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The Physics GRE Solution Guide
GR8677 Test
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/physicsgre_v2
November 3, 2009
Author:
David S. Latchman
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Preface
This solution guide initially started out on the Yahoo Groups web site and was pretty
successful at the time. Unfortunately, the group was lost and with it, much of the the
hard work that was put into it. This is my attempt to recreate the solution guide and
make it more widely avaialble to everyone. If you see any errors, think certain things
could be expressed more clearly, or would like to make suggestions, please feel free to
do so.
David Latchman
Document Changes
05112009 1. Added diagrams to GR0177 test questions 125
2. Revised solutions to GR0177 questions 125
04152009 First Version
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Contents
Preface i
Classical Mechanics xv
0.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
0.2 Newton’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi
0.3 Work & Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
0.4 Oscillatory Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii
0.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxii
0.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
0.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
0.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvi
0.9 Fluid Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvi
0.10 Noninertial Reference Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
0.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxvii
Electromagnetism xxix
0.12 Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxix
0.13 Currents and DC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.14 Magnetic Fields in Free Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.15 Lorentz Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.16 Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.17 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.18 Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
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0.19 AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.20 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv
0.21 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.22 Energy in a Capacitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.23 Energy in an Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.24 Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.25 Current Destiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.26 Current Density of Moving Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.27 Resistance and Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxv
0.28 Resistivity and Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.29 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.30 Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.31 Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.32 RC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.33 Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvi
0.34 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii
0.35 Relationship between E and B Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxvii
0.36 Energy Density of an EM wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxviii
0.37 Poynting’s Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxviii
Optics & Wave Phonomena xxxix
0.38 Wave Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.39 Superposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.40 Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.41 Diﬀraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.42 Geometrical Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.43 Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
0.44 Doppler Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl
0.45 Snell’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xl
Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics xli
0.46 Laws of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
0.47 Thermodynamic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
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0.48 Equations of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
0.49 Ideal Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
0.50 Kinetic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
0.51 Ensembles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
0.52 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties . . . xlii
0.53 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
0.54 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
0.55 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
0.56 Heat and Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
0.57 First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
0.58 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliii
0.59 Heat Conduction Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliii
0.60 Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliv
0.61 StefanBoltzmann’s FormulaStefanBoltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . xliv
0.62 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliv
0.63 Translational Kinetic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliv
0.64 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliv
0.65 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv
0.66 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv
0.67 Equipartition of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlv
0.68 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii
0.69 Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii
Quantum Mechanics xlix
0.70 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix
0.71 Schr¨ odinger Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlix
0.72 Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liv
0.73 Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liv
0.74 Wave Funtion Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liv
0.75 Elementary Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . liv
Atomic Physics lv
0.76 Properties of Electrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lv
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0.77 Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lv
0.78 Energy Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvi
0.79 Atomic Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvi
0.80 Atomic Spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvi
0.81 Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvii
0.82 Black Body Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvii
0.83 XRays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lviii
0.84 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lix
Special Relativity lxiii
0.85 Introductory Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii
0.86 Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii
0.87 Length Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii
0.88 Simultaneity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii
0.89 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiv
0.90 FourVectors and Lorentz Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxv
0.91 Velocity Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxvi
0.92 Relativistic Doppler Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxvi
0.93 Lorentz Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxvi
0.94 SpaceTime Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxvii
Laboratory Methods lxix
0.95 Data and Error Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxix
0.96 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxi
0.97 Radiation Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxi
0.98 Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxi
0.99 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxii
0.100Lasers and Optical Interferometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxii
0.101Dimensional Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxii
0.102Fundamental Applications of Probability and Statistics . . . . . . . . . . lxxii
GR8677 Exam Solutions lxxiii
0.103Motion of Rock under Drag Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxiii
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0.104Satellite Orbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxiv
0.105Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxiv
0.106Wave Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxiv
0.107Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxv
0.108Motion of a Particle along a Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxvi
0.109Resolving Force Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxvi
0.110Nail being driven into a block of wood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxvii
0.111Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxvii
0.112Charge inside an Isolated Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxviii
0.113Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxix
0.114Doppler Equation (NonRelativistic) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxix
0.115Vibrating Interference Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxix
0.116Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxix
0.117Helium atoms in a box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxx
0.118The Muon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxi
0.119Radioactive Decay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxi
0.120Schr¨ odinger’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxii
0.121Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxii
0.122Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxiii
0.123SpaceTime Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxiii
0.124Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxiv
0.125Conductivity of a Metal and SemiConductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxiv
0.126Charging a Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxv
0.127Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxv
0.128KSeries XRays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxv
0.129Electrons and Spin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxvi
0.130Normalizing a wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxvii
0.131Right Hand Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxviii
0.132Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxviii
0.133Photoelectric Eﬀect I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxix
0.134Photoelectric Eﬀect II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxix
0.135Photoelectric Eﬀect III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxix
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0.136Potential Energy of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxxxix
0.137Hamiltonian of a Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xc
0.138Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xc
0.139Tension in a Conical Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xc
0.140Diode ORgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xci
0.141Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. Angular Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xci
0.142Counting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xci
0.143Binding Energy per Nucleon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcii
0.144Scattering Cross Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcii
0.145Coupled Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcii
0.146Collision with a Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xciv
0.147Compton Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xciv
0.148StefanBoltzmann’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xciv
0.149FranckHertz Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcv
0.150Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcv
0.151The Hamilton Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcv
0.152Hall Eﬀect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcvi
0.153Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcvii
0.154Potential inside a Hollow Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcvii
0.155EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcviii
0.156Polarization Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcviii
0.157Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcviii
0.158Expectation or Mean Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcix
0.159Eigenfuction of Wavefunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xcix
0.160Holograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c
0.161Group Velocity of a Wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ci
0.162Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ci
0.163Rocket Equation I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cii
0.164Rocket Equation II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cii
0.165Surface Charge Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cii
0.166Maximum Power Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ciii
0.167Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying Loop . . . . . . . . . . ciii
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0.168Maxwell’s Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . civ
0.169Partition Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cv
0.170Particle moving at Light Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cv
0.171Car and Garage I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cv
0.172Car and Garage II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvi
0.173Car and Garage III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvi
0.174Refrective Index of Rock Salt and Xrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvi
0.175Thin Flim NonReﬂective Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvii
0.176Law of Malus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cvii
0.177Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cviii
0.178Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cviii
0.179Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cix
0.180Total Energy between Two Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cx
0.181Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cx
0.182Gauss’ Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxi
0.183BiotSavart Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxii
0.184Zeeman Eﬀect and the emission spectrum of atomic gases . . . . . . . . cxii
0.185Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases . . . . . . . . . . cxiii
0.186Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxiii
0.187Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxiv
0.188The Ice Pail Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxiv
0.189Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxiv
0.190Fermion and Boson Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxv
0.191Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxv
0.192Energy Eigenstates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxvi
0.193Bragg’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxvii
0.194Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxvii
0.195Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxviii
0.196RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxviii
0.197Carnot Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxx
0.198First Order Perturbation Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxii
0.199Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular Momentum . . . . . . cxxii
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0.200Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxiii
0.201Ground State of a Positronium Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxiv
0.202The Pinhole Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxiv
Constants & Important Equations cxxvii
.1 Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxvii
.2 Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxvii
.3 Commutators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxviii
.4 Linear Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxix
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List of Tables
0.67.1Table of Molar Speciﬁc Heats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvi
0.140.1 Truth Table for ORgate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xci
0.189.1 Speciﬁc Heat, c
v
for a diatomic molecule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxiv
.1.1 Something . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cxxvii
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Classical Mechanics
0.1 Kinematics
0.1.1 Linear Motion
Average Velocity
v =
∆x
∆t
=
x
2
− x
1
t
2
− t
1
(0.1.1)
Instantaneous Velocity
v = lim
∆t→0
∆x
∆t
=
dx
dt
= v(t) (0.1.2)
Kinematic Equations of Motion
The basic kinematic equations of motion under constant acceleration, a, are
v = v
0
+ at (0.1.3)
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2a (x − x
0
) (0.1.4)
x − x
0
= v
0
t +
1
2
at
2
(0.1.5)
x − x
0
=
1
2
(v + v
0
) t (0.1.6)
0.1.2 Circular Motion
In the case of Uniform Circular Motion, for a particle to move in a circular path, a
radial acceleration must be applied. This acceleration is known as the Centripetal
Acceleration
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Centripetal Acceleration
a =
v
2
r
(0.1.7)
Angular Velocity
ω =
v
r
(0.1.8)
We can write eq. (0.1.7) in terms of ω
a = ω
2
r (0.1.9)
Rotational Equations of Motion
The equations of motion under a constant angular acceleration, α, are
ω = ω
0
+ αt (0.1.10)
θ =
ω + ω
0
2
t (0.1.11)
θ = ω
0
t +
1
2
αt
2
(0.1.12)
ω
2
= ω
2
0
+ 2αθ (0.1.13)
0.2 Newton’s Laws
0.2.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion
First Law A body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted upon
by an external unbalanced force.
Second Law The net force ona body is proportional to its rate of change of momentum.
F =
dp
dt
= ma (0.2.1)
Third Law When a particle A exerts a force on another particle B, B simultaneously
exerts a force on A with the same magnitude in the opposite direction.
F
AB
= −F
BA
(0.2.2)
0.2.2 Momentum
p = mv (0.2.3)
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0.2.3 Impulse
∆p = J =
Fdt = F
avg
dt (0.2.4)
0.3 Work & Energy
0.3.1 Kinetic Energy
K ≡
1
2
mv
2
(0.3.1)
0.3.2 The WorkEnergy Theorem
The net Work done is given by
W
net
= K
f
− K
i
(0.3.2)
0.3.3 Work done under a constant Force
The work done by a force can be expressed as
W = F∆x (0.3.3)
In three dimensions, this becomes
W = F · ∆r = F∆r cos θ (0.3.4)
For a nonconstant force, we have
W =
x
f
x
i
F(x)dx (0.3.5)
0.3.4 Potential Energy
The Potential Energy is
F(x) = −
dU(x)
dx
(0.3.6)
for conservative forces, the potential energy is
U(x) = U
0
−
x
x
0
F(x
)dx
(0.3.7)
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0.3.5 Hooke’s Law
F = −kx (0.3.8)
where k is the spring constant.
0.3.6 Potential Energy of a Spring
U(x) =
1
2
kx
2
(0.3.9)
0.4 Oscillatory Motion
0.4.1 Equation for Simple Harmonic Motion
x(t) = Asin(ωt + δ) (0.4.1)
where the Amplitude, A, measures the displacement from equilibrium, the phase, δ, is
the angle by which the motion is shifted from equilibrium at t = 0.
0.4.2 Period of Simple Harmonic Motion
T =
2π
ω
(0.4.2)
0.4.3 Total Energy of an Oscillating System
Given that
x = Asin(ωt + δ) (0.4.3)
and that the Total Energy of a System is
E = KE + PE (0.4.4)
The Kinetic Energy is
KE =
1
2
mv
2
=
1
2
m
dx
dt
=
1
2
mA
2
ω
2
cos
2
(ωt + δ) (0.4.5)
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The Potential Energy is
U =
1
2
kx
2
=
1
2
kA
2
sin
2
(ωt + δ) (0.4.6)
Adding eq. (0.4.5) and eq. (0.4.6) gives
E =
1
2
kA
2
(0.4.7)
0.4.4 Damped Harmonic Motion
F
d
= −bv = −b
dx
dt
(0.4.8)
where b is the damping coeﬃcient. The equation of motion for a damped oscillating
system becomes
− kx − b
dx
dt
= m
d
2
x
dt
2
(0.4.9)
Solving eq. (0.4.9) goves
x = Ae
−αt
sin(ω
t + δ) (0.4.10)
We ﬁnd that
α =
b
2m
(0.4.11)
ω
=
k
m
−
b
2
4m
2
=
ω
2
0
−
b
2
4m
2
=
ω
2
0
− α
2
(0.4.12)
0.4.5 Small Oscillations
The Energy of a system is
E = K + V(x) =
1
2
mv(x)
2
+ V(x) (0.4.13)
We can solve for v(x),
v(x) =
2
m
(E − V(x)) (0.4.14)
where E ≥ V(x) Let the particle move in the potential valley, x
1
≤ x ≤ x
2
, the potential
can be approximated by the Taylor Expansion
V(x) = V(x
e
) + (x − x
e
)
,
dV(x)
dx
¸
x=x
e
+
1
2
(x − x
e
)
2
,
d
2
V(x)
dx
2
¸
x=x
e
+ · · · (0.4.15)
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At the points of inﬂection, the derivative dV/dx is zero and d
2
V/dx
2
is positive. This
means that the potential energy for small oscillations becomes
V(x) V(x
e
) +
1
2
k(x − x
e
)
2
(0.4.16)
where
k ≡
,
d
2
V(x)
dx
2
¸
x=x
e
≥ 0 (0.4.17)
As V(x
e
) is constant, it has no consequences to physical motion and can be dropped.
We see that eq. (0.4.16) is that of simple harmonic motion.
0.4.6 Coupled Harmonic Oscillators
Consider the case of a simple pendulum of length, , and the mass of the bob is m
1
.
For small displacements, the equation of motion is
¨
θ + ω
0
θ = 0 (0.4.18)
We can express this in cartesian coordinates, x and y, where
x = cos θ ≈ (0.4.19)
y = sinθ ≈ θ (0.4.20)
eq. (0.4.18) becomes
¨ y + ω
0
y = 0 (0.4.21)
This is the equivalent to the massspring system where the spring constant is
k = mω
2
0
=
mg
(0.4.22)
This allows us to to create an equivalent three spring system to our coupled pendulum
system. The equations of motion can be derived from the Lagrangian, where
L = T − V
=
1
2
m˙ y
2
1
+
1
2
m˙ y
2
2
−
1
2
ky
2
1
+
1
2
κ
y
2
− y
1
2
+
1
2
ky
2
2
¸
=
1
2
m
˙ y
1
2
+ ˙ y
2
2
−
1
2
k
y
2
1
+ y
2
2
+ κ
y
2
− y
1
2
(0.4.23)
We can ﬁnd the equations of motion of our system
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ y
n
=
∂L
∂y
n
(0.4.24)
1
Add ﬁgure with coupled pendulumspring system
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The equations of motion are
m¨ y
1
= −ky
1
+ κ
y
2
− y
1
(0.4.25)
m¨ y
2
= −ky
2
+ κ
y
2
− y
1
(0.4.26)
We assume solutions for the equations of motion to be of the form
y
1
= cos(ωt + δ
1
) y
2
= Bcos(ωt + δ
2
)
¨ y
1
= −ωy
1
¨ y
2
= −ωy
2
(0.4.27)
Substituting the values for ¨ y
1
and ¨ y
2
into the equations of motion yields
k + κ − mω
2
y
1
− κy
2
= 0 (0.4.28)
−κy
1
+
k + κ − mω
2
y
2
= 0 (0.4.29)
We can get solutions from solving the determinant of the matrix
k + κ − mω
2
−κ
−κ
k + κ − mω
2
= 0 (0.4.30)
Solving the determinant gives
mω
2
2
− 2mω
2
(k + κ) +
k
2
+ 2kκ
= 0 (0.4.31)
This yields
ω
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
k
m
=
g
k + 2κ
m
=
g
+
2κ
m
(0.4.32)
We can now determine exactly how the masses move with each mode by substituting
ω
2
into the equations of motion. Where
ω
2
=
k
m
We see that
k + κ − mω
2
= κ (0.4.33)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y
1
= y
2
(0.4.34)
We see that the masses move in phase with each other. You will also notice
the absense of the spring constant term, κ, for the connecting spring. As the
masses are moving in step, the spring isn’t stretching or compressing and hence
its absence in our result.
ω
2
=
k + κ
m
We see that
k + κ − mω
2
= −κ (0.4.35)
Substituting this into the equation of motion yields
y
1
= −y
2
(0.4.36)
Here the masses move out of phase with each other. In this case we see the
presence of the spring constant, κ, which is expected as the spring playes a role.
It is being stretched and compressed as our masses oscillate.
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0.4.7 Doppler Eﬀect
The Doppler Eﬀect is the shift in frequency and wavelength of waves that results from
a source moving with respect to the medium, a receiver moving with respect to the
medium or a moving medium.
Moving Source If a source is moving towards an observer, then in one period, τ
0
, it
moves a distance of v
s
τ
0
= v
s
/ f
0
. The wavelength is decreased by
λ
= λ −
v
s
f
0
−
v − v
s
f
0
(0.4.37)
The frequency change is
f
=
v
λ
= f
0
v
v − v
s
¸
(0.4.38)
Moving Observer As the observer moves, he will measure the same wavelength, λ, as
if at rest but will see the wave crests pass by more quickly. The observer measures
a modiﬁed wave speed.
v
= v + v
r
 (0.4.39)
The modiﬁed frequency becomes
f
=
v
λ
= f
0
1 +
v
r
v
¸
(0.4.40)
Moving Source and Moving Observer We can combine the above two equations
λ
=
v − v
s
f
0
(0.4.41)
v
= v − v
r
(0.4.42)
To give a modiﬁed frequency of
f
=
v
λ
=
v − v
r
v − v
s
¸
f
0
(0.4.43)
0.5 Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis
0.5.1 Moment of Inertia
I =
R
2
dm (0.5.1)
0.5.2 Rotational Kinetic Energy
K =
1
2
Iω
2
(0.5.2)
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0.5.3 Parallel Axis Theorem
I = I
cm
+ Md
2
(0.5.3)
0.5.4 Torque
τ = r × F (0.5.4)
τ = Iα (0.5.5)
where α is the angular acceleration.
