveMet.l. the Stockholm Furn1ture Fair In 2006 . 3D CAD drawing to work out the prec1se geometry of the pattern. whose 10001c dest.ctJusted the proportions to work out.nlng texture and reUef developed wlt.Uy oalouJated the ratlos.ndlnavian landsoape. to obtaln the desIred pattern the technioal t. The dra. and be up.at1onship. including the Akasma tableware for RSVP and the yetrto-be·ma.eam at V&verlet.rtz1ng b1Dlseif WIth the wa. oould be used in three directions (which IS optimal for upholstery work). Ciaesson KolviBt. and It was launched at. B% polyester W: 1500m (59In) Dest. va. shape that 18 a.rs. MEANDER ECOLOGICAL TEXTILE / . as well as adding a couple of his own designs for the sole use of ltallan ma.tyendra Pakh&J.ppea..nL dialogue with Pa.lsh textile craft. Keeping !.6. Wool is a '!lYing' ma. Pakha16 often uses a. kind of tapering loop.er famll1a.n the process of weaving Itself'.hrea.khaJ~.1gn Is an exerot&e in freet. of shr1nka&e possible.khal6 wanted to create & textlle pattern !.khal~ as he had to go back to basics to produce a pattern WIth a. combined with the state-of·the·a.er1a1.s and desl.se.a.l and design a fabrlo for VaveMet.gners.ll the possible v&rtatJons. but also a. Pa.n the amount. had to recal1brat.1B81oned a select. which automat. lntormatJon was fed into the loom. and several trials were needed Inoluding washing to ascerta.he design. from which he chose a range of nine. to Vlverlet.he patt. Morose. Inverted.khal6 created the basic oonceptual sketch and then bullt a. combination of warp and wett to form the design. the Mght. It has almost become an loonographlo form for b1Dl.t1ons of t. The textile design makes conceptual reference to the Sca.1ng and Close working rel. group of designers to produce conoeptS for oont.eam of a. des.ys was then sent to Pakhal6 to consider. However .nd.ref'ulJy studied how these topographioal features are formed. Poltrona.rge pa.t.s customers inClude intemation&ll. Pa.y renowned manufacturers such as Vltra.ptatlons. strong concept. ThJs a.ern being created by oombl. Manufacturer: Viveriet 92% wool.se .u.. Per him.o the size of the t'Urnlture belng oovered.khal6 was invtted to research The patt. Meander Is his flrst textile piece and took 16 months to develop. he mathemat1ca. The world·famous Swedish t.e the machines. C&sslna.y V&veMet.1ng Be. P&ltha. Batyendra. background combined with careful conslderatJons of detaJ.nufactured sertes of stools that. U.l.wtngs were sent.rt technology of weaving.he oorrect.Uy calculated.l~ developed the text. who. Swedese and Offeoct. With his technica.rch1tect.. evolving a pattern consistent With hl8 own personal expression.nsport&tJon design. Pakhal6 works across many fields. t.lluded to the lovely mea.gn le.. ThIs stage in the design development. only referred to 8wed. The bMef was to make a pattern that. Fra.ngu&ge they e. a welHtnown Swedish textile· manufactur1.o Rune. along with Pakhal6.rlatlons to achieve the requlred form with the t..1ca. in const.ndlnavian Iandsca.P. the rtght. 164 / .oom / www. BATYENDRA PAKHALIL .dmJred. A selection of colourwa.nders found In the 8ca.ern also needed to work monochromatte&lly with several v&r1a. Pa.led to Pa. from products to mass· manufactured tndustM&l pieces along with tra.khale. ~k considerable tJm. P'1nal1y.ors of VAveMet.1St1o dlrect.pe. C&ppell1n1.1le's dlstinctJve pattern. with whom Pakh.bMcs. stack together to form a.ds.h such ada.hat not..h1nk1ng to be appUed &CI'0S8 all typologies In different wa.tyendra·pe.rt of h1s own work. A!t. makes textiles. are also the art. He oa. a.e as Pakhal6 wanted to achieve the best balanoe by working out a. It has appeared In several products he has created over the yea.nufacturer C&ppellln1. screen for pubUc Sp&0e8 and oonferenoe rooms.est techniques and working with world· renowned Swedish and international destgnera. brief in view.ng company establlshe<l In 1696. They oomm. Working with h1s normal intensity.al6 has a long·ste. lnclud.hI.

.

BATYENDRA PAKHALt .em. 15. MEANDER ECOLOGICAL TEXTILE I .he pt.P.. 4 . 3D CADe were use4 to work out the pi""lKl18e geometry or t. 8cAru1Ina..lon for t.he Meander toxt1le 18 the topographtO&l reature (oun4 In &bund&noe t.U. I .evelope4 drawtngl ( 3 ) and rendel"ln&B ( 4 )....hroughoUt.vla 2--4 Pa. 2 (Previous page). The Meander rabrlo oomel In nine monoohrolll&tJo colourYtay • .156 I . JI'lnall..y.kl!Itches ( 2 ) from which he d. The tnaplr&l.kh&l6 made concept .

&to VAveriet.ngs were sent to !. oombtnarJon of warp and weft had been mathem&t. In constAnt d1Alogue with Pakhale.exUle. The ftr8t. a£UU8ted the Pl'OporL1ons to work out the correct v&rl&Uons to achieve the required form with the tbnladB. 6-1 1.ype Ia on the table.1l1 of !.i06. .lons dl.a.hal6. ? A.he manuract. to obt.. had to recalIbrate the machines. and &Il the v&r'\a.&d t. A ser18.. the information was fed lnto the loom. whiCh autom&tJca.hrough.t.y ea.lng room ~ VAverlet.&cussed and thoroughly work.mages showtng the weavtng of the Meander t.IoaJ t. Then.he t. with Pak.Icul&ted by Pa.1call.ea. Meet.6.1n the deslre<1 pattern !.tter the correct.lth&le.ochn. protot. who.lly dellberated the rat. Dra'9t1.m.urer.

y from the base of the arms and supports a r&nge of seating options: diecut felt.mlztng comfort.al design respectJ.l. of the cbair It was no longer needed. The subtle twist of the planes belles a complex structural. Ever since Mart St.neeMng sketches were used throughout so that no det.s have been made I. tubular Bteellegs H: 79cm (31ln) x W: 87cm ( 22 ~ 1n) x D: 58cm (23m) Design to manufacture: 80 months Mass-manufactured www. 1& warm to the touch. whlCh fly in the face of the current prevalence of superficial and selfreferent. 'We thrtve on the rest. ma.tlon and col. Luke Pearson and Tom Lloyd met &t the Royal College of Art 10 London. and were sketched upon and then carved to effect necessary chan. wh11e stud. &nd all else that defines the brief.xl.pea. they Ident1t\ed a plastic that would allow them to create the entire top portion of the chalr. whose brief was to develop a new cantllever chair for the 21st century.. ' Pea. They work wtt. where they believe the challenges and opportunities for the profession &re &t their most a.:rd.la. structure.uk/ www. screws or welds. but Its tubular steel frame has remalned. unlike steel.h1n the oommel'Cia1 and lndustrlal re&litles of mass produotJon. Da. the UK-based. Information was fed back Into Pro E CAD software to deliver to the engtneers. market. SOUL CHAIR I .t1on as with pure invent. but rather in the demands of technology and product.Ct. flexes and responds to the user's movement. analysis but describes the flow of strength around the ch&1.r &nd maldng It applicable for a range of dJfferent environments. function. reoogn1ztng Its merits as a universal product.lon..tJng and tables. which Is one pleoe emt and formed . LUKE PEARSON Be TOM LLOYD .an&r paddle arms that are bonded I.s much to do with observa.a1l occurred purely as an aesthetic ambition.lon.tce IS a. All p&rt8 are 1r\ject1on-moulded except the leg frame. alteMng the mood of the ch&1.ges. material. Within this context. I\lrn. The body was designed to sl. neoprene or upholstered leather. early oonoept sketches were qUickly utlllzed to make 3D CAD drawings.vely.ed models and prototypes.t1ng-ectaa computer technology and b&nd-cr&f\..y InnOvative designs. foam.ylng for their MAs in furn1ture desl.les of the flUid oonl.l1ve. or appropriate.rsonLloyd 18 reoognI. a bowled seat loop blends awa.Zed for Its intelligent. and bUilt up a sophisticated skeletal frame that. Full-size ooncept models were created to resolve the masstng &Dd spatial oomplexit.nlsh manufacturer of exclusive furniture.l the 'cran.M. As the legs joln the maln seat frame.eurs..am developed the first. process.ed to employ technological advances in materials and production methods to address this 1&sue. They founded their multi-diSCl. PearsonLloyd refer to what they ca.ynamlc relationship with the seat.com .gn and lndust.rsonlloyd.pl1n&ry oompany In 1997 and have alwa. hand work was vital In solving flnal problems before the mould could be oonstructed. Once they had reached this observation.lng pl. For Boul.mply plug on to the lower steel frame without the need for holes. They studIed the form. However. Inst. decided to develop It for a wider market.1ng factor in the design. above the seat Une. integrating aesthetics and engineering to the polnt where It Is diffiCUlt to know which 1& the motlvat. and models in ha. PearsonlJoyd want.ll. polypropylene seat.e a floating backrest that has a d. Even at the end. Manufacturer: Allermuir O1a8s·ftbre reinforced nylon frame.oo. the manufacturer chose not to produce the concept. cantllever chalr in 1927 It has become one of the most endurlng ModerniSt pieces of design. of Industri&l design'. The designers do not believe in styles or trends.ys been Interested In the cross-over between the CUltures of fUrniture and product design. The ortglnal commission for Bow came from Frttz Han.ead. and with a different price point to make It more accessible. controlled and techn1ca.Iture desl.gners and manufacturers of oontemporary sea. The high-tensile tubular legs flow into progreSSively slimm. our pl'S.l&logue between cut.P.. PearsonLloyd took the ftnlshed prototype to AliermU1r.15S I . who. which to them &re key influences.allermUlr. Eng1.sen.e reinvent this loonJc archetype.. advantages and qualities of the canLUever and realized that whOe the tubular steel was stUl Ide&! for the lower part. Many &ttempt. The design was then refined and the process repeated throughout the development of the chatI'.rlotJons tmposed by product type.r. client. perfecting a product 10 an ongolng d.lal products.

The Soul c&lltilever chair I reductive but be&ut1ful It: ucture . .with & rich yet ecanmlc design.

Only det&ll sketches were used during the design <levelopmenl. I 11\18 brief for the Soul oh&tr l'fa8 1. 6 Development sngln8ertng aket..ch1ng oouJd ~ resolve the oompiex and OWCI proftJe of the chair. !arl. • - .ke mode'.rd roam ( 3 ) and mlrrored models 10 examtne the IOrm ( 4).. 7-8. SOUL CHAIR I .0 ensure t.P.c reasons..oentury verskln of the Ioonlo 1927 canti1ever cb&Ir by M&r1. 160 I .y ooncept sketches ( 2 ) 'Were utJUuld 10 ma. 2--4 .. e . ourted out on the oomputer or on models. Qeta1la were made .ch1t8 were made at every stage 1. Bt&m.y for aea:thetJ.0 develop a 21 at.. AU other work .in 3D !'rom ha. 8lU'J..y &II possIble.. LUKE PEARSON & TOM LLOYD .hat no deLall ooourred pureJ. U oomputer sket...r and.•. Pull·8CAle moclela of tbe whole ch&I.

I (I I ). before the ch&1r wu tUNlItI' developed wIt. and raster. aocurat. 100 Iketcb and then carve c:I1recUy on Ule models to err. I a 'l'hrou&bouL the Hvltlopment. neoNetry cht.at were then 1t:am1t\ed and han(l. 13. modeL II l. worked unUI • NUaractory solution wu IChteved ( 10).h.ngee.y to refine meant that CAD "u used to maohIne parta t. Luke PM.Hltre. The neoessll.an1pula.ted to detIJ.9 The deIIlgneI'll round It mar.Il Allormutr. 10-1 I . meetlnga were boItld WIth the cllent and U\elr en&meel'll.e. The data waa red beck into the aomput.I'IIon (08ntre) discusses fJl earlY model with F'r1~ Hanlen. Plrst lIJ'UCturaJ. .ltr to be m.

\ySI8 of Vl..162 I . Pro E CAD builds graphic images of how the ch&tr will perform under loadlng. an analysis of the surface using zebra curves (8). SOUL CHAIR I . LUKE PEARSON & TOM LLOYD ... Here they show the surfa.. . 16-19. --. 16.P. 14 A CNC·mach1ned axert.nalysls to understand the imp&Ct of changtng aectlona on the ch&Jr to optimize plastic usage (19). A ac&le model waa produced using SLS.oe &n&. the pressure oach curve .. and all PEA streaa a.rlOWl oomponenta (18).8 on the model ( 17).

det. Heavy weIghts are used to pound.s. normal oantllever. . pJastlea.1 I 20. bend and flex tile chair through thousands and can t>e pLaced on the table 80 only clean surfaces touch (24 ). As It disassembles.o see how long It will take to fall.ael Is less than In a. This Image shOWS how Soul flexes In use to 3COOmmodat. I\.e dl&nges for good posture.ct. SOul Is submItted to cycle testing.ed using one tool with male and female paN. SOul has many structural beneftt. Ergonom1c studies.l concept 12B).or In the oMgina. As the oontent of st. cutLing down on LI'anspol'taLlon and 1IUeGtlon-mould.en:n1nlng fa.hell' own tools and use 23-25. 22. It staclts (23) waste of resouroes II. It Is Ught and easy to lift. The other part. 21 The maln ohalr frame Is of cycles t. currerent. with several uruque feature of the chaJr. chalrs to a box. It can be easilY &Cd cheaply shipped.s have !.

and large and small.ssocIat. G&etano Pesce was born in La..o work has been important.n being there is beauty and uglIness. Tak1ng deslgn beyond the funct10naJ Into the rea. Despite t.he m. dogma. The production technique 18 straJghtlorward but.rch.1ned in form .sm.he pu.eJnta. Perh&pe Pesce's m06t. jOy a.h the o!.ldng a blscu1t.ln differenoe. authorlta. and as ream hardens natur&lly.he huma.lns. polit1cal sense &Iso . Spez1a. at !. Modernist.a.e feeUngs of sw-prise.h&t.h v&lue placed 00 ooherenoe. his oa.nsone tables for Casslna.lcal.. The table's human proftle.test In a long Une of unique. where he uses resln tiles.y beauUful is what 18 different.ees to m. 164 I .m11&r but.a. even Its smell. Beoa.le productIon www. anonymous. deslgn that.nd fl'ieJld)y to !.he conceptual ant1-deslgn.ooording to t. Pletra.nd which was relssued by Pesce is probabb' best known for his work In ooloured resin. The conoept appealed to the manufacturers: tooling was UDnecessAry. &tt&ched to a sm&ller footrest.llow for mec:ban1utlon.oom / www. taste'. Its t.ng t.lvely small.y market.hs Sm&ll·sca.Itecture and deslgn of the reoent. ant. to be different.echn1Que for sm&ll-sca. Ital. is produoad In sroall·so&le runs. hB does not.h a sort. which results In each ~ect being sl.t. l1ke ma.reer he has sought to engage wi!. which he oonoelved.y produced oold. ( the oolours of which were selected by the factory workers a. When you ~ my work ls ugly.a.rla.'e t.t.n&ry. did not Involve a large workforce. 18 rich in oolour and unoonstra. in 1939 and studied &roh1t.ortions of scale to undermine !.reb' functional value of an ~ and question our conceptS of taste.he huma.he right.he Universlt.rum. which ls multl-d18c1pl1.. And It.1J.a would reID.. sensuality. is the la.me.I. ls of prooess. surface. a.heir taste) and the Nobody's Perfect range of furniture a.' ~B It&l. believe hlmself to be a rad..nd expressIve res1n table.y for Merlta...n body.l1 and Ch&I. It has &Iso been described as ugly or badly done w1th ID1st. the t. he says: 'A. moving aw~ from the 0001. strengt.y of his work..kea. UFO.. Employing &l1 the design values eschewed by ModerniSm.1me of non-homogeneous production. 'son:.t.lm Of polit1cal sta.' he expla.ckground. In Florence.g&eta. He began designing in the earb' 19608.hls ba. standardized results that are uninsp1r!ng. resln-ooated partIcleboard legs Various dimensions Design to manufacture: 38 mont.n. Manufacturer: Merltalla SpA Resin. e1. It. . because In t. no oven was necessary.ect\ll'e and lndustJ1al des1gn.n re1&t. t. is rea.stlca.h&t.ed with Ugo La. reguJ. monolithic. GAETANO PESCE .I& in 2000. to me hlstoMcaJJ.s !. tron grid.y. much of his output. by t.b. The following lnlages describe the prooess Involved in the fabMcat10n or one piece overseen by Pesce himself. or Pesoe's deslgn phIlosophy as It.lt. p&Si has mostJ.le production. stlmul&tlon.Wzed In n Cest. a sensuous a. unlike a blSCUlt. Unique va.tng for Zerodl. optlmlsm.n ela.rl. in 1969 a. me&nl..k1ng a table with a oertain prooess.on hB has for m. and the reput&tl. 'F1nd1. Since 1981 hB has lived and worked in New York.he UP Chair. but MeMt&l. by a. the 8a. The table 18 destined.a.nopesoe.6Uo restaurant.hat gives o1:t1ect.eJnt&1n. his house in Brazil.e t.nd fem1n1n.a. I suggest h O li to manufacture each pleoe so It looks unlque. I approached Merlt&l1& with the Idea.n) represents woman's dom1n&t1on by man. ser10usness and lnflexibUlty. for a m1noMt. avantg&rde movements a.&r&nt. the finanC1&1 outla. and h&ve flaws .meMt&lla. mooumeot&11sm. reoogn.democracy is a system that gu.k1ng 1t&l1an manufacturers go beyond !. where he heads Pesce Ltd.&stJc. GNPpo St.. Pe808 m. I h&ve tried to oommunica.t1ons can be made.l.beir comfort zones in the production of pieces that challenge preconceptions of 'good.ed oord ( a ba. for a long t1.I& h&ve adapted. It embraoes trony. IWl of feeUng. 'Th. only make economio sense but. as ut. not.y. TAVOLONE TABLE I .tJ. and s howed them a small model wi!.' TavOlOne.l8 is the t.her side of his br&1n. the piece 18 as much the result.ct1l1ty.scul1ne side of the braIn. kit.A lUAV di Venezia. give the pleoe an emot1onal dimension and rEtfeCC.segno t.lsept1c.tzable and Iconic pleoe 18 !. Speaking reoentJ. Throughout. exuberant. although largeb' manual. doesn't. ArchlZoom and SuperStudio.&i. of ma. but what. generosity.he same.rue. dlsoovery.sch and d1st.rds !.h1s resin sponge sphere.6ment.P.&rity. W1t. SOCIety has been governed. the fem1n1ne.nS new ways t. ltall&n approach of that period towa.use the IIl&lBrI&ls and prooesses Pesoe uses often do not.nd llght.lty . !. the production. sensu&l a.

by Merltalla during the Milan Furnlture I"a1r In 2007 .able was presented along with another Pesos design. Shadow chalrs.The 'J'avolone !.

gives the table a human dlmenslon.s wheelB &t. 18-20. The only tooUng necesaary was the production of a negative mould In wood to malts the silloon axtMlSlon used to form the shape of the prof\le and to oont.. Pesce wanted. Gaetano Peace pours an edging of dark resin that will give de/\nltJon to the profUe In the completed otUect.er than rigid ones: If there 18 an aooIdent neither product nor user wtll be harmed. to make an otlJect with emotJon as well as f'unctionaJ. The profile 18 pJ&oed on a clean. p&rt. The Intended use or resin.om 80 that the user can decide the poeltJon cf the table a..a1n the poured resin ( 3 ).es to the Iron grtd. alIow1n« It. a hole 18 formed. the table needs a rigid StI'UCtlll'e. When removed. GAETANO PESCE . the bott. This waa presented to Mertt&lla the same year and put Into production 36 monw later.. The eye Is formed with a piece of silioon that 18 pressed.ll are removed. The legs. hard edges and to protect the Iron (13-1 4 ) . TAVOLONE TABLE I . 16e I . Each leg h8. smooth and nat sUrface ( 4-6).&lnef'8 for household otllect. 3-6.ctle&ll. The Idea was for a table with a son. 8-10. surface. The computer renderings were developed In 2004 by PeS08 aa a. with Its tact. so stopping the resin pourtng on th.s. hollow rotating volumes. Pl'a. t. 100 swivel. The profile waa the ins piration. The plastic Is added to soften the . 7 . 11-1 4. plastJc· ooated Iron grld that holda the top hortzontally (11 . 18-17.1ty..y and smell.s he or shs wishes. The edSe Ie allowed to h&rden slightly before the rest of the resin Is poured.ertal aa the full-scale table ( 2 ).ch. the silioon run and Iron support. 6.. Al\er the resin has hardened overnight.12). 1-2.he grid. Bflc&use the sUrface Ie lIOn. edges are bett.111t.. 'l'tIe legs double as oont. persona. On the supeMor part. Into the right posltJon on the sUrface of the mould. 'capturing' !.! experunent ( 1) and turned Into a small model made from the same mat.p..h1s takes the form of a prefabrtcated..y. lIOn.at. of each lee there 18 a metalliC f\xture that atta. are made In part1c:leboard oovered In silioon.

.