0.5.5 Angular Momentum
L = Iω (0.5.6)
we can ﬁnd the Torque
τ =
dL
dt
(0.5.7)
0.5.6 Kinetic Energy in Rolling
With respect to the point of contact, the motion of the wheel is a rotation about the
point of contact. Thus
K = K
rot
=
1
2
I
contact
ω
2
(0.5.8)
I
contact
can be found from the Parallel Axis Theorem.
I
contact
= I
cm
+ MR
2
(0.5.9)
Substitute eq. (0.5.8) and we have
K =
1
2
I
cm
+ MR
2
ω
2
=
1
2
I
cm
ω
2
+
1
2
mv
2
(0.5.10)
The kinetic energy of an object rolling without slipping is the sum of hte kinetic energy
of rotation about its center of mass and the kinetic energy of the linear motion of the
object.
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0.6 Dynamics of Systems of Particles
0.6.1 Center of Mass of a System of Particles
Position Vector of a System of Particles
R =
m
1
r
1
+ m
2
r
2
+ m
3
r
3
+ · · · + m
N
r
N
M
(0.6.1)
Velocity Vector of a System of Particles
V =
dR
dt
=
m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
+ m
3
v
3
+ · · · + m
N
v
N
M
(0.6.2)
Acceleration Vector of a System of Particles
A =
dV
dt
=
m
1
a
1
+ m
2
a
2
+ m
3
a
3
+ · · · + m
N
a
N
M
(0.6.3)
0.7 Central Forces and Celestial Mechanics
0.7.1 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
F = −
GMm
r
2
¸
ˆ r (0.7.1)
0.7.2 Potential Energy of a Gravitational Force
U(r) = −
GMm
r
(0.7.2)
0.7.3 Escape Speed and Orbits
The energy of an orbiting body is
E = T + U
=
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
r
(0.7.3)
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The escape speed becomes
E =
1
2
mv
2
esc
−
GMm
R
E
= 0 (0.7.4)
Solving for v
esc
we ﬁnd
v
esc
=
2GM
R
e
(0.7.5)
0.7.4 Kepler’s Laws
First Law The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus.
Second Law A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal
intervals of time.
Third Law The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the
cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit.
T
2
R
3
= C (0.7.6)
where C is a constant whose value is the same for all planets.
0.7.5 Types of Orbits
The Energy of an Orbiting Body is deﬁned in eq. (0.7.3), we can classify orbits by their
eccentricities.
Circular Orbit A circular orbit occurs when there is an eccentricity of 0 and the orbital
energy is less than 0. Thus
1
2
v
2
−
GM
r
= E < 0 (0.7.7)
The Orbital Velocity is
v =
GM
r
(0.7.8)
Elliptic Orbit An elliptic orbit occurs when the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 but the
speciﬁc energy is negative, so the object remains bound.
v =
GM
2
r
−
1
a
¸
(0.7.9)
where a is the semimajor axis
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Parabolic Orbit A Parabolic Orbit occurs when the eccentricity is equal to 1 and the
orbital velocity is the escape velocity. This orbit is not bounded. Thus
1
2
v
2
−
GM
r
= E = 0 (0.7.10)
The Orbital Velocity is
v = v
esc
=
2GM
r
(0.7.11)
Hyperbolic Orbit In the Hyperbolic Orbit, the eccentricity is greater than 1 with an
orbital velocity in excess of the escape velocity. This orbit is also not bounded.
v
∞
=
GM
a
(0.7.12)
0.7.6 Derivation of Visviva Equation
The total energy of a satellite is
E =
1
2
mv
2
−
GMm
r
(0.7.13)
For an elliptical or circular orbit, the speciﬁc energy is
E = −
GMm
2a
(0.7.14)
Equating we get
v
2
= GM
2
r
−
1
a
¸
(0.7.15)
0.8 Three Dimensional Particle Dynamics
0.9 Fluid Dynamics
When an object is fully or partially immersed, the buoyant force is equal to the weight
of ﬂuid displaced.
0.9.1 Equation of Continuity
ρ
1
v
1
A
1
= ρ
2
v
2
A
2
(0.9.1)
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0.9.2 Bernoulli’s Equation
P +
1
2
ρv
2
+ ρgh = a constant (0.9.2)
0.10 Noninertial Reference Frames
0.11 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Formalism
0.11.1 Lagrange’s Function (L)
L = T − V (0.11.1)
where T is the Kinetic Energy and V is the Potential Energy in terms of Generalized
Coordinates.
0.11.2 Equations of Motion(EulerLagrange Equation)
∂L
∂q
=
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ q
(0.11.2)
0.11.3 Hamiltonian
H = T + V
= p ˙ q − L(q, ˙ q) (0.11.3)
where
∂H
∂p
= ˙ q (0.11.4)
∂H
∂q
= −
∂L
∂x
= −˙ p (0.11.5)
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0.12 Electrostatics
0.12.1 Coulomb’s Law
The force between two charged particles, q
1
and q
2
is deﬁned by Coulomb’s Law.
F
12
=
1
4π
0
¸
q
1
q
2
r
2
12
ˆ r
12
(0.12.1)
where
0
is the permitivitty of free space, where
0
= 8.85 × 10
−12
C
2
N.m
2
(0.12.2)
0.12.2 Electric Field of a point charge
The electric ﬁeld is deﬁned by mesuring the magnitide and direction of an electric
force, F, acting on a test charge, q
0
.
E ≡
F
q
0
(0.12.3)
The Electric Field of a point charge, q is
E =
1
4π
0
q
r
2
ˆ r (0.12.4)
In the case of multiple point charges, q
i
, the electric ﬁeld becomes
E(r) =
1
4π
0
n
¸
i=1
q
i
r
2
i
ˆ r
i
(0.12.5)
Electric Fields and Continuous Charge Distributions
If a source is distributed continuously along a region of space, eq. (0.12.5) becomes
E(r) =
1
4π
0
1
r
2
ˆ rdq (0.12.6)
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If the charge was distributed along a line with linear charge density, λ,
λ =
dq
dx
(0.12.7)
The Electric Field of a line charge becomes
E(r) =
1
4π
0
line
λ
r
2
ˆ rdx (0.12.8)
In the case where the charge is distributed along a surface, the surface charge density
is, σ
σ =
Q
A
=
dq
dA
(0.12.9)
The electric ﬁeld along the surface becomes
E(r) =
1
4π
0
Surface
σ
r
2
ˆ rdA (0.12.10)
In the case where the charge is distributed throughout a volume, V, the volume charge
density is
ρ =
Q
V
=
dq
dV
(0.12.11)
The Electric Field is
E(r) =
1
4π
0
Volume
ρ
r
2
ˆ rdV (0.12.12)
0.12.3 Gauss’ Law
The electric ﬁeld through a surface is
Φ =
surface S
dΦ =
surface S
E · dA (0.12.13)
The electric ﬂux through a closed surface encloses a net charge.
E · dA =
Q
0
(0.12.14)
where Q is the charge enclosed by our surface.
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0.12.4 Equivalence of Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’ Law
The total ﬂux through a sphere is
E · dA = E(4πr
2
) =
q
0
(0.12.15)
From the above, we see that the electric ﬁeld is
E =
q
4π
0
r
2
(0.12.16)
0.12.5 Electric Field due to a line of charge
Consider an inﬁnite rod of constant charge density, λ. The ﬂux through a Gaussian
cylinder enclosing the line of charge is
Φ =
top surface
E · dA+
bottom surface
E · dA+
side surface
E · dA (0.12.17)
At the top and bottom surfaces, the electric ﬁeld is perpendicular to the area vector, so
for the top and bottom surfaces,
E · dA = 0 (0.12.18)
At the side, the electric ﬁeld is parallel to the area vector, thus
E · dA = EdA (0.12.19)
Thus the ﬂux becomes,
Φ =
side sirface
E · dA = E
dA (0.12.20)
The area in this case is the surface area of the side of the cylinder, 2πrh.
Φ = 2πrhE (0.12.21)
Applying Gauss’ Law, we see that Φ = q/
0
. The electric ﬁeld becomes
E =
λ
2π
0
r
(0.12.22)
0.12.6 Electric Field in a Solid NonConducting Sphere
Within our nonconducting sphere or radius, R, we will assume that the total charge,
Q is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume. So the charge density of our
sphere is
ρ =
Q
V
=
Q
4
3
πR
3
(0.12.23)
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xxxii Electromagnetism
The Electric Field due to a charge Q is
E =
Q
4π
0
r
2
(0.12.24)
As the charge is evenly distributed throughout the sphere’s volume we can say that
the charge density is
dq = ρdV (0.12.25)
where dV = 4πr
2
dr. We can use this to determine the ﬁeld inside the sphere by
summing the eﬀect of inﬁnitesimally thin spherical shells
E =
E
0
dE =
r
0
dq
4πr
2
=
ρ
0
r
0
dr
=
Qr
4
3
π
0
R
3
(0.12.26)
0.12.7 Electric Potential Energy
U(r) =
1
4π
0
qq
0
r (0.12.27)
0.12.8 Electric Potential of a Point Charge
The electrical potential is the potential energy per unit charge that is associated with a
static electrical ﬁeld. It can be expressed thus
U(r) = qV(r) (0.12.28)
And we can see that
V(r) =
1
4π
0
q
r
(0.12.29)
A more proper deﬁnition that includes the electric ﬁeld, E would be
V(r) = −
C
E · d (0.12.30)
where C is any path, starting at a chosen point of zero potential to our desired point.
The diﬀerence between two potentials can be expressed such
V(b) − V(a) = −
b
E · d +
a
E · d
= −
b
a
E · d (0.12.31)
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This can be further expressed
V(b) − V(a) =
b
a
(∇V) · d (0.12.32)
And we can show that
E = −∇V (0.12.33)
0.12.9 Electric Potential due to a line charge along axis
Let us consider a rod of length, , with linear charge density, λ. The Electrical Potential
due to a continuous distribution is
V =
dV =
1
4π
0
dq
r
(0.12.34)
The charge density is
dq = λdx (0.12.35)
Substitutingthis intothe above equation, we get the electrical potential at some distance
x along the rod’s axis, with the origin at the start of the rod.
dV =
1
4π
0
dq
x
=
1
4π
0
λdx
x
(0.12.36)
This becomes
V =
λ
4π
0
ln
,
x
2
x
1
¸
(0.12.37)
where x
1
and x
2
are the distances from O, the end of the rod.
Now consider that we are some distance, y, from the axis of the rod of length, . We
again look at eq. (0.12.34), where r is the distance of the point P from the rod’s axis.
V =
1
4π
0
dq
r
=
1
4π
0
0
λdx
x
2
+ y
2
1
2
=
λ
4π
0
ln
,
x +
x
2
+ y
2
1
2
¸
0
=
λ
4π
0
ln
,
+
2
+ y
2
1
2
¸
− ln y
=
λ
4π
0
ln
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+
2
+ y
2
1
2
d
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.12.38)
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0.13 Currents and DC Circuits
2
0.14 Magnetic Fields in Free Space
3
0.15 Lorentz Force
4
0.16 Induction
5
0.17 Maxwell’s Equations and their Applications
6
0.18 Electromagnetic Waves
7
0.19 AC Circuits
8
0.20 Magnetic and Electric Fields in Matter
9
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0.21 Capacitance
Q = CV (0.21.1)
0.22 Energy in a Capacitor
U =
Q
2
2C
=
CV
2
2
=
QV
2
(0.22.1)
0.23 Energy in an Electric Field
u ≡
U
volume
=
0
E
2
2
(0.23.1)
0.24 Current
I ≡
dQ
dt
(0.24.1)
0.25 Current Destiny
I =
A
J · dA (0.25.1)
0.26 Current Density of Moving Charges
J =
I
A
= n
e
qv
d
(0.26.1)
0.27 Resistance and Ohm’s Law
R ≡
V
I
(0.27.1)
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0.28 Resistivity and Conductivity
R = ρ
L
A
(0.28.1)
E = ρJ (0.28.2)
J = σE (0.28.3)
0.29 Power
P = VI (0.29.1)
0.30 Kirchoﬀ’s Loop Rules
Write Here
0.31 Kirchoﬀ’s Junction Rule
Write Here
0.32 RC Circuits
E − IR −
Q
C
= 0 (0.32.1)
0.33 Maxwell’s Equations
0.33.1 Integral Form
Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields
closed surface
E · dA =
Q
0
(0.33.1)
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Gauss’ Law for Magnetic Fields
closed surface
B · dA = 0 (0.33.2)
Amp` ere’s Law
B · ds = µ
0
I + µ
0
0
d
dt
surface
E · dA (0.33.3)
Faraday’s Law
E · ds = −
d
dt
surface
B · dA (0.33.4)
0.33.2 Diﬀerential Form
Gauss’ Law for Electric Fields
∇ · E =
ρ
0
(0.33.5)
Gauss’ Law for Magnetism
∇ · B = 0 (0.33.6)
Amp` ere’s Law
∇ × B = µ
0
J + µ
0
0
∂E
∂t
(0.33.7)
Faraday’s Law
∇ · E = −
∂B
∂t
(0.33.8)
0.34 Speed of Propagation of a Light Wave
c =
1
√
µ
0
0
(0.34.1)
In a material with dielectric constant, κ,
c
√
κ =
c
n
(0.34.2)
where n is the refractive index.
0.35 Relationship between E and B Fields
E = cB (0.35.1)
E · B = 0 (0.35.2)
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0.36 Energy Density of an EM wave
u =
1
2
¸
B
2
µ
0
+
0
E
2
(0.36.1)
0.37 Poynting’s Vector
S =
1
µ
0
E × B (0.37.1)
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Optics & Wave Phonomena
0.38 Wave Properties
1
0.39 Superposition
2
0.40 Interference
3
0.41 Diﬀraction
4
0.42 Geometrical Optics
5
0.43 Polarization
6
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0.44 Doppler Eﬀect
7
0.45 Snell’s Law
0.45.1 Snell’s Law
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2
(0.45.1)
0.45.2 Critical Angle and Snell’s Law
The critical angle, θ
c
, for the boundary seperating two optical media is the smallest
angle of incidence, in the medium of greater index, for which light is totally refelected.
From eq. (0.45.1), θ
1
= 90 and θ
2
= θ
c
and n
2
> n
1
.
n
1
sin90 = n
2
sinθ
c
sinθ
c
=
n
1
n
2
(0.45.2)
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Thermodynamics & Statistical Mechanics
0.46 Laws of Thermodynamics
1
0.47 Thermodynamic Processes
2
0.48 Equations of State
3
0.49 Ideal Gases
4
0.50 Kinetic Theory
5
0.51 Ensembles
6
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0.52 Statistical Concepts and Calculation of Thermody
namic Properties
7
0.53 Thermal Expansion & Heat Transfer
8
0.54 Heat Capacity
Q = C
T
f
− T
i
(0.54.1)
where C is the Heat Capacity and T
f
and T
i
are the ﬁnal and initial temperatures
respectively.
0.55 Speciﬁc Heat Capacity
Q = cm
T
f
− t
i
(0.55.1)
where c is the speciﬁc heat capacity and m is the mass.
0.56 Heat and Work
W =
V
f
V
i
PdV (0.56.1)
0.57 First Law of Thermodynamics
dE
int
= dQ− dW (0.57.1)
where dE
int
is the internal energy of the system, dQ is the Energy added to the system
and dW is the work done by the system.
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0.57.1 Special Cases to the First Law of Thermodynamics
Adiabatic Process During an adiabatic process, the systemis insulated such that there
is no heat transfer between the system and its environment. Thus dQ = 0, so
∆E
int
= −W (0.57.2)
If work is done on the system, negative W, then there is an increase in its internal
energy. Conversely, if work is done by the system, positive W, there is a decrease
in the internal energy of the system.
Constant Volume (Isochoric) Process If the volume is held constant, then the system
can do no work, δW = 0, thus
∆E
int
= Q (0.57.3)
If heat is added to the system, the temperature increases. Conversely, if heat is
removed from the system the temperature decreases.
Closed Cycle In this situation, after certain interchanges of heat and work, the system
comes back to its initial state. So ∆E
int
remains the same, thus
∆Q = ∆W (0.57.4)
The work done by the system is equal to the heat or energy put into it.
Free Expansion In this process, no work is done on or by the system. Thus ∆Q =
∆W = 0,
∆E
int
= 0 (0.57.5)
0.58 Work done by Ideal Gas at Constant Temperature
Starting with eq. (0.56.1), we substitute the Ideal gas Law, eq. (0.60.1), to get
W = nRT
V
f
V
i
dV
V
= nRT ln
V
f
V
i
(0.58.1)
0.59 Heat Conduction Equation
The rate of heat transferred, H, is given by
H =
Q
t
= kA
T
H
− T
C
L
(0.59.1)
where k is the thermal conductivity.