. . ~ SEi I?. "J'~§ ~ .. lig " i ! I • ~!f !~~ 'i~li!f!1il' ! i~!. ii'~ill~~llf'~i~ ~ J~I . Ii -f .·· .~JII-> ~ ' . • . "~"'["~'! .-. I ~I~ ...ot . -'I.~~[ l .~1 ~~!~i'I~··" [~fll 'ii~i[:~~~'ilfil~~~q~!~!l~fi ~ ~[ ~ i [ .~-.[lli~~... ii'i~ •• ~~i!-li~ ~ a t.. . I. ~~ J a ..l£f!!li~ .." ~ • I~g ~ .! ' !f..~i If ~. ~! l ! ~f" ~ i ~I P ~eEj HI:m H'!!f ~ ~'i!~~i i 1~.. . I:~ Il li 111~il ·!~·'~il:1 'l'~·l · . i ~i -[' • ".~ •• ~.i'l.I? o .~..'... oil. r i!!!~.~l'J~f~!J~ lilflfj'rt[l~l!~!!. i~il!' • lflfl!l~ i!i~~!ilti~!i ~!!fli[if~ . i .iii~ ~ I I ! i...~ir. ~.! l: .~ . • _ ~ l[ Ij!~['!~J I·[ti. ~a~l!i!ig II. '!~ !~l~'! 1!111._ .·~ · [ I~ a([r'~i'ii"I'ifi'~lt"lliS!~!i~!~l g1r~I[I~(! ~ 'I .~ i.. a:qs . iil!lilli~!~iil[!!i~~~il'" .fig.~. . "JI -"' .!~~:j~l.

lak l1ght uses the new T2 FM fluorescent tube. energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. . which Is only 7mm (1.4 in) in diameter.The Ta.

mp.P. cardboard. and further prototypes (7).. 5 ---~-. 1. .rts.s &Iso readdressed (8). 3 .. a.s the wa.. uniform. 2 . As a..y the horizontal &rIllS of a. it can be removed and used separately.. The first dellberatlons were for a. The method to stop the head slidlng up and down the stem wa. 4 . light that would give a. lengths of steel tube and an old vlce/ cla..n1sm of the Anglepolse la. NEIL POULTO N.llast.ll the worklng pa.170 I . Poulton dispensed with the articulated arm and produced a rough prototype using lengths of a.st..k light wa. illumination. based on the working mecha..la. TALAK LIGHT I .mp.Ium1n1wn extrusions. DurIng the design development. The inspIra. new T2 FM fluorescent light source. lncludlng the electronic ba. Poulton collaborated with Artem1de's eng10eers to refine the design using sketches (5 ) . football rattle attach to the support.j 5-<3.tion for the Ta. an electronic baJla. CAD drawIngs (poulton worked with Rhtnoceros® and Artemlde with SolidWorks) ( 6 ). are based 1n the bead.

ng on a Zamac base (see opener). surface or free-sta. The ortg!nBJ prototype was presented to Artemide attached to the desk by ':~::~_-'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ unCMllMlO an industrial vtce. 13 14 . The annotated teehnlcal drawing (10) shows instI'Uctions for the englneer.-. He wanted to USB a. It was hls orlglna. wall (13) and table (14) llght.. Artem1de insisted on injection-moulded plastic to help prevent copying. Poulton's Talc Ught wa. The latter Is etther clamped to a.l intention to have Tal&k fabricated In the same way in metal extrusion with end caps.. 12-14. Gismondi's (owner of -- Artemlde) only reserva.s designed for Artemide in 2002.10 ~10. but Poulton fought to destgn a bespoke . refinement. version. 11 ..tion was that he thought that part of the product needed more - _ . Not reallzlng that the clamp was belng used as a stand· in. The Talak is produced as a suspension (12) . standard clamp..nd1.

. ~ . ~u' .y..eI"I. Nl*\N of~. and on t.. ~L _ 10 ..-el'l made. mlnIm' l IlMk . lL La 00 Pfelnt. aI. 1Ch !.. .. 0:-) In JIUIJ'U~ II ll\JoIICUOQ· .. ~ an4 U"IoQIfe!'!'6d InIU U'Ie CAJll (computer aided ~ _lin) 1. L""""..bou\ b.boI.... Ita u. L'InII....... '1bIy work -...re: 24 IIlOIIU:II au. 8oId1l/Ol'U . _u. IU produoe . ~ a:>d oolco..InC one 0( u..." " UCOIIlIeCUun and Ibe1r P1uma/LCD TV..er 10 00D0el0'ld tor U>o dM!CI". It APBIL "'EDlA CE NTIR I . .... iIeIl(Oe'" ute !"OUCh.... :' .e'" ru..be ""'7 _1& Ci ' ed LD 1IlCb' doo1>III\7 PUJ' IU ~ .. up WIt..u.. WOI"klnC JII"OCeU'..rabIe h'om Of '1bIy t.. . at u..« • Cl'ICfmnu .ll u.. bI'Vl4 _ O&tt>Onf\bM.. In laddie deIlCn _ ~ """~ IIvIn( I'OOtIl of .de ..n IIIl.. ~ IUOl ImPO~ = 1ftnI. 0( \IChlIoIoCY..be 0IMl0. w ~ ( 9lD) .helll or aD '" pbJ'IUI. '!btl ahelll ..... . ~ t. PROPELLER ..4IonLn( ~ IU o. . <IMlIn . ~ CAlI) .... .. For ~l ... ....J ~ 10 ...boo u~ ~ . ...... group. ~_1 H.I IQr Pmpellolr In oommunmu"... 2'1= (l0'eI!tn). unn.oRwano for !.110011 fIJ .." : Propellet" ..el Wv IX>weled bJ' dual =e p........ hu .ba hu ~ ~~UIe ~·I.I>e '!btl wut"IdnI ~ 1& .. Ioolllc In..-rve<I. 'nwI Int..one!.... -... .. of \lie _ L"""o<>kCY ond Mrv\oIIII . ...!>. ..b 1"Q"db>to ...yl/t and dlr"'ed bJ' LW ...) and.. and. IboL ron. ....... _1 _ on.uenUOft..1l...J. modeLa La -..".. ph...I ..~".._ _P"e)'""paIn_ ~_ rw- .. _JII016d.alteot ....... t. The _v. '!btl Ln*I. 0V1CUI .... . '.be "\'be JtapMI "'. lT.l<!aI...... w1t.....pe 10 ~ U1e !&c\ IboL UWt amtoIl unI\ c:mtatn... from u.. hIu\4""WIl'~"" 1'lIrt _ lD_ ..bnuCb t.0 el\lln8l" ton<! fcocu.. .t.. 10 I"fIflooot U..... ·" .u.. hu auhleved .... The final muck·uJ! .I.ge .. and.um. afOnC* In Scandln&VIL .IlUoDotJ _ 1 '" _ _ ..u... . or ~ ... ~ .. oon"""'~ WIt.It... for ......1a 0( lnoaYa&I"" ~ 9 _ lDcIuAN. li n.~ In \lie UvI".. ...b ~ .. -Wente. -.boIlr _ ' ...avLng .. _ _ looted 100 11 . ana u....oIuUUOl Wlt.-.tcro IU """. ... ~ markeL and..I...boI cllem..-""""'fup'... peclAIJ.LrllOund.. .elIUon w-... u. t. five _ I I I ..y 10 11M! znudel.... Imerl_ wUI /tIJDIMl ..-.... "n>e u. IU . o.. uae of ""lOur (_ 10110.. Ullin« LD UIe ouounc or u. ~ '!btl fl"om PAI"I.:r _ L_... wldcb bollia uomJl(lD8OIa... dIIf.... ~... ~ La not.......& _Po ton<! oeo:tuoe!... ~ C har<! and.IJ _ _ 11 .:umlnlum o... l\ 10 O~ te'*l 10 ' - pcoIIUonod botizonlalJ.th \lie ..... u. outer IIhelItI u. loam ( 4ln) o. .ut-.......Milt new _ p i .. . l72 / . or t.b '"""~ . ton<! _ _ IX .. c..lJ"""'.... U>Q' .. 10 lIlCrMM \he b"m ....... pooaIIIIt tor _ _LD~ .LI \..7.. dlooc>l1IuI prodIIlboL lllta l1IuI .uetnc.be . n hu .no~ IU Ilo1m medlfe oenl .... t.. tnI<lfIlOe IU ot>eck lilt ovef'&ll f\mcIUon&IlW '" U1e pJ"UdUCle belbl'l J!J"Ud~n II4NO<1 '!be fInaIltallMLa . e<>:d _ ftnIah _ ... !"Uno.' ~ on.-I... f'Jom ~ ~ """"'*"-I 10 ut.UQ IOD~ and <!&fuM \he ~~. .. ~ 1'.-ty ~~ .ba UIe _ <lUI. alecallie LD &lumlnIum ton<! Ihe _ .m h'om. _ho ... R6n:lertnp . "\'be relined.. In t.how IU 1:... ~ 10 PI ' 0" t. lmple. ~ oenu....... u. ... . .. d 0( lmlWInC UIe _ u...Ype.."'phul2:ln. ""rUc&Il.....ppealLa IU bulld ~ 3D mOOe~. 1 '0 &JI ~aIumlnl.nlOlllloll t\lnctIon.. m. and IU prqjKC.. penI<)O '!btl LnIIftr =eI".. _ at and.uon..J Pf'QIIO' lfIO... 0 .. ... room. _ hoide>' w1t.. f'U1I ~ out.. l .e4.... Abu 8WCIu.boI (\1'1. o. t..k'«!In . ~ NId ooJoo.... ... I~ t. *IUd block 0( aL\unInlU1lI \101. .boo an.". Pmpe!ler'....an).w1nCu. IUtaJly rww cIeIlJtn ...b t.. Joe Of In the P ... uoed IU U"y "*"'- Ill""'" like UIe _ _ . lm"""". heUler UIe IniUrel ~ .._ t. LD u.I 1'I&llT.bio wet> for lte low \eoh look. mana. NId _ u.Ilen move on '" 3D _10 "" an .. I ta prOdUCIa oomml.boI IIII..COJt and bent fnlm .l ~ -sen and.. ' ~)Mi' ton<! Propeller ~ .tmo-mwlded . _Jem..<'Je-. ao k&pMlIt were em fl"olll ..be on u.. ~ KapMI.18IIDI. '. ton<! ~m w"Y v~ ~OI(\ PVC and Ulatllum... Propeller La 0 .. ~...P.l... _1'1 aIIO . . aIlen1. white on !.boIn ~ IU t... .boI 1Mm . "" _ NId l'I!ued ..

luxury accessory. a.Kapsel was created as a. plece of art or a. .t has appeal even when not in use.ment tha. valued orna.

Propeller devised an tconic sh ape tha. 2. series of mock-ups in polyurethane foam ( 3 ). 1 1..1n a good finish when spray-painted.t promoted the idea of containment. KAPSEL MEDIA CENTER I . PROPELLER . Kapsel Is Swedish for 'seed pod '.... . Propeller quickly moved on to a. The final model ( 4 ) is in high-density polyurethane to obta.P. Hand-drawn sketches were the first step in developing 3-4. the concept .. 2 ""- 3 . 174 I . • .

7. as a way of beginning the aesthetic machlne. referring ilaok to the moodboards.lng prototype.lf of the tool used for die-casting the alum1n1um case of the final product. Information was fed into an Alias software program and CAD drawings were produced to communicate with Ks. The team discuss the final working prototype. The outer shells were cut from a solid block of aluminium using a CNCm1lI1ng style-aware consumer. Since the two shells in Kapsel are the same. as a presentation tool but also . only one tool was needed.6. 8. as a way to work out fin1shes and oolourings. concept for Kapsel. 6. Propeller created moodbo&rds to reflect the klnds of oQject that could be found In the living enVironment of the upmarket. The construction of the final work. 9. conslsttng of two steel parts. The inner casing was die-cut and bent from steel sheet metaJ.psel's englneers and determine a working prototype. Propeller uses renderings 10. One ha. and to try out last minute design solutions without havtng to create further 3D models.

OPEN BOX LIGHT / .CNC-mlll!ng. They were then assembled. The a.P. 'frlendly' and 'Iconic'. advanced shapes and detslllng generated by the software. The pendant uses two different 'hOUSings' that are visually separated from one another but Joined by the frame. furniture. although the pendant Increased In size by 10-15%. They decided to go In the opposite direction and produce a piece that was light and airy with a 'human' appeal and with the luminescence descrlblng the form. early In 2005 with a llmited brlef to produce something that 'breathed' the brand.propeller. The end caps are moulded uslDg dlecasting. Propeller worked out their orlglnal theory using a serles of coloured.' Propeller was COmmissioned by Fagerhult. In 2007 Open Box was awarded Red Dot's Best of the Best title In the lighting and lamps category. The key words that would inform their design were 'sensual'. whlle the upper part emits soft and Indlrect light on to the celling. as the centre of the box Is open and transparent.nnounced. Rather than having the designer work up a concept to a highly finished stste.. CAD drawings were developed uslDg Allas and Pro E.yer of metsl placed on top...to give reality to the complex. and maglcally llluminated by the lower fluorescent tube.com . and to be able to handle this increasing complexity the designer needs new approaches In the design process such as working In a multi-dlsclplinary wa. It was evaluated by both Propeller and Fagerhult over the following 18 months and changes were gradually made to Improve the concept and meet the demands from production. PROPELLER . 'airy' . Interviewed by the prestigious organization shortly after the award was a. The sides of the pendant are formed by extruding aluminium. colours and archltecture to gain inspiration.. sheet steel Light source: T5 fluorescent tube H: 13.y's changing technological world It Is not enough to be able to work with new materlals and manufacturing processes. Manufacturer: AB Fagerhult Extruded alumlnlum. were qulck to point out that In toda. this Is the best and most economical wa. laser-slnterlng and alumlnlum extruSions .. Propeller started by examlnlng the lighting market to see what was available In the pendant sector. Moodboards were created to act as a working reference throughout the design development perlod. new materlals. the designers of Propeller. The team researched other product areas such as consumer electroniCs. the designer also has to consider the needs and demands of a consumer who is not merely seeking an object that functiOns well but one that delivers an experlence: 'Design is about creating a product experlence that meets and supersedes the consumer's expectations. 1 76 / . and 3D mOCk-Ups were m~e In various methods . Plastic would not take the heat produced without expanding and making too much noise.y of produclDg long strlps with the same profile.c\justments were fairly minor. The process Is patented and secret. so the louvre has a thin la. one of the foremost design agencies In Scandinavia. Alumlnlum was chosen for Its great cooling properties. handdrawn sketches and selected the materlal. The working prototype was made In the final material with Propeller deUvering only overall dlmenslons and proportions.. closed boxes with a very technical aesthetic.y.fagerhult. 'harmOniC' . the Swedish light manufacturer. it takes early sketches and produces a working prototype from which designer and manufacturer collaborate on detslling and production processes. Fagerhult's method of assessing a design diverges from normal Industrlal design practice. Alumlnlum Is not very reflective. strength and malleablllty.se/ www. development and production. The parts were powder-coated separately so a clear dlstlnctlon of colour could be malntaloed. For the viewer It Is at first Impossible to see where the light Is coming from. The lower part has an efficient louvre for direct and glare-free lighting. The initial Idea did not change greatly throughout the rest of the deSign.2cm (5 IAIn) xL: 124cm (48%1n) x D: l2cm (4 %1n) Design to manufacture: 24 months Mass-manufactured www. They discovered that there was a preponderance of visually heavy.

Open Box's lower long side
1s perforated so that light

penetrates to 1llum1nate the interior. This has the effect of drawing the eye awa;y from the light source and into space.

P.178 I ... OPEN BOX LIGHT I ... PROPELLER ...
1

-,
3
4

UGtfI ANOAlII

50flUI HUMAH ItW'ES USE THE UGHT

MOOOUOHT

5

6

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f

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7

8

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1. Propeller looked at different of product design, such as consumer electronics, for sources of inspiration.
&rea.B

7--8. The t1naJ concept ( 7) was delivered to the manufacturer along with overall dimenstons
and proportions ( 8 ).

In the or1glnaJ prototype (10)

it was quite shallow; this was aesthetically pl....ing but did

14. The extruded alum1nlum frame and die-cast moulded end caps are fitted together.

2. The destgners also resea.rched what was available In the pendant 1umlru!.iJ'e sector, before oom..Ln.g up with • l1st of key words that would

9 . From the sketches,
Fagerhult made a worktng prototype using the materials

not allow the oomponents on the top to fit properly, A subsequent CNC-milled model
(11 ) bad to lind a balance

The frame Is slightly tilted

to achieve better working ergonomlcs, while the parts are mounted.
15. The unit 1s placed on a t.a.ble and the electronics are placed in it in a process called
'free frame'.

inform thetr destgn .
3-6. F'agerhult's bIief was to design • pendant that 'breathed' the brand. A series of Ideas was developed using hand-dre.wn coloured drawings.

chosen by the deslgners. As the prototype got Propeller's approval from an early stage it was used as a reference during the followmg 18 months. 10--11 . One problem encountered was in the belly.

between increasing the belly and not making the pendant too visually heavy.
12-13. CAD drawings

developed the deta.1llng and the WBiY in which the electronic oomponents would
be accommodated.

P.180 / ... DIGITAL PROJECTS / ... RANDOM INTERNATIONAL ... rAndom Intern&tional Is a young design company and creative technology consultancy founded by Hannes Koch, Florian Drtkrass and Stuart Wood, former students at the Royal College of Arts, London. The company uses innovative product design to generate brandnew uses for existing technolOgies. This inspiration Is derived from research into new processes, and the Interface between the various products the company Is developing. rAndom's first product, the Watoh Paper (which uses heat-reactive technology to show a moving graphic of a digital clock embedded within wallpaper) , won the team an iF Design Award and a grant from NESTA's (National Endowment for Science Technology and Arts) Creative Pioneering Academy to evolve a business model for Its new company. Since then, rAndom have experlInented with several scenarios for challenging the 'pixel craze' . Increasingly, the design and art Industry is ta.k1ng on the pixel as content for its work and the trio has been seeking to work with plxllatlon to bring an Inherently digital (and two-dimensional) concept Into the world of analogue and form . Although rAndom Is best known for Its PlxelRoller, all of Its digital projects - LlghtRoller, Temporary PrInting Machine, Plxelshades and Temporary Graffiti - borrow their aesthetics from easy-to-understand sources such as the mechanical paint roller, the marker pen, the 1950s lampshade and the spraycan. 'For us as deSigners / artists, it's crucial to be able to work with, and update, the meaning of generic shape and form, says Harmes Koch.
I

rAndom's digital projects have their origin In the concept of applylng a digital lInage In one stroke to a surface and examlnlng the best possible way of doing this. They are all based on the PlxelRoller, which 'paints' digital lInages on to large surfaces by llnklng a computer to electromechanical solenoid valves In the head of the roller. The software program supplies the valves with data to create the lInage as well as controlllng the amount of paint through the nozzles, and calibrates the tracking of the roller. The roller was first presented as an MA graduation project In 2005; It won grants from the Helen Hamlyn Research Centre and the Audi Design Foundation and earned a second iF Design Award. The LlghtRoller replaces the PlxelRoller's head with LEDs and visualizes the process by printing with light (instead of Ink) on photosensitive materials that change their graphic properties under exposure to light. The LlghtRoller was lnltially developed as a less messy prototype to test the software and tracking technologies of PlxelRoller, but quickly became a product In its own right used to create an entire body of performances and installations. Client-related opportunlties then allowed the company to develop its earlier works. A COmmission from the world-famous London department store, Selfridges, asked for a product based on the LlghtRoller, and the Temporary

PrInting Machine was born. The adaptation works on a different light-sensitive material that temporarily changes contrast under exposure to ultraviolet light and creates ever-changing lInages. The latest concept Is Temporary Graffiti, In which modlfted spraycans with ultraviolet-LED In the cap are used to create lInages, again on light-sensitive surfaces.
~

All the projects shown here are related to and based on the PlxelRoller, and the physical process behind their development Is the same. Rough sketches are developed as a private language between Koch, Ortkrass and Wood to instruct each of their Individual tasks. First models are produced In LEGD!!> or cardboard and early computer drawlngS are made In Code software. Breadboards, prototypes of the fl.nal printed c1rcu1t boards (PCBs) , are used to determine the circuitry. CAD drawings are developed In RapldForm and used to Interface with the electronlc software and the manufacturers of the parts as well as to rapid-prototype sophisticated models. Detailed parts of the engineering are sent out to specialists: PCB-etohing is used for the CirCuitry, CNC-bending and laser-cutting for the sheetmetal parts, and waterjet cutting for the components. The parts are delivered to rAndom's studio and hand-assembled and ftnlshed by the team.

Production: rAndom International Various materials Various measurements Design to manufacture: work In progress www.random-Internatlonal.com

.

. 3-4.n1ca.ghtRoller .l imagery and text on to a phosphorescent surface.182 / ...P. The process has a random element to it as the image Is hand-printed in total darkness. (Prev1ous page) .rge surfaces by I1nklng a computer (supplied with the data to create the image) to electro-mecha.mage is developed.J.. was the first permanent lInage produced with the LlghtHoller printing on photograpblc paper. Every version Is different as each is rolled by hand.. RANDOM INTERNATIONAL . The earliest image of the UghtHoller (1). Lster version ( 2 ) . the German designer of lnnova. Many of rAndom's digital pI'Qjects have evolved from the works like its predecessor but uses a computer-controlled fillet of ultraviolet light diodes to print out any pixel-based dlg!ta.t1ve and artiStic lights in full ( 3) and detail (4 ). DIGITAL PROJECTS /_ . The result is only evident once the l. paint roller but 'paints' d!g!talimages on to la.!t of Ingo Maurer. A portra. PixelRoller is based on a. The I. PixelRoller. 1-2..l solenoid valves in the head of the roller which oontrol the paint flow.

are essentlaJ. stationary version of the LlghtRoller. It allows _wings &Od worde to be etched on to phosphorescent surfaces.ng ever -cha. The series includes spra. Plxelshades. 8-9.tRoller. The Tempora.ry Printlng Mach1ne Is based on the L1gb. They .ages. Tempora.ry Gre.5-7.! that changes contrast under exposure to UV light.ly rAndom's latest concept.v101et- LED. creatJ.ycans ( 0) and light pens ) large 360-degree screens. The concept is currently being developed into " toy kit.ly renew themselves and can temporarily 'print out' any kJnd of dJg!taJ Information on the large phosphorescent shades. The adaptation works on a l1gb.t-senslt1ve materia.nglng 1rn. 10-11. the oontinuaJ.fflti Is (1 ) modlfted with u1tre.

All prototypes were produced using rapid prototyplng.P. First models are produced in LEGO® and used to develop concept and software. 18.. . 12...Jg'htRoller model.. 16 l1r . shown here in the Mark IT version.. r .184 I . . Mark II in 2006 Oeft). 17. ..1ls such as paint supply (13). Annotated computer drawings refine the printed c!reu1t boards (PCBs). The first Mark I was produced in 2005 (below right). for PixelRoller.. LEGO® Is used to make it easy to change parts of the technoIogy quickly... Prototypes of PixeJRoller. 10 . 16. as for this early I. 13 15 - / /lI . and Mark ill in 2007 (a. Development drawings work out deta. DIGITAL PROJECTS I . All the projects are related and developed uslng the same processes employed.. valve design (14) and print-head detailing (15). RANDOM INTERNATIONAL . lZr15...bove) .

2 4 . Testing of dJIferent ink and pIgment formulations for the nozzle and valve.yca.ble. 28.. . The unit baa an open prototyplng platform to accommodate cl1fferent technologies in the same housing as financing course of the development..lly 26. Early prototyplng phase for Mark IV.r tests are carried spra. were constantly developed and refined . -.ns instead of the stamp version. becomes a. Early Mark II version . Stuart Wood testing Mark II at the Royal College of Art In 2006. Close-up of the nozzle ( 20 ). out for the SPI'B¥caIl ve:rslon. The desl. 25. It is rAndom's intention to develop a PixelRoUer using carried out with a. Resolution tests (here for Mark m on the print head are constantly undertaken.- " .s thoroughly altered in the 29. 23. The tests are norma. compaMson object.1la. The parts for Mark n are assembled.va. 22.gn of the valves wa.1~ 1. 27 ." Mlff/BHfil .. S!m1la.. Breadboards.. The coin acts as a reference to visualize the width of one pixel line. prototypes of the final PCBs.

exploring the relationship between volume and surface through optical permeability. and as such it Is easy to overlook the fact that they are born from a rigorous understanding of technical advances in both computer software and modern production techniques. KarIm has coined the expression 'sensual minimalism' to describe his style.it . The 'blob' has become Karim's trademark and gives physical form to his philosophy. Alternative technologies such as rotational moulding. Karim Rashid and Kundalini have collaborated for many years. Bokka Is a personal proposition of KarIm's. very delicate and intricate shapes can be produced. signifying comfort and pleasure. Moving into the 21st century . was accurately positioned in the water basin r eady to initiate the process.P. blow moulding and fibre layering were discussed. materials and styles to reflect the digital age. As with many of the products manufactured by Kundalini. As the cutter works like a plotting machine or a CNC router.the 'zeroes'. along with the various materials that would best suit the proposed techniques. with the use of custom-made tools. never before had anything but a two-axis machine been used on glass. These processes have allowed him to liberate biomorphic shapes from his mind and into the marketplace.karlmrashid. Water-Jet cutting produces fine incisions by forcing a very slender jet of water through a nozzle under incredible pressure and at high velocities. BOKKA LAMP / . two models were CNC-cut in polyurethane. Both designer and Milan-based manufacturer share the same attitude in their search for a universal language that reflects the zeitgeist. .. chromed metal base.demands new forms .com/ www.. one with hole tracks and one without. highly skilled methods of the Murano-based mastercraftsmen. and then only to incise complicated outlines on flat surfaces. Early discussions with Kundalini investigated various materials and manufacturing technolOgies. His products are sensuous to the eye as well as experimental. With this In mind.. For him. as Karim calls it . Further modlficatlons on a series of CAD files and models were undertaken before the result was sent to the mould-maker. .kundalini. The creation of Bokka is Important to Karim Rashid and to Kundalini as It dared to do the Impossible in cutting glass In a way never attempted before. At this point. Kundalini COmmissioned an expert technician to work on the basic software of a five-axis water-Jet machine. New software was created that set the machine from cutting metal to cutting glass in 3D. Manufacturer: Kundalini sri Triple glass diffuser.188 / . It was decided to produce the lamp in glass and the most unpredictable and innovative process was eventually chosen. which has an emotional appeal while remaining minimal. Once the piece was blown in triple glass layers it went straight to the water-jet cutter and. From these early CAD drawings. His designs are accessible. soft and tactile forms are more human. This was a ground-breaking development. with pre11minary 3D computer studies being undertaken using Rhinoceros® software to refine the lamp's form . The !/I'st glass diffuser came out almost perfectly but further refinements were needed to ensure that the cuts were as smooth as possible and that the jets did not move from their original course to cause refractions and deformation in the surfaces. KARIM RASHID . Karim produced a series of freehand sketohes that gave some idea of the possible dimensions and typologies of the lamp. . the mould was cast from the CNC-cut model and the piece was blown using the most traditional. the choice of material eventually dictated the end result. The lamp combines the most traditional of glass-blowing craftsmanship with state-of-the-art technology. touch dimmer Light source: I x E27 (E28US) Globolux Max 150W Table lamp: H: 80cm (23 \1ain) (suspension 52cm/ 20 1h in) x Dia: 38cm (l5in) Design to manufacture: 9 months Mass-manufactured www. The concept was to take the notion of 'blobism' to a more complex level.

Bokka comes as both a suspension and a table lamp. . The inner layer of the triplelayered diffuser 1s always white to ensure that the light given off Is white and not tinted by the coloured outer surface.

9. Using traditional Murano technlques. Then the CADs were amended and sent to the factory to create the mould. These were refined and the informatIon fed back into the computer. the recogntza.sh1<l's hand· ready to receive the molten glass glob.. 10.ble Bokka shape Is formed in triple glass layers by blowing in the mould ( 6 ) . Although glass ha. BOKKA LAMP I . This 1s an innovative technique. A series of w1reframe CADs were produced. this has only ever been attempted on a flat surface using a two-axis machine. giving them their distinctly organic feel.P.. to be incised by the five· . The mould is heated ( 4) Is the source of inspiration for many of Karim Rashid's desIgns. 2.s been hand·rolled ( 5). axis water-jet cutter. 3. drawn sketches were an early era. It Is then llberated ( 7 ) and fired ( 8 ) . Ka. The diffuser Is placed in attempt to come up with shapes and typologies for the Bokka lamp.r1m Ra.188 I . 3 .. A generic 'blob' shape 4-5. 11 . their outlines traced and then incised in all directions.ter basin ready which two models were CNC-cut in polyurethane. The cuts are located on a very complex 3D shape.. . from the wa. .s been cut by water jet. The finished diffuser Is lifted from the basin.KARIM RASHID . which ha. 1.

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He developed a mental picture of the user operating the player attached to his or her upper arm in the early morn1ng sunshine before starting to jog. Once he is given a commission he thinks up key expressions to describe the function and the form of a piece. Sakai starts by sketching the general profile. this was a difficuit process to perfect as the inner surface of the black material had a tendency to leak into the transparent outer layer. which are then trimmed and adjusted.as the player was intended for outdoor athletic use . from the identity of the client and market trends to styling. The main body is doubleiI\lectiQtl rather than Insertmoulded.9cm (llhin) x L: 7.yamaha. He chose a transparent material. which are capable of generating a ra. TOSHIHIKO SAKAI. He works in Century 3D and Think Design software.and UV-resistant.com ..it had to be waterproof and impact. BODiBEAT is unique as it is intended solely for use by a jogger.5cm (lin) x W: 3. He then defined his market and the function of the unit: the product would be a completely new category in the field and not intended to compete with the market. Un1ike the IFod or any Nike MP3 player. The moulding machine was developed to meet the specification by rotating the core side to fit the two different cavities. as soon as he has conceptualized the product.PI90 / . He then considers ali aspects of the product. making use of their refined fillet co=ands. . taking into account consumers ' behaviour and aspirations in order to create an overali picture. ABS earphones with PVC body H: 2. Styling elements were changed for cost reasons and also to fit better within the American market.com/ www.cl1us that changes graduaJly on a curved line or at a complicated intersection of surfaces. feeling it was necessary to create beautiful reflections to capture the essence of excitement.. BODIBEAT MP3 PLAYER / . and . . Reinforced transparent polycarbonate and black polycarbonate were moulded at the same time. His polymath approach has resulted in technologicaily advanced products that are accessible and share a sense of lightness and clarity in their aesthetiC. Toshlhlko Sakai is primarily an electroruc designer but has also worked in the fields of furruture and interior design. To create the complex shape a slide mould was used in three parts. black polycarbonate. The concept was for a gadget that would become part of the ritual of exercise and an icoruc fashion accessory.. Renderings are also created and employed to present Sakai's work to the Client. such as inner electroruc parts not fitting.sakaidesign.. The styling comes from considering the drawings and visualizing their 3D forms. The design was developed using Sakai's normal working methods (see captions) . Japan Transparent polycarbonate with glass fibre. the area of usage wouid be limited as it is necessary to read the pulse rate via the ear lobe and attach the player to the upper arm. Up until this point he can address problems. The armband was planed by sandwiching polypropylene between a layer of Velcro and non-lead PVC. and some of the details. Prototypes are produced to clarify and modify problematic areas. Sakai remains involved in the design process until limited batch production. which were bonded together using ultra violet light.ln1ng session. it senses the pulse rate of a runner and plays music with a tempo best suited to the aerobic exercise being undertaken. as well as a SCientific Instrument to measure I and record the body condition of the person using it. Sakai's key words in this case were 'euphoria' and 'one second's silence' ..5cm (3in) Design to manufacture: 17 months Mass-manufactured www. Manufacturer: Yamaha . or practical deficiencies in the strength or function1ng of materiais. Data is fed into the computer to form the CAD drawings to machine the tools. The earphone was iI\lection-moulded. the sensors required meant BODiBEAT could not be the same size as a normal portable player. along with colour and material samples. Sakai's inspiration always comes from words . Also the restricted gate to iI\lect the inner layer had to be speciaJly cut and positioned in a limited space in order to achieve the best flow of the second resin. This has a positive effect on the efficiency of a tra. Models in polystyrene foam are used to verify size and detailing.

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' and 'one second's silence' . Bense of tension and excitement and make the unit a. 1 (Previous page). 5-6.P.a€e the acceleratJon sensor didn' t a.ched to other parts of the body. A wlng-type button that ma.kaJ. Nylon and ABS armband models were developed.. 1 .'s inspiration comes colla. part of the ritual of exercise. ABS was too stiff. I an iconic fashion accessory. Sa.yer to the body that would create a. However.ch:1ng the pl8.ya of atta. .1nta. to see whether the unit could be atta. j~ ili>t ~ 2.1 .. BODIBEAT MP3 PLAYER / .192 / . m ~ ifij t~ ~~~ I~J for joggers..l development in the sensor now means that a waist-worn versIon is soon to a.ka. Sa. For BOD1BEAT he So ~ (J) selected 'euphoria. The BOD1BEAT MP3 Is Intended T Q ~ ~ ---L... Sketches were developed to express the essence of deslgn..1n the product's appeal without excessive cha.lly. At this part of the main body (8) and !rahaped earphones ( 9 ) were selected and the styling of the armband defined (10) ..nges to the modeL moves in and out of the upper from the words he chooses 4 .1 's tntention to 2 3 4 • '\ r.te the design of the belt per1od1ca. but the nylon version fitted much better. to 7. It senses the pulse rate and pla¥s music a. Polystyrene models were created to test the ergonomics of the design of the earpIece ( 5 ) and ma. TOSHIHIKO SAKAI. CAD drawings were then created.ka. 11 / • IJ ~ .ppear on the market. 3 .1n body ( 6 )..oorate with fashion and graphic des1gners to upda..ctlvate well at the waist. The pll.. 8-10.. It was Sa.yer 1s Intended to be st. technologica.1 worked on wa..ppropriate to the level of aerobic exercIse.

11. . The armband was changed to I Velcro belt to cut down an oosts a. expensive sl. The final body was decided lid ftnlshed in computer fIphIcs.n sales department. Design models of the body.. 18.. e&rphone returned to a . CAD investigation mIo how the main body could be attached to the armband (11) and & proposal for the iiernaJ. armband (13) and III'plece (1 4) were produced !Jun CADs. mI. At the very last moment. Ie. thus loslng one of lie main inItial concepts for "design. II.'" 'rho batch was used for problems with l. Ii. After reviewing the changes were made: tbe earphone and heartbeat 1IOde~ III8Or.nd because of the optnlons of the Amer1ca.oot!()f}& purposes and to fbprocluctlon processes. All the var:lous models body.. to IdIpt w different ear shapes. the headphones were Iban oonnected to reduce the JlllSlblllty of them falling off 18. mechanisms in the 1I>cio' (12).ngle piece lire made reduce costs. Image of the die used "create the upper parts of "earpiece. Acijustments so It fitted more Dl&1Y than the earlier one• version. from early """tyrone to first product.11-12. were separated. 1~14 . A limited batch of .. which had been in b piece...

and holes opened using a pressing machine. acrylic Spider I . CAD drawings passed backwards and forwards between Sakal and the client's engineers to address the manufacturing processes and to refine the design. Both Spider I and 2 share the same remote control. a non-working prototype in aluminium. Budget restrictions prohibited the use of expensive casting. dyed and anodized. this is a difficult finish to achieve at this scale and in a light tone without discoloration.Japan Aluminium.. The surface of the aluminium body was then given a hairline texture. Hand-drawn sketches of various possibilities were scanned into a computer coloured with a Wacom® pen tablet and presented to the Client. The acrylic parts were cut to shape and submitted to a 'secret' process to increase transparency. Sakal presented a 3D computer diagram a week I bent..com/ www. Sakal's design has what he refers to as an 'afterglow'. A hairline texture was chosen that was dyed using a dye/ anodizing technique. and the texture applied by sand-blasting the surface with fine grains of metal.9cm (l4'hin) Design to manufacture: 6 months Mass-manufactured www. TOSHIHIKO SAKAI. A prototype was developed in aluminium and the final exterior analysed. ABS and acrylic was made to verify the form. The concept was to minimize the size and number of control buttons and to make the up1t small enough to fit in one hand. thereby reducing the projected area visually and physically. SPIDER I & 2 HARD-DISK DVD RECORDERS / . Tests to determine surface treatment were carried out. aluminium and transparent silicon resin. Colour was then added and the finish anodized. thanks to a technological advance that had seen the inner parts reduced considerably.ptp. Small actJustments were made to the radius of the strengthening frame. Spider 2 was developed one year later.H: 34cm (l3 1hin) x W: 59cm (23 1Ain) x D: 15cm (6in) Design to manufacture: 26 months Mass-manufactured Spider 2 . The lower part was galvanized to prevent rusting and the upper case treated with a melamine resin finish. The manufacturing processes and finishing techniques had to be as economical as possible. Sakal decided to concentrate on a high quality of finish to visually link the two recorders. The aluminium front body was laser-cut and bent in a pressing machine. The controls Invite the user to play with them. Spider I and 2 are the first harddisk DVD recorders capable of automatically prerecording all eight terrestrial broadcasting channels in Tokyo for a week at a time. the budget was massively scaled down. The interior parts of both recorders make use of existing technology and match predetermined inner layouts with the exterior design. The finished item was produced by precision-pressing using eight separate dies. which is highly durable. This later. As Spider 2 was a diffusion project.sakaidesign. and coated with transparent urethane resin to give a mirror-like finish..co.5cm (4 V2in) x W: 40cm (l5%in) x D: 36. The bottom and top steel panels were cut and was used to correct the texture of the silicon controls and aluminium cover.P. The front panel was extruded in aluminium from a single die at lengths of 2m (6ft 6in) and then cut to size. The steel body was punched and then bent before being finished. who deCided to adopt a version that had a tilted front panel set back at an angle. and on making the front face as small as possible. More height was needed so Sakal ralsed the upper acrylic display area. The light receiver for the remote control is 1I\Jection-moulded.. This was a demanding schedule even though the internal layout had been predetermined: drawings had to be presented within ten days. with the resin buttons taking time to softly come back into position.jp . They were produced by a small IT company. Mock-ups In expanded polystyrene were made to gauge the tactility of the product. SPII) EI~ 1 ~~ 2 HAI~ I) -I) ISK I) VI) I~ EC0 I~ I) EI~ S TOSHIHIKO SAKAI !4anufacturer : ~. and the units were manufactured in collaboration with an aluminium factory using cuttingedge finishing techniques.H: I !. steel. PTP (Power to the People) . increasing the overall transparency of the unit.194 / .. Necessary apertures were CNGcut. The brief requlred a styling that would link the unit aesthetically with Spider I. Sakal was given the commission in late July with instructions that the product had to be a vallable for the Christmas market.. For Spider I . A prototype was machined in ABS.

.Spider I (above) and Spider 2 (below) sha.re the same custom-made remote control (centre) .

P. 'tndependence' and 'elaboration'.nce levelB and paints were created.r1ous exterior designs were developed to fit the internal configurations of the electronic parts . The investor changed and more money was avaJla. Va.. A non·work:l. from which changes were made in the DVl). 4 5.ls and electrlfled.1 created more he1ght by raislng the upper acrylic d1sp~ area.ka.ce to a. A number of trial models with different transmitta. Th1s depended on finely assessing the amount of electricity added and the length of time the panel was left in the chemicals. 2--3. TOSHIHIKO SAKAI .. Sa.. Many trIaJs were ca. For SpIdel' 1 he selected 'tranQu1ll1ty'.ilow the unit to fit snugly to the wall. . and were tested by placing them In front of the LEDs. The plugs were moved from the back. The L shape t hat Sakai or1g!na. 7-8. SPIDER 1 & 2 HARD-DISK DVD RECORDERS / . Surface treatment of the front panel. Working prototypes ( 8 ) were developed and the inner contents settled.ble for the exterior design.ng prototype ( 7 ) was created.. 196 / . 4. 1 .1ly envisioned changed to an oblong to fit the Internal machinery. The part was put In a tank with llquld chemlca. 1 jl-. 6 . 9 .. Ught ft. thereby increasing the overall transparency of the unit. whlch had increased in size.Yl!ght.rried out as a. Sakal starts any design pI'Qject by thinking Up insplrationaJ words.load1ng cover and the acrylic base. The light movement in the recorder's controls had to be designed so as not to be too intrusive at night but st1ll vlslble In the da.. to the sW'fa.n1sh was required ..

Black was chosen to match the ma. 'inclusion' and 'independence '.t1on words for 1 Spider 2 were 'protection'.rt of the body Is in bent steel and galvan1zed (1 4 ). The front panel Is in extruded aluminium. 12.r9. been extruded from the die It was cut in 2m ( 6ft 6in) lengths and transferred to the processing plant. CAD drawings of Type 4 in white and black were 13.1nstream oolour of television frames. The lnspira. . Hand·d.m1ne sketches of various versions were produced using a Wacom® pen .wn coloured §1$ developed within a week. The top was produced in the same waq and coated with a mela. After it had. 11 . The bottom pa. resin (15).10 10. 14-15.

TOSHIHIKO SAKAI. . 18 . Necessary apertures in the front panel were punched. SPIDER 1 & 2 HARD-DISK DVD RE CORDERS / .1rllne finish ( 6 ) was given to the alum1n1u. s1lkpr1ntlng process. • 1 E>... A ha. 198 / .P. 19..l 7.m surface (17).. Graphics were added to the unit using a...

the process had to be repeated again and agaln (26). The inspiration words for the remote control were 'common'. Once the design was agreed on. . The top cover is pressed from an aluminium sheet (25) and finished using a die/ anodizing tecbnlque .20. 2~24. CAD Illes passed between Sakai and the manufacturer's engineers to refine the details ( 21 ) and a prototype was machined in alumlnlum (22). the remote was die-cast using eight dies In total. To give the shape and the opening part as clean a ftn1. 'continuous' and 'precise'_ 21-22. 25-26.sh as poSSible. As with the recorders.