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0.60 Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT (0.60.1)
where
n = Number of moles
P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Temperature
and R is the Universal Gas Constant, such that
R ≈ 8.314 J/mol. K
We can rewrite the Ideal gas Law to say
PV = NkT (0.60.2)
where k is the Boltzmann’s Constant, such that
k =
R
N
A
≈ 1.381 × 10
−23
J/K
0.61 StefanBoltzmann’s FormulaStefanBoltzmann’s Equa
tion
P(T) = σT
4
(0.61.1)
0.62 RMS Speed of an Ideal Gas
v
rms
=
3RT
M
(0.62.1)
0.63 Translational Kinetic Energy
¯
K =
3
2
kT (0.63.1)
0.64 Internal Energy of a Monatomic gas
E
int
=
3
2
nRT (0.64.1)
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0.65 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Volume
Let us deﬁne, C
V
such that
Q = nC
V
∆T (0.65.1)
Substituting into the First Law of Thermodynamics, we have
∆E
int
+ W = nC
V
∆T (0.65.2)
At constant volume, W = 0, and we get
C
V
=
1
n
∆E
int
∆T
(0.65.3)
Substituting eq. (0.64.1), we get
C
V
=
3
2
R = 12.5 J/mol.K (0.65.4)
0.66 Molar Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure
Starting with
Q = nC
p
∆T (0.66.1)
and
∆E
int
= Q− W
⇒ nC
V
∆T = nC
p
∆T + nR∆T
∴ C
V
= C
p
− R (0.66.2)
0.67 Equipartition of Energy
C
V
=
¸
f
2
R = 4.16f J/mol.K (0.67.1)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom.
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D
e
g
r
e
e
s
o
f
F
r
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d
o
m
P
r
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r
a
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o
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l
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l
(
f
)
C
V
C
P
=
C
V
+
R
M
o
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a
t
o
m
i
c
3
0
0
3
3 2
R
5 2
R
D
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0.68 Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas
PV
γ
= a constant (0.68.1)
where γ =
C
P
C
V
.
We can also write
TV
γ−1
= a constant (0.68.2)
0.69 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Something.
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Quantum Mechanics
0.70 Fundamental Concepts
1
0.71 Schr¨ odinger Equation
Let us deﬁne Ψto be
Ψ = Ae
−iω(t−
x
v
)
(0.71.1)
Simplifying in terms of Energy, E, and momentum, p, we get
Ψ = Ae
−
i(Et−px)
(0.71.2)
We obtain Schr¨ odinger’s Equation from the Hamiltonian
H = T + V (0.71.3)
To determine E and p,
∂
2
Ψ
∂x
2
= −
p
2
2
Ψ (0.71.4)
∂Ψ
∂t
=
iE
Ψ (0.71.5)
and
H =
p
2
2m
+ V (0.71.6)
This becomes
EΨ = HΨ (0.71.7)
EΨ = −
i
∂Ψ
∂t
p
2
Ψ = −
2
∂
2
Ψ
∂x
2
The Time Dependent Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
i
∂Ψ
∂t
= −
2
2m
∂
2
Ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)Ψ (0.71.8)
The Time Independent Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
EΨ = −
2
2m
∂
2
Ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)Ψ (0.71.9)
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0.71.1 Inﬁnite Square Wells
Let us consider a particle trapped in an inﬁnite potential well of size a, such that
V(x) =
0 for 0 < x < a
∞ for x > a,
so that a nonvanishing force acts only at ±a/2. An energy, E, is assigned to the system
such that the kinetic energy of the particle is E. Classically, any motion is forbidden
outside of the well because the inﬁnite value of V exceeds any possible choice of E.
Recalling the Schr¨ odinger Time Independent Equation, eq. (0.71.9), we substitute V(x)
and in the region (−a/2, a/2), we get
−
2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= Eψ (0.71.10)
This diﬀerential is of the form
d
2
ψ
dx
2
+ k
2
ψ = 0 (0.71.11)
where
k =
2mE
2
(0.71.12)
We recognize that possible solutions will be of the form
cos kx and sinkx
As the particle is conﬁned in the region 0 < x < a, we say
ψ(x) =
Acos kx + Bsinkx for 0 < x < a
0 for x > a
We have known boundary conditions for our square well.
ψ(0) = ψ(a) = 0 (0.71.13)
It shows that
⇒ Acos 0 + Bsin0 = 0
∴ A = 0 (0.71.14)
We are now left with
Bsinka = 0
ka = 0; π; 2π; 3π; · · ·
(0.71.15)
While mathematically, ncanbe zero, that wouldmeanthere wouldbe nowave function,
so we ignore this result and say
k
n
=
nπ
a
for n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·
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Schr¨ odinger Equation li
Substituting this result into eq. (0.71.12) gives
k
n
=
nπ
a
=
√
2mE
n
(0.71.16)
Solving for E
n
gives
E
n
=
n
2
π
2
2
2ma
2
(0.71.17)
We cna now solve for B by normalizing the function
a
0
B
2
sin
2
kxdx = A
2
a
2
= 1
So A
2
=
2
a
(0.71.18)
So we can write the wave function as
ψ
n
(x) =
2
a
sin
nπx
a
¸
(0.71.19)
0.71.2 Harmonic Oscillators
Classically, the harmonic oscillator has a potential energy of
V(x) =
1
2
kx
2
(0.71.20)
So the force experienced by this particle is
F = −
dV
dx
= −kx (0.71.21)
where k is the spring constant. The equation of motion can be summed us as
m
d
2
x
dt
2
= −kx (0.71.22)
And the solution of this equation is
x(t) = Acos
ω
0
t + φ
(0.71.23)
where the angular frequency, ω
0
is
ω
0
=
k
m
(0.71.24)
The QuantumMechanical description on the harmonic oscillator is based on the eigen
function solutions of the timeindependent Schr¨ odinger’s equation. By taking V(x)
from eq. (0.71.20) we substitute into eq. (0.71.9) to get
d
2
ψ
dx
2
=
2m
2
¸
k
2
x
2
− E
ψ =
mk
2
x
2
−
2E
k
¸
ψ
©2009 David S. Latchman
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With some manipulation, we get
√
mk
d
2
ψ
dx
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
√
mk
x
2
−
2E
m
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ψ
This step allows us to to keep some of constants out of the way, thus giving us
ξ
2
=
√
mk
x
2
(0.71.25)
and λ =
2E
m
k
=
2E
ω
0
(0.71.26)
This leads to the more compact
d
2
ψ
dξ
2
=
ξ
2
− λ
ψ (0.71.27)
where the eigenfunction ψ will be a function of ξ. λ assumes an eigenvalue anaglaous
to E.
From eq. (0.71.25), we see that the maximum value can be determined to be
ξ
2
max
=
√
mk
A
2
(0.71.28)
Using the classical connection between A and E, allows us to say
ξ
2
max
=
√
mk
2E
k
= λ (0.71.29)
From eq. (0.71.27), we see that in a quantum mechanical oscillator, there are non
vanishing solutions in the forbidden regions, unlike in our classical case.
A solution to eq. (0.71.27) is
ψ(ξ) = e
−ξ
2
/2
(0.71.30)
where
dψ
dξ
= −ξe
−ξ
2
/2
and
d
ψ
dξ
2
= ξ
2
e
−xi
2
/2
− e
−ξ
2
/2
=
ξ
2
− 1
e
−ξ
2
/2
This gives is a special solution for λ where
λ
0
= 1 (0.71.31)
Thus eq. (0.71.26) gives the energy eigenvalue to be
E
0
=
ω
0
2
λ
0
=
ω
0
2
(0.71.32)
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The eigenfunction e
−ξ
2
/2
corresponds to a normalized stationarystate wave function
Ψ
0
(x, t) =
¸
mk
π
2
2
1
8
e
−
√
mk x
2
/2
e
−iE
0
t/
(0.71.33)
This solution of eq. (0.71.27) produces the smallest possibel result of λ and E. Hence,
Ψ
0
and E
0
represents the ground state of the oscillator. and the quantity ω
0
/2 is the
zeropoint energy of the system.
0.71.3 Finite Square Well
For the Finite Square Well, we have a potential region where
V(x) =
−V
0
for −a ≤ x ≤ a
0 for x > a
We have three regions
Region I: x < −a In this region, The potential, V = 0, so Schr¨ odinger’s Equation be
comes
−
2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= Eψ
⇒
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= κ
2
ψ
where κ =
√
−2mE
This gives us solutions that are
ψ(x) = Aexp(−κx) + Bexp(κx)
As x → ∞, the exp(−κx) term goes to ∞; it blows up and is not a physically
realizable function. So we can drop it to get
ψ(x) = Be
κx
for x < −a (0.71.34)
Region II: −a < x < a In this region, our potential is V(x) = V
0
. Substitutin this into
the Schr¨ odinger’s Equation, eq. (0.71.9), gives
−
2
2m
d
2
ψ
dx
2
− V
0
ψ = Eψ
or
d
2
ψ
dx
2
= −l
2
ψ
where l ≡
2m(E + V
0
)
(0.71.35)
We notice that E > −V
0
, making l real and positive. Thus our general solution
becomes
ψ(x) = Csin(lx) + Dcos(lx) for −a < x < a (0.71.36)
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Region III: x > a Again this Region is similar to Region III, where the potential, V = 0.
This leaves us with the general solution
ψ(x) = Fexp(−κx) + Gexp(κx)
As x → ∞, the second term goes to inﬁnity and we get
ψ(x) = Fe
−κx
for x > a (0.71.37)
This gives us
ψ(x) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Be
κx
for x < a
Dcos(lx) for 0 < x < a
Fe
−κx
for x > a
(0.71.38)
0.71.4 Hydrogenic Atoms
c
0.72 Spin
3
0.73 Angular Momentum
4
0.74 Wave Funtion Symmetry
5
0.75 Elementary Perturbation Theory
6
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Atomic Physics
0.76 Properties of Electrons
1
0.77 Bohr Model
To understand the Bohr Model of the Hydrogen atom, we will take advantage of our
knowlegde of the wavelike properties of matter. As we are building on a classical
model of the atom with a modern concept of matter, our derivation is considered to be
‘semiclassical’. In this model we have an electron of mass, m
e
, and charge, −e, orbiting
a proton. The cetripetal force is equal to the Coulomb Force. Thus
1
4π
0
e
2
r
2
=
m
e
v
2
r
(0.77.1)
The Total Energy is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies, so
E = K + U =
p
2
2m
e
−  f race
2
4π
0
r (0.77.2)
We can further reduce this equation by subsituting the value of momentum, which we
ﬁnd to be
p
2
2m
e
=
1
2
m
e
v
2
=
e
2
8π
0
r
(0.77.3)
Substituting this into eq. (0.77.2), we get
E =
e
2
8π
0
r
−
e
2
4π
0
r
= −
e
2
8π
0
r
(0.77.4)
At this point our classical description must end. An accelerated charged particle, like
one moving in circular motion, radiates energy. So our atome here will radiate energy
and our electron will spiral into the nucleus and disappear. To solve this conundrum,
Bohr made two assumptions.
1. The classical circular orbits are replaced by stationary states. These stationary
states take discreet values.
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2. The energy of these stationary states are determined by their angular momentum
which must take on quantized values of .
L = n (0.77.5)
We can ﬁnd the angular momentum of a circular orbit.
L = m
3
vr (0.77.6)
From eq. (0.77.1) we ﬁnd v and by substitution, we ﬁnd L.
L = e
m
3
r
4π
0
(0.77.7)
Solving for r, gives
r =
L
2
m
e
e
2
/4π
0
(0.77.8)
We apply the condition from eq. (0.77.5)
r
n
=
n
2
2
m
e
e
2
/4π
0
= n
2
a
0
(0.77.9)
where a
0
is the Bohr radius.
a
0
= 0.53 × 10
−10
m (0.77.10)
Having discreet values for the allowed radii means that we will also have discreet
values for energy. Replacing our value of r
n
into eq. (0.77.4), we get
E
n
= −
m
e
2n
2
¸
e
2
4π
0
= −
13.6
n
2
eV (0.77.11)
0.78 Energy Quantization
3
0.79 Atomic Structure
4
0.80 Atomic Spectra
0.80.1 Rydberg’s Equation
1
λ
= R
H
1
n
2
−
1
n
2
¸
(0.80.1)
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where R
H
is the Rydberg constant.
For the Balmer Series, n
= 2, which determines the optical wavelengths. For n
= 3, we
get the infrared or Paschen series. The fundamental n
= 1 series falls in the ultraviolet
region and is known as the Lyman series.
0.81 Selection Rules
6
0.82 Black Body Radiation
0.82.1 Plank Formula
u( f, T) =
8π
c
3
f
3
e
h f /kT
− 1
(0.82.1)
0.82.2 StefanBoltzmann Formula
P(T) = σT
4
(0.82.2)
0.82.3 Wein’s Displacement Law
λ
max
T = 2.9 × 10
−3
m.K (0.82.3)
0.82.4 Classical and Quantum Aspects of the Plank Equation
Rayleigh’s Equation
u( f, T) =
8πf
2
c
3
kT (0.82.4)
We can get this equation fromPlank’s Equation, eq. (0.82.1). This equation is a classical
one and does not contain Plank’s constant in it. For this case we will look at the
situation where h f < kT. In this case, we make the approximation
e
x
1 + x (0.82.5)
Thus the demonimator in eq. (0.82.1) becomes
e
h f /kT
− 1 1 +
hf
kT
− 1 =
hf
kT
(0.82.6)
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Thus eq. (0.82.1) takes the approximate form
u( f, T)
8πh
c
3
f
3
kT
hf
=
8πf
2
c
3
kT (0.82.7)
As we can see this equation is devoid of Plank’s constant and thus independent of
quantum eﬀects.
Quantum
At large frequencies, where hf > kT, quantum eﬀects become apparent. We can
estimate that
e
hf /kT
− 1 e
h f /kT
(0.82.8)
Thus eq. (0.82.1) becomes
u( f, T)
8πh
c
3
f
3
e
−h f /kT
(0.82.9)
0.83 XRays
0.83.1 Bragg Condition
2d sinθ = mλ (0.83.1)
for constructive interference oﬀ parallel planes of a crystal with lattics spacing, d.
0.83.2 The Compton Eﬀect
The Compton Eﬀect deals with the scattering of monochromatic XRays by atomic
targets and the observation that the wavelength of the scattered Xray is greater than
the incident radiation. The photon energy is given by
E = hυ =
hc
λ
(0.83.2)
The photon has an associated momentum
E = pc (0.83.3)
⇒ p =
E
c
=
hυ
c
=
h
λ
(0.83.4)
The Relativistic Energy for the electron is
E
2
= p
2
c
2
+ m
2
e
c
4
(0.83.5)
where
p − p
= P (0.83.6)
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Squaring eq. (0.83.6) gives
p
2
− 2p · p
+ p
2
= P
2
(0.83.7)
Recall that E = pc and E
= cp
, we have
c
2
p
2
− 2c
2
p · p
+ c
2
p
2
= c
2
P
2
E
2
− 2E E
cos θ + E
2
= E
2
− m
2
e
c
4
(0.83.8)
Conservation of Energy leads to
E + m
e
c
2
= E
+ E (0.83.9)
Solving
E − E
= E − m
e
c
2
E
2
− 2E E
+ E
= E
2
− 2Em
e
c
2
+ m
2
e
c
4
(0.83.10)
2E E
− 2E E
cos θ = 2Em
e
c
2
− 2m
2
e
c
4
(0.83.11)
Solving leads to
∆λ = λ
− λ =
h
m
e
c
(1 − cos θ) (0.83.12)
where λ
c
=
h
m
e
c
is the Compton Wavelength.
λ
c
=
h
m
e
c
= 2.427 × 10
−12
m (0.83.13)
0.84 Atoms in Electric and Magnetic Fields
0.84.1 The Cyclotron Frequency
A test charge, q, with velocity v enters a uniform magnetic ﬁeld, B. The force acting on
the charge will be perpendicular to v such that
F
B
= qv × B (0.84.1)
or more simply F
B
= qvB. As this traces a circular path, from Newton’s Second Law,
we see that
F
B
=
mv
2
R
= qvB (0.84.2)
Solving for R, we get
R =
mv
qB
(0.84.3)
We also see that
f =
qB
2πm
(0.84.4)
The frequency is depends on the charge, q, the magnetic ﬁeld strength, B and the mass
of the charged particle, m.
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0.84.2 Zeeman Eﬀect
The Zeeman eﬀect was the splitting of spectral lines in a static magnetic ﬁeld. This is
similar to the Stark Eﬀect which was the splitting in the presence in a magnetic ﬁeld.
In the Zeeman experiment, a sodium ﬂame was placed in a magnetic ﬁeld and its
spectrum observed. In the presence of the ﬁeld, a spectral line of frequency, υ
0
was
split into three components, υ
0
− δυ, υ
0
and υ
0
+ δυ. A classical analysis of this eﬀect
allows for the identiﬁcation of the basic parameters of the interacting system.
The application of a constant magnetic ﬁeld, B, allows for a direction in space in which
the electron motion can be referred. The motion of an electron can be attributed to a
simple harmonic motion under a binding force −kr, where the frequency is
υ
0
=
1
2π
k
m
e
(0.84.5)
The magnetic ﬁeld subjects the electron to an additional Lorentz Force, −ev × B. This
produces two diﬀerent values for the angular velocity.
v = 2πrυ
The cetripetal force becomes
m
e
v
2
r
= 4π
2
υ
2
rm
e
Thus the certipetal force is
4π
2
υ
2
rm
e
= 2πυreB + kr for clockwise motion
4π
2
υ
2
rm
e
= −2πυreB + kr for counterclockwise motion
We use eq. (0.84.5), to emiminate k, to get
υ
2
−
eB
2πm
e
υ − υ
0
= 0 (Clockwise)
υ
2
+
eB
2πm
e
υ − υ
0
= 0 (Counterclockwise)
As we have assumed a small Lorentz force, we can say that the linear terms in υ are
small comapred to υ
0
. Solving the above quadratic equations leads to
υ = υ
0
+
eB
4πm
e
for clockwise motion (0.84.6)
υ = υ
0
−
eB
4πm
e
for counterclockwise motion (0.84.7)
We note that the frequency shift is of the form
δυ =
eB
4πm
e
(0.84.8)
If we view the source along the direction of B, we will observe the light to have two
polarizations, a closckwise circular polarization of υ
0
+ δυ and a counterclosckwise
circular polarization of υ
0
− δυ.