She now lives In the high desert of West Texas. Manufacturer: Designte:o: Polyester. small squares of printed cotton. the fabric could be 'played'. Santoro wanted to create a textile that stored the invisible: memory. Santoro sourced a famlly-run textile mill In New England to weave It on a standard dobby loom. ' After ga.' says Santoro.lnlng a degree In marine biology. 'The more I learhed. Designtex Is now distributing Sonic but the method of production stays exactly the same: Santoro even insisted that the handover contract should stipulate that the New England mill be used for all further yardage of the fabric. and. . The flags. meaning the loom needed constant rea. She then discovered that by running a tape head over the surface.k1ng. woven from tapes that were found or donated. She then tried a loom and Sonic Fabric was born. ALYCE SANTORO . she started to knit with them but the weave was too loose. Inltlally she had no Idea the textile could be audible. cassette tape Dimensions: W: 132cm ( 521n) Design to manufacture : 60 months Mass-manufactured www.. The head picks up four or five strands of tape at once . Once the fabric started to be made In greater quantity. Her belief system encompasses both the quantifiable and the exact as well as the alternative and Ineffable. The sounds were clear. 'The effect sounds like scratching a record backwards.com/ www.sonIcfabric.gs and sallboat tell-talls. who used to tie audio tape Instead of string at the apex of his mainsail. The initial Idea was inspired by TIbetan prayer fla. as each (30-mlnute.200 I .P. The first pieces were Santoro's own versions of prayer flags.dtex. using a coloured polyester warp and the audio-cassette weft.. Tell-talls are tied to the side-stays or shrouds of boats to Indicate wind direction. although for them to be audible he had to swipe the head across the fabric at the speed of the recording. . Her work evolved Into installation and performance. Then. Santoro often salled with her father. 60-mlnute and 90-mlnute) was a different thickness an') length.com/ www. who Is producing It In bulk for the contract market. These are surplus stock and purchased from a supplier but are blank and have to be prerecorded before they are woven. and she became progressively more Interested In the ancient traditions and rituals of TIbetan Buddhlsm and Peruvian shamanism. Individual tapes could no longer be used. As a child. Instead. an arrow and a small piece of red string. have mantras and the symbols of sacred sounds printed on them and are placed In auspicious places to be 'activated' by the wind. She started to record her own tapes and made a dress for Jon Fishman. the more I appreciated formulas and theorems designed to deSCribe the invisible. Santoro began to develop the Sonic Fabric with the help of a friend who worked In the textile department of the Rhode Island School. such as Instinct and Intultlon. Sonic Is a durable and versatlle audible fabric made from 50% recycled polyester and 50% reclaimed audio-cassette tape.<\justment. where she also experimented with printma. 16 or 20 tracks all mixed together.in other words. It was taken up by New York-based manufacturer Deslgntex. In 2007. sculpture and textile design. but once again Santoro insisted that her instructiOns to create a hand-made device from an ordinary Walkman be followed. She would imagine she could hear music coming from It as It blew In the breeze. Collecting tapes of music and words. The development of the textile started out as a personal project In 2003 . Alyce Santoro Is a multi-media sound and visual artist with a scientific background. Santoro decided she wanted to make a fabric from sound. 'pancakes' or large spools were employed. Santoro studied scientific illustration at the Rhode Island School of DeSign. and her work Is concerned with social and environmental sustalnabllity. composed of patches of Individual sound. the more I came to value the Inexplicable ways of knowing.. at the same time. . Fishman wore and played it on stage at a concert In Las Vegas In 2004 using specially designed gloves . It became clear that my passion was for the In-between.alycesantoro. Deslgntex had wanted to manufacture a special reader. SONIC FABRIC I . drummer for the band Phish.com .

sparkly sheen.Sonic Fabric Is made from 60% recycled polyester and 50% recla. but rema. with a. .1med tape. The strands of tape form a.bly soft.rka. It 1s extremely durable. collage of sounds that Santoro recorded on a tour of New York.

5..202 / . dialogue by Jack Kerouac. Santoro was also influenced by her childhood. SONIC FABRIC / .. They are prereoorded with sounds collected in the Peruvian raJnforest. The early fabric was made into Santoro's own versions of prayer flags with screenpMnted patterns emulating the symbols on Tibetan flags. ALYC E SANTORO. 1-4...tles and of Beethoven. She 1ma. The inspiration for Sonic Fabric came from two sources: T1be~ pr~er flags 0-2) and sailboat tell· ta.gined she could hear BOunds as the tape blew in the breeze. the Bea.1ls (4 )... she would often sail with her father (3) who would tie audio tape to the slde-staors of his boat to indicate the wind direction.P. . Santoro's high· school punk band.

13. Sonic Fabric is available in five colours formed by the the head in the direct10n of the tape. Early prototype. in recorded and woven.n. using a ocloured polyester warp and audiocassette weft. A custom-made sonic dress for PhiBh percussionist Jon Fishman was worn and 'pla3red ' live on stage during a concert in Las Vegas in 2004.ma.ssette+ tape weft.6.ns or superheroes' robes.rge spools of surplus-stock blank tape were Unscrew the head and remount it on the outside of the plastic housing using 8. The best ) effect is acl1ieved by l'U1lIllng .lkma. Another early project involved costumes inspired by an 1n1t1at1ve to support the culture that Inspired BonJc. standard dobby loom in a fa. 14. Sonic Fabric was woven on a.m1ly·run m1ll in New hues of the polyester warp combined w1th the ca. Santoro is now worldng on BonJc Fabric sails. 7. different speeds creates different noises. Moving it at sha. La.aiy. England. A reader can be created from an old Wa. 12. A l1m1ted amount of material is being hand·loomed and sewn into handbags at a craft oooperative for Tibetan women refugees in Nepal. turn the volume up and press pJ. silicone glue. 9-11. Plug in the headphones.

The revolutionary Tizio desk light was designed 30 years ago. . Once again. reworking the hinges that fit the computer's fla.tor as the large surface area would result in a cumbersome head. Laptops produce approximately the same amount of heat as the number of LEDs needed for the Halley but have to remain light and portable.scade of elements where each weight must balance all preceding parts.pted for the Halley. each gram added to the head results in a multiple increase for the lowest part. Richard Sapper's career spans four decades and more than 200 products from ocean liners to household products. Also. now the Vice-President of Lucesco.dlator. as he was scepticaJ about the cold light they cast.ry talent for transforming creative research and engineering into functional elegant products.dlator Is made of a series of delicate aJum!n1um fins that absorb the heat and cool the system down with the aJd of a fan located at the rear end of Halley's head. The manufacture of the light is straJghtforward and not photographed. who had not designed a task light since.dlator. Sapper could not use a normaJ ra.P. Tizl0. As the arms and their counterweights constitute a pa. Nowhere is this more evident than in the Halley llght. the iconic s!ng!ng kettle for Alessi and. RICHARD SAPPER . and his polymath experience has resulted in his ability to draw on solutiOns from a wide range of disciplines and typologies. or in a painter's studio facing north. an unobtrusive head.!n1ng the generator and computer to the head.l!ty. The Tizio had been developed as a response to a personaJ need: a light source that could be moved as easily as pOSSible. If any.t profile while supporting the friction that prevents the cover from slipping down and transmltting the current to light up the display. Sapper was approached by a former IBM colleague. a technology Sapper a. as he wanted at least six degrees of freedom in the jointed arms of the light.. He Is probably best known for the computers he designed for IBM.dla. and it was only when Lucesco sourced LEDs that generated exactly that quality of light that Sapper was convinced to undertake the project. The current travels through six of these to get from the base conta. The first major technical problem was the need to cool the LEDs. The LEDs are mounted on a printed c1rcult board that is fixed to an aJum!n1um plate that absorbs heat.ng a liquid that carries the heat to a m!n1ature ra. The joints and head of Halley are aJum!n1um die-cast. David Gresham. Sapper drew on his knowledge of laptops. The appeaJ of the light Is derived from Its movement. The liquid c!rcula. This is attached to a copper tube contaJn1.ordlna. Manufacturer: Lucesco LIghting Die-cast aJum!n1um.! and the fan 1I\Jection-mouided. The ra.. each baJanced by a counterweight that provided a light source with six degrees of freedom in its movement without compensating springs and only a mlnlmum amount of friction. To achieve the necessary m!n1atur!za.lucesco.nclng system meant that the head had to remain as light as possible. Sapper used laptop technology.204 I .com . The same criteria were used for the Halley light.com/ www. the ra.tes through the same pipe without mixing.. a complicated counterbaJa. when colours are at their most true. Sapper !n1tlaJly had some doubts about using high-powered LEDs.dlator formed in sheet meta. In 2003. going aJong the periphery and returning through the mlddie. There are few.da.. and Sapper.tion of components. 1I\Jection-mouided plastiC fan Light source: 16 x high-power LEDs H: 10 I cm (40in) x L: 69cm (35in) Design to manufacture: 12 months Mass-manufactured sapper@us. a newly formed Silicon Valley-based LED lighting company. which Is based on a series of tiny joints housing the electricaJ connections (there are no wires in these intersections) and supporting the friction system that controls the light's agJ. Sapper's work embodies an extra. most famously. He wanted to create the light of the sun on a cloudy day. The weight of the head was of paramount importance for the whole idea of creating a light consisting of three consecutive arms.ibm. designers whose output is so heterogeneous. was interested in the challenge of once again using a new technology in the creation of a ground-breaking product. the first ever halogen task light.HALLEY LIGHT I . formed sheet-metal ra.. who was looking for a start-up product. and long arms that meant that the base could be placed as far away as possible on Sapper's crowded desk. They are cooled by a heat pipe.

a. . a lateral oounterweJ.nce.The Halley llght has arms a.rticuJ.ted In three sections. This is provided by a chrome sphere. In order to achieve perfect ba.la.ght is needed to baJ&nce the weight of the arms .

1. 'The lamp to me resembles 3-4.' The chrome ball made Sapper think of the comet orbiting the earth.tcr. which Sapper amended in pencil ( 8 . The base was conceived to allow papers to slip on to lts gently curving profile to save desk space. Luoesoo examined the model and returned a technlcal drawing.. The fan is kept vislble.ture radla. becomJng part of the llg'ht's aesthetics.te. A system to 0001 the a oool1n. . .. . HALLEY LIGHT I . fan.1n. em. between Sapper and Lucesco's engineers in the form of sketches.206 I .. 2. which is cooled by a.ing the concept for of the astronomer who discovered the comet that bears his name.rrl.. amendment centre I'lght) to improve the fol'lllal overlap of head and tall. powerful LEOs was borrowed from laptop technology: the lights are mounted on a printed c1roult board attached to a heat-absorbing alumlnJum plB..a. a comet with its luminous head and ta. 'I named it Halley in honour dellnlng the articulated arm of Halley and the head with the 'taU' conta.t1on 6-8.ils and technlcal drawtngs. 5 .P. Sapper's first model. Lucesco produced their own model to check they agreed with Sapper's basic ooncept. RICHARD SAPPER .' says Sapper. A copper tube contalnlng a conductIng liquid ca.g element (3) was sent to Luoesoo along wlth a bl'8BS model of the base ( 4 ) . First model of the head and fan made by Sapper in foam and paper showing the lnItlal form of the cooling aJr intake (6-7).il. models.es the heat to a minla. The design was developed in an ongoLng collabora.

.ed to be contalned in the rad1a... The heat pipe can be clearly seen in the centre of the model.==:. / /' / r/ 'i9' j/ J / .tor housing.:J . ~3~k ~ G ~~~ / l~ '}.1 -.. 11 des1gn.. Models and drawlngs showing experiments for the cooling fins.-==-3 f ~ .if=. The cooling fins were HH 7. 18..9-13. models and technical drawlngs produced. Two different kinds of LEOs (left and right) and halogen (centre) were also examlned. 14.aJ ~. and sketches. Alternative light sources. Various LED configurations were discussed between Lucesco and Sapper. /' 1 /1 )!( 00 .J f$lJ [[: ~r '-- =:i .

20 . ~ f?c.. Sapper worked out the intricate cal1bratlon of the Ught's movement.ts and CUmeIlBions of the ftnlshed oQject. Sketches ( 21 ) &Ild techn1caJ drawings ( 22) define the delicate JOinting of the arm .l fUll-scale model created by Sspper.22.nger for short clrcu1ts?' 24-25.w Or is there a da. The note reads 'Could we modify the dlvldlng Une Uke this ( for &esthetical reasons)? /32y 'Z. HALLEY LIGHT I .l3 'F 26.. Remnants of the fina.. :I to ~01. L I()}l-l. .P.. Annotated technlcaJ drawing ( 20). As well as oontaJn1ng the electrical oonnect1ons..-B ~AC 10 2'4 • 21 .. 19 Gwrlc4k 2 8 /0 korf Lt=D:S [6 kaaA-~k AL ZO ~r- 19-20..t's ague movement.~ : + 1322-\ f.w 1'.208 I .. In order to maintain a y60-degree art1culation.. RICHARD SAPPER . 23. F1nBJ model of the base made by rapid prototyplng. His early pencllled caJculat!ons ( 19) were very close to the we1gb.. no wires were used in the joints..1 t + lofl. Adapt&t1on of Luoesco's techn1caJ drawing of the electrical connection by Sapper. the Joints sUPJXJrt the frict10n system that oontrols the llgb.

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connecting arch and light source coming together In one production line. she decided to design a la.l cables and LEDs with the high-tech materials.ctile bell Impregnated with resin. using a second mould In plywood. base. coloured fibreglass.wiekisomers. In common with most of that school's alumni. are used to cover car and aeroplane parts . unorthodox and demonstrate an original use of materials. which combined tra. Wlekl Somers was trained at the Design Academy Eindhoven and.mp.lmed to weave it out of one piece. a bathtub shaped as an Inverted rowing boat. carbonftbre. Production: Wield Somers Carbon. . The carrier.ces the coloured polyester with coloured fibregJass . consisting of 144 computer-controlled spools. Starting with hand-drawn sketches. In colla. Bellflower was developed for the Dry Tech 3 collection presented In colla. They are playful. polyester and glass fibres around a mould. Her latest prototype repla.rbon. WIEKI SOMERS .l University of Delft. too. a.P. thereby removing the need for electrica.n Furniture Falr of 2007. a series of prototypes was constructed. Bellflower Is still a wor k In progress.k1ng as her inspiration the bellflower. weaves composite 'sleeves' from carbon.' she says.com . The brief was unchanged from the 1990s.. Problems were resolved.da. The stem was then bent to create Bellflower's standing curve. By incorporating electrica. to design objects that are light and Euroca. the shade. such as the textile pleating irregularly In the acute curves.5cm (7 IAIn) x W: 13. The same use of material. shape and process was the motivating idea behind the products on show at Dry Tech 3 . Ta. which goes to sleep at the end of the day (the time to read a book). a waterrat-fur-covered porcelain skull. The results.. In one material and one technlque. lightweight woven textile that could be shaped at will..ditlonal materials used Innovatively. Somers recognized the exciting free-form possibilities of a. The complex shapes are Impregnated by epoxy resin and. It was unveiled off site during the Mlla.210 / .5cm ( 5 IAIn) x D: 50cm (l9 3A1n) Design to production: work In progress Prototype www .rbon. the pieces she designs engage the user's imagination. The concept of Dry Tech was developed during the mld-1990s.ll my products an interaction between function. The sleeve was bralded over a temporary polyurethane foam mould to form the shade.boratory at the disposal of designers who were Instructed to 'weave' products with a high-tech lightness and strength from new fibre-based materials. content and my passion for materials..boratlon with Euroca.ller LEDs. The epoxy a.ll the elements of the lamp are achieved. Somers visited Is strongly conceptual. The lamp was a. Once a form had been defined. She Intends to make the shade more transparent and use sma. and a final prototype made . ThIs. to address issues that could not be assessed on the computer. BELLFLOWER LAMP / . The advantages of overbraldlng are that the 'sleeve' can be shaped Into many different forms before it is Impregnated by resin and.llowed to dry for 24 hours before the LEDs were connected. after removing the mould. was Impregnated with the resin. epoxy Light source: 20 x LEDs H: 18.ptlng this machine to produce a strong.. and High Tea Pot. woven tapes and fabric and was Introduced to their overbraldlng machine. Best known for Bathboat. eclectic.boratlon with Droog Design and the Structures and Material Laboratory In the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at the Technlca. her work made from advanced materials . or tra.r by Marcel Wanders . a star-lit aesthetiC is produced. while ca. 'There Is In a.llows the rock-hard shell to maintain a soft textile appearance and. by connecting the 20 LEDs directly to the electrical cables In the fabric of the shade. Once the weaving was complete the mould was removed and the te.l cables . Somers qulckly translated the rough concepts Into 3D renderings to try out various measurements and shapes.t bralds. were various and most famously produced the now iconic Knotted ChaJ. In preparation for the commission.rbonftbre is used to conduct the electricity. a producer of tubular and fla.ditionaJ methods with cutting-edge material SCience. It put the knowledge and advanced material resources of the la. and Somers is In the process of resolving certain issues. she a.

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here made from polyurethane foam . bent to create the curved form of the lamp and the stem..ted with resin.212 I . or Campanula. From early hand_wn sketches. second mould made from . computer renderingS were constructed to work out the final form. The arig1nal textile was plywood. The shape of the lamp was inspired by the polyester. The be111s impregnated with resln. The LED lighting gives a true gaJaxy feel.. 3... The mould Is put into Bellflower lamp is a. and Is then also impregna.. The latest bellflower. overbrald1ng Is that complex shapes can be formed around cheap moulds..P. BELLFLOWER LAMP I . The textile sleeve Is complete and the mould can be removed. 1 (Previous page). 8. formed from carbon. The 4-5. WIEKI SOMERS .rts to be woven. combination of high-tech and bra. One of the advantages of prototype replaces the polyester with conductive carbonftbre replaclng the need for electrical cables. the 144-spool overbraider des1gned by Eurocarbon and the sleeve sta. 6. ) 7. glass fibre and electrical cable. The textUe is placed over a.1d1ng technique. 2. coloured 1.

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' Urquiola's collaboration with Italian lighting manufacturer Flos dates from the years she worked in the studio of Piero Llssoni. Urqulola has a reputation for finding existing technologies and working with them in pioneering ways. borosilicate glass . during the creative stages of development. expands and contracts according to the user's wishes) Originated in Urqulola's observation of everyday objects . He became her mentor. and adaptive to our needs. Arco and Brera lamps. The delicately beautiful light (which.. persuadlng her to follow in his footsteps and replace architecture with deSign. Extensive research was undertaken to find the right type of steel. and instllllng in her the belief that inspiration can be found in everyday thlngs and ordinary materials. Urqulola's work is at once contemporaneous but not fashionable.. Writing in the introduction to 'l'he. led to the challenge of transforming the purity and lightness of the traditional bamboo whisk used in the Japanese tea ceremony into somethlng completely different in function by the utilization of modern technologies and materials. and even on prototypes. on occasion. or even. Urqulola believes in using readily disposable and inexpensive materials that give her the freedom to make as many changes as she wants. In Chasen. stems from the close relationship he eI<ioyed with Castiglioni.214 I . the first in paper and cardboard.the erosion of steel using an electro-chemical process .patriciaurquiola. Patricia Urqulola trained as an architect in Madrid before moving to Milan where she met AchJlle Castiglioni. She says: 'After years of putting function first. President of Flos. heat-reSistant double insulation cable Light source: l50W halogen h in) H: 64-74cm (25-29in) x Dia: 25-50cm Cl0 1J... this process extended into the manufacturing. the Italian architect and deSigner... In total a dozen prototypes were developed by Urquloia. Many were produced in I: I scale. Urqulola sketohed freehand. Patricia Urqulola talks about her current fascination with 'skin' .-19 1 Design to manufacture: 8 months Mass-manufactured www. International Design Yearbook ~. Due to a short timeframe. inventing industrial processes of her own. which resulted in iconic pieces such as the Taecia. resistance and endurance. and the components necessary to achieve a harmonious movement.which. and renderings were created to give a better comprehension of the project and to avoid misunderstanding. on print-outs and renderingS. Her desire to design for Piero Gandinl. thanks to a mechanism controlling vertical regulation. and the same number by Flos. it was an event that proved seminal in her career.. production time and quallty of the detalling: the cuts were too sharp. Urqulola believed she had the perfect concept for the company. and commerciallY sound while displaying tinY details that have an emotional kick. and a compromise was sought between elasticity.I am excited by the potentiallty of mixing art and craft techniques with modern technologies to achieve a blending of the new and advanced with tradition to generate an emotional response that is connected to somethlng we know and recognize but that has been adapted in an innovative way.. OriginallY laser-cutting was considered but was rejected due to cost. undoubtedly one of the most important designers of the 20th century.flos. CHASEN LAMP I . The selection of material was fundamental to Chasen. in this case.. For her. During analysis of the form and function of the light.com/ www. it was imperative to maintain close contact with the client at all times. the quantity and dimensions of the cuts. as they allow an immediate and interactive reaction. It seems that design is becoming more subjective. desires and pleasures .com . to fix ideas in her own mind as well as to communicate with her staff and Flos' technicians.P. The centre of the project (a light that transforms its)shape through cuts) Is metal.. Technical drawings were produced in Rhlnoceros® and AutoCad. then polystyrene and foam and finally in metal. PATRICIA URQUIOLA . to define as many elements as possible and make the industrialization of the lamp run smoothly. This transforms sheet metal (traditionally used as a statiC component) into a kinetiC material. the electroerosion treatment was symbolic of the art and craft involved in the Japanese tea ceremony.was selected. the Manufacturer: Flos SpA Steel. but Chasen is the first product for the renowned manufacturer created under her own name. Models are important to Urqulola. chemical milling .

were also 2H!2. A llquJd type of ve. (10). Different kinds of sheet were cut in various thicknesses to gauge possible movement. Prototype of the dlffuser. The durab18 glass was selected for its heat-res1. fle. Early prototype.! sheets using .illng of the InterosJ parts including the 15. It 18 made from boros1I1ce.ctdB.9-11. 14. caustic action of the a. ChemlcaJ mllI. A later prototype demonstrates different curves and the rea. on the surface of the metal to protect aga.Ing Is an eiectro-eroslon t.1ng horizontal movement. movement mecha.n1sm 0ete.rnJsh ptgment saturation control was applled to make the exterior transparent and the tnterior opaque. with 19-20. to the entire diameter (17).ctJon possIble in the mater1&ls. The steel base was turned on a lathe ( 16) and the etched sheet was welded. It involves a resist . Computer drawings produced early In the development showed a study corrosive elements. DIfferent ltghtlng effects examtned from haJogen (21 ) to spot (22).Inst the of the sta. Unprotected parts are eaten away. ftlm s1mllar to photofllm .b1l1zers controll.t mete.1ght illustrating the deta.echn1que used to create cuts on thin. 16-17. The pattern1Dg Is plotted on a computer. and a.te.stanoe. also known as the brand name Pyrex®. cross-section of the l. 18. 12-13. ( 9 ).being printed.in this case a.1J of the base (II).

1ts vertical reguJ.tlon to expand Its structure. Chasen transforms its shape due to an 1nftn1ty screw that perm. .a.Lamps are often static. It Is available in large (shown above) and small.

l. .216 I .panese tea. in the the control of the vertical working out how to pLace the various components. CHASEN LAMP I . and an early proposal 6.mp h older . .. 7 .. showing her interpretation of the InsplI'at1on ( 2 ) .1. . . Teehnlcal draw1nge were developed to define deta. PATRICIA URQIDOLA . a. j -~ I ---~'" ~I. components. Urquiola's sketches. Presentation renderings were used a.~ ~ A". the drawing showing the solution to achJevlng the best angIe of possible movement (3). Technical rendering for the iImer tube that houses 1. a bamboo whisk used.ture. ceremony. 8 .ly milled sheet (left) ... I 2-4.s a worldng tool to transmit the soul of the concept.nd the way the different elements might fit together (4 ). 5 .r 6 gIass actJng seetlon as base .tion on the thickness of the 'cuts' to the chemicaJ. Prototypes of the movement and the conta.. The insptration for the lamp was the chasen.l curva. 2 5 ~ J Ii1l 7 ~ li diffuse r rtng nut to cover la. !.s and to communicate with Flos' technicians . In1t1a. Ja. with etched tubula. and delibera.iner for the double·1nsulated cable ( right).P.

van Veldhoven was Introduced to an unpredictable heavy 100% polyamide satin and was Immediately seduced by Its sheen and supple body. He considers hlmself an IndustrlaJ designer. EUGENE VAN VELDHOVEN. as synthetic Is best for ease of pleating and laser-cutting without fraying. as In the case of Orchid 5. which consisted of one layer only. to be produced co=erclaJly. As such It could not cut through the pleats without burning the a. however. inspired by hand-folded paper chains. reducing the 300cm-wide (lJl BIn) fabric to 80cm (31 Y. Van Veldhoven Is now working on a more affordable variation on the or1g1nal piece. van Veldhoven worked with the Textilemuseum's Graphlxscan laser-cutter. and van Veldhoven decided he would create lace effects with the laser. and then considers his role at an end. . However. the end result. the suspended 4m (1 3ft) hangings were aJlowed to drop. ultrasonic embossing or. . where two cylinders heated to lBO°C (356°F) exerted pressure. Once the fabric was cut. who Is known for the pleats he made for Issey Miyake.com . a company with IndustrlaJ lasercutters. Eugene van Veldhoven's fascination with the tactlle and optical effects of the surface of materlaJs has resulted In his trademark combination of tradltlonaJ and hightech methods. whether they be machine embrOidery. Abstracting the pattern on Illustrator he produced 20 variations (ten to the scale) before taking the best two to the techniCians. bringtng together aJl that he has learnt to date. ORCHID 5 FABRIC / .dutchtextiledeslgn. the operation was moved to ID-laser. pleating and laser-cutting: he scorns the notion of decoration for decoration's sake.. .!1n) . making It possible to blow a neutraJ gas over the point of cutting. preventing the fabric becoming scorched or worse.. Taking a !lower motif from a previous deSign. so he chose to work with Irregular pleats to obtain a baJance between the organized and the acCidental.21B / . As a result. The Textllemuseum's laser-cutter was only capable of carrying out tests on the materlaJ as It Is operated by means of a smaJl mirror that steers the laser beam In different angJes. Choosing the fabric was difficult. from how the pattern Is made to the techniques used. van Veldhoven had experimented on laser-cutting pleated fabrics . for van Veldhoven It was a chance to present a coherent collection.P. an open textile.. creating a thick fabric with pleats occaslonaJly overlapping. He supplies deta1led information on his designs to his clients. Van Veldhoven's work Is normaJly very geometric. He has little Interest In being In the limelight. The materlaJ was hand-fed Into a Klieverik calendar. One of the greatest Influences on van Veldhoven's work was a masterclass given by the Japanese textile designer Junlchi AraJ. Production: Eugene van Veldhoven 100% polyamide satin 4m (13ft) drop Design to production: 7 months One-off www. The obvious choice would have been a lightweight synthetic and naturaJ blend whose layers would not fuse when heated and that would easily reopen on the pleats after cutting. silicon coating. Van Veldhoven creates patterns from a thorough knowledge of what Is possible with the materlaJ he Is using and the methods he has chosen.q)01n!ng fabriC. Is the same. their own weight pulling open the horizontaJ cuts to create the lacy effect. Although MAD's exhibition's theme deaJt with constructing with yarn rather than the cutting away of materlaJ. They selected the one they considered would work best In combination with the laser (too many lines close together or toe small a motif build up heat and cause melting of the fabric). To make his life more dlfftcult. To produce the full-size hanging with repeated motifs. but also coincided with the Dutch Textllemuseum commissioning hlm to design and manufacture a series of three 4m-long (13ft) fabrics using Its new laser-cutting and engraving machine. Here the beam Is moved by an X-Y-bar and at a fixed angJe. Orchid 5 forms part of the work van Veldhoven undertook for MAD. He reviSited this concept In Orchid 5. For a designer who has declared his preference for working behind the scenes. but burns easily. his decision to accept the New York Museum of Arts and Design's (MAD) invitation to participate In the exhibition 'Radical Lace and Subversive KnItting' (January to June 2007) may seem hypocritical.

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As earl3' as 1998. (Previous page).P..ng pleated fabIi.. However. In the end. Jun1chi van Veldhoven created an abstracted version 1n illustrator ( 4 ). it proved too sensitive to heat.ser-cuttJ. from an earlier design (3 ) . Taking a flower motif were worked on. Orchld 5 Is created by la. worldng on a transparent fabriC. a supple and shiny polyamide 1. Van Veldhoven was greatly influenced by the Japanese textUe deSigner. as the designer liked the idea of 6 .rrled out to experiment with different speeds and intensities of the laser. out on a polyester volle. 1 . 5 . 220 / . Tests were again ca.mOUB for the pleated fabrics he created for Issey Miyake. but only the best ODe or two were delivered to the technicians. 2. . AraJ. The labels record the paper chains or garlands.. Van Veldhoven's open fabrtc was lnBplred by the Idea of hand-folded and cut satin was selected. van Veldhoveo was expel'1menttng with pleating and laser-cutting fabr1c. who Is fa. Many proofs different layers.c. A test was ca.. ORCHID 5 FABRIC / . which he considered would best show all the various results . EUGENE VAN VELDHOVEN.. 3--4 ..rrled.

it could not cut through the pleats without burnlng the 8<\joln1ng fabric. New York .1 gas was blown over the point of cutting to prevent burnlng.fl computer (7) to control the laser-cutting of the fabric (8). the operation was moved to an industrial laser-cutting facUlty. reducing Its width from 300cm was allowed to hang out under its own weight. ( 1181n) to 800m (31 I'. The freshly cut textile ha. this laser-cutter was only capable of carrying out the tests . Beca. A Kl1everik calender heats and presses the fabric. Here a neutra..7-8. Van Veldhoven in front of the OrchJd 5 wa. 12 . Information was fed into the Textllemuseum's Oraphixsca.ng1ng at ths 'RadlcaJ Lace and Subversive Kn1ttJng' exhibition held at the Museum of Arts and Design. opened up the cuts on the pleats and creating the 'lacy' aesthetic (see opener).1ng OCC8BlonaJly overlapping pleats.ng1ng with repeated motlfs. To produce the full-size ha.use of its size and the way it is operated.ll 10. 11 . 9 . in 2007. which .in) and creat.

and the fam!ly-run Murano furnace with whom he has worked for many years. ThIs Is covered with minute glass spheres to help the glass move easily out towards the frame. to develop mutua! understandings through which solutions could be reached and decisions made. as the air between the struts kept the glass at a temperature where It could flow and be eased over the mould. . GUIDO VENTURINI . It has been used by the craftsmen of Murano for centuries In the production of their more traditional pieces and here refers to the stretchlng of semi-molten glass over a mould. Kunda. Nothing couid be taken for granted and Sp!n! remained Involved throughout the process. A partially mirrored metal fIn1sh was appl1ed. PIROUETTE LAMP / . the glass slumps and Is pulled over the mould to give the piece Its defln1t1ve shape. www. . the hottest possible pizza Manufacturer: Kundalini srI was needed and the fracca stage was omitted. translating It Into a contemporary Idiom was more difficult. The invention was fundamental to the design.kunda. so the foundry developed a skeleton of the f!nal form over which the glass was stretched. the information was translated Into the physical oQjects. The colours pI'Qject through the transparent glass and give the effect of translucent coloured glass.l1n1. which gives a satin traoslucency to the shade when the l1ght Is on. usJ.ng a 3D water-Jet.. MANDALA LIGHT / . on to which a tool. In a collaboration between Gregorio Sp!n!. Although glass-plating Is ancient and Simple. ALESSANDRO MENDINI / .lly he had wanted to glass-blow the haslc shape and then cut the 'frilled' edge usJ.l1n1 commissioned lea. ThIs was the concept behind both Mandala and PIrouette. The object Is then removed and placed on a platform In the furnace to temper.222 / .ng CAD drawings and I: I cardboard models.171n) x D1a: 23-49cm (91n-19 'A In) Design to manufacture: 9 months Mass-manufactured. Glass-plating often refers to the technique of creating stained glass. Guido Ventur!ni's inspiration for PIrouette was the traditional lampshade translated Into an exaggerated Fl!ntstone cartoon aesthetic.ng the stresses that could cause the glass to shatter. The glass Is then transferred to the mould.ng the method out1!ned above. Kunda. At a later stage In the process these partla!ly embedded microgra!ns of glass are sand-blasted away to obtain a smooth fIn1sh. Crystal glass Light source: 2 x R7s 118= D: IG-15cm ( ~In) x D1a: 40-<lOcm (l53A-23 \f. the 'fracca'. The diffuser was tempered and then decorated. who are trained for generations In classical aesthetics.. After discussions with Sp!n! the concept was diverted to glass-plating. Mandala means 'c!rcle' or 'wheel' In Sanskrit and the symbol has been used by various cultures as an aid to meditation.l1n1. Is Impressed to create the pattern. thereby reducJ. the 'trappola' that contains the glass within a predicted area. All the concepts of contemporary design had to be expla!ned to the craftsmen. but It's also the term given to the forming of molten glass In any way other than blowing.l1n1 developed a technique of applying paint to the back of the crystal glass.P. The f!nal part of the process Is the hand decoration. following the patterns Impressed by the fracca.!1n) Design to manufacture: 9 months Mass-manufactured Manufacturer: Kundalini srI Crystal glass Light source: I x R7s 78= H: 3G-43cm (l2. To create the dimension of the shade's surface. Once Mendin1's drawings had been received and worked up usJ. The Idea was for designers of different generations to produce contemporary wall l1ghts hased on the oriental tradition of contemplative and curative Imagery. Mandala Is a work In progress. Or!g1na. As the temperature decreases. Melted glass Is spooned out of the furnace at 1300°C (2372°F) and poured on to an even bronze surface...it . to create the largest glass volume ever achleved ~wlth this technique.. especially In the collaboration with artisans whose Idea of beauty was diametrlca1ly opposed to that of Sp!n!. A sol1d mould would cool the glass too quickly. Alessandro Mendin1 and Karim Rashid have been Invited to develop their interpretations.d1ng figures In the contemporary design world to create objects that would take this classical process and bring It Into the 21 at century. So far. the Managing D!rector of Kunda... The coollng glass forms a c1rcular extension (referred to as the 'pizza') with the consistency of treacle. and Ettore Sottsass and Ora Ito wlll follow..

ted. .nd-deoora.ble actd-etched and sand· blasted or mirror-plated. curved plated gJass diffuser pressed with the fracco and ha.ll and celUng Ughts with a.Mand&J& ( right) Is a. The PIrouette crystallampsh&de (below) Is ava. range of wa.1la.

1nt the back of the crystal glass following the Unes lmpressed by the fracoo. to form. 4-6.. MANDALA LIGHT / .9 . 3 . . 6 . I.. ALESSANDRO MENDINI / .ass flows and is pulled over the mould to produce the definitive form of the fixture.. The impression 18 of glossy translucent ooloW'ed glass.nskrit for 'circle' or 'wheel'. The gJ. The light fixture is then hand-decorated. frame that confines the flow of the glass. 1 1 .. a. they symbol1ze our connection to the 1nfin1te and are used as an aid to meditat1on. PIROUETTE LAMP / . The patterns are anctent. The fra.. GUIDO VENTURINI.r1m Rashid was another des1gner invited to des1gn h1s Interpretation of the mandala. .nd the pizza 18 tra.cco is impressed on to the surface of the glass and the pattern created. Ma. A technique was developed to pa. 7.224 / . Gla..nsferred to the mould ( 8-9). Ka.ndaJa Is inspired by the Ba. 10 . .P.s. The fracco Is removed as 18 the trappol& ( 7) a.. 2 . M end1n1 prepared & series of draw1ngs explor1ng h1s personal interpretation of the mandala.... a molten <lise of glass called a 'pizza' ( 5 ). 18 hested to 1300' 0 (2372°F) and spooned out of the furnace on to & smooth bronze surfaoe (4 ) and spread mto the trappola.

The plate was pulled over a mould s1m1lar to that created for PIrouette (19) . The glass was pulled down over the mould as it cooled. A 10mm (1Aaln) hole allows a continuous thread of molten glass to cascade dOwn. Sp1n1 had the idea of painting It black to make It look as if it had been created by rapid prototyplng. A furn&oe has been constructed that is suspended above the heads of the artisans . To keep the pizza hot. a skelet&l steel mould was developed. 21. allowed to harden and then removed ( 20 ).l. The artisans have a very traditional understanding of aesthetics and Gregot1o Sp1n1 wanted to bring the age-old technique of glass-plating Into the 21 st century . J 14. The pizza was placed dIrectly on the steel frame . The air between the struts ensures that the glass does not cool too qulckly.12. Paper models of Pirouette were produced from drawings and used as the basic information to make the mould. to the bemusement of the decorator. The process is stlli p&rt1aJ. Because the glass pizza used in Pirouette needed to be kept fluld for as long as possible. 19-20.Jy secret and could not be photographed. Navone . A cryst&l version had very beautiful reflections but was too classica. 13. 15-17. The latest product In the glass-plating series Is FIlo by Paola. which is formed into a woven pla.te.ry stage of imprinting a pattern by using the fracco was left out. reta1n!ng the lines of the frame . 18. the IntermedJa. .

In this case the five layers are sandwiched between male and female moulds.walzworkinc. making each piece of furniture distinctive . he started to ponder exactly what that meant in this day and age. It was used to form the two complicated curves of the seat and the sinuous. curator and artist and is well known for his research into structures and materials. Plywood has been one of the most ubiquitous building products for decades. table and sldetable. the five layers of wood and fibre flex in a gentle way but can be cut very specifically with none of the shrinking found in natural woods . The vertical laminate Is 8mm ('heln) thick and designed to hold weight. which was followed by pigmented cork flooring and tableware. boat designer and craftsman. a light core and a solid wood frame to create the thinnest possible top that would remaIn taut and not warp even in long measurements. By a. KEVIN &! BARRY WALZ . but which was lighter and more malleable than plywood'. When WaIz was approached by Ralph PuCCi. more than a little environmentally unfriendly. worse still. vacuum·pressed and left to dry. but produced in essentially the same way. In 1996 he received international recognition for a collection of furniture in compressed cork for KorQlnc.allowed Kevin and Barry WaIz to design as If they were working in metal. The wood layers are left unstained and the graIns carefully balanced. to design a collection comprising a wooden chaIr. and then Joined together with epoxy in accordance with the furniture designs. Both vertical and horizontal laminates are lald up as flat planes..226 I . 68kg (! V21b) . For Walz the material was looking dated: heavy.. that had been given to him by his brother Barry. to reinforce their natural beauty and to contrast with the technologically asSisted performance of the now patented laminate. The creation of the furniture and the three versions of the laminates produced are co-dependent. Here was a lightweight product. An Idea of what the design of the pieces would involve was needed to judge how the material should be made to behave. PATENTED FLEXIBLE WOOD LAMINATE I . bulky and. international manufacturer of custom-made artistic furniture and mannequins. cut to measure Design to manufacture: 9 months Small-scale production www.<\Justing the proportiOns of the layers of wood and fibre. The laminates . . The skin laminate is just 3mm (Vain) thick. It Is composed of fine layers of solid wood. It also has a wide pigment range.walnut mixed with different thicknesses of carbonflbre . a balance was found between a rigid strength and appropriate thinness. They are then set in a vacuup press and allowed to dry. the carbon sheets are soaked in resin and the next wood layer Is placed on top until all five layers are together. The horizontal version was conceived for tabletop surfaces . HIs inspiration came from a canoe of a technical fibre that was strong and even waterproof. In all cases. the laminates are produced individually and cut precisely to avoid waste. .. flexible profile of the chair's backrest. Undulating forms were possible with planes meeting in precise points with no fear of shifting. 'I wanted to make a timber-based material that harnessed wood's structural properties and allowed Its characteristics to be seen. the layers are placed on a level surface. designer. with the current preoccupation with green deSign.P. Walnut was chosen as It has a linear strength but Is flexible . but over the last 50 years nothing new has been attempted. Starting with wood. Kevin WaIz works as architect.. Most manufactured wooden furniture today Is not wood at all but veneered plywood or. WaIz set out to invent a modern-day equivalent. yet without reallzing the exciting new properties of the laminates the evolved profile of the objects could not have been imagined. veneered composite board. Combining technology with natural materials. The three variatiOns were devised to suit the different functions required of the furniture series: vertical.com WALZ . The chair weighs only O. he says. The furniture was designed to emphasize the lightness and flexibility of the material. Together they thought of using the technology of canoe manufacture to develop a new material that could be used in the Pucci furniture collection. made from solid layers of wood sandwiched between layers PATENTED FLEXIBLE WOOD LAMINATE KEVIN i~ 13AI~I~Y Production: Kevin and Barry WaIz Walnut and carbonflbre. horizontal and formed.

The development of the la.m1na.te was in response to a commission receIved to design a plywood furniture collectIon. The patented alternative produced 18 llghter and more malleable. .

8 . 1.ech aeronautical manufacturer.Yers and carbonftbre roll.Yered sandwich is vacuum-pressed a.. The construction of tile canoe.nd aJJowed to dry. 4 5 .auters are p1aoed on a flat surfaoe. Walnut IB. The 1nsp1rat1on for the flexible walnut and carbonftbre lamInate :HI. The bose matertalls walnut.. and manufactured by Ralpb Puocl. The la. which Is Ia. Thellve-IB. 8tart1ng wltIl wocxl.228 I . KBv1n and Barry WaJz were involved in the creation of the patented lamInate and tile prototu'POS of tile came from examining a canoe. as needed. . They are then set in a vacuum press and allowed to dry. to the I. wltIl tbln panels supported by wood l'1be.rtng tile vert1callam1naie. To the rear can be seen the skin lam1naie of tile mould· formed seat. Tbe oollect1on has now gone 1nto mass production and Is fabl'1cated by East Coest Intal'1ors.P.kec! carbonftbre.m lnates are l&1d up for strength and skin for shape.. 2.Yered wltIl resln·soa. They are not If'''luoed In a flxed sheet size but are sllglltly over tile size requlred for tile furnlture. . KEVIN & BARRY WALZ . Barry WaJz prepe. Close-up of tile lam1naie..1d up as a flat plane. 7 .t.Yers are together. a h!gb. was tnstrumentalin the variations of laminAtes produced: vertical f'urniture series oon:u:n1ss1oned are soa. tile carbon sheets avoid W8SUIile. PA T ENTED FLEXIBLE WOOD LAMINATE I .kec! In resin and tile next wood la¥er is placed on top unttl all five IB. . which Is IB. 6 .

. . Information was fed Into the computer and CAD drawings produoed.a. Image of the model presented to Ralph PuooL 11 . 15.lso exam1ned.am1na. 10. W&lz's the skin laminate formed between the maJe and fema.t. female mould of the abaIr sea. Female mould of the abaIr sea. Three prototypes assess and address structural 1BBues.. 1.t (13).le pa.rd models.te was being asked to bend too much in two dlrect10DS.t (12). The cba. The rela.s.1r design was worked up via 8.onship between the seat and the crossed leg planes was a. It was found the J.. A f'ull·scaJe model was made using the formed Iam1n&te seat to coITeOt the 'x' so tha. tool was created and . \ \ .1- -- . The solution was to make the front edge of the seat curve up In the centre to remove some of the stretch. studio use AutoCad 2007.. was made.9.. Male and female mould of the abaIr back (1 4 ). I .. 12-14. Male and. fed Into the computer from which a.tJ.ta. The positioning of the meeting of the 'x' under the seat impacts on the size of backrest needed and the centre of gravity of the abaIr.rt. Rh1nooeros® and Cinema 40. and the d. I . series of sketches and 20 cardIloa.t the backrest could be rethought. 16-17. A foam model of the sea.