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0.84.3 FranckHertz Experiment
The FranckHertz experiment, performed in 1914 by J. Franck and G. L. Hertz, mea
sured the colisional excitation of atoms. Their experiement studied the current of
electrons in a tub of mercury vapour which revealed an abrupt change in the current
at certain critical values of the applied voltage.
2
They interpreted this observation as
evidence of a threshold for inelastic scattering in the colissions of electrons in mer
cury atoms.The bahavior of the current was an indication that electrons could lose
a discreet amount of energy and excite mercury atoms in their passage through the
mercury vapour. These observations constituted a direct and decisive conﬁrmation of
the existence os quantized energy levels in atoms.
2
Put drawing of FranckHertz Setup
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Special Relativity
0.85 Introductory Concepts
0.85.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
1. The laws of Physics are the same in all inertial frames.
2. The speed of light is the same in all inertial frames.
We can deﬁne
γ =
1
1 −
u
2
c
2
(0.85.1)
0.86 Time Dilation
∆t = γ∆t
(0.86.1)
where ∆t
is the time measured at rest relative to the observer, ∆t is the time measured
in motion relative to the observer.
0.87 Length Contraction
L =
L
γ
(0.87.1)
where L
is the length of an object observed at rest relative to the observer and L is the
length of the object moving at a speed u relative to the observer.
0.88 Simultaneity
4
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0.89 Energy and Momentum
0.89.1 Relativistic Momentum & Energy
In relativistic mechanics, to be conserved, momentum and energy are deﬁned as
Relativistic Momentum
¯ p = γm¯ v (0.89.1)
Relativistic Energy
E = γmc
2
(0.89.2)
0.89.2 Lorentz Transformations (Momentum & Energy)
p
x
= γ
p
x
− β
E
c
¸
(0.89.3)
p
y
= p
y
(0.89.4)
p
z
= p
z
(0.89.5)
E
c
= γ
E
c
− βp
x
¸
(0.89.6)
0.89.3 Relativistic Kinetic Energy
K = E − mc
2
(0.89.7)
= mc
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
1 −
v
2
c
2
− 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.89.8)
= mc
2
γ − 1
(0.89.9)
0.89.4 Relativistic Dynamics (Collisions)
∆P
x
= γ
∆P
x
− β
∆E
c
¸
(0.89.10)
∆P
y
= ∆P
y
(0.89.11)
∆P
z
= ∆P
z
(0.89.12)
∆E
c
= γ
∆E
c
− β∆P
x
¸
(0.89.13)
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0.90 FourVectors and Lorentz Transformation
We can represent an event in S with the column matrix, s,
s =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.90.1)
A diﬀerent Lorents frame, S
, corresponds to another set of space time axes so that
s
=
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.90.2)
The Lorentz Transformation is related by the matrix
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
γ 0 0 iγβ
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
−iγβ 0 0 γ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.90.3)
We can express the equation in the form
s
= Ls (0.90.4)
The matrix L contains all the information needed to relate position four–vectors for
any given event as observed in the two Lorentz frames S and S
. If we evaluate
s
T
s =
,
x y z ict
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x
y
z
ict
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
(0.90.5)
Similarly we can show that
s
T
s
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
− c
2
t
2
(0.90.6)
We can take any collection of four physical quantities to be four vector provided that
they transform to another Lorentz frame. Thus we have
b =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
b
x
b
y
b
z
ib
t
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.90.7)
this can be transformed into a set of quantities of b
in another frame S
such that it
satisﬁes the transformation
b
= Lb (0.90.8)
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Looking at the momentumEnergy four vector, we have
p =
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
p
x
p
y
p
z
iE/c
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(0.90.9)
Applying the same transformation rule, we have
p
= Lp (0.90.10)
We can also get a Lorentzinvariation relation between momentum and energy such
that
p
T
p
= p
T
p (0.90.11)
The resulting equality gives
p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+ p
2
z
−
E
2
c
2
= p
2
x
+ p
2
y
+ p
2
z
−
E
2
c
2
(0.90.12)
0.91 Velocity Addition
v
=
v − u
1 −
uv
c
2
(0.91.1)
0.92 Relativistic Doppler Formula
¯ υ = υ
0
c + u
c − u
let r =
c − u
c + u
(0.92.1)
We have
¯ υ
receding
= rυ
0
redshift (Source Receding) (0.92.2)
¯ υ
approaching
=
υ
0
r
blueshift (Source Approaching) (0.92.3)
0.93 Lorentz Transformations
Given two reference frames S(x, y, z, t) and S
(x
, y
, z
, t
), where the S
frame is moving
in the xdirection, we have,
x
= γ(x − ut) x = (x
− ut
) (0.93.1)
y
= y y = y
(0.93.2)
z
= y y
= y (0.93.3)
t
= γ
t −
u
c
2
x
¸
t = γ
t
+
u
c
2
x
¸
(0.93.4)
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0.94 SpaceTime Interval
(∆S)
2
= (∆x)
2
+
∆y
2
+ (∆z)
2
− c
2
(∆t)
2
(0.94.1)
SpaceTime Intervals may be categorized into three types depending on their separa
tion. They are
Timelike Interval
c
2
∆t
2
> ∆r
2
(0.94.2)
∆S
2
> 0 (0.94.3)
When two events are separated by a timelike interval, there is a causeeﬀect
relationship between the two events.
Lightlike Interval
c
2
∆t
2
= ∆r
2
(0.94.4)
S
2
= 0 (0.94.5)
Spacelike Intervals
c
2
∆t
2
< ∆r
2
(0.94.6)
∆S < 0 (0.94.7)
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Laboratory Methods
0.95 Data and Error Analysis
0.95.1 Addition and Subtraction
x = a + b − c (0.95.1)
The Error in x is
(δx)
2
= (δa)
2
+ (δb)
2
+ (δc)
2
(0.95.2)
0.95.2 Multiplication and Division
x =
a × b
c
(0.95.3)
The error in x is
δx
x
¸
2
=
δa
a
¸
2
+
¸
δb
b
2
+
δc
c
¸
2
(0.95.4)
0.95.3 Exponent  (No Error in b)
x = a
b
(0.95.5)
The Error in x is
δx
x
= b
δa
a
¸
(0.95.6)
0.95.4 Logarithms
Base e
x = lna (0.95.7)
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lxx Laboratory Methods
We ﬁnd the error in x by taking the derivative on both sides, so
δx =
d lna
da
· δa
=
1
a
· δa
=
δa
a
(0.95.8)
Base 10
x = log
10
a (0.95.9)
The Error in x can be derived as such
δx =
d(loga)
da
δa
=
lna
ln10
da
δa
=
1
ln10
δa
a
= 0.434
δa
a
(0.95.10)
0.95.5 Antilogs
Base e
x = e
a
(0.95.11)
We take the natural log on both sides.
lnx = a lne = a (0.95.12)
Applaying the same general method, we see
d lnx
dx
δx = δa
⇒
δx
x
= δa (0.95.13)
Base 10
x = 10
a
(0.95.14)
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Instrumentation lxxi
We follow the same general procedure as above to get
logx = a log 10
logx
dx
δx = δa
1
ln10
d lna
dx
δx = δa
δx
x
= ln10δa (0.95.15)
0.96 Instrumentation
2
0.97 Radiation Detection
3
0.98 Counting Statistics
Let’s assume that for a particular experiment, we are making countung measurements
for a radioactive source. In this experiment, we recored N counts in time T. The
counting rate for this trial is R = N/T. This rate should be close to the average rate,
¯
R.
The standard deviation or the uncertainty of our count is a simply called the
√
N rule.
So
σ =
√
N (0.98.1)
Thus we can report our results as
Number of counts = N ±
√
N (0.98.2)
We can ﬁnd the count rate by dividing by T, so
R =
N
T
±
√
N
T
(0.98.3)
The fractional uncertainty of our count is
δN
N
. We can relate this in terms of the count
rate.
δR
R
=
δN
T
N
T
=
δN
N
=
√
N
N
=
1
N
(0.98.4)
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lxxii Laboratory Methods
We see that our uncertainty decreases as we take more counts, as to be expected.
0.99 Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter
5
0.100 Lasers and Optical Interferometers
6
0.101 Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis is used to understand physical situations involving a mis of
diﬀerent types of physical quantities. The dimensions of a physical quantity are
associated with combinations of mass, length, time, electric charge, and temperature,
represented by symbols M, L, T, Q, and θ, respectively, each raised to rational powers.
0.102 Fundamental Applications of ProbabilityandStatis
tics
8
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GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.103 Motion of Rock under Drag Force
From the information provided we can come up with an equation of motion for the
rock.
m¨ x = −mg − kv (0.103.1)
If you have seen this type of equation, and solved it, you’d know that the rock’s speed
will asymtotically increase to some max speed. At that point the drag force and the
force due to gravity will be the same. We canbest answer this questionthroughanalysis
and elimination.
A Dividing eq. (0.103.1) by m gives
¨ x = −g −
k
m
˙ x (0.103.2)
We see that this only occurs when ˙ x = 0, which only happens at the top of the
ﬂight. So FALSE.
B At the top of the ﬂight, v = 0. From eq. (0.103.2)
⇒ ¨ x = g (0.103.3)
we see that this is TRUE.
C Again from eq. (0.103.2) we see that the acceleration is dependent on whether the
rock is moving up or down. If ˙ x > 0 then ¨ x < −g and if ˙ x < 0 then ¨ x > −g. So this
is also FALSE.
D If there was no drag (ﬁctional) force, then energy would be conserved and the rock
will return at the speed it started with but there is a drag force so energy is lost.
The speed the rock returns is v < v
0
. Hence FALSE.
E Again FALSE. Once the drag force and the gravitational force acting on the rock is
balanced the rock won’t accelerate.
Answer: (B)
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0.104 Satellite Orbits
The question states that the astronaut ﬁres the rocket’s jets towards Earth’s center. We
infer that no extra energy is given to the system by this process. Section 0.7.5, shows
that the only other orbit where the speciﬁc energy is also negative is an elliptical one.
Answer: (A)
0.105 Speed of Light in a Dielectric Medium
Solutions to the Electromagnetic wave equation gives us the speed of light in terms of
the electromagnetic permeability, µ
0
and permitivitty,
0
.
c =
1
√
µ
0
0
(0.105.1)
where c is the speed of light. The speed through a dielectric medium becomes
v =
1
√
µ
0
=
1
2.1µ
0
0
=
c
√
2.1
(0.105.2)
Answer: (D)
0.106 Wave Equation
We are given the equation
y = Asin
t
T
−
x
λ
¸
(0.106.1)
We can analyze and eliminate from what we know about this equation
A The Amplitude, A in the equation is the displacement from equilibrium. So this
choice is incorrect.
B As the wave moves, we seek to keep the
t
T
−
x
λ
term constant. So as t increases, we
expect x to increase as well as there is a negative sign in front of it. This means
that the wave moves in the positive xdirection. This choice is also incorrect.
C The phase of the wave is given by
t
T
−
x
λ
, we can do some manipulation to show
2π
t
T
−
x
λ
¸
= 2πf t − kx = 0
= ωt − kx (0.106.2)
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Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres lxxv
Or rather
kx = ωt (0.106.3)
Diﬀerentiating eq. (0.106.3) gives us the phase speed, which is
v =
λ
T
(0.106.4)
This is also incorrect
E From eq. (0.106.4) the above we see that is the answer.
Answer: (E)
0.107 Inelastic Collision and Putty Spheres
We are told the two masses coalesce so we know that the collision is inelastic and
hence, energy is not conserved. As mass A falls, it looses Potential Energy and gains
Kinetic Energy.
Mgh
0
=
1
2
Mv
2
0
(0.107.1)
Thus
v
2
0
= 2gh
0
(0.107.2)
Upon collision, momentum is conserved, thus
Mv
0
= (3M+ M) v
1
= 4Mv
1
⇒ v
1
=
v
0
4
(0.107.3)
The fused putty mass rises, kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and we ﬁnd
our ﬁnal height.
1
2
(4M) v
2
1
= 4Mgh
1
(0.107.4)
This becomes
v
2
1
= 2gh
1
(0.107.5)
Substituting eq. (0.107.3), we get
v
0
4
¸
2
= 2gh
1
(0.107.6)
and substituting, eq. (0.107.2),
2gh
0
16
= 2gh
1
(0.107.7)
Solving for h
1
,
h
1
=
h
0
16
(0.107.8)
Answer: (A)
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lxxvi GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.108 Motion of a Particle along a Track
As the particle moves from the top of the track and runs down the frictionless track,
its Gravitational Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic Energy. Let’s assume that the
particle is at a height, y
0
when x = 0. Since energy is conserved, we get
3
mgy
0
= mg(y
0
− y) +
1
2
mv
2
⇒
1
2
v
2
= gy (0.108.1)
So we have a relationship between v and the particle’s position on the track.
The tangential acceleration in this case is
mg cos θ =
mv
2
r
(0.108.2)
where r is the radius of curvature and is equal to
x
2
+ y
2
.
Substituting this into eq. (0.108.2) gives
g cos θ =
v
2
r
=
gx
2
2
x
2
+ y
2
=
gx
√
x
2
+ 4
(0.108.3)
Answer: (D)
0.109 Resolving Force Components
This question is a simple matter of resolving the horizontal and vertical components
of the tension along the rope. We have
T sinθ = F (0.109.1)
T cos θ = mg (0.109.2)
Thus we get
tanθ =
F
mg
=
10
(2)(9.8)
≈
1
2
(0.109.3)
Answer: (A)
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Insert Free Body Diagram of particle along track.
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Nail being driven into a block of wood lxxvii
0.110 Nail being driven into a block of wood
We recall that
v
2
= v
2
0
+ 2as (0.110.1)
where v, v
0
, a and s are the ﬁnal speed, initial speed, acceleration and displacement
that the nail travels. Now it’s just a matter of plugging in what we know
0 = 100 + 2a(0.025)
⇒ a = −
100
2(0.025)
= −2000 ms
−2
(0.110.2)
The Force on the nail comes from Newton’s Second Law
F = ma
= 5 · 2000 = 10 000 N (0.110.3)
Answer: (D)
0.111 Current Density
We can ﬁnd the drift velocity from the current density equation
J = env
d
(0.111.1)
where e is the charge of an electron, n is the density of electrons per unit volume and
v
d
is the drift speed. Plugging in what we already know
J =
I
A
I =nAv
d
e
v
d
=
I
nAe
=
100
(1 × 10
28
)
π × 2 × 10
−4
4
1.6 × 10
−19
(0.111.2)
paying attention to the indices of the equation we get
2 − 28 + 4 + 19 = −4 (0.111.3)
So we expect an answer where v
d
≈ 10
−4
ms
−1
.
4
Answer: (D)
4
It also helps if you knew that the electron drift velocity was slow, in the order of mm/s.
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lxxviii GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.112 Charge inside an Isolated Sphere
You can answer this by thinking about Gauss’ Law. The bigger the Gaussian surface
the more charge it encloses and the bigger the electric ﬁeld. Beyond the radius of the
sphere, the ﬁeld decreases exponentially
5
.
We can calculate these relationships by using Gauss’ Law.
S
E · dS =
Q
enclosed
0
(0.112.1)
where the current density, ρ is
ρ =
Q
4
3
πR
3
=
Q
enclosed
4
3
πr
3
(0.112.2)
where R is the radius of the sphere.
for r < R The enclosed charge becomes
Q
enclosed
= ρ
4
3
πr
3
¸
=
Qr
3
R
3
(0.112.3)
Gauss’ Law becomes
E
4πr
2
=
Qr
3
0
R
3
(0.112.4)
The Electric ﬁeld is
E
(r<R)
=
Qr
4π
0
R
3
(0.112.5)
This is a linear relationship with respect to r.
for r ≥ R The enclosed charge is
Q
enclosed
= Q (0.112.6)
Gauss’ Law becomes
E
4πr
2
=
Q
0
(0.112.7)
The Electric ﬁeld is
E
(r≥R)
=
Q
4π
0
r
2
(0.112.8)
The linear increase is exhibited by choice (C).
Answer: (C)
5
Draw diagrams.
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Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws lxxix
0.113 Vector Identities and Maxwell’s Laws
We recall the vector identity
∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (0.113.1)
Thus
∇ · (∇ × H) = ∇ ·
˙
D+ J
= 0 (0.113.2)
Answer: (A)
0.114 Doppler Equation (NonRelativistic)
We recall the Doppler Equation
6
f = f
0
v − v
r
v − v
s
¸
(0.114.1)
where v
r
and v
s
are the observer and source speeds respectively. We are told that v
r
= 0
and v
s
= 0.9v. Thus
f = f
0
v
v − 0.9v
¸
= 10 f
0
= 10 kHz (0.114.2)
Answer: (E)
0.115 Vibrating Interference Pattern
Answering this question takes some analysis. The sources are coherent, so they will
produce an interference pattern. We are also told that ∆f = 500 Hz. This will produce
a shifting interference pattern that changes too fast for the eye to see.
7
Answer: (E)
0.116 Speciﬁc Heat at Constant Pressure and Volume
From section 0.65 and section 0.66, we see that
C
p
= C
V
+ R (0.116.1)
6
Add reference to Dopler Equations.