.. new type of seating In which the fibres themselves form the structural body but.lly baked In an oven.P. Ten prototypes refined the process of 'baking' the chair. then fixed with a plastic ring.. when twisted and secured. Its form created by the cooking process. because they are soft. IS chair that no-one has ever dreamed of creat1ng'. Tbe tube Is baked In a k1ln at 104°C (219°F) for 30 minutes. the effect of sitting on the chair would be like sitting on alr. At the age of 40. the fibres memorizing the shape of the chalr as they are heated. Tbe block Is Inserted Into a tube made from Production: TokuJin Yoshioka Polyester fibre H: 80cm (31 'hln) x W: 90cm (35 'h1n) x D: 90cm (35 'h1n) Design to production: 38 months L1mIted batch of 39 www.lly used In medical and a. Tokl\lln frequently uses catering analogies: 'My design philosophy might have some similar principles to the sp1r1t of Japanese cuisine. For Pane chair. which. finally settling on a translucent and spongy polyester elastomer norma. presented In 2002 during the Mllan FurnIture FaIr. which..com . He Is known for products that mix poetry with innovative technical processes. His idea was to create a. He works In materials that are not necessar1ly new but In a w~ that liberates their full potential In innovative w~s . He then conducts tests to give a tangible form to his Ideas. producing computer graphics In order to communicate the notion to other people. Simple food does not mean simple cooking: that Is the w~ of Japanese cuisine. you can't discern how much time and preparation have gone Into their presentation.. Tbe block Is wrapped In a cloth. Tbe process begins when a semlcylindrical block of fibres Is rolled and shaped by hand.' Three years In the making. Italian for bread and this unique piece Is litera.tokl\lln. If numerous cells come together to form an Intense group. When you look at the finished dishes. creates the the kind of paper normally used to pour concrete on construction sites. Tbe concept for the chair sprang eventual armrests. His first designed chair. great strength can be achieved that ellmlnates the need for hard materials.gr1cu1tural applications. TOkl\lIn's normal working method Is to develop a concept In his head. By systematl~ organizing small.lly. and that is the w~ I want to design. Tokl\lln comments: 'My concept has alw~s been to create something new. Pane's uncomplicated form belies the research and experimentation that has gone Into the end result.230 / . From an early sketch he developed the form and typology of the chalr by w~ of CAD drawllngS. To test the physical and tact1le qualities of the chair he then produced a model In sponge. Is already ICOniC. PANE CHAIR / . Tokl\lln was struck by the fibrous structures. Tokl\lln's constant experimentations ensure that his products transcend banality. Tokl\lln Yoshioka Is one of Japan's leading designers and one of the few to have made an impression on the European market.' Pane chair Is certainly. something no-one has done before. as Tokl\lln says. Tbe factory that helped with the production of the chair had never witnessed Its like before. Tbe feature examined fibres from the natural to the advanced and scientific.. creating pieces that have a strong artistic appeal but sell commercla. acCidental and organic. demonstrate their strength In their capacity to absorb forces. they gain strength by spreading the stress. despite their softness. 'Pane' is the from an article that Tokl\lln read In National Geographic magazine. TOKUJIN YOSHIOKA . light fibres . Tbe Pane chair Is the first of Its kind. Honey-pop. creating what Tokl\lln refers to as 'structures for the future' . Tokl\lln experimented with various fibrous materials. Tbe result of the process Is a chair with an 'uncertain finish ' (no two pieces are alike) that Is autonomous. he rarely uses sketches.

111e 'baked' Pane cha1r. viewed In its cook!ng tube (&bove) and Without (below). .

1 1. 3 . structure. is l1k... The block is secured with a plastlc rtng and wrapped In a cloth..lr (10).ly used In medical and agricultural applicat10ns was selected. he did a series of freehand drawings 4-10.h1s innovative seating.n word.m1l1ar with : bread. When cooked.. oven ( 8-9). TOKUJIN YOSHIOKA . . which Is then twisted and secured ( 6-7). Norma. 2 .e b&k1ng a loaf in the oven. a translucent polyester elastomer normaJ.P. A seml-cyllndrtcal block of fibres Is rolled by hand and shaped Into a tube ( 4-5).232 I . The block Is then placed in a paper tube and baked in a custom-made that gave an idea of the fibrouB and s1mple form of the end·product. for a food that everybody In the world is fa. Developing t. the fibres memorize the shape of the cha. PANE CHAIR I . Freehand sketches are unusual for To~in . For Pane. The Pane cha.. After numerous experiments with different flbres.liy he produces them retrospectively for magazines. .1r Is named after the ltalla. which oontainB no lnternaJ.

.

P. . .. PANE CHAIR / .... TOKUJIN YOSHIOKA .234 / . .

12.1l the complete development process. Tokl\jln Yoshioka and colleagues develop one example of the cha. to roiling.ys Tokl\jln. materi&l and Btructure. and in the oven. aod then placing In the oooking tub.lsp~s.lWB8S belng completely unique. 'I believe that a "deliCiously" comfortable cha.' se. has been baked by the innovative process of a new idea.lr in their studio. From 1n1t1al fibre block.II. . showing in deta. each finished chair has the additional feature of a.1r. wrapping. the theatre of the object's manufacture Is as beautiful as the final piece Itself. wtth an ortg1n&l feel. For the designer. whose other work includes interactive exhibitions and d.

. A materla.tJon technology to support engtneers in tasks such polymer melts into the same mould with one material as the core and one as the skin. CAm (Compuwr-Aided Industrial Deaip) A subset of CAD that.cld-etch1ng or engraving. electronic balLut A device to artbt'. drives a machine tool. deftned as the material's resistance to perma.ss when It has sJready formed and cooled. bead The raw mat.te the desired shape. The process of opera. It Involves a concentrated stream of electrons being focused on to the surface of the work causing the material to heat up. design. aVOiding deformatIOn.aJyses.-resiStant and electrlcaJ.stlc.chlne tools (ONC) .ar&cterlBtlcs of rubber Wlth the strength of polyurethane. such as cutttng.te).a1n.aterl&l. An element of the ca. Hollow sections are extruded by placing a pin or piercing mandrel Inside the die.um performed on gls. form-cutthlC Cutting a shape in a flat surface of a materl&l uslnS a tool of a. suitable for the production of large two-oomponent thermoplastic ~ects. Rote1r. better known under bra. cathode An electrode through which die-cutting Process Involving a sharp edge cuttlnB a predetermined form in a thin materl&l. It non-oonduct1ve properties.1Cu1ar type of g1&. They are forms .tes the hardness of ma.y in pellet or granule form and Is melted by heat and sh&ar1ng foross before being lIUected Into a mould or Wlthin the mould Itself. shape and form a W1de variety of components.. The sheet is then exposed to acid and the unoovered part. would be impossible to machine using traditional techniques. technique The prooess of depositing m1ll1ons of individual fibre particles on a surface ooated Wlth a layer of adhesive. The di&-cuttlng tool both incises shapes and creates creases to permit the bending of the mater1a1 Into 3D shapes. breadboard A reusable solderless device used to build a prototype of an electronic cIrCuit to expertment Wlth clrCult deslgn8.cu1t or unaoonom1C&l to make by other methods. based tools that &SSlst designers. feltinC A prooess used in textile design to Change the face of a.erlal to be formed.1ons in the same mould. In which the cutting tool has the same form as the spaoe between two teeth. Into which a melt Is forced and from which It is ~ when hardened. It Is generall. Introduces gas into the melt. Ident1cal Impression of a ftnlshed work.B are eaten away.e two layers of fabric Wlth an adhesive In between.ng) A machln1n8 tec:hn1Que used for h&rd materl&is that. GLOSSJ\I~Y . Various methods are used to 881t&te the surface fibres causing them to mat together: washing In hot soa. Essent1&lly. using mechan1c&l and/or electrostatic foroe. woollen fabric.t metal sheets into thre&dimensions.rt. usually describes materIaJs Wlth advanced properties made from the comb1n&t1on of a m&tr1x materl&l. tasteless inert gas used In 8.ping plate A plate fitted to a mould and used to fasten the mould to the platen. and 1nsert1. to laminat. but not Quite.ngtng from 2D vectorbased dralt1ng systems to 3D soUd and surface rrux1ellers. A h1ghl. The layers are then bullt up one at a time untu the part is complete.helr work. chiD son.oe temperature and ensure that the melt cools and hardens evenly.ly cuting Manufa. It can be used to form hIgh volumes of PVC sheet at a fast rate. rtgId oompos1te M&terl&l. the part of an lIlJectlon-moulding machine draw The direction In which the core and cavity separa. in product development.y specl&l1zed anodb:inC An electrolytic process used to increase the thlckness and density of the natural oxide layer on the surfaoe of metal mateMals. It is often used in fluorescent Ughtlng to ellminate rucker and reduce energy oonsumption.Ir (see page 74) was done by hand using hot wires and t. metal using a press brake th&t forces the metal over a die. The prooess Is performed In a vacuum chamber to stop air molecules causing the electrons to veer oN" course.emplates. normally used for strengthening It or for att. SynthetiC fabric Is run through a series of steel rollers and heat and pressure are appUed to stabWze It. cold work A term for an operat.ss.t..ng and repair. and s.1on moulding Is usual1. usually made from metal.te the gob of glass at Its end. m1crooellular engineeMng RIM ( reaction lrUect10n mould1nS) po~e mater1aJ.Uy involves free-form drawing and modelling tools. odourless. ell:tru.te system where points 1n 2D space can be spec. ejector pilla Pins that are pushed Into a mould cavity from the rear as the mould opens. di~ Metal-fOrming prooess In which molt. OM (B1~n Beam. It is used for creating tactUe. A metal sk1n IS built up on any surface thAt has been rendered electro-conductive. prool An almost. notably gas lr\Jection moulding. calender A finishl. A bl-oomponent resin cont.P. and that open the mould to £tlect the part.ySIng ds. The process Is similar to SLS (8electtVe Laser SlnterIng).ous software programs ra. bralle bendiD4 The creation of sharply &ngul&r linear bends in sheet CIIlC (Com. draft The degree of taper of a mould-c&vlty side wall. It Is a form of bronze (usually 3 : 1 ratIO of oopper and tin).lJ.lls pushed and/or drawn through a die of the desired prome shape.. Durometer Ind.rlng method in which a molten materla.. then heated and pressed into a moulding to form a cutting surface for va.nd surfaces of an oQtect. subst.oe of the metal to protect agatnst the coM'OBlve chem1c8.te from each other. a. FaA.lls I. Also caJ. CAJI (Com. The electron beam or aluminium &ga. Yand Z .ion A manufa.I:ijeCted or poured Into a mould ta form an o~ect of the desired shape. (Pinite IIlemen\ ADalyaia) A computer simulation technique used In engineering ansJ.rlzed electric deVice is emitted out of a pol&rtzed electrical device. aesthetically pleasing and &Iso antl·slip surfaces. this response to temperature change Is expressed as a material's coefficient of thermal expansion.lona can be defined by these axes..coompUsh a t&sk going from one phaBe to the next with a finite number of steps. cookware and lighting. from thin metal sheets. MeltinC) A rapld·prototyplng process that uses a beam of electrons to melt small particles of metal powder Into & 3D form .erIaJ that.ng It Into a seoond mould In which the second part.nd names such as Pyrex®. Otten used to check the Qu&l1ty of reproduction or to make small refinementB.k1ng bells.y unwanted and removed.tIng Itself. Sparks from an electrode are used to erode the material along a computer-oontrolled (ONO) path.qw The prooess of collecting and ansJ.! forms. clamp In iI\lectlon moulding.nd or smooth the rough edges a.py water. BPS In this book EP8 refers to expanded polystyrene and should not to be contused Wlth the oommon rue format used by graphic designers.lcs. JlachininC) &llows the determ. Deaip) The use of a Wlde range of oomputer- OM (Wlectrical Discb.&l to create cross·sectlOnal layers of material generated from a 3D CAD tue. scans cross·sectIons generated from boroGllc.rl. the spaoe inSide a mould into which m. chemical treatment or the use of spec1&! felting needles.ng prooess in textile and paper design and production.a.ydra. C&lendeMng is also used. bell metal A h&rd alloy used for involves the exact removal of m&terl&l. bI1ttle. or the angle of cle&ranoe deslgned to fac1l1t&te removal of parts from a mould.1nst the internal surfa. which oomblnes the ch.brut•• TypIca. CIIlC-bendiD4 The appllcatlOn of CNC to fold fls. A oommon non-met. for instance. ret.ttached to.i. blow mouldiDC The process of forming hollOw o~ects or partS by expand1ng a piece of hot pla.lnatlon of effects such as deformations and stresses that are caused by appUed structur&l loads such as pressure and graVity. die Tool used to cut. The word comes from 'elastic' (describing the abUity of a material to return to Its or!g1na1 shape when a load Is removed) and 'mer' (from polymer.estan oool"d1na. used for Its hae. 8M (K1ectron Beam. ClfC-cutting The appllcatlon of CNC to cutting various mat. CAlI (ComPUter-Aided lllanufaeturiD4:) The use of computer-based software tools to assist manufacturers In prOC!uclng components thrOugh the use of numerically oontrolled m. biomechaDiQ. electro-forminf. moulded part.lysis.236 I . azote IS a. CAD (Com puter-Aided. Typlca.e In the x and y axes.erIaJs Into largely 2D shapes. Is used In laboratory eqUlpment.y a very hard. clampiq line The edge of the mould tool thAt clamps/ grips the mat.nce th&t. Baydute A Mgld.ctu. cJam. syst.l The research and a m.lly. Often referred to together wit.tlona &nd rot. It is used to make partS of complex shape that would be dif'fl. involving va.oe.&!.ysis.1fted by & ooord1n&t. TrMUlla. and a fibre or powder reinforcement.1ng a charge of ore (aluminium trI·JJ. more powder Is added and the process Is repeated untU the part. bi-iDjection mou1diIl4 A prooess whereby two different polymer melts are simultaneously lr\Jected at different locat. cavity In mould design.s. fO&lD mouldiDC A thermoplastic lIUectlon·mOUldlng technique that. an iron or steel pipe through which air Js blown to 1nfla. Points in 3D space have coordinates In X. can &Iso be applied to therm.a. plastic produced from synthetlo oomponent. Typ1cal1y used for polymers and elastomers/ rubbers.puwr-Aided~) The use of lnforma. creating a foam core to the moulded part.s.arge KacbJn.shiny surfa. engineers and arch1tect8 in t. A prooess used to cut or drill components. particular form.erlal for lrUect. Umit the amount of current flowing in an electric circuit. Is moulded on to the ftrBt. glass that Incorporates the plat. heatrreslstant. A resist Is printed on to the surfa. blowpipe In glass·blowing..na. pIannJ. simulations.t& to determIne the cause of a fa1lure and how to prevent It recurrtng.led knockout pins. positive electric current from a pola. dobby loom A type of loom that InCreases the number of cloth designs avallable to the weaver and &llows longer sequences in a cloth pattern. J'DMCFu-4Depos1tionModentng) A rapld·prototyplng process that extrudes a molten polymer or met. The form-<:uttlng In the EPS cha. oolourless. failure an.all1c element.! or external rib or rtm (Up) on a component.nCe An Interns.nd heat-resistance. Bakelite The first. Deamopan""" A thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer. is complete.en metal IS forced Into a caVity or mould under pressure.&t. In some part.ens that proVide the force neoesa&ry to hold the mould closed during iI\lectlon of the melt. Typlcs.. DOte Nitrogen (N) with the atomic number 7 . elutoIDer Often used interchangeably as a. double-allot mou1diIl4 A moulding process for making two-oolour or erc:onomics The applie&tion of SC18ntitlc Intormatlon concernIng humans to the design of o~ects. fla. formed from two or more substances. ejector rod A bar that actuates the EIlector assembly when a mould opens. After each scan the bed Is lowered by one layer of thickness. It consists of 1riject1on· mould1ng the first part. analysis of the mechanics of Uvlng org&n1sms or the appUcation and derivation of engtneeMng prinCiples to and from biological systems. includes software thAt d1rectJy helps ABa (Acryloni~ Butadiene styrene) A oommon theI'IIloplastlc pol¥mer used to make ilght.ems and environments for human use.h CAD 88 CAD/ CAM.a1n1nB the shape of the form. di&m. Channels located within the body of a mould through which a cooUng medium is cIrCulated to control the mould surfa. to force the finished part out of the mould.oes of a heated mould using compressed air. alCorithm A logl. It Is eoonom1caJ to produce and. an. fabrication using electro-deposltlon In a bath of electrolyte solution over a base form.aw A part.ls used.B of India It Is used for the manufacture of utensUs.. a metal part is fabrlC&ted from the pla.puwr lfUDUtrical Control) A computer controller that.ond aaw Powder metal and d1&mond crystals are combined. An example Is the cutting of gear wheels. melt and vaporize..rl.ous types of saw.nent Indentation. range of manufacturing processes. coetftcient of thermal ezpauion SoUds typically expand In response to heating and contract on cooling. the component along a seam or m ould parting line. chemical millin& Sometimes referred to as electro-<lhem1caJ m1ll1ng and m_.rlng process used to create long o~ects of a fixed cross-sectional prome. flock. Is formed With.cal sequence of 1nBtruct1ons that explains how to a. manufacture. 18 used to gr1. because of Its superior durabWty and Chemical· s. fiuh Any 8X086B mat.t1ng this from CAD is known as CAM. to heat set pleats and to create 8.ctu. . The words 'die' and 'mould' are v1rtu&lJy Interch&nge&ble. electro·magnetic and fluid an. Wlth rubber.ach!ng It to another o~ect. It Is similar to Corian® In both texture and appearance but unllke Corl&n® It 18 a oostre!fectlve product whlch Is totally recyclable and is based on mould manufacture. which 11 subsequently removed.aterIaJ is lIlJected or poured to crea. In which 'poly' means many and 'mer' means parts). Industrl&lJy. co-iDjection mouldinC A prooeas that employs the sequent1&l lIlJectlOn of a 3D CAD file on to the surface or the powder bed. prooess of metal·part.

The process is capable of producing hlgh-qu&lity pa. multi-cavity mould A mould which has two or more cavttles for forming multiple 6niBhed ttems per each machine cycle.in. hiCh-4eu:lty pol.nother and are referred to as chip fOMIl. suooesslvely finer abrasives.cteMst1cs of a product or product pa. steel or Iron With zlnc to prevent corrosion.1n8 and bl-lnJection moulding. heat engines. matrb: The materIaJ. produced by floating molten glaas on molten tin until It has cooled sufficiently to be removed to cool Independently.Mng forces from the rot.en enough to slump toto or over a mould. CAE and other software.oe over the surfaoe of o~ect to digitize the surfs. multiplu: board A mult1-~ered wood-veneer board tdea.y be a theMIl.ent- mac:lliniq TurnIng. As CAD has beoome more popular.mt.l&ble In a range of shapes.ssoclated with CAD. and the fin1sh Is tougher th&n that of conventional paint. The process uses thermoset polymers (co=only polyurethane) Instead of thermoplastic polymers used 10 standard iIllect100 mould1n8. created in 1910 as a by-product of the development of Bakellte.oplastJc process In which a polymer melt Is lQIected into a.:> This ts simil&r to U\ject1on moulding exoept that a reaction occurs within the mould. It allows for more complex forms than are possible in mult1-part.tes to the forming of molten g1a. The prooess ('AIl be divided Into three pMmary types: mulL1: oowmpept which includes oo-trijectlon mould.nsfer of the melt from the plastlca. The powder me.ss-blowIDg.. chemIea.ys except blOWing. moulding.ture and allowinS It to cool.ture of the glass and &(\Just Its shape.an1ca. pa. A free needle allows the fabMc to move in any dlrectJon.B soda and lime at a h1gh tempera.1ght when e1ectMc current flows through It.l&ble. shows where the two mould halves met when they were closed.ch1ne. Also known as Bohem1&o gla&I:.ern on semI-mo1tan glass. electrk:a. dry powder.lng system pushes the sheet metal through a seMes of different sized die and punch combinations. The process Includes static load tasting (the magnitude of the force Is steadlly Increased) and dyna.". of pressure. The confinement of the foam creates the higher density. Loads or forces are a. lr\Jectlon Is achieved by push1ng the whole screw along the barrel. The other part of the U\jectlon-mmlid.rm used to tra. or cotton or paper held together by a resin matriX. CJ. allows t. CJ.6hot 'nlnctloD ID9!Jldlpg. and other possible binding additives. they are very efficient whJch makes them suitable for low-power and batt. product ieatinC Testing the Presses the llquefted material Into the negative mould.ed suftlciently to sotl. NAftAtlye IDOllld 11mllAla} Mirror image of the o~ect. J.. Each layer Is cut and then bonded to the next using adhesive and a heated roUeI'. A metal alloy sheet.8 With oomplex shapes.y wa.. hairline fIDiah A brush flnlsh w1th a continuous gram that M.) UsuaUy of sod&-llme oompoeltiOo.l sheet to be treated.vlng an edge wtth a high quality of surfaoe flnlsh.lly sUited for furniture manufacture because of Its appea.eriD&) .yu. It comes from the clamping unit that appUes force to the mould to keep the halves from sepa.t1on In order to dupllcate or enhance It.t wu.008 and hardwea. All these processes tovolve cutting In one wa. inHrt DlOI1ld1nC (over moulding) A moulding process In which an insert Is incorporated. Short tlly& Ch&rd) A potash·11me gIaBs with a h1gh sUlca content.rts With a broad range of slzee and shapes.nspa.ll1DS dies (female component) and punches (male component). Is used to coat.au A hard.ane or PU) A polymer With a broad range of forms and uses. buffing (poUsh1ng With a son. oontrolled manner.ckS the oonvent1onal feed plate that normally keeps the fabric in a ftxed position so that It can only move backwards and fol'Wards.aI oontac:t. lI'eopnne The DuPont Performanoe Elastomers trade name for a fa. light or the interactions of poIa. etc. Kelvin A unit of temperature (K) where absolute zero (the lowest possible temperature) Is 0 K or -273. t:D which reinforcing m.rlety of environments.rts using a mllllng mach1ne. ). preu Another name for an 1I\I8ct1on- emits a h1Sh1. MIlllng machines can be manua.rush produced by pollBn1n8 With iteraUoa (com.aJl transparent envelope filled wIth a halogen gas. b:I1l.ots that use plastic and metal la.ttng cutter and the platform to whIch the mateMa.lnC A shape-foMIl. See SL8 (8electlve La.rt.ted applications. The process involves ooa. and IDultl. nap Woodworkers' rough fI.1ng.i removal prooeSS88.t to allow It to flow and form a 'skin' .oe. Pm(tf!63'yA A metalworking methcx1 that enoompasses punching. The process Involves measuring an o~ect using laser soa. lIght dJgItlZers or computed tomography.lly located by the tool designer with input from the design engineer and there Is always a trade-off between aesthetics.. In adctlt1on.uer (LiCht Ampli6. The blcomponent fluid ts of much lower vtsooslty than molten theMIl. LOJITM (Lam.mIc load testing (the product Is subjected to cyclic forces to deteMIl. design oonslderatIons and the ease of moulding. platena In manufacturing.rft. The warm glass Is rolled on tt to oontrol the tempe:ra. noule 10 Ifllection moulding. an mUlinC The cutting and shaping of meW or other scIkl ma.ys of modif'y1n8 sheet met.yers are stArting to become aVaJ.tng machine. The matr1X can be any blndlnS material but Is typlca. and Is oommonly used In relation to st.yered techno- polymer oomposlte made from polyoleflne and polyeSter.ation of a long screw inside a cyllndr1cal barrel.y or a. devtoe tha.1ng In manufacturing metal parts with a spec1fic design. partiJtC Une On a finished moulded part. the action of which Is determined solely by the dimensions of the object to which It Is conta1ned..llnto oomplex profiles.lly change their properties.ted by changing indiVidual parameters In real tlme.ine the effects of fatIgUe).ve the oompleted mould into which the molten metal Is poured.creating complexity 18 often related to the number of axes of the m1ll.Y focused beam of llght. photoMnaitive ma&eriala MateMals which. laminate A process that presses resln·treated I&mInates together to foMIl.k An environment or object that absorbs and dissipates heat from another object using theMIl.i.stlc.nce made by melting a mixture of sand and other mateMals such 8. lights. It Is typlea.ateM&ls (fibres.oe and create a 3D mOdel In a CAD sys. Flew "M6 An extremely flat and smooth glass used for wtndows (among other th1n.ktng bMlllant glassware. mirTor poliahiDC The highly reflective o. or hollow sect10ns and elongated shapes. LEns are avaJ. Jlicarta A compos Ita material. the oeramic mould 18 broken awa. drIlltng. Used in a wide va. metal aiampiq A prooess employed overbraiding A composite material production technique that bra.terlal that Is strong at h1gh temperatures. w. etc.. free needle aewiD4 machine La.tracco A tool used to impress a.au-8lumpiq Oocurs when glass Is hear. transparent substa. co1ntng. The prooesa ('AIl be used to ovel'OOme problems With shrlnks. forcing the melt out of the nozzle. lUer-eutt:in& An industMaJ.nlo substrate of sUk. l1oen. lUer-. HE has become a viable method to crea. refractory mould A mould made from a ma. Electronic dev10e that emIts l.rts of a.alllc elements. PCB (Printed Circui& Board) Used to support and electMcally oonnect electronic components using oonductIve pathways Integrated into the board.tlon. push molten polymer Into the mould.ra. Typtcally relates to a. It has an orga.n4 A sllghtly moist mIxture of sand and clay.. hlgh-powered laser beam 18 used to heat a part1culate mateMa. mould to foMIl.m1ly of synthetic rubbers. marver A tool used In gLs. Often a.u. ~ pw In lrijection mould cavity. multi· shot. Varia. p&.cteMstlcs or functIon&l1W to the part in a speciftc loca.caUoa by Btlmulated ~ Badiatlon) An electron1o-optlc&l. when exposed to light. electroniC devtces. pluticator The oomplete melting and U\j9Ct.1n8 machine Is the U\jector unit or plastlcator. Used In the oooUng of refMgerators.tt.lly opera.. IIicroacribe™ aa A mech. JlDII (Il_ction lIIJectlon lIouldio. iDJection moulding A process where several distinct Ifllectlons of material (shots) are appUed to produce the final oomponent. a board. used to produoe moulds for S&IU1-cast1D8.t1ng.rent materl&ls.putblg) The repetition of a process With1n a computer p"""". and to make pa. plvaniaaUoa Refers to any of several electro-mech&n1c&l processes. Ml1Ilpg mooNDft A machIne tool for the oomplex shaping of soUd mateMals. A feed.t.ss to rna. or different cha. preuinl.a. assembly. RaJpgen I&wp An Incandescent lamp in which a tungsten ffiament Is sealed Into a sm. laptop sleeves. that is malleable and able to Dow easily Is stamped on a press using .II. Into the oomponent dUI'lng the mould1ng processes. rest:ricted pie A very small oMftoe between the runner and the cavity in an 1I\IectJon mould.nslon.1ds resin· impregnated fl.ne the circumstances under which It might faU.: cutlnC See inve. The insert Is used to provide additional streD8th. InB6rt IDmJldlpg. metallurgic prooess tha.le used for shaping wood.gs). The laser melts. ThIs foMIl. melt In U\jection mould. It allows changes to the modal to be made easily and in a.1n8. and pow4er-coatin. FeelS like Cor1an® but peI'fOMIlS like plywood.liog appe&r8.i to be cut 18 fixed define the complexity of the form that can be milled.ll of molten glass attached to a blowpipe to be hand-blown or moulded. See BIll (Ileaction lDJection .en A series of non-met. L&D (LiCht mm. peen. such as wet. Due to the gram. boring or otherwise fin1sh1ng by machinery. It Is added. PtJJl (pol. It is also known as a Witness line. electrostat1cally and then cured under hea. ~ preuure 10 iIllection mould1n8 the pressure requlred to iIQectIon JIlOUld.". The wax is then removed by heat to lea.tor to the mould.ery-opera. Is the llque6ed polymer U\jected Into a mould. -.l to just below Its melting point untU the particles fuse together.em.ppUed to the product to determ.eriD4: A CJ.lon unit on an lQJectIonmouldlnS ma.terl&ls Into products or p&. sIZes and colours and are extremely long-lasting.rtng properties. BE (llevene JlnCineerinC) psi (pounda per aquare inch) A unit uw. Before the l.ra.Mr Bint. Ita low softenin8 polot and hIgh ooefftclent of thermal expansion make It suitable for blowing and forming. repairs can be made to minor scratches.. powders..t and shea.. structured. the ba. I'olarUcope Instrument for examlntng the properties of polarized .rad1tional and ancIent technique of glass craJ't. ~mouldlnC The lr\Jectlon of an inert gas into the centre of the flow of pLe. CAM. When cool.t. used for ma.tm.lnB the length of the met.au-platblg A t.alned glass.1ng (the production of chips of mateMa.l tnsulat10n and car fan-belts. .suJts. Rela.itt:in& Diode) .lly a polymer or metal.. The range of motion of the rota. bea\-8bl. Takes polymer granules and other additives and creates the melt throu. an oMflce A tool for hOld1ng p&.rijectton of the polymer takes pIa. or the guldlnS tools during the manufactur1ng process.) are added In the creation of a oomposlte.tlng an expendable wax pattern In a oeramic to form a mould.rlzed light with t:ra.rt.. bendlnS and several other wa.gh the application of hea.ra. a soIkl theMIl.yul'eth&ne Polyurethane foam that has expanded Within a mould. through which the melt entars the can be used to examine the stresses In glass.nners.:lDC Also known as lost wax casting. parametric computer mo4e1 A numeMc and visual representation of a.ted or numerically oontroUed (CNC).Dity ac:rew A screw With 1nfln1te thread.ss-b10wtng.n.nlpula.t. and has low thermal oondUctIVlty and low ooemclent of expa. component or mateMaJ.n4 The use of lfllect10n mouldlnS to mmliddifferent~sofmateM&ls lUer-mach1n1ng A machine tool that uses laser-cuttIng to generate 3D objects. JI1AD'lM A multl-lB.. mould (or mold) A series of machined steel plates cont. Posltlye wpuld (wale) moulding machine. the mount1D8 plates of a press on whJch the mould halves are att.s that oombine thJck and thin walls..b.lnlng cavities Into which melt Is lr\Jected to form a part.st.e a 3D virtual mOdel of an o~ect for use In 3D CAD. material) until the surfaoe Is free of markS..a.rt.oplast1c or a thermoset polymer.€e.oset polymer. prooess or object that can be ma. It generally oonslsts of a polished steel or bronze surfaoe attached to a metal or wooden table. burns or vaporizes away the materlallea. usually expressed In psI. invutmeDt-cut.l.i as a result of the cut) or mateMa. Ifl!!g (IMu (wo. multi-material iDjectioD mould. process that uses a laser to cut or decorate material. A type of dry coating that is applied as a free·fiowIDg. forms by the layeMnS of laser-cut paper. The prooess of dtsooveMng the technologlc&l principles of a devloe or object thrOugh an&lySIs of Its structure.a. two components are miXed that react In the mmlid t:D foMIl.ob In gls.brea over a former (mandreD and Is then cured. and then reconstructing It as a 3D model.y.m.1 BO C on the Celsius scale.. function and opera.&ched. performance chara.l a.ated Object llanufaewre) A rapld·prototyplng pl'OO8$8 that Involves bu1ld1ng up 3D together. shaping.

etc.rc-weldlng process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld.g ( air pressure forces the sheet into the mould). a sha.l presentation of an object in 3D oomputer graphics. leav l. and thus the harder the mater1. faces or surfaces are shown empty. 12aQk. closeJ.aJ. but can be m1n1In1Zed through the design of the mould or the operating parameters of the tr:Uection·moulding cycle. A fine mesh (orlg1nally sUk) is stretched across & wooden frame to form the screen. more resin Is added and the process Is repeated unt1l the part Is complete.t translates a threedimensional shape into a twodimensional surface..uminium on to the mould) . low cost and ease of use. on the internal cavtty of a. to which a tool is applied to create the cylindrical form.k1ng complex shapes or a. TlG (Tungsten Inert Baa) weldin& An a.n& A rapld- powdered materi. lleJ'Vomotor A type of geared aolenoid valve An electro-mecha.opl. ZRmae An alloy of zinc. chem1ca.of01'lDin& and vacuum t01'lDin&. This method can also be applied to malleable grades of aluminium. then stretched over or into a single-sided mould untU oooled.lIlIl1ng or stopping an electrl. the sha. oontrolled by l'I. adhesive to which a powder Is bonded. A toggle Is used to close. cavities that have opened due to shrinkage or the encapsulation of air or other ga.lize.y cover a section of the background fabric. The glove is capable of integration with other motiOn~pture systems to capture movement from the whole body. mould.ctUe texture. Including paper.aJ.a.lly sUited to thin materials and gtves the operator greater oontrol. magnesium and copper. It where the stencU has been cut to allow the ink to pass. for form. motor that has the benefits of being generally oompact.ng the tube into different cross-sectional forms. t.y mixed with abrasives) through a small orifice ( typlca. 8LA (stereolithography) A rapld- aand-blaatinC Spec1a.ding (roto mouldinS) A process used to produce hollow products by building up liquid mater1aJ. layer by layer.a.u:. the air pressure Is then reversed forcing the aJ. and are designed to be moulded or used 8.lB science. alum1n1um.l.. expla.llurgy. After each scan the bed.ha. After each scan the bed Is lowered by one layer of thickness. The plastic Is heated from above until it Is flexible and the former Is then raisec!.tlon of the underJ. As the mould rotates the Uquid solidiftes on the outer surface of the cavity leaving a voId In the centre.lah1ng A process in Which parts to be treated are vibrated In a machine to deburr. The adhesive can be oompletely tra.rrl.. to a sufficiently hI8h temperature without melting It. The screen Is then placed on the surface that will receIve the pattern and ink Is pressed through.D8les from some known datumsuch as the magnetic north) from two fixed points a known distance apart. which results In excellent qua. An impermeable stencil (paper or other coating) Is applied to the screen.6=) at speeds up to three times the speed of sound. slide In lI\lectlon moulding. aott~touch paint A urethane paint that creates a rich.. clean or otherwise modify their surface finish .a. AB only edges are drawn.ca. Images are drawn d1rootly to the screen and do not appear on the tablet Itself.Iation to create a stronger form. A shore Is gauged by using a Durometer to appJ. In both cases the mould Is destroyed when the ftnished part Is removed. wiretrame model A visua. The laser scans cross-sactlons generated from a 3D CAD file on to the surface of a vat of liqUid resin.t Is used to ga.stin8. or that were not filled with material.D8le to.tlons that would be performed with a mouse.€es to be drawn.nnel that oonnects the sprue with the ~te for transferring the molten mater1.nufa. The lAyers are then bullt up one at a tlme untU the part Is oomplete. they cannot be reheated and remoulded like thermoplastics.minated object ma. rotational mouJ. soft feel on any surface It coats.r Items. wert Sometimes known as the woof. GNG machine systems. Ultraviolet (UV) light bondin& A process used prim&r1ly In glass and plastic bonding. Thermosets are not usually saUd prl.aJ. thermofOJ'll1inC The process of formJ.ngJ. vibra ft. reservoir from which molten metal abrinlta4e The dJmenslonal can be drawn to offset shrinkage.aJ. A range of sand-casting types exist but they generally fall into two categories: permanent pattern. Includes bending and formJ. unrolling A oomputer program facWty t. without shock. Once cured.1n8 a position or location by means of bearings (8.1ng only one finished Item pel' machine cycle. to be cut.n1ca. tnlhhle form Ina (the sheet Is blown Into a bubble and a mould Is pushed up into It. formed round a replica of the object to be cast (pattern) . prototyplng process that prints Cl'OSSsect10nallayers of material generated from a 3D CAD file.l oomponents in a lathe.m1cs.ls Is not visible.ble to the user of the tool. triangulation A trigonometric operation for find. SLA (sterlollthography) . which enables the economical production of large parts wlth complex geometry.1n some mecha.. desca.l ftnishing treatment in which sand is sprayed at high velocities over a surface to smooth.t acts like an abrasive on the surface of the part. shape of metal. The technique allows the vlsua.aJ. by a shielding gas ( normall. IIhore A unit of measurement that denotes the hardness of plastics and rubbers in terms of their elasticity. It produces a working power able to cut any.a. Heat and rotation are the only methods employed.n& A oold process In which high pressure (up to 60 .lly 0. can be used to proVide input to a number of software programs.D.n1ca.ctlve adhesive.000 pst) forces water (optlona. The printJng can oonslst of photopolymers that are cured by ultraviolet light. three-dim. The curves oonform to the underlyIng geometry of the surface on to which they are projected gtving a feeling of threedJmenslonallty to an otherwise flatlooking form .s durIng moulding. thermoaet (thermoaettinC plUtie) A polymer that Is cured through..ted..sJ.te a fabric . Used for dle-ca.enaional printl. a movable sactlon insIde a more oomplex mould. enters the mould.l current through a solenoid ( a ooU of wIre). and expendable pattern in which the pattern is left in the mould and vaporiZes when the metal is poured into the cavity. aupertol"llling aluminium A process whereby sheet aluminium Is heated until it IS malleable and Is then forced over or into a sIngle surface tool to create oomplex shapes.ntly used for a. It Is Inserted Into the mould to form features that cannot be formed using only a oore and a cavIty. water~jet cuttl. and exert pressure on. The verb form. The benefit of leaving the pattern in plaoe Is that It d.nd transforms them Into thin. The parts are placed in the machine together wIth some form of granular med1a.ct there Is no edge deformation or heat-affected zone.y packed stitches used to completeJ. on to which a secondary layer of mater1.nce and allows the transitions to be evaluated. threedimensional pMnttng a.l8.y fr8€1le sand mould when the pattern Is extracted 18 avoided.e. for a speclfl. tT'aIlBform.nA' holes that may well not be visible from the exterior of the part. gl&ss or other mater1. vent When applied to mould design.ny applications including robotics. Is lowered by one layer of thickness.L\za..y a force in a consistent manner. Is added.!) after Initial production of the tube form.d.a.mage to the relatlveJ. to beoome a coherent mass by heatIng without melting.llel warp y arns to crea. which eliminates the possibility of ma. trappola A frame that oonta. It oonsists of a pen-like stylus and a.l phenomena.. As there Is n o tool oonta. virtual. toggle In tr:Uection mOulding. The former Is lowered Into a chamber that IS covered by the sheet. industr1al automa. hoM. aebra curve A series of curves projected o n to a surface in computer graphics .l advantage or provide some abWty that IS not otherwise ava.nd EBM (electron beam melt1ng) . heat.or to curing.a. It can be ca. thus open1ng or closin8 the valve. A series of flat.or to the metal being poured into the cavity. The smaller the indentatiOn. replicating the use of pencil and paper.l reaction or Irra.8 adhesives. shape or clean It. LQMT" ( J. a set of lengthwise yarns through which the weft Is woven.aJ. prototyplnP: process that uses a UV (ultraviolet) laser to cure a photopolymer resin into a 3D form. riHr Used in metaJ casting 8B a.nspa. BP (BapidPrototypinC) Takes v1rtuaJ des1gnB from CAD software a.n methods: ~ fm:m1. Unllke other rapldprototyping processes.a.aJ. powerfUl for Its size and capable of accurate posItional oontrol.n. tube t01'lDin& The formJ. Prototyping technologies Include SLS ( selective laser slnteMng).ng based on stenc1ll1ng. therm.«. The laser scans Cl'OSS-sactions generated from a 3D CAD file on to the surface of the powder bed.ying design structure of a 3D model.ins molten glaBs within a predlcted area on the marvel'.ls over the mould). mould or pattern of an Item that serves as a basis or guide for designing or OOnstructin8 SIm1la. opera.ng a thermoplastic sheet into a 3D shape.1ght lines and curves. fIat surface ca. . fills the runnel' system. fabric and wood. more powder Is added and the process 18 repeated until the part Is oomplete. IIhot In tr:Uectlon moulding. The fallure to completely fill the mould or cavities of the mould with the melt Is referred to as a short shot. a type of clamping mechanism. including meta. plastic. differences between a moulded part and the a. The weld Is protected. the cha.pe and arrangement of the curves leads to their zebra. The goal Is to rationa. and at an 8. using Uquid. a protuberance or indentation that lmpedes withdrawal of a form from a two-pieoe rigid mould.es. aillr. proSSllrft formlpg (slm1la.Is and cera. It Is used for ma.lJ.ng of tubular material ( normally meta. PredomIn. ainterlng (to sinter) causing vacuum tol"llling Consists of a former In the exact shape of the part required and a thermoplastic sheet. to the mould caVities.ed out manually or wIth a CNG machine. aubatrate In materi. voids In cast or moulded parts.ed time and then measurin8 the depth of the indentation.ln purpose Is to supports.lng but air pressure Is also used In the opposite direCtion to oontroi the flow of material Into the mould) . undercut When applied to mould design. theoretical phy. The technique Is used for a variety of metals. Unllke a thermoset It can be reheated and remoulded. Can be used to print on most surfaces.l. alloys and glass.1-0.rt. template The design. Turning can be ca.l valve for use wIth Uquld or gas.ed out manually or usin8 a GNC machine. turning The process used to produce cylindrlca. Employs mathematicaJ models and abstractions of physics. the heat treatment of metals. It Is created by specifying the edges where two oontlnuous smooth surfaces meet or by oonnecting an object's oonstltuent vertices using stra. runner When appUed to mould design. See therm.l mould dimensiOns.. FDM ( fused deposition modell1ng). tempering (to temper) In meta. includ1n8 that which aprue The passage through which molten mater1.ctua.1n and predlct phys1ca. There are four m.zontal cross-sections that are then created in physical space. though the sand can often be reused. Occurs due to the natural tendency for the molten polymer to shrink while ooollng. warp In weavtng.llow channel or open1ng cut in the caf lty to allow air or gases to escape as the molten substance fills the cavity. those without are sans-serif fonts. The sheet Is firmly clamped to a frame crea. WhIle Its ma.tin8 a sealed environment. 8LB (Selective Laser Sintering) A rapld-prototypin8 process that uses a high-power laser to fuse small part1cles of plastic.tlon. GLOSSARY polymer. aatin lltitch Also known as damask stitch. meta.y argon) and a filler metal Is often used to add ftller materl.lB.rrl. aand-cuting The production of metal casttngs using a mould made from sand. gtv1ng the w1reframe appearance. dlaphrngm formlnR (the sheet Is formed on to a non-supel'-Slastlc alloy which then forms both materia. the total amount of melt lI\looted durIng a moulding cycle.ter1.1ng hard surfaces with Its ta. UltraViolet light Is used to rapidly harden and cure a UV·rea. It Involves reheattng the mater1. wacom® Pen Tablet (graphics tablet) A oomputer input device that allows Im.l1ty and surface ftnish . 'to tool'. is oomplete. 3D prlnttng Is optimIZed for speed.al to the weld. or molten polymer formed d1rootly on to a support structure.ctur1ng). AIr Is sucked out of the chamber forcing the plastic over the mould.238 / . The lathe Is a machine tool that rotates the ma. The sheet Is heated until It Is soft and pliable. the base mater1. powder or sheet materiaL The crosssoot1ons are fused together unto the pa.! or ceramlc powders Into a 3D form. In an attempt to understand nature. See vacuum tormiD. but can also be used as an alteMl&tlve input for a GAD system.ha. the higher the number. The yarn that is drawn under and over para.ha. natural style of drawing.r to cavity form. in which the pattern is removed prl. aingle-eavity mould A mould that has one cavity.tie A polymer that melts or flows when hea.aJ. Is the use of a tool for some purpose. lIerif Any of the short lines ste=ing from. selectively fusing the particles.P. Is espec1a. and then ooollng It quickly. (screen) printin. When projected. as opposed to experimental processes.rent so that the join between transparent materl. It also supports more tradittonaJ. the upper and lower ends of the strokes of a letter. tool A piece of equipment t.n1matlon and special effects. Typefaces with serifs are serif fonts.like appeara.lled the tablet. a mould 10 a press.g A method of printJ. 8hapeHandT1oI glove A mot1on~pture deVice that translates the motlon of a real hand and fingers with1n the glove to oomputer data that.