7
Add Young’s Double Slit Experiment equations.
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lxxx GR8677 Exam Solutions
The diﬀerence is due to the work done in the environment by the gas when it expands
under constant pressure.
We can prove this by starting with the First Law of Thermodynamics.
dU = −dW+ dQ (0.116.2)
Where dU is the change in Internal Energy, dW is the work done by the system and dQ
is the change in heat of the system.
We also recall the deﬁnition for Heat Capacity
dQ = CdT (0.116.3)
At constant volume, there is no work done by the system, dV = 0. So it follows that
dW = 0. The change in internal energy is the change of heat into the system, thus we
can deﬁne, the heat capacity at constant volume to be
dU
V
= C
V
dT = dQ
V
(0.116.4)
At constant pressure, the change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in heat
ﬂow as well as a change in the volume of the gas, thus
dU
p
= −dW
p
+ dQ
p
= −pdV + C
p
dT where pdV = nRdT
= −nRdT + C
p
dT (0.116.5)
If the changes in internal energies are the same in both cases, then eq. (0.116.5) is equal
to eq. (0.116.4). Thus
C
V
dT = −nRdT + C
p
dT
This becomes
C
p
= C
V
+ nR (0.116.6)
We see the reasonwhyC
p
> C
V
is due tothe additionof workonthe system; eq. (0.116.4)
shows no work done by the gas while eq. (0.116.5) shows that there is work done.
Answer: (A)
0.117 Helium atoms in a box
Let’s say the probability of the atoms being inside the box is 1. So the probability that
an atom will be found outside of a 1.0 × 10
−6
cm
3
box is
P = 1 − 1.0 × 10
−6
(0.117.1)
As there are N atoms and the probability of ﬁnding one is mutually exclusive of the
other, the probabolity becomes
P =
1 − 1.0 × 10
−6
N
(0.117.2)
Answer: (C)
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The Muon lxxxi
0.118 The Muon
It helps knowing what these particles are
Muon The muon, is a lepton, like the electron. It has the ame charge, −e and spin, 1/2,
as the electron execpt it’s about 200 times heavier. It’s known as a heavy electron.
Electron This is the answer.
Graviton This is a hypothetical particle that mediates the force of gravity. It has no
charge, no mass and a spin of 2. Nothing like an electron.
Photon The photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. It has no charge or
mass and a spin of 1. Again nothing like an electron.
Pion The Pion belongs to the meson family. Again, nothing like leptons.
Proton This ia a sub atomic particle and is found in the nucleus of all atoms. Nothing
like an electron.
Answer: (A)
0.119 Radioactive Decay
From the changes in the Mass and Atomic numbers after the subsequent decays, we
expect an α and β decay.
Alpha Decay
A
Z
X →
A−4
Z−2
X
+
4
2
α (0.119.1)
Beta Decay
A
Z
X →
A
Z+1
X
+
−1
e
−
+ ¯ υ
e
(0.119.2)
Combining both gives
A
Z
X →
A−4
Z−2
X
+
4
2
α →
A
Z−1
Y +
−1
e
−
+ ¯ υ
e
(0.119.3)
Answer: (B)
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lxxxii GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.120 Schr¨ odinger’s Equation
We recall that Schr¨ odinger’s Equation is
Eψ = −
2
2m
∂
2
ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)ψ (0.120.1)
Given that
ψ(x) = Aexp
−
b
2
x
2
2
(0.120.2)
We diﬀerentiate and get
∂
2
ψ
∂x
2
=
b
4
x
2
− b
2
ψ (0.120.3)
Plugging into Schr¨ odinger’s Equation, eq. (0.120.1), gives us
Eψ = −
2
2m
b
4
x
2
− b
2
ψ + V(x)ψ (0.120.4)
Applying the boundary condition at x = 0 gives
Eψ =
2
2m
b
2
ψ (0.120.5)
This gives
2
b
2
2m
ψ = −
2
2m
b
4
x
2
− b
2
ψ + V(x)ψ (0.120.6)
Solving for V(x) gives
V(x) =
2
b
4
x
2
2m
(0.120.7)
Answer: (B)
0.121 Energy Levels of Bohr’s Hydrogen Atom
We recall that the Energy Levels for the Hydrogen atom is
E
n
= −
Z
2
n
2
13.6eV (0.121.1)
where Zis the atomic number andn is the quantumnumber. This can easily be reduced
to
E
n
= −
A
n
2
(0.121.2)
Answer: (E)
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Relativistic Energy lxxxiii
0.122 Relativistic Energy
The Rest Energy of a particle is given
E = mc
2
(0.122.1)
The Relativistic Energy is for a relativistic particle moving at speed v
E = γ
v
mc
2
(0.122.2)
We are told that a kaon moving at relativistic speeds has the same energy as the rest
mass as a proton. Thus
E
K
+ = E
p
(0.122.3)
where
E
K
+ = γ
v
m
K
+c
2
(0.122.4)
E
p
= m
p
c
2
(0.122.5)
Equating both together gives
γ
v
=
m
p
m
K
+
=
939
494
≈
940
500
(0.122.6)
This becomes
γ
v
=
¸
1 −
v
2
c
2
−1/2
≈ 1.88 (0.122.7)
This is going to take some approximations and estimations but
¸
1 −
v
2
c
2
−1
= 3.6 (0.122.8)
which works out to
v
2
c
2
= 0.75 (0.122.9)
We expect this to be close to the 0.85c answer.
Answer: (E)
0.123 SpaceTime Interval
We recall the SpaceTime Interval from section 0.94.
(∆S)
2
= (∆x)
2
+
∆y
2
+ (∆z)
2
− c
2
(∆t)
2
(0.123.1)
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lxxxiv GR8677 Exam Solutions
We get
∆S
2
= (5 − 3)
2
+ (3 − 3)
2
+ (3 − 1)
2
− c
2
(5 − 3)
2
= 2
2
+ 0
2
+ 2
2
− 2
2
= 2
2
∆S = 2 (0.123.2)
Answer: (C)
0.124 Lorentz Transformation of the EM ﬁeld
Lorentz transformations show that electric and magnetic ﬁelds are diﬀerent aspects of
the same force; the electromagnetic force. If there was one stationary charge in our
rest frame, we would observe an electric ﬁeld. If we were to move to a moving frame
of reference, Lorentz transformations predicts the presence of an additional magnetic
ﬁeld.
Answer: (B)
0.125 Conductivity of a Metal and SemiConductor
More of a test of what you know.
A Copper is a conductor so we expect its conductivity to be much greater than that of
a semiconductor. TRUE.
B As the temperature of the conductor is increased its atoms vibrate more and disrupt
the ﬂow of electrons. As a result, resistance increases. TRUE.
C Diﬀerent process. As temperature increases, electrons gain more energy to jump the
energy barrier into the conducting region. So conductivity increases. TRUE.
D You may have paused to think for this one but this is TRUE. The addition of an
impurity causes an increase of electron scattering oﬀ the impurity atoms. As a
result, resistance increases.
8
E The eﬀect of adding an impurity on a semiconductor’s conductivity depends on
how many extra valence electrons it adds or subtracts; you can either widen or
narrow the energy bandgap. This is of crucial importance to electronics today.
So this is FALSE.
Answer: (E)
8
There are one or two cases where this is not true. The addition of Silver increases the conductivity
of Copper. But the conductivity will still be less than pure silver.
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Charging a Battery lxxxv
0.126 Charging a Battery
The Potential Diﬀerence across the resistor, R is
PD = 120 − 100 = 20 V (0.126.1)
The Total Resistance is
R + r =
V
I
=
20
10
R + 1 = 2
⇒ R = 1 Ω (0.126.2)
Answer: (C)
0.127 Lorentz Force on a Charged Particle
We are told that the charged particle is released from rest in the electric and magnetic
ﬁelds. The charged particle will experience a force from the magnetic ﬁeld only when
it moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic ﬁeld lines. The particle will
move along the direction of the electric ﬁeld.
We can also anylize this by looking at the Lorentz Force equation
F
q
= q [E + (v × B)] (0.127.1)
v is in the same direction as B so the cross product between them is zero. We are left
with
F
q
= qE (0.127.2)
The force is directed along the electrical ﬁeld line and hence it moves in a straight line.
Answer: (E)
0.128 KSeries XRays
To calculate we look at the energy levels for the Bohr atom. As the Bohr atomconsiders
the energy levels for the Hydrogen atom, we need to modify it somewhat
E
n
= Z
2
eﬀ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
2
f
−
1
n
2
i
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
13.6eV (0.128.1)
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lxxxvi GR8677 Exam Solutions
where Z
eﬀ
is the eﬀective atomic number and n
f
and n
i
are the energy levels. For the
n
f
= 1 transition
Z
eﬀ
= Z − 1 (0.128.2)
where Z = 28 for nickle. As the electrons come in from n
i
= ∞, eq. (0.128.1) becomes
E
1
= (28 − 1)
2
,
1
1
2
−
1
∞
2
¸
13.6eV (0.128.3)
This works out to
E
1
= (27
2
)13.6eV
≈ (30)
2
× 13.6eV (0.128.4)
This takes us in the keV range.
Answer: (D)
0.129 Electrons and Spin
It helps if you knew some facts here.
A The periodic table’s arrangement of elements tells us about the chemical properties
of an element and these properties are dependent on the valent electrons. How
these valent electrons are arranged is, of course, dependent on spin. So this
choice is TRUE.
B The energy of an electron is quantized and obey the Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. All
the electrons are accommodated from the lowest state up to the Fermi Level and
the distribution among levels is described by the Fermi distribution function,
f (E), which deﬁnes the probability that the energy level, E, is occupied by an
electron.
f (E) =
1, E < E
F
0, E > E
F
where f (E) is the FermiDirac Distribution
f (E) =
1
e
E−E
F
/kT
+ 1
(0.129.1)
As a system goes above 0K, thermal energy may excite to higher energy states
but this energy is not shared equally by all the electrons. The way energy is
distributed comes about from the exclusion principle, the energy an electron my
absorb at room temperature is kT which is much smaller than E
F
= 5eV. We can
deﬁne a Fermi Temperature,
E
F
= kT
F
(0.129.2)
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Normalizing a wavefunction lxxxvii
which works out to be, T
F
= 60000K. Thus only electrons close to this temperature
can be excited as the levels above E
F
are empty. This results in a small number of
electrons being able to be thermally excited and the low electronic speciﬁc heat.
C =
π
2
2
Nk
¸
T
T
f
where kT << E
F
So this choice is also TRUE.
C The Zeeman Eﬀect describes what happens to Hydrogen spectral lines in a magnetic
ﬁeld; the spectral lines split. In some atoms, there were further splits in spectral
lines that couldn’t be explained by magnetic dipole moments. The explanation
for this additional splitting was discovered to be due to electron spin.
9
D The deﬂection of an electron in a uniform magnetic ﬁeld deﬂects only in one way
and demonstrates none of the electron’s spin properties. Electrons can be de
ﬂected depending on their spin if placed in a nonuniform magnetic ﬁeld, as was
demonstrated in the SternGerlach Experiment.
10
E When the Hydrogen spectrum is observed at a very high resolution, closely spaced
doublets are observed. This was one of the ﬁrst experimental evidence for electron
spin.
11
Answer: (D)
0.130 Normalizing a wavefunction
We are given
ψ(φ) = Ae
imφ
(0.130.1)
Normalizing a function means
∞
−∞
Ψ(x)
2
dx = 1 (0.130.2)
In this case, we want
2π
0
ψ(φ)
2
dφ = 1 (0.130.3)
and that
ψ(x)
2
= ψ
∗
(x)ψ(x) (0.130.4)
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10
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11
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So
⇒
ψ(φ)
2
= A
2
e
imφ
e
−imφ
A
2
2π
0
dφ = 1
A
2
[2π − 0] = 1
⇒ A =
1
√
2π
(0.130.5)
0.131 Right Hand Rule
First we use the ‘Grip’ rule to tell what direction the magnetic ﬁeld lines are going.
Assuming the wire and current are coming out of the page, the magnetic ﬁeld is in a
clockwise direction around the wire. Now we can turn to Fleming’s Right Hand Rule,
to solve the rest of the question.
As we want the force acting on our charge to be parallel to the current direction, we
see that this will happen when the charge moves towards the wire
12
.
Answer: (A)
0.132 Electron Conﬁguration of a Potassium atom
We can alalyze and eliminate
A The n = 3 shell has unﬁlled dsubshells. So this is NOT TRUE.
B The 4s subshell only has one electron. The s subshell can ‘hold’ two electrons so this
is also NOT TRUE.
C Unknown.
D The sum of all the electrons, we add all the superscripts, gives 19. As this is a
ground state, a lone potassium atom, we can tell that the atomic number is 19.
So this is NOT TRUE.
E Potassium has one outer electron, like Hydrogen. So it will also have a spherically
symmetrical charge distribution.
12
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0.133 Photoelectric Eﬀect I
We are given
eV = hυ − W (0.133.1)
We recall that V is the stopping potential, the voltage needed to bring the current to
zero. As electrons are negatively charged, we expect this voltage to be negative.
Answer: (A)
0.134 Photoelectric Eﬀect II
Some history needs to be known here. The photoelectric eﬀect was one of the exper
iments that proved that light was absorbed in discreet packets of energy. This is the
experimental evidence that won Einstein the Nobel Prize in 1921.
Answer: (D)
0.135 Photoelectric Eﬀect III
The quantity W is known as the work function of the metal. This is the energy that is
needed to just liberate an electron from its surface.
Answer: (D)
0.136 Potential Energy of a Body
We recall that
F = −
dU
dx
(0.136.1)
Given that
U = kx
4
(0.136.2)
The force on the body becomes
F = −
d
dx
kx
4
= −4kx
3
(0.136.3)
Answer: (B)
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0.137 Hamiltonian of a Body
The Hamiltonian of a body is simply the sum of the potential and kinetic energies.
That is
H = T + V (0.137.1)
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. Thus
H =
1
2
mv
2
+ kx
4
(0.137.2)
We can also express the kinetic energy in terms of momentum, p. So
H =
p
2
2m
+ kx
4
(0.137.3)
Answer: (A)
0.138 Principle of Least Action
Hamilton’s Principle of Least Action
13
states
Φ =
T
T
q(t), ˙ q(t)
− V
q(t)
dt (0.138.1)
where T is the kinetic energy and V is the potential energy. This becomes
Φ =
t
2
t
1
1
2
mv
2
− kx
4
¸
dt (0.138.2)
Answer: (A)
0.139 Tension in a Conical Pendulum
This is a simple case of resolving the horizontal and vertical components of forces. So
we have
T cos θ = mg (0.139.1)
T sinθ = mrω
2
(0.139.2)
Squaring the above two equations and adding gives
T
2
= m
2
g
2
+ m
2
r
2
ω
4
(0.139.3)
Leaving us with
T = m
g
2
+ r
2
ω
4
(0.139.4)
Answer: (E)
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0.140 Diode ORgate
This is an OR gate and can be illustrated by the truth table below.
Input 1 Input 2 Output
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 1
Table 0.140.1: Truth Table for ORgate
Answer: (A)
0.141 Gain of an Ampliﬁer vs. Angular Frequency
We are given that the ampliﬁer has some sort of relationship where
G = Kω
a
(0.141.1)
falls outside of the ampliﬁer bandwidth region. This is that ‘linear’ part of the graph
on the loglog graph. From the graph, we see that, G = 10
2
, for ω = 3 × 10
5
second
1
.
Substituting, we get
10
2
= K
3 × 10
5
a
∴ log(10
2
) = a log
,
K
3.5 × 10
5
¸
⇒ a ≈ 2 − 5 (0.141.2)
We can roughly estimate by subtracting the indices. So our relationship is of the form
G = Kω
−2
(0.141.3)
Answer: (E)
0.142 Counting Statistics
We recall from section 0.98 , that he standard deviation of a counting rate is σ =
√
N ,
where N is the number of counts. We have a count of N = 9934, so the standard
deviation is
σ =
√
N =
√
9934
≈
√
10000
= 100 (0.142.1)
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Answer: (A)
0.143 Binding Energy per Nucleon
More of a knowledge based question. Iron is the most stable of all the others.
14
Answer: (C)
0.144 Scattering Cross Section
We are told the particle density of our scatterer is ρ = 10
20
nuclei per cubic centimeter.
Given the thickness of our scatterer is = 0.1 cm, the cross sectional area is
ρ =
N
V
=
N
A
⇒ A =
N
ρ
(0.144.1)
Now the probability of striking a proton is 1 in a million. So
A =
1 × 10
−6
10
20
× 0.1
= 10
−25
cm
2
(0.144.2)
Answer: (C)
0.145 Coupled Oscillators
There are two ways this system can oscillate, one mass on the end moves a lot and the
other two move out of in the opposite directions but not as much or the centermass
can be stationary and the two masses on the end move out of phase with each other. In
the latter case, as there isn’t any energy transfer between the masses, the period would
be that of a single massspring system. The frequency of this would simply be
f =
1
2π
k
m
(0.145.1)
where k is the spring constant and m is the mass.
Answer: (B)
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0.145.1 Calculating the modes of oscillation
In case yourequire a more rigorous approach, we can calculate the modes of oscillation.
The Lagrangian of the system is
L = T − V
=
1
2
m
,
˙ x
2
1
+ 2 ˙ x
2
2
+ ˙ x
2
3
¸
−
1
2
k
,
(x
2
− x
2
)
2
+ (x
3
− x
2
)
2
¸
(0.145.2)
The equation of motion can be found from
d
dt
¸
∂L
∂ ˙ x
n
=
∂L
∂x
n
(0.145.3)
The equations of motion are
m¨ x
1
= k (x
2
− x
1
) (0.145.4)
2m¨ x
2
= kx
1
− 2kx
2
+ kx
3
(0.145.5)
m¨ x
3
= −k (x
3
− x
2
) (0.145.6)
The solutions of the equations are
x
1
= Acos(ωt) x
2
= Bcos(ωt) x
3
= Ccos(ωt)
¨ x
1
= −ω
2
x
1
¨ x
2
= −ω
2
x
2
¨ x
3
= −ω
2
x
3
(0.145.7)
Solving this, we get
k − mω
2
x
1
− kx
2
= 0 (0.145.8)
−kx
1
+
2k − 2mω
2
x
2
− kx
3
= 0 (0.145.9)
−kx
2
+
k − mω
2
x
3
= 0 (0.145.10)
We can solve the modes of oscillation by solving
k − mω
2
−k 0
−k 2k − 2mω
2
−k
0 −k k − mω
2
= 0 (0.145.11)
Finding the determinant results in
k − mω
2
,
2
k − mω
2
2
− k
2
¸
− k
,
k
k − mω
2
¸
(0.145.12)
Solving, we get
ω =
k
m
;
k
m
±
√
2 k
m
(0.145.13)
Substituting ω = k/m into the equations of motion, we get
x
1
= −x
3
(0.145.14)
x
2
= 0 (0.145.15)
We see that the two masses on the ends move out of phase with each other and the
middle one is stationary.
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0.146 Collision with a Rod
Momentum will be conserved, so we can say
mv = MV
V =
mv
M
(0.146.1)
Answer: (A)
0.147 Compton Wavelength
We recall from section 0.83.2, the Compton Equation from eq. (0.83.12)
∆λ = λ
− λ =
h
mc
(1 − cos θ) (0.147.1)
Let θ = 90
◦
, we get the Compton Wavelength
λ
c
=
h
mc
(0.147.2)
where m is the mass of the proton, m
p
, thus
λ
c
=
h
m
p
c
(0.147.3)
Answer: (C)
0.148 StefanBoltzmann’s Equation
We recall the StefanBoltzmann’s Equation, eq. (0.61.1)
P(T) = σT
4
(0.148.1)
At temperature, T
1
,
P
1
= σT
1
= 10 mW (0.148.2)
We are given T
2
= 2T
1
, so
P
2
= σT
4
2
= σ (2T
1
)
4
= 16T
4
1
= 16P
1
= 160 mW (0.148.3)
Answer: (E)
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0.149 FranckHertz Experiment
The FranckHertz Experiment as seen in section 0.84.3 deals with the manner in which
electrons of certain energies scatter or collide with Mercury atoms. At certain energy
levels, the Mercury atoms can ‘absorb’ the electrons energy and be excited and this
occurs in discreet steps.
Answer: (C)
0.150 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions
We recall the selection rules for photon emission
∆ = ±1 Orbital angular momentum
∆m
= 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆m
s
= 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum
NOT FINISHED
Answer: (D)
0.151 The Hamilton Operator
The timeindependent Schr¨ odinger equation can be written
ˆ
Hψ = Eψ (0.151.1)
We can determine the energy of a quantum particle by regarding the classical nonrel
ativistic relationship as an equality of expectation values.
H =
p
2
2m
.
+ V (0.151.2)
We can solve this through the substition of a momentum operator
p →
i
∂
∂x
(0.151.3)
Substituting this into eq. (0.151.2) gives us
H =
+∞
−∞
ψ
∗
,
−
2m
∂
2
∂x
2
ψ + V(x)ψ
¸
dx
=
+∞
−∞
ψ
∗
i
∂
∂t
ψdx (0.151.4)
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We know from the Schr¨ odinger Time Dependent Equation
−
2
2m
∂
2
Ψ
∂x
2
+ V(x)Ψ = i
∂Ψ
∂t
(0.151.5)
So we can get a Hamiltonian operator
H → i
∂
∂t
(0.151.6)
Answer: (B)
0.152 Hall Eﬀect
The Hall Eﬀect describes the production of a potential diﬀerence across a current
carrying conductor that has been placed in a magnetic ﬁeld. The magnetic ﬁeld is
directed perpendicularly to the electrical current.
As a charge carrier, an electron, moves through the conductor, the Lorentz Force will
cause a deviation in the carge carrier’s motion so that more charges accumulate in one
location than another. This asymmetric distribution of charges produces an electric
ﬁeld that prevents the build up of more electrons. This ‘equilibrium’ voltage across the
conductor is known as the Hall Voltage and remains as long as a current ﬂows through
our conductor.
As the deﬂection and hence, the Hall Voltage, is determined by the sign of the carrier,
this can be used to measure the sign of charge carriers.
An equilibrium condition is reached when the electric force, generated by the accumu
lated charge carriers, is equal the the magnetic force, that causes the accumulation of
charge carriers. Thus
F
m
= ev
d
B F
e
= eE (0.152.1)
The current through the conductor is
I = nAv
d
e (0.152.2)
For a conductor of width, w and thickness, d, there is a Hall voltage across the width
of the conductor. Thus the electrical force becomes
F
e
= eE
=
EV
H
w
(0.152.3)
The magnetic force is
F
m
=
BI
neA
(0.152.4)
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Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat xcvii
eq. (0.152.3) is equal to eq. (0.152.4), thus
eV
H
w
=
BI
newd
∴ V
H
=
BI
ned
(0.152.5)
So for a measured magnetic ﬁeld and current, the sign of the Hall voltage gives is the
sign of the charge carrier.
Answer: (C)
0.153 Debye and Einstein Theories to Speciﬁc Heat
The determination of the speciﬁc heat capacity was ﬁrst deermined by the Law of
Dulong and Petite. This Law was based on MaxwellBoltzmann statistics and was
accurate in its predictions except in the region of low temperatures. At that point there
is a departure from prediction and measurements and this is where the Einstein and
Debye models come into play.
Both the Einstein and Debye models begin with the assumption that a crystal is made
up of a lattice of connected quantum harmonic oscillators; choice B.
The Einstein model makes three assumptions
1. Each atom is a threedimensional quantum harmonic oscillator.
2. Atoms do not interact with each other.
3. Atoms vibrate with the same frequency.
Einstein assumed a quantum oscillator model, similar to that of the black body radi
ation problem. But despite its success, his theory predicted an exponential decress in
heat capacity towards absolute zero whereas experiments followed a T
3
relationship.
This was solved in the Debye Model.
The Debye Model looks at phonon contribution to speciﬁc heat capacity. This theory
correctly predicted the T
3
proportionality at low temperatures but suﬀered at inteme
diate temperatures.
Answer: (B)
0.154 Potential inside a Hollow Cube
By applying Gauss’ Law and drawing a Gaussian surface inside the cube, we see that
no charge is enclosed and hence no electric ﬁeld
15
. We can realte the electric ﬁeld to
15
Draw Cube at potential V with Gaussian Surface enclosing no charge
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the potential
E = −∇V (0.154.1)
Where V is the potential.
Gauss’ Law shows that with no enclosed charge we have no electric ﬁeld inside our
cube. Thus
E = −∇V = 0 (0.154.2)
As eq. (0.154.1) is equal to zero, the potential is the same throughout the cube.
16
Answer: (E)
0.155 EM Radiation from Oscillating Charges
As the charge particle oscillates, the electric ﬁeldoscillates as well. As the ﬁeldoscillates
and changes, we would expect this changing ﬁeld to aﬀect a distant charge. If we
consider a charge along the xyplane, looking directly along the xaxis, we won’t “see”
the charge oscillating but we would see it clearly if we look down the yaxis. If we
were to visualize the ﬁeld, it would look like a doughnut around the xaxis. Based on
that analysis, we choose (C)
Answer: (C)
0.156 Polarization Charge Density
D =
0
E + P (0.156.1)
∇ · D =
0
∇ · E + ∇ · P
=
D
∇ · E
κ
− σ
p
Answer: (E)
17
0.157 Kinetic Energy of Electrons in Metals
Electrons belong to a group known as fermions
18
and as a result obey the Pauli Exclu
sion Principle
19
. So in the case of a metal, there are many fermions present each with
16
As we expect there to be no Electric Field, we must expect the potential to be the same throughout
the space of the cube. If there were diﬀerences, a charge place inside the cube would move.
17
Check Polarization in Griﬃths
18
Examples of fermions include electrons, protons and neutrons
19
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two fermions may occupy the same quantum state
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Expectation or Mean Value xcix
a diﬀerent set of quantum numbers. The electron with the highest energy state is has
an energy value known as the Fermi Energy.
NOT FINISHED
Answer: (B)
0.158 Expectation or Mean Value
This is a deﬁnition question. The question states that for an operator Q,
Q =
+∞
−∞
ψ
∗
Qψdx (0.158.1)
This is the very deﬁnition of the expectation or mean value of Q.
Answer: (C)
0.159 Eigenfuction of Wavefunction
We are given the momentum operator as
p = −i
∂
∂x
(0.159.1)
With an eigenvalue of k. We can do this by trying each solution and seeing if they
match
20
− i
∂ψ
∂x
= kψ (0.159.2)
A: ψ = cos kx We expect ψ, to have the form of an exponential function. Substituting
this into the eigenfuntion, eq. (0.159.2), we have
−i
∂
∂x
cos kx = −i (−k sinkx)
= ik sinkx kψ
ψ does not surive our diﬀerentiation and so we can eliminate it.
B: ψ = sinkx This is a similar case to the one above and we can eliminate for this
reason.
−i
∂
∂x
sinkx = −i (k cos kx)
= −ik cos kx kψ
20
We can eliminate choices (A) & (B) as we would expect the answer to be an exponential function in
this case. These choices were just done for illustrative purposes and you should know to avoid them in
the exam.
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Again we see that ψ does not survive when we apply our operator and so we can
eliminate this choice as well.
C: ψ = exp−ikx Substituting this into eq. (0.159.2), gives
−i
∂
∂x
e
−ikx
= −i
−ike
−ikx
= −ke
−ikx
kψ
Close but we are oﬀ, so we can eliminate this choice as well.
D: ψ = expikx If the above choice didn’t work, this might be more likely to.
−i
∂
∂x
e
ikx
= −i
ike
ikx
= ke
−ikx
= kψ
Success, this is our answer.
E: = ψ = exp−kx
−i
∂
∂x
e
−kx
= −i
−ke
−kx
= −ike
−kx
kψ
Again this choice does not work, so we can eliminate this as well
Answer: (D)
0.160 Holograms
The hologram is an image that produces a 3dimensional image using both the Am
plitude and Phase of a wave. Coherent, monochromatic light, such as from a laser, is
split into two beams. The object we wish to “photograph” is placed in the path of the
illumination beam and the scattered light falls on the recording medium. The second
beam, the reference beam is reﬂected unimpeded to the recording medium and these
two beams produces an interference pattern.
The intensity of light recorded on our medium is the same as the scattered light from
our object. The interference pattern is a result of phase changes as light is scattered oﬀ
our object. Thus choices (I) and (II) are true.
Answer: (B)
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0.161 Group Velocity of a Wave
We are given the dispersion relationship of a wave as
ω
2
=
c
2
k
2
+ m
2
1
2
(0.161.1)
The Group Velocity of a Wave is
v
g
=
dω
dk
(0.161.2)
By diﬀerentiating eq. (0.161.1) with respect to k, we can determine th group velocity
2ωdω = 2c
2
kdk
⇒
dω
dk
=
c
2
k
ω
=
c
2
k
√
c
2
k
2
+ m
2
(0.161.3)
We want to examine the cases as k → 0 and k → ∞.
As k → 0, we have
dω
dk
=
c
2
0
√
0 + m
2
= 0 (0.161.4)
As k → ∞, c
2
k
2
>> m
2
the denominator becomes
√
c
2
k
2
+ m ≈ c
2
k
2
(0.161.5)
Replacing the denominator for our group velocity gives
dω
dk
=
c
2
k
ck
= c (0.161.6)
Answer: (E)
0.162 Potential Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion
We are given a potential energy of
V(x) = a + bx
2
(0.162.1)
We can determine the mass’s spring constant, k, from V
(x)
V
(x) = 2b = k (0.162.2)
The angular frequency, ω, is
ω
2
=
k
m
=
2b
m
(0.162.3)
We see this is dependent on b and m.
Answer: (C)
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0.163 Rocket Equation I
We recall from the rocket equation that u in this case is the speed of the exaust gas
relative to the rocket.
Answer: (E)
0.164 Rocket Equation II
The rocket equation is
m
dv
dt
+ u
dm
dt
= 0 (0.164.1)
Solving this equation becomes
mdv = udm
v
0
dv = u
m
m
0
dm
m
v = uln
m
m
0
¸
(0.164.2)
This ﬁts none of the answers given.
Answer: (E)
0.165 Surface Charge Density
This question was solved as ‘The Classic Image Problem’. Below is an alternative
method but the principles are the same. Instead of determining the electrical potential,
as was done by Griﬃths, we will ﬁnd the electrical ﬁeld of a dipole and determine the
surface charge density using
E =
σ
0
(0.165.1)
Our point charge, −q will induce a +q on the grounded conducting plane. The resulting
electrical ﬁeld will be due to a combination of the real charge and the ‘virtual’ induced
charge. Thus
E = −E
y
ˆ
j = (E
−
+ E
+
)
ˆ
j
= 2E
−
ˆ
j (0.165.2)
Remember the two charges are the same, so at any point along the xaxis, or rather our
grounded conductor, the electrical ﬁeld contributions from both charges will be the
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same. Thus
E
−
=
q
4πr
2
cos θ where cos θ =
d
r
=
qd
4π
0
r
3
(0.165.3)
Our total ﬁeld becomes
E =
2qd
4π
0
r
3
(0.165.4)
You may recognize that 2qd is the electrical dipole moment. Now, putting eq. (0.165.4)
equal to eq. (0.165.1) gives us
σ
0
=
qd
2π
0
r
3
(0.165.5)
where r = D, we get
σ =
qd
2πD
2
(0.165.6)
Answer: (C)
0.166 Maximum Power Theorem
We are given the impedance of our generator
Z
g
= R
g
+ jX
g
(0.166.1)
For the maximumpower tobe transmitted, the maximumpower theoremstates that the
load impedance must be equal to the complex conjugate of the generator’s impedance.
Z
g
= Z
∗
(0.166.2)
Thus
Z
= R
g
+ jX
= R
g
− jX
g
(0.166.3)
Answer: (C)
0.167 Magnetic Field far away from a Current carrying
Loop
The BiotSavart Law is
dB =
µ
0
i
4π
d × ˆ r
r
3
(0.167.1)
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Let θ be the angle between the radius, b and the radius vector, r, we get
B =
µ
0
i
4π
rd cos θ
r
3
where cos θ =
b
r
=
mu
0
i
4π
d cos θ
r
2
=
µ
0
i
4π
bd
r
3
where r =
√
b
2
+ h
2
=
µ
0
i
4π
bd
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2
where d = b · dθ
=
µ0i
4π
·
b
2
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2
2π
0
dθ
=
µ
0
i
2
b
2
(b
2
+ h
2
)
3
2
(0.167.2)
we see that
B ∝ ib
2
(0.167.3)
Answer: (B)
0.168 Maxwell’s Relations
To derive the Maxwell’s Relations we begin with the thermodynamic potentials
First Law
dU = TdS − PdV (0.168.1)
Entalpy
H = E + PV
∴ dH = TdS + VdP (0.168.2)
Helmholtz Free Energy
F = E − TS
∴ dF = −SdT − PdV (0.168.3)
Gibbs Free Energy
G = E − TS + PV
∴ dG = −SdT + VdP (0.168.4)
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Partition Functions cv
All of these diﬀerentials are of the form
dz =
¸
∂z
∂x
y
dx +
¸
∂z
∂y
x
dy
= Mdx + Ndy
For the variables listed, we choose eq. (0.168.1) and applying the above condition we
get
T =
¸
∂U
∂S
V
P =
¸
∂U
∂V
S
(0.168.5)
Thus taking the inverse of T, gives us
1
T
=
¸
∂S
∂U
V
(0.168.6)
Answer: (E)
0.169 Partition Functions
NOT FINISHED
0.170 Particle moving at Light Speed
Answer: (A)
0.171 Car and Garage I
We are given the car’s length in its rest frame to be L
= 5 meters and its Lorentz
Contracted length to be L = 3 meters. We can determine the speed from eq. (0.87.1)
L = L
1 −
v
2
c
2
3
5
¸
2
= 1 −
v
2
c
2
⇒ v =
4
5
c (0.171.1)
Answer: (C)
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0.172 Car and Garage II
As the car approaches the garage, the driver will notice that things around him, in
cluding the garage, are length contracted. We have calculated that the speed that
he is travelling at to be, v = 0.8c, in the previous section. We again use the Length
Contraction formula, eq. (0.87.1), to solve this question.
L
g
= L
g
¸
1 −
v
2
c
2
= 4
1 − 0.8
2
= 2.4 meters (0.172.1)
Answer: (A)
0.173 Car and Garage III
This is more of a conceptual question. What happens depends on whose frame of
reference you’re in.
Answer: (E)
0.174 Refrective Index of Rock Salt and Xrays
No special knowledge is needed but a little knowledge always helps. You can start by
eliminating choices when in doubt.