St. l.y Sapphire (Cocksodge) 62. 22.aa The De La W&l'l' Pavilion chair 28--33 EPa Chair 74-9 Honey-Pop chair 230 The Long B Chair B4-7 Ylca.lll.6..l.rf (H1shinuma) 96. ShirO 96.. 114-19.a. 120.lg1lon1.aser-slnteI'ing B8.220 Art. 73.lc (University College or Falmouth) 104 oomputer-aJ. ue.r. I B6 . llil.nnon1. Hannes ( rAndom Internatlonal) 160 Kram.80 Baa..Ion cha1r 28-33 Halley light 204-9 Kapsel Media. 190 Uft.. ~ Contour CUps (J0rgen&en) 104 oopper 74 .121 Asse1ly. 7. Tom 74-9 Dry Tech oollect1ons 21 0 DVD reoorder 194-9 Eames.a Copper stool (Lamb) 120. 200. fill:. 1.6.rz Aut. GandlnJ.em1de SpA 168.l1a srI 134 Meander eoolOgicaJ t. iM Allph 34.i5 electro-cllemlca.U2 anod. as.&rm. 104.. Charles 7 Ekotek 134 elastomer 140. 144.n. 3B . A. 186-9 d1g1t&l. SpA 58 beech 60-<3 beeswax 128-33 B6ha. 172-6.l. Horse Chair 7.9. 144.l.lim So Happy chair 140 Soul cba1r 158--63 Bout.Yadl.P vases (Ron Arad AssOC1ates) 10 Bouroulleo. lU . lJ. 1M. 68. Yves (fuseprqJect. 223... ~ Breedlng Tables (Kram & WelBSha. 164 ca..1gbt (Mend1n1) 222.1ld1ng: inse:rt. Reed (KRAM/WElBSHAAR) 7 . t i F'UtureFact.Enunanuet20-7 'baldn&' 230-5 Barber.ment-cast. Tom (PearsonLJoyd) 158-63 LOMr.v1l1on Oh&lr (BarbeI'Osgerby) 28-33 Dean. 223.O. Don 3B aa A. 7.5 Arai.ates 104. Alfredo 92-6 balrllne flnlsb 194. tables I'u8epI'Qfect ~h.ilQ. Aaron Chair (ChadwlCk ~ StumpO 38 A1r-eha. . ll1. 52.arman.oCad CAD sort. . .O. 21(}-13. B0-3 La.LWnelT. Joris 7. A.l23 oou.ons AaJto.rten 16-19 Babmd.as Jawbone Bluetooth headset.a. 1..l.170:. Marco 140-3 Mattbeok. ID.gh Tea Pot (Bamel'S) 210 BJ.1&2. 176 Al1as SpA 92.zlng 194. 176 Cocksed8e..e lamp 222.t&ll& SpA 164 metal sta. llf1.l. Tl.) 7.7.s.Ilg oomputeI'-a.BJ.O. 70.lfHl. .rta 144 Cba. 168. oaIenderlng 21B. III glass 104-7. . J. i l l P'am1. lil7. 60.cturtng 7 .Igbt 222.i Merl. Lorenzo 66-9 The De La W&l'l' P8. Steve 7 J0rg&nsen.e tape 200-3 C&st. 16B.1gbt 7. B0-3 'The Cha1r Grab' 74.r (Yosb1oka) 230 eJsorithm1c appUe&tJona 7. 108--13. Blo-Vold chaise 10 Bone chaise 114. I.S.soc1ates) la.OO. 8&-9 breedboa. 46-9.l6.Alag bl·lrijeCt1on mould1ngj g&8-lI\lect1on m01. PrcUects 18Q-6 D1xon. Konstantin 88--91..lliI: Bodyguards 10-1 B 'The De I. ONE (01'010) BB.fl: d1g1ta. Natanel 84-7 Oravot.1r (Mon1son) 80 Akaama tablewa.1ded Industri&l m RtlblnetteMe SpA 66 1+1 sri 100 . . 42. 114--19 Lamb.U:.t 204 LlghtRoller (rAndom International) 1BO. 144.a.re 214. 80 B.a. ~ machine embroIdery 124. 226-9 Lane.6Q. 42-6. .a Orelo.rds lBO. 65 Bone cha1r (l. 70-3 FUo lamp 225 Halley 1.n. xavter 134-9 rurz.llfl. 92 furniture 7.extJle (Pakhal6) 154-7 media center 172-8 YendinJ..aI') 34. 204. 1 76 ~ selective laser slnteI'ing Leaf llght.ifl: Entrop1a 1.. Ptero (Floa ) 214 gas-LoJectJon moulding 7.gin8: Group 74. 310.Aa.lQ A.lOn-mouldlng . fos. g!&ss 222-6 glass fibre 20-3 band-blown glass 20-7. l. Yosbik1 96-9 Hoffm. l8B.an) 114.efano 7.r_ONE BB. 114. Max 120--3 Lam\. 156. . (m:har) 34--7 Jobs.on 124--7 CreatIve Salvage (Dixon) 74 Crooodlle 8ca.3Q..lR9. 100-3 Cbadwtck. 148-63 BOD1BEAT MP3 pJa.O.. 38. ZB.lr 164 X3 cba1r 140-3 aa.ded industrial design ( CAm) 172. Alessandro 222. 180.. 223. 80. 34-46 Bell metal 148-63 Bellflower lamp (Somers) 210-13 Belllnl. 172. 92.I.l 'nzio desk l!gb.mboard..mplng 34. Libertlny.6) 7. . UO.~. range 164 Open Box I. . laB IH!!L. l. 42. chair 92-6 Shadow chalr . Cba1r 144-7 Pa.7..lgue modula. Setsu & Shlnobu 1 00-3 LQleot.n.ll 96.onomat. S&mIllO.. 204-<> dle-euttinS ll. aLl cryst&l. 60. 1Jla design Arad. 106--13 KWlda1lnl srI 70. 148-83 Bodygu&rds 10-16 Bone Cba1r 114. 114 .1gbt 176-9 P1rouet.l manufa.1. Josef 96. FeIT8.t 38-41 Open Box lJ8ht 176-9 Spider 1 & 2 hard-dlsk OVD reoorders 194-9 Amphora (LIberttny) 126. C~ f'urnlture (BaaS) 16 CNC-cutt1ng 74 . 108. 38 HI.I.rbonfllire 172.a3.JuniChi 218. ll.~. 2. ili.II.ll 128-33 LIght as Air l&mps (C00k8ed8e) 62-6 lighting Bellflower l&mp 210-13 Bokka lamp 186-9 Chasen l&mp 214--17 Entropla.ttJoe 140-3 die-cast1nS 2B.lS:d Adrl!. 5B. 164 outdoor 58. 117.l.l Fattortnl. (Dean) 7.. 80-3 O1smondl.ly F'lrst series ( Oiovannoni) B. IT cha1l'. lia. Allermllir 158 alum1n1um 58.ae.l QappeWnl 50. Ron (Ron Arad As. 204 lA&t' I. 168.ch1lle 214 cera.1gbt.9:. Ps.o piCture captl.2. Demla. 2Qa Flatpack table (Baas) 16 flock t. . H.1gbt 7.6. 62 glaSS-plating 222-6 glass-slumping 100. 2. Mario 80 Bellin1 Chair (Bell1n1) 80 Bet.l23.a2 ~ rubber Electrical DIscha.tes) 10-16 Bokka lamp (RashId) 186-9 Bomba.Msa.1gbt. 92-6. brake-foI'IDi. 62. .e3.rta. Ernesto ( Art..sky.1se (La. ousett. EstabUShad & Sons 28 Eurocarbon 21 0 'Exercises In Seating' (L&mb) 120. Form Z CAD software 58. l29.1r First. . 156. ll.rman) 114.S.l. lil Lefterl. C108 (BOuroullec) 50 Lloyd. l.aa BatB ltaJ. Horse Ch&1r (P&khaJ.. 2M Maran.m1c 54.um.7.1a. Center 172-6 Lea! ugb.r system (Bouroulloo) 60 Al1as CAD software 70.'Z. 166-9 boros1l1cate 214. Bruno (MDF It&l1&) 134 (eWng 96. l.l form-cutt1ng 74.REKTM 92-6 Hlshlnuma. David (Luoesoo) 204 HAberl!. 1l. il. 1B6. 200. l3. Magis Spa 50. 178.1gbt.2.l.ck. Ma.y's Perfect. 70-3.. . U9.l.lO. 225 TaJak 1. ml Cinema. 88--91. Clare 124--7 laptop 42-6 laser-rutt1ng 218-21 1.x:l1estgn srI 140 MDP Ita.aa. 168--71 Talo llght. 86.Ili sbelf units l..t.i.y) 128. (BlIhar) 7 .... 70-3 EPS Chair (Dixon) 74-9 EPS Pa. 104 The Long 8 Chalr (OIuska) B4--7 Loop table (BarberOsgeroy) 28 lostrwax casting 148-83 Lu08800 LIghting 204. Honey-Pop chaJ.lVanlzatJOD 194.2J.ua. . 50 M1ca. 1DB.-mouldIng insert-mou1ding 42 Interior La.Q. BB . 62.rge Mach1n1ng (EDM) . ao .. ~ Nobot1.194 extrusion l04.re (PaJth&l6) 164 ao .e Fabrics 2B. i l l b. ~ mannequin (Hlshinuma) Koch. 16--19.. gga Aut.. 222 Oluska. 38-41 leather 16.ul 62-6 oomputel'-a.li!: Ch&lr F\rst. 226-9 Casablanca Shawl (HlSbtnuma) 96.Qa Lum lamp (Babied) 20-3 Lust. Stepben 68-61 But.li!: The Long B Cbalr B4--7 Chasen lamp (Urqulola) 214-17 Chem1cal m1ll1ng 214-1 7 chromed bl'8SS 66.1ng 148-53 Isokon 2B Ito.INDEX Page numbers unoerllned refer t. lOQ. Edward (BarberOsgerby) 28-33 Bathboat. 172.5 Plrewtre speakers (Poulton) 16B F'lShman. llf1. Halley 1.iO:. lO7. Segesta.190. - Steelwood chair 60-3 Tom Vao cb&Ir 10 UP cha. 12.l1ng 214-17 elBctro-form1ng l. .U.vtl..Jght as Air l&mps 62-6 Lum lamp 20-3 Maru1&la I. LJt.as Fila l&mp (Havana) 22. ..&r) 7.27 Made by Bees HoneyCOmb Vases ( Ubertln.ifl: ~ 0h&1rs. TomBA 0s.ndscape vases (Bll'dsaIl ) 46-9 Invest. 92 Ol'8sham.yer (8aka1) 190-3 Bodyguards (Ron Arad Assoda. B.B Fagerbult.6. ~.70-3 Deslgntex 200 Desmopa.emlde) 16B. 104-7. l l. 4D CAD softw&re 22. (Sapper) 204--9 Handmade f'urnlture (Burks) 58-61 Herman Miller Ino.. ABB 34.hern Rem1spbere ch&1r 11. Laura 46-9 BIO-VOld chaise (Ron Arad Associates) 10 B.120.'Z. 144 Mandala I.31:.33. Tavs 104-7 Joyn offtoe system (Bouroullec) BO Kapsal Media Center (Propeller) 172-6 Knit..lQ6...l.lded design ( CAD) 70.. 104. Fernando 64-7 bronze 148-53 Bulb (Coak8edge) fl6 Burks. 114.or1es (Dean) 70 ga. 194 CNC-mlll1n8 2B. expanded polystyrene (EP8) 74-9. 230. 1.l m. 1. Alvar 28. l7O.bZd. BB. 38-41 LEns 36..eo ohal" Aeron Chair 38 AJr-ehaJr 80 BeWnl Chair 1ID1..echn1que lim Flos SpA 214. Ill. 194 as za u.e2.na cb&Ir 230-6 RJoo1ollna chair 140 Sculpt dln1ng 0h&1rs 16. 204-9 haJogen 3~. B0-3 ch&I.5 Murano glass 20-7. .32. cha1sesj stools.B 68. . Aaron 7 b1-1f\JeCUan moulding 140-3 BlrdSall.'l. Alex (Allph) 34. Chris 7 LEGO® IBO. 22.194 acryUo 194.Z I.nT"* la.= 0<lCk0 38 Olova. ~. Jon (Phlsh) 200. Bone cha.ll2 BrlZlO.Igbt.il. W8I'l' Pa.36. Ronan & Erwan 50-3 bowls 104-7 brake-bending ll2. (Somers) 210 ~dur$ 134. (Giovannoni) 7. 222 Kur&mata..ecb 114.wa. 178. Klaus 114. 92.

212. 60. 2. . J. l. ""'BreedlngT&b1es I.. ~ne 2 18-21 Quanta Computer 42 rAndom Intern&tlonal 180-8 Random P&k ( Newson) 1. plast1cat. :rslntoroed 2S. 223:.erna.rtln (PlAnk CollezlonI srI) Plank CollezlOnI sri 88. 14 4 .ne PVC 62. ~.erlng ( SLB) 70-3. li.Imenslonal) pMnttng 70.1nS 12D-3 Sanson table CPe&oe) 164 Santoro.l.em (Ron Ara.tJonal) 180 1. 104 .rds (PCBs) 9. EugeniO (Magis) 50.3 Welssh&a. Gaetano 184-7 pewter 120-3 Pewter Stool (La. . Temporary Printing JI&ch1ne ( rAndom Int. .ng 28 Vorone! shelf (NAW80n) ~ Waoom® pen 194. ~. 134 My Private Sky plates (Kra.29. INDEX MIcart& ch&lr (Newson) 144-7 MloroaoMbe f .l.ast. l. Clemens (KHA. .6a Wood.n Veldho ven.1 210-13 Sonic Fabric (Santoro) 200-3 Soul ch&lr (Pe&rsonLloyd) 168-63 Sound System la.214 aa. Meander eoolog1c&l t.l. lBfl wool 96.. 106. (Poulton) 168-71 T&lo 1.mJde 7D-3. .ext1le 164-7 Orchid 5 fabric 218-21 SonIc FabMc 200-3 3D KnIt 96-9 Urban FabMo 124-7 thermoplastic 140 3D KnIt ( H1shlnuma) 96-9 3D ( t.g with OIOt. 42.l. 112 printed c1rcu1t boa.P vases 10 Int. Luke (P8&rsonIJoyd) 1 58-63 Perazza. 7.s. d9:.27.u. Ma.rd 204-9 . .ys. 1M stools 164 Copper Stool 120.t1onal mould1ng .. furnlture (Baas) 16-19 SegeetA ch&1r QiAberll) 92-8 selective laser sint. 1. stool (Orc1c) 88--91 MoI'I18on.too) 10 Treasure turn1ture (8&&s) 16 . 148-67 194-<> Sp1nl. UO.lO.es) Wavefront CAD sottwa. 24. 42.ran) 140-3 Ya.112.yOne bathroom mIxer (Dam1an. 02 104.O. Wi. 114.3O. 80 Pesce. 108. 120.ystyrene 16. ..d Assoctat. 22i R9&(lyma. 222.st. dl Tavolone table 154-7 tablew&re Akasma. 2()()-.o) 1()()-.12O. 190 UnIts aeries ( Babled) 24-7 UP ch&lr (PeSce) 164 Urban Fabric (Lane) 124-7 UrqUlola. Nell 168-71 powde~ 16 . Juper 50.i5. WIek. 62. li. Renata CAllas) 92 steel 28. 22A PtxelRoller ( rAndom International) lBO.. Southern HemiSphere ch&lr (Ron Ara.2.ne 114. lB.ernatJonaJ. Tosh1h1ko I go. 20.re (Brizlo) 64-7 Vlbra Finlsh.m. nylon...l26.P. Stuart ( rAndom Internat.fl rapld-prototyptng (RP) 70. l. Ftxelshades (rAndom Intem&t.. 214 sUkpJ"inting liW Bmoke series (Ba&s) 16 So HAPPY ch&lr (Ua.l. Marc 144-7 NObod. 172 Somers. 158 NymPhenburg (Porzellan Manufaktur Nympbenburg) 108..or 140 p1ea. Alyce 2()(). JJlfl so.al.aJag expanded pol. 144 ..M / WEIBSHAAR) 7. 1M STable 134-9 Sanson table 164 8cu1pt table 1. lilli.in.i.aa.. l.l. Jay (BarberOsgerby) 28-33 overbr ald!ng 21 ~ 13 P&lnt. .1. F'lor1an ( rAndom Int.Q..a. 190. 164-7 X3 chair (1. 108.d Aaaoc1a..r. Platp&ek table 16 Loop table 26 Part. O&k.) lBO.esa steel 8teelwood ch&lr (Bouroullec) 60-3 St.t1ng 218-21 plywOOd 28.&m1n&t6 (Walz) 226-9 Pearson.mb) 120-3 photography 124. III Spkler 1 ~ 2 hard-dlBk DVD recorders (8ak&1) O&gerby. Batyendra.m ~ Welsshaa.29.1n.JSbt (Poulton) 168. .M. 226 Ven1n1 SpA 20.. poJ.O9.l.ycarbon&t. QregoMo (Kundal1n1) 70..l tape 66-9 Tavolons table ( Peaoe) 164-7 tempering 222 Tempor&l'y Graffiti ( rAndom InternatlOnaJ... l7.e 66.4.1onal) 180.de Prqects 68 resin 164-7.8 Table FIrSt. 1 34 .agem tablewa. i5fl: nylon 70.l. 150 P&rt. PloNik combo-table (Lust) 134. 214-171fm.. . Pane chair (Yoshioka) 230-6 paper 58.23. l7.m 166-9.h.l. 160.mtde as.. PIrouette Lamp (Ventur1n1) 222. 88-91 . 120.r) lOB. 120 poJ. 164-7.O. relnforoed 80-3.. Pt&nk.i17.lB.3 Sa. 114.9.. 23.l. f1a.92. 194 reverse-engtneertng (RE) l. . ShapeHand™ 104. SSl plastio 34.) 160 W&t8r-Jet.al. 80. GulCo 222 Vl.g aand·blasUng 16.t1n 218-21 poJ.l.yel' 190-3 multiplex board laO. ll3.aa an as.Wl Stardust vases (It. l. 80. . 168 .186.QB sheet met&l 16.83.. Nklholas 42 NeON (Cocksedge) 62 Newson. 120 v.1ng 10.ran) 140 8Oft. 58.uMn1. rubber 34. . 22a R1c:c:lollna chair (l4aran) 140 Ron Arad Associates 10-15 rota. .(a..1Jag sta.J.. 2()()-. fi. 73.JSbt. 172. 84-7 One Laptop Per ChIld (OLPC) XO Computer (B6har) 42-<5 One Liner bowle (J"rgen. tables (Burks) 68-61 pa. PatMcla 214-17 vacuum·pressIng 226-9 ve. 230-8 polypropylene. BID 38 Buperform Alum1. lQ. 9 Table (Lust) 134-9 8a. ~ Vt&«em tableware 64-7 Tal&k 1.&rdust vases 100-3 Units seMes 24-7 VA.m.ua PTP 194 PUR ell poJyuretha. 124 MP3 pla.100. 214.O. 222 ea..2. 14D-3.sc&pe vases (Blrds&ll) 46-9 !lade by Bees Honeycomb Vases 126. ~. Amphora 128.pper. 1S2. 194. 190-3 polyeSter 96. Paola 226 N&groponte.ka1. U7.6 mlrror poUShing 28 MIura. Toktijln 230-6 Zam&c 166.l.. 60...3 Stauffacher..3.erior Land. 28 . l. l2f1.210. .. 146 Rhinooeros® CAD software 24.O.) lJl9.230 Propeller 172-9 lBO. Rlcha.2.pper) 204 Tom Vac ch&1J" (Ron Arad As8oclatee) 10 Tot. l. l.eenackers. 222.ll.. 96. Pol&r1soope 20.I) 66-9 Open Box llght (PrOpeller) 176-9 Orchid 6 (abMc (van Veldhoven) 218-21 Ortkrass. 7.mp and j&r (Brizlo) 64. .nd-oa. Benoit 91 stereollt.ng 186-9 Watt ( Cocksedge) 62 .57.ya..sen) 104-7 One-Orr ( AJ"ad) 1 0 OnJ. 108-13 W1refl'ame model11ng 23. lB.. lB. 174. ltlf1 Patented Y1ex1ble WOCx1 I.&h& 190 Yoehlok&.y's Perfect furn1ture and Ughtlng (Pesoe) 164 Sculpt.82. Kar1. 225 sta1nless eteel 16-1 1:1 ..Il2.. 33.a7. cut. 24 Vent. 226-9 W&lz.verlet. TIG-weldlng 68 Tlzlo desk llgbt (Sa. stool 88-91 Pewter Stool 120-3 Stumpf.. 164 My PMvate Sky plates lOe. Poulton.40 / .ha.l.rtlclebo&rd 164.1..l.ystyrene poJyuret. 120 Sta. 28.n1um 10 aa. 134. table 56-81 FIcHU!: combo-table 134 . 50-3.. M P&kh&I&.. 164 veneers 16. Mlura.l zinc 34. 144 RaptdForm CAD software 180 Rashid. .t. lQa. 194.rt 168. 168-71.. 168 poJ. 66. 88.Ional) 180.226. 204.re&-d.aa St.l.afl Pro E CAD software 74.hography 66. KeVin ~ Barry 226-9 Watch Paper ( rAndom Intern&t1on&l.9.U2 B.to bOwl (Br1Z1o) 84. ~ textUes 26.l. !la.. 168-71.82 weaving 164 .l.re 60.a2 Shadow ch&lr (pesce) lfl6.28..a.186 porcelain 64-7.57. 1M. 17 6 product t. 113 Navone. 134. walnut 16. 73.touch peJnt 68 SolldWorks CAD aoftw&re l7..

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