Choice A NOT TRUE Relativity says nothing about whether light is in a vacuum or
not. If anything, this choice goes against the postulates of Special Relativity. The
laws of Physics don’t change in vacuum.
Choice B NOT TRUE. Xrays can “transmit” signals or energy; any waveform can
once it is not distorted too much during propagation.
Choice C NOT TRUE. Photons have zero rest mass. Though the tachyon, a hypothet
ical particle, has imaginary mass. This allows it to travel faster than the speed or
light though they don’t violate the principles of causality.
Choice D NOT TRUE. How or when we discover physical theories has no bearing
on observed properties or behavior; though according to some it may seem so at
times.
Choice E The phase andgroupspeeds can be diﬀerent. The phase velocity is the rate at
which the crests of the wave propagate or the rate at which the phase of the wave
is moving. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform
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Thin Flim NonReﬂective Coatings cvii
is moving or rather it’s the rate at which the amplitude varies in the waveform.
We can use this principle of n < 1 materials to create Xray mirrors using “total
external reﬂection”.
Answer: (E)
0.175 Thin Flim NonReﬂective Coatings
To analyze this system, we consider our lens with refractive index, n
3
, being coated by
our nonreﬂective coating of refractive index, n
2
, and thickness, t, in air with refractive
index, n
1
, where
n
1
< n
2
< n
3
(0.175.1)
As our ray of light in air strikes the ﬁrst boundary, the coating, it moves from a less
optically dense medium to a more optically dense one. At the point where it reﬂects,
there will be a phase change in the reﬂected wave. The transmitted wave goes through
without a phase change.
The refracted ray passes through our coating to strike our glass lens, which is optically
more dense than our coating. As a result there will be a phase change in our reﬂected
ray. Destructive interference occurs when the optical path diﬀerence, 2t, occurs in
halfwavelengths multiples. So
2t =
m+
1
2
¸
λ
n
2
(0.175.2)
where m = 0; 1; 2; 3. The thinnest possible coating occurs at m = 0. Thus
t =
1
4
λ
n
2
(0.175.3)
We need a nonreﬂective coating that has an optical thicknes of a quarter wavelength.
Answer: (A)
0.176 Law of Malus
The Law of Malus states that when a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam
of light, the intensity I, is given by
I = I
0
cos
2
θ (0.176.1)
where θ is the angle between the light’s plane of polarization and the axis of the
polarizer. A beam of light can be considered to be a uniform mix of plane polarization
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angles and the average of this is
I = I
0
2π
0
cos
2
θ
=
1
2
I
0
(0.176.2)
So the maximum fraction of transmitted power through all three polarizers becomes
I
3
=
1
2
¸
3
=
I
0
8
(0.176.3)
Answer: (B)
0.177 Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit
We can relate the period or the angluar velocity of a satellite and Newton’s Law of
Gravitation
mRω
2
= mR
2π
T
¸
2
=
GMm
R
2
(0.177.1)
where M is the mass of the Earth, m is the satellite mass and R
E
is the orbital radius.
From this we can get a relationship between the radius of orbit and its period, which
you may recognize as Kepler’s Law.
R
3
∝ T
2
(0.177.2)
We can say
R
3
E
∝ (80)
2
(0.177.3)
R
3
S
∝ (24 × 60)
2
(0.177.4)
(0.177.5)
Dividing eq. (0.177.4) and eq. (0.177.5), gives
R
S
R
E
¸
3
=
24 × 60
80
¸
2
R
3
S
= 18
2
R
3
E
(0.177.6)
Answer: (B)
0.178 Hoop Rolling down and Inclined Plane
As the hoop rolls down the inclined plane, its gravitational potential energy is con
verted to translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy
Mgh =
1
2
Mv
2
+
1
2
Iω
2
(0.178.1)
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Simple Harmonic Motion cix
Recall that v = ωR, eq. (0.178.1) becomes
MgH =
1
2
MR
2
ω
2
+
1
2
MR
2
ω
2
(0.178.2)
Solving for ω leaves
ω =
¸
gh
R
2
1
2
(0.178.3)
The angular momentum is
L = Iω (0.178.4)
Substituting eq. (0.178.3) gives us
L = MR
¸
gh
R
2
1
2
= MR
gh (0.178.5)
Answer: (A)
0.179 Simple Harmonic Motion
We are told that a particle obeys Hooke’s Law, where
F = −kx (0.179.1)
We can write the equation of motion as
m¨ x − kx where ω
2
=
k
m
where
x = Asin
ωt + φ
(0.179.2)
and ˙ x = ωAcos
ωt + φ
(0.179.3)
We are told that
1
2
= sin
ωt + φ
(0.179.4)
We can show that
cos
ωt + φ
=
√
3
2
(0.179.5)
Substituting this into eq. (0.179.3) gives
˙ x = 2πf A ·
√
3
2
=
√
3 πf A (0.179.6)
Amswer: (B)
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0.180 Total Energy between Two Charges
We are told three things
1. There is a zero potential energy, and
2. one particle has nonzero speed and hence kinetic energy.
3. No radiation is emitted, so no energy is lost.
The total energy of the system is
E = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy
= 0 + (KE > 0)
> 0 (0.180.1)
Applying the three condition, we expect the total energy to be positive and constant.
Answer: (C)
0.181 Maxwell’s Equations and Magnetic Monopoles
Youmay have heardseveral things about the ∇·B = 0 equationinMaxwell’s Laws. One
of themis there being no magnetic monopoles or charges. There are some implications
to this. No charge implies that the amount of ﬁeld lines that enter a Gaussian surface
must be equal to the amount of ﬁeld lines that leave. So using this principle we know
from the electric form of this law we can get an answer to this question.
Choice A The number of ﬁeld lines that enter is the same as the number that leaves.
So this does not violate the above law.
Choice B Again we see that the number of ﬁeld lines entering is the same as the
number leaving.
Choice C The same as above
Choice D In this case, we see that the ﬁeld lines at the edge of the Gaussian Surface
are all leaving; no ﬁeld lines enter the surface. This is also what we’d expect the
ﬁeld to look like for a region bounded by a magnetic monopole.
Choice E The ﬁeld loops in on itself, so the total number of ﬁeld lines is zero. This ﬁts
with the above law.
Answer: (D)
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Gauss’ Law cxi
0.182 Gauss’ Law
To determine an electric ﬁeld that could exist in a region of space with no charges we
turn to Gauss’ Law.
∇ · E = 0 (0.182.1)
or rather
∂
∂x
E
x
+
∂
∂y
E
y
+
∂
∂z
E
z
= 0 (0.182.2)
So we analyze each choice in turn to get our answer.
Choice A
E = 2xy
ˆ
i − xy
ˆ
k
∇ · E =
∂
∂x
2xy +
∂
∂z
(−xz)
= 2y + x 0 (0.182.3)
Choice B
E = −xy
ˆ
j + xz
ˆ
k
∇ · E =
∂
∂y
(−xy) +
∂
∂z
xz
= −x + x = 0 (0.182.4)
Choice C
E = xz
ˆ
i + xz
ˆ
j
∇ · E =
∂
∂x
xz +
∂
∂y
xz
= z + 0 0 (0.182.5)
Choice D
E = xyz(
ˆ
i +
ˆ
j)
∇ · E =
∂
∂x
xyz +
∂
∂y
xyz
= yz + xz 0 (0.182.6)
Choice E
E = xyz
ˆ
i
∇ · E =
∂
∂x
xyz
= yz 0 (0.182.7)
Answer: (B)
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0.183 BiotSavart Law
We can determine the magnetic ﬁeld produced by our outer wire from the BiotSavart
Law
dB =
µ
0
4π
d × r
r
3
(0.183.1)
As our radius and diﬀerential length vectors are orthogonal, the magnetic ﬁeld works
out to be
dB =
µ
0
4π
I
dr
r
3
=
µ
0
I
4π
·
rdθ
r
2
B =
µ
0
I
4πr
2π
0
dθ
=
µ
0
I
2b
(0.183.2)
We know from Faraday’s Law, a changing magnetic ﬂux induces a EMF,
E =
dΦ
dt
(0.183.3)
where Φ = BA. The magnetic ﬂux becomes
Φ =
µ
0
I
2b
· πa
2
(0.183.4)
The induced EMF becomes
E =
µ
0
π
2
¸
a
2
b
dI
dt
=
µ
0
π
2
¸
a
2
b
ωI
0
sinωt (0.183.5)
Answer: (B)
0.184 ZeemanEﬀect andthe emissionspectrumof atomic
gases
Another knowledge based question best answered by the process of elimination.
SternGerlach Experiemnt The SternGerlach Experiment has nothing to do with
spectral emissions. This experiment, performed by O. Stern and W. Gerlach
in 1922 studies the behavior of a beam atoms being split in two as they pass
through a nonuniform magnetic ﬁeld.
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Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density Gases cxiii
Stark Eﬀect The Stark Eﬀect deals with the shift in spectral lines in the presence of
electrical ﬁelds; not in magnetic ﬁelds.
Nuclear Magnetic Moments of atoms Close, the splitting seen in the SternGerlach
Experiment is due to this. Emission spectrum typically deals with electrons and
so we would expect it to deal with electrons on some level.
Emission lines are split in two Closer but still not accurate. There is splitting but in
some cases it may be more than two.
Emission lines are greater or equal than in the absence of the magnetic ﬁeld This we
know to be true.
The diﬀerence in the emission spectrum of a gas in a magnetic ﬁeld is due to the
Zeeman eﬀect.
Answer: (E)
0.185 Spectral Lines in High Density and Low Density
Gases
We expect the spectral lines to be broader in a high density gas and narrower in a low
density gas ue to the increased colissions between the molecules. Atomic collisions
add another mechanism to transfer energy.
Answer: (C)
0.186 Term Symbols & Spectroscopic Notation
To determine the termsymbol for the sodiumground state, we start with the electronic
conﬁguration. This is easy as they have given us the number of electrons the element
has thus allowing us to ﬁll subshells using the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We get
1s
2
, 2s
2
, 2p
6
, 3s
1
(0.186.1)
We are most interested in the 3s
1
subshell and can ignore the rest of the ﬁlled sub
shells. As we only have one valence electron then m
s
= +1/2. Now we can calculate
the total spin quantum number, S. As there is only one unpaired electron,
S =
1
2
(0.186.2)
Now we can calculate the total angular momentum quantum number, J = L + S. As
the 3s subshell is half ﬁlled then
L = 0 (0.186.3)
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This gives us
J =
1
2
(0.186.4)
and as L = 0 then we use the symbol S. Thus our term equation becomes
2
S1
2
(0.186.5)
Answer: (B)
0.187 Photon Interaction Cross Sections for Pb
Check Brehm p. 789
Answer: (B)
0.188 The Ice Pail Experiment
Gauss’ law is equivalent to Coulomb’s Law because Coulomb’s Law is an inverse
square law; testing one is a valid test of the other. Much of our knowledge of the
consequences of the inverse square law came from the study of gravity. Jason Priestly
knew that there is no gravitational ﬁeld within a spherically symmetrical mass distri
bution. It was suspected that was the same reason why a charged cork ball inside a
charged metallic container isn’t attracted to the walls of a container.
Answer: (E)
0.189 Equipartition of Energy and Diatomic Molecules
To answer this question, we will turn to the equipartition of energy equation
c
v
=
¸
f
2
R (0.189.1)
where f is the number of degrees of freedom. In the case of Model I, we see that
Degrees of Freedom Model I Model II
Translational 3 3
Rotational 2 2
Vibrational 0 2
Total 5 7
Table 0.189.1: Speciﬁc Heat, c
v
for a diatomic molecule
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Fermion and Boson Pressure cxv
So the speciﬁc heats for Models I & II are
c
v
I
=
5
2
Nk c
v
II
=
7
2
Nk
Now we can go about choosing our answer
Choice A From our above calculations, we see that c
v
I
= 5/2Nk. So this choice is
WRONG.
Choice B Again, our calculations showthat the speciﬁc heat for Model II is larger than
than of Model I. This is due to the added degrees of freedom (vibrational) that it
possesses. So this choice is WRONG.
C & D They both contradict the other and they both contradict Choice (E).
E This is TRUE. We know that at higher temperatures we have an additional degree
of freedom between our diatomic molecule.
Answer: (E)
0.190 Fermion and Boson Pressure
To answer this question, we must understand the diﬀerences between fermions and
bosons. Fermions follow FermiDirac statistics and their behavior is obey the Pauli
Exclusion Principle. Basically, this states that no two fermions may have the same
quantum state. Bosons on the other hand follow BoseEinstein statistics and several
bosons can occupy the same quantum state.
As the temperature of a gas drops, the particles are going to ﬁll up the available energy
states. In the case of fermions, as no two fermions can occupy the same state, then
these particles will try to occupy all the energy states it can until the highest is ﬁlled.
Bosons on the other hand can occupy the same state, so they will all ‘group’ together
for the lowest they can. Classically, we don’t pay attention to this grouping, so based
on our analyis, we expect,
P
F
> P
C
> P
B
(0.190.1)
where P
B
is the boson pressure, P
C
is the pressure with no quantumeﬀects taking place
and P
F
to be the fermion pressure.
Answer: (B)
0.191 Wavefunction of Two Identical Particles
We are given the wavefunction of two identical particles,
ψ =
1
√
2
,
ψ
α
(x
1
)ψ
β
(x
2
) + ψ
β
(x
1
)ψ
α
(x
2
)
¸
(0.191.1)
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This is a symmetric function and satisﬁes the relation
ψ
αβ
(x
2
, x
1
) = ψ
αβ
(x
1
, x
2
) (0.191.2)
Symmetric functions obey BoseEinstein statistics and are known as bosons. Upon
examination of our choices, we see that
21
electrons fermion
positrons fermion
protons fermion
neutron fermion
deutrons Boson
Incidentally, a antisymmetric function takes the form,
ψ =
1
√
2
,
ψ
α
(x
1
)ψ
β
(x
2
) − ψ
β
(x
1
)ψ
α
(x
2
)
¸
(0.191.3)
and satisﬁes the relation
ψ
αβ
(x
2
, x
1
) = −ψ
αβ
(x
1
, x
2
) (0.191.4)
These obey FermiDirac Statistics and are known as fermions.
Answer: (E)
0.192 Energy Eigenstates
We may recognize this wavefunction from studying the particle in an inﬁnite well
problem and see this is the n = 2 wavefunction. We know that
E
n
= n
2
E
0
(0.192.1)
We are given that E
2
= 2 eV. So
E
0
=
1
n
2
E
2
=
2
4
eV
=
1
2
eV (0.192.2)
Answer: (C)
21
You could have easily played the ‘one of thes things is not like the other...’ game
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0.193 Bragg’s Law
We recall Bragg’s Law
2d sinθ = nλ (0.193.1)
Plugging in what we know, we determine λ to be
λ = 2(3 Å)(sin30)
= 2(3 Å)(0.5)
= 3 Å (0.193.2)
We employ the de Broglie relationship between wavelength and momentum
p =
h
λ
(0.193.3)
We get
mv =
h
λ
⇒ v =
h
mλ
=
6.63 × 10
−34
(9.11 × 10
−31
)(3 × 10
(
− 10))
(0.193.4)
We can determine the order of our answer by looking at the relevant indices
− 34 − (−31) − (−10) = 7 (0.193.5)
We see that (D) is close to what we are looking for.
Answer: (D)
0.194 Selection Rules for Electronic Transitions
The selection rules for an electric dipole transition are
∆ = ±1 Orbital angular momentum
∆m
= 0, ±1 Magnetic quantum number
∆m
s
= 0 Secondary spin quantum number,
∆j = 0, ±1 Total angular momentum
We have no selection rules for spin, ∆s, so we can eliminate this choice.
Answer: (D)
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cxviii GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.195 Moving Belt Sander on a Rough Plane
We know the work done on a body by a force is
W = F × x (0.195.1)
We can relate this to the power of the sander; power is the rate at which work is done.
So
P =
dW
dt
= F
dx
dt
= Fv (0.195.2)
The power of the sander can be calculated
P = VI (0.195.3)
where V and I are the voltage across and the current through the sander. By equating
the Mechanical Power, eq. (0.195.2) and the Electrical Power, eq. (0.195.3), we can
determine the force that the motor exerts on the belt.
F =
VI
v
=
120 × 9
10
= 108 N (0.195.4)
The sander is motionless, so
F − µR = 0 (0.195.5)
where Ris the normal force of the sander pushingagainst the wood. Thus the coeﬃcient
of friction is
µ =
F
R
=
108
100
= 1.08 (0.195.6)
Answer: (D)
0.196 RL Circuits
When the switch, S, is closed, a magnetic ﬁeld builds up within the inductor and the
inductor stores energy. The charging of the inductor can be derived from Kirchoﬀ’s
Rules.
E − IR − L
dI
dt
= 0 (0.196.1)
and the solution to this is
I(t) = I
0
,
1 − exp
R
1
t
L
¸¸
(0.196.2)
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RL Circuits cxix
where the time constant, τ
1
= L/R
1
.
We can ﬁnd the voltage across the resistor, R
1
, by multiplying the above by R
1
, giving
us
V(t) = R
1
· I
0
,
1 − exp
R
1
t
L
¸¸
= E
,
1 − exp
R
1
t
L
¸¸
(0.196.3)
The potential at A can be found by measuring the voltage across the inductor. Given
that
E − V
R
1
− V
L
= 0
∴ V
L
= E − V
R
1
= E exp
R
1
t
L
¸
(0.196.4)
This we know to be an exponential decay and (fortunately) limits our choices to either
(A) or (B)
22
The story doesn’t end here. If the inductor was not present, the voltage would quickly
drop and level oﬀ to zero but with the inductor present, a change in current means a
change in magnetic ﬂux; the inductor opposes this change. We would expect to see a
reversal in the potential at A. Since both (A) and (B) show this ﬂip, we need to think
some more.
The energy stored by the inductor is
U
L
=
1
2
LI
2
0
=
1
2
L
E
R
1
¸
2
(0.196.5)
With S opened, the inductor is going to dump its energy across R
2
and assuming that
the diode has negligible resistance, all of this energy goes to R
2
. Thus
U =
1
2
L
¸
V
R
2
R
2
2
(0.196.6)
The above two equations are equal, thus
E
R
1
=
V
R
2
R
2
V
R
2
= 3E (0.196.7)
We expect the potential at A to be larger when S is opened. Graph (B) ﬁts this choice.
Answer: B
22
If you get stuck beyond this point, you can guess. The odds are now in your favor.
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cxx GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.197 Carnot Cycles
The Carnot Cycle is made up of two isothermal transformations, KL and MN, and two
adiabatic transformations, LM and NK. For isothermal transformations, we have
PV = nRT = a constant (0.197.1)
For adiabatic transformations, we have
PV
γ
= a constant (0.197.2)
where γ = C
P
/C
V
.
For the KL transformation, dU = 0.
Q
2
= W
K→L
∴ W
K→L
=
V
L
V
K
PdV
= nRT
2
ln
V
K
V
L
¸
(0.197.3)
For the LM transformation,
P
L
V
γ
L
= P
M
V
γ
M
(0.197.4)
For the MN transformation, dU = 0.
Q
1
= W
M→N
∴ W
M→N
=
V
N
V
M
PdV
= nRT
1
ln
V
N
V
M
¸
(0.197.5)
For the NK transformation,
P
N
V
γ
N
= P
K
V
γ
K
(0.197.6)
Dividing eq. (0.197.4) and eq. (0.197.6), gives
P
L
V
γ
L
P
K
V
γ
K
=
P
M
V
γ
M
P
N
V
γ
N
∴
V
L
V
K
=
V
M
V
N
(0.197.7)
The eﬀeciency of an engine is deﬁned
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
(0.197.8)
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Carnot Cycles cxxi
We get
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
= 1 −
−W
M→N
W
K→L
= 1 −
nRT
1
ln
VM
V
N
nRT
2
ln
VK
V
L
= 1 −
T
1
T
2
(0.197.9)
1. We see that
1 −
Q
1
Q
2
= 1 −
T
1
T
2
∴
Q
1
Q
2
=
T
1
T
2
(0.197.10)
Thus choice (A) is true.
2. Heat moves from the hot reservoir and is converted to work and heat. Thus
Q
2
= Q
1
+ W (0.197.11)
The entropy change from the hot reservoir
S =
dQ
2
T
(0.197.12)
As the hot reservoir looses heat, the entropy decreases. Thus choice (B) is true.
3. For a reversible cycle, there is no net heat ﬂow over the cycle. The change in
entropy is deﬁned by Calusius’s Theorem.
dQ
T
= 0 (0.197.13)
We see that the entropy of the system remains the same. Thus choice (C) is false.
4. The eﬃcieny is deﬁned
η =
W
Q
2
(0.197.14)
This becomes
η = 1 −
Q
1
Q
2
=
Q
2
− Q
1
Q
2
(0.197.15)
Thus W = Q
2
− Q
1
. So choice (D) is true,
5. The eﬀeciency is based on an ideal gas and has no relation to the substance used.
So choice (E) is also true.
Answer: (C)
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cxxii GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.198 First Order Perturbation Theory
PerturbationTheory is a procedure for obtaining approximate solutions for a perturbed
state by studying the solutions of the unperturbed state. We can, and shouldn’t,
calculate this in the exam.
We can get the ﬁrst order correction to be ebergy eigenvalue
E
1
n
= ψ
0
n
H
ψ
0
n
(0.198.1)
From there we can get the ﬁrst order correction to the wave function
ψ
1
n
=
¸
mn
ψ
0
m
H
ψ
0
n
E
0
n
− E
0
m
(0.198.2)
and can be expressed as
ψ
1
n
=
¸
mn
c
(n)
m
ψ
0
m
(0.198.3)
you may recognize this as a Fourier Series and this will help you knowing that the
perturbing potential is one period of a saw tooth wave. And you may recall that the
Fourier Series of a saw tooth wave form is made up of even harmonics.
Answer: (B)
23
0.199 Colliding Discs and the Conservation of Angular
Momentum
As the disk moves, it possessed both angular and linear momentums. We can not
exactly add these two as they, though similar, are quite diﬀerent beasts. But we can
deﬁne a linear angular motion with respect to some origin. As the two discs hit each
other, they fuse. This slows the oncoming disc. We can calculate the linear angular
momentum
L = r × p (0.199.1)
where p is the linear momentum and r is the distance from the point P to the center of
disc I. This becomes
L
v
0
= MR × v
0
= −MRv
0
(0.199.2)
It’s negative as the cross product of R and v
0
is negative.
The Rotational Angular Momentum is
L
ω
0
= Iω
0
(0.199.3)
23
Griﬃths gives a similar problem in his text
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Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod cxxiii
Adding eq. (0.199.3) and eq. (0.199.2) gives the total angular momentum.
L = L
ω
0
+ L
v
0
= Iω
0
− MRv
0
=
1
2
MR
2
ω
0
−
1
2
MR
2
ω
0
= 0
Thus the total angular momentum at the point P is zero.
Answer: (A)
0.200 Electrical Potential of a Long Thin Rod
We have charge uniformly distributed along the glass rod. It’s linear charge density is
λ =
Q
=
dQ
dx
(0.200.1)
The Electric Potential is deﬁned
V(x) =
q
4π
0
x
(0.200.2)
We can ‘slice’ our rod into inﬁnitesimal slices and sum them to get the potential of the
rod.
dV =
1
4π
0
λdx
x
(0.200.3)
We assume that the potential at the end of the rod, x = is V = 0 and at some point
away from the rod, x, the potential is V. So
V
0
dV =
λ
4π
0
x
dx
x
=
λ
4π
0
ln
x
¸
(0.200.4)
Where x = 2, eq. (0.200.4) becomes
V =
Q
1
4π
0
ln
2
¸
=
Q
1
4π
0
ln2 (0.200.5)
Answer: (D)
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cxxiv GR8677 Exam Solutions
0.201 Ground State of a Positronium Atom
Positronium consists of an electron and a positron bound together to form an “exotic”
atom. As the masses of the electron and positron are the same, we must use a reduced
mass correction factor to determine the enrgy levels of this system.
24
. The reduced
mass of the system is
1
µ
=
1
m
e
+
1
m
p
(0.201.1)
Thus /mu is
µ =
m
e
· m
p
m
e
+ m
p
=
m
e
2
(0.201.2)
The ground state of the Hydrogen atom, in terms of the reduced mass is
E
1
= −
µ
m
e
E
0
= −
1
2
E
0
(0.201.3)
where E
0
= 13.6 eV.
Answer: (B)
0.202 The Pinhole Camera
A pinhole camera is simply a camera with no lens and a very small aperature. Light
passes throughthis hole toproduce aninvertedimage ona screen. For the photography
buﬀs among you, you know that by varying the size of a camera’s aperature can
accomplish various things; making the aperature bigger allows more light to enter and
produces a “brighter” picture while making the aperature smaller produces a sharper
image.
In the case of the pinhole camera, making the pinhole, or aperature, smaller produces
a sharper image because it reduces “image overlap”. Think of a large hole as a set of
tiny pinholes places close to each other. This results in an inﬁnite amount of images
overlapping each other and hence a blurry image. So to produce a sharp image, it
is best to use the smallest pinhole possible, the tradeoﬀ being an image that’s not as
“bright”.
There are limits to the size of our pinhole. We can not say, for example, use an inﬁnitely
small pinhole the produce the sharpest possible image. Beyond some point diﬀraction
eﬀects take place and will ruin our image.
24
Place cite here
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The Pinhole Camera cxxv
Consider a pinhole camera of length, D, with a pinhole of diameter, d. We know how
much a beam of light will be diﬀracted through this pinhole by
25
d sinθ = mλ (0.202.1)
this is the equation for the diﬀraction of a single slit. As θ is small and we will consider
ﬁrst order diﬀraction eﬀects, eq. (0.202.1) becomes
dθ = λ
⇒ θ =
λ
d
(0.202.2)
The “size” of this spread out image is
y = 2θD
=
2λD
d
(0.202.3)
So the ‘blur’ of our resulting image is
B = y − d
=
2λD
d
− d (0.202.4)
We can see that we want to reduce y as much as possible. i.e. make it d. So eq. (0.202.4)
becomes
0 =
2λD
d
− d
∴
2λD
d
= d
Thus d =
√
2λD (0.202.5)
So we’d want a pinhole of that size to produce or sharpest image possible. This result
is close to the result that Lord Rayleigh used, which worked out to be
d = 1.9
√
Dλ (0.202.6)
Answer: (A)
25
Add image of pinhole camera
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cxxvi GR8677 Exam Solutions
David S. Latchman ©2009
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Constants & Important Equations
.1 Constants
Constant Symbol Value
Speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99 × 10
8
m/s
Gravitational Constant G 6.67 × 10
−11
m
3
/kg.s
2
Rest Mass of the electron m
e
9.11 × 10
−31
kg
Avogadro’s Number N
A
6.02 × 10
23
mol
1
Universal Gas Constant R 8.31 J/mol.K
Boltzmann’s Constant k 1.38 × 10
−23
J/K
Electron charge e 1.60 × 10
−9
C
Permitivitty of Free Space
0
8.85 × 10
−12
C
2
/N.m
2
Permeability of Free Space µ
0
4π × 10
−7
T.m/A
Athmospheric Pressure 1 atm 1.0 × 10
5
M/m
2
Bohr Radius a
0
0.529 × 10
−10
m
Table .1.1: Something
.2 Vector Identities
.2.1 Triple Products
A· (B × C) = B · (C × A) = C · (A× B) (.2.1)
A× (B × C) = B(A· C) − C(A· B) (.2.2)
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cxxviii Constants & Important Equations
.2.2 Product Rules
∇
f g
= f
∇g
+ g
∇f
(.2.3)
∇(A· B) = A× (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A· ∇) B + (B · ∇) A (.2.4)
∇ ·
f A
= f (∇ · A) + A·
∇f
(.2.5)
∇ · (A× B) = B · (∇ × A) − A· (∇ × B) (.2.6)
∇ ×
f A
= f (∇ × A) − A×
∇f
(.2.7)
∇ × (A× B) = (B · ∇) A− (A· ∇) B + A(∇ · B) − B(∇ · A) (.2.8)
.2.3 Second Derivatives
∇ · (∇ × A) = 0 (.2.9)
∇ ×
∇f
= 0 (.2.10)
∇ × (∇ × A) = ∇(∇ · A) − ∇
2
A (.2.11)
.3 Commutators
.3.1 Liealgebra Relations
[A, A] = 0 (.3.1)
[A, B] = −[B, A] (.3.2)
[A, [B, C]] + [B, [C, A]] + [C, [A, B]] = 0 (.3.3)
.3.2 Canonical Commutator
[x, p] = i (.3.4)
.3.3 Kronecker Delta Function
δ
mn
=
0 if m n;
1 if m = n;
For a wave function
ψ
m
(x)
∗
ψ
n
(x)dx = δ
mn
(.3.5)
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Linear Algebra cxxix
.4 Linear Algebra
.4.1 Vectors
Vector Addition
The sum of two vectors is another vector
α + β = γ (.4.1)
Commutative
α + β = β + α (.4.2)
Associative
α +
β + γ
=
α + β
+ γ (.4.3)
Zero Vector
α + 0 = α (.4.4)
Inverse Vector
α +  − α = 0 (.4.5)
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cxxx Constants & Important Equations
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Bibliography
[1] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
116, pages 567–571. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[2] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Electrodyanmics, chapter 3.2.1, pages 121–123.
Prentice Hall, third edition, 1999.
[3] Douglas Adams. The restaurant at the end of the universe.
[4] Wikipedia. Spectral line — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2009. [Online;
accessed 17March2009].
[5] Wikipedia. Term symbol — wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2008. [Online;
accessed 22March2009].
[6] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
510, pages 283–287. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[7] John J. Brehm and William J. Mullin. Introduction to the Structure of Matter, chapter
111, pages 539–540. Wiley, ﬁrst edition, 1989.
[8] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 5.1.1, pages 203–205.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[9] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 9.3.3, pages 359–362.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[10] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.1, page 249.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[11] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to QuantumMechanics, chapter 6.1.2, pages 251–254.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
[12] David J. Griﬃths. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, chapter 6.1.2, page 254.
Prentice Hall, second edition, 2005.
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Index
Ampliﬁers
GR8677 Q39, xci
Angular Momentum, see Rotational Mo
tion
Binding Energy
GR8677 Q41, xcii
Bohr Model
GR8677 Q19, lxxxii
Hydrogen Model, lv
Celestial Mechanics, xxiv
Circular Orbits, xxv
Escape Speed, xxiv
Kepler’s Laws, xxv
Newton’s Law of Gravitation, xxiv
Orbits, xxv
Potential Energy, xxiv
Cetripetal Motion
GR8677 Q06, lxxvi
Circular Orbits, see Celestial Mechanics
Commutators, cxxviii
Canonical Commutators, cxxviii
Kronecker Delta Function, cxxviii
Liealgebra Relations, cxxviii
Compton Eﬀect, lviii
Compton Wavelength
GR8677 Q45, xciv
Conductivity
GR8677 Q23, lxxxiv
Counting Statistics, lxxi
GR8677 Q40, xci
Current Density
GR8677 Q09, lxxvii
Dielectrics
GR8677 Q03, lxxiv
Digital Circuits
GR8677 Q38, xci
Doppler Eﬀect, xxii
Drag Force
GR8677 Q01, lxxiii
Elastic Colissions
GR8677 Q05, lxxv
Electricity
GR8677 Q24, lxxxv
Electron Spin
GR8677 Q27, lxxxvi
Electronic Conﬁguration
GR8677 Q30, lxxxviii
Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
GR8677 Q29, lxxxviii
FranckHertz Experiment, lxi
GR8677 Q47, xcv
Gauss’ Law
GR8677 Q10, lxxviii
Gravitation, see Celestial Mechanics
Hall Eﬀect
GR8677 Q50, xcvi
Hamiltonian
GR8677 Q35, xc
Interference
GR8677 Q13, lxxix
Kepler’s Laws, see Celestial Mechanics
Kronecker Delta Function, cxxviii
Laboratory Methods
GR8677 Q40, xci
Linear Algebra, cxxix
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Index cxxxiii
Vectors, cxxix
Lorentz Force Law
GR8677 Q25, lxxxv
Lorentz Transformation
GR8677 Q22, lxxxiv
Maximum Power Theorem
GR8677 Q64, ciii
Maxwell’s Laws
GR8677 Q11, lxxix
Mechanics
GR8677 Q07, lxxvi
GR8677 Q08, lxxvii
GR8677 Q37, xc
Moment of Inertia, see Rotational Motion
Newton’s Lawof Gravitation, see Celestial
Mechanics
Nuclear Physics
Radioactive Decay
GR8677 Q17, lxxxi
Oscillatory Motion, xviii
Coupled Harmonic Oscillators, xx
GR8677 Q43, xcii
Damped Motion, xix
Kinetic Energy, xviii
Potential Energy, xix
Simple Harmonic MotionEquation, xviii
Small Oscillations, xix
Total Energy, xviii
Parallel Axis Theorem, see Rotational Mo
tion
Particle Physics
Muon
GR8677 Q16, lxxxi
Photoelectric Eﬀect
GR8677 Q31, lxxxix
GR8677 Q32, lxxxix
GR8677 Q33, lxxxix
Potential Energy
GR8677 Q34, lxxxix
Principle of Least Action
GR8677 Q36, xc
Probability
GR8677 Q15, lxxx
Rolling Kinetic Energy, see Rotational Mo
tion
Rotational Kinetic Energy, see Rotational
Motion
Rotational Motion, xxii
Angular Momentum, xxiii
Moment of Inertia, xxii
Parallel Axis Theorem, xxiii
Rolling Kinetic Energy, xxiii
Rotational Kinetic Energy, xxii
Torque, xxiii
Satellite Orbits
GR8677 Q02, lxxiv
Schr¨ odinger’s Equation
GR8677 Q18, lxxxii
SpaceTime Interval
GR8677 Q21, lxxxiii
Special Relativity
Doppler Shift
GR8677 Q12, lxxix
Energy
GR8677 Q20, lxxxiii
Speciﬁc Heat
GR8677 Q14, lxxix
StefanBoltzmann’s Equation
GR8677 Q46, xciv
Subject, xliv
System of Particles, xxiv
Thin Film Interference
GR8677 Q73, cvii
Torque, see Rotational Motion
Vector Identities, cxxvii
Product Rules, cxxviii
Second Derivatives, cxxviii
Triple Products, cxxvii
Wave Equation
GR8677 Q04, lxxiv
Wave function
GR8677 Q28, lxxxvii
XRays
GR8677 Q26, lxxxv
©2009 David S. Latchman
